The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM

The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM
(as of March 12, 2012)

Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012

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The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE I. The K to 12 Basic Education Program Background and Rationale Introduction Historical Development of the Basic Education Program Outcome Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program Process Goals of the K to 12 Education Program II. The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum Goal The Learning Areas Co-Curricular and Community Involvement Programs Core Content Distinctive Features and Guiding Principles Structure of the Curriculum Kindergarten Elementary 1 Secondary 1 Alternative Learning System 6 III. IV. 8 V. 8 9 9 13 Committees on K to 12 Curriculum 34 Glossary of Terms References 24 29 33 23 22

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The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM

List of Figures FIGURE Figure Figure Figure Figure 1 2 3 4 National Achievement Test Results SY 20052010 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) 2003 Average of TIMSS Scores, Philippines Typical Progression of a Cohort of Pupils Based on a Cohort of Grade 1 Pupils from SY 1995-1996 to College Graduates SY 20082009, both Public and Private Unemployed vs. Available Skill-Based Jobs The K to 12 Graduate The K to 12 Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Framework The Learning Areas of the K to 12 Curriculum Structure of the K to 12 Curriculum K to 12 Curriculum in both Formal Education and Alternative Learning System Core Learning Areas/Domains from K to 12 PAGE 1 2 2 3 Table 3 TABLE Table 1

List of Tables PAGE Total Basic Education Cycle of Asian Countries Historical Bases of the Additional Years of Education, SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2011 Unemployment Rate in the Philippines, 2010. Basic Education Curricular Reforms Common Competencies in the Grade 7 and 8 TLE Exploratory Courses and Specialization in Grade 11 and 12 Proposed Subjects for Grades 11 and 12 The Components of the K to 12 Curriculum at a Glance 4

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In high school Science. deepen and sustain the Department’s effort in improving the quality of basic education. it ranked 43rd out of 46 participating countries. This is in pursuance of the reform thrusts of the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda. 2003. the Philippines ranked 34th out of 38 countries. financial. (See Figure 1) Figure 1. cultural. The National Achievement Test results for SY 2005-2010 show that many students who finished basic education do not possess sufficient mastery of basic competencies. For high school Math. Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003. Education outcomes in terms of achievement.1 In TIMMS. SY 2005-2010 Students’ performance in international tests such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is as dismal. These policy reforms are expected to introduce critical changes necessary to further accelerate. broaden. TIMSS. participation and completion rates point to the urgent need to improve the quality of basic education in the country. physical and informational conditions affecting basic education provision. institutional.December 2004 Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 1 . The challenges of the Department are great but are not insurmountable. a package of policy reforms that seeks to systematically improve critical regulatory. The Department seeks to create a basic education sector that is capable of attaining the country’s Education for All objectives and the Millennium Development Goals by the year 2015 and President Benigno Aquino III’s ten-point basic education agenda by 2016. structural. access and delivery on the ground. the Philippines ranked 10th out of 10 1 National Center for Education Statistics. BACKGROUND and RATIONALE Introduction The K to 12 Basic Education Program is the flagship program of the Department of Education in its desire to offer a curriculum which is attuned to the 21st century.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM The K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM I. the Philippines ranked 23rd in performance out of 25 countries. In Grade IV Math and Science. National Achievement Test Results. 2008 for Advanced Math.

V. slum dwellers. MA. Philippines Another major challenge of the Department of Education is retaining those in school. student laborers. Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 2 . Those who are at risk of dropping out are those who encounter difficult circumstances in life – poverty. even with only the science high schools participating. Martin. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Advanced 2008. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) 2003 2 I. particularly those at risk of falling out of the system. only 65 students reached First Year high school and 46 of which Figure 2. M.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM countries. D.S. Robitaille. Foy. & P. Mullis. cases of teenage pregnancies.O. Chestnut Hill.2 (See Figures 2 and 3) Figure 3. Figure 4 shows that of the 100 students who enrolled in Grade 1. families who live in areas with peace and order problems and learners with various forms of disabilities . children whose parents were poorly schooled.F. (2009). Average of TIMSS Scores.

Antonio.Typical Progression of a Cohort of Pupils Based on a Cohort of Grade 1 Pupils from SY 1995-1996 to College Graduates SY 2008-2009. Basic Science Development Program of the Philippines for International Cooperation. UNESCO International Bureau of Education 4 Batomalaque. Singapore and the Philippines conducted by SEAMEO INNOTECH. Philippines: Curriculum and Development..org/Washington-Accord/FAQ. University of San Carlos. starting 2010. trade liberalization. The Washington Accord. University of San Carlos. The research findings of the comparative study of the curricula of Brunei Darussalam. yet it is delivered in ten (10) years. Maria. Unfortunately. APEC or Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation is an international forum of 21 member economies that acts collectively to advance their common interests. subjects. The Bologna Process3 requires 12 years of education for university admission and practice of profession in European countries. Obviously. Besides. Philippines: Curriculum and Development.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM graduated HS. undergraduate degrees in the Philippines are no longer recognized in most European countries. Basic Science Development Program of the Philippines for International Cooperation. Filipino graduates need to develop a competitive advantage over others in the ASEAN region and in the world. Bella and Ditapat. UNESCO International Bureau of Education 5 International Engineering Alliance. Marinas. the 10-year basic education system handicaps overseas Filipino professionals competing in the world market. affirmed that indeed the Philippine basic education curriculum is congested. only 20 reached college level and 16 earned college degrees. the growing global market. Maria. APEC is committed to a policy of reducing barriers to trade and of being a vehicle for promoting economic cooperation within the AsiaPacific Region.. The relatively weak performance of Filipino students in Mathematics and Science in the TIMMS signifies that the Philippines must catch up with the rest of the world. The basic education curriculum is meant to be taught in twelve (12) years. Marinas. especially the Mathematics. Malaysia. http://www.cfm (Accessed 11 September 2010) 3 . Of these 46 HS Graduates. international agreements such as the Bologna and Washington Accords have kept countries focused on the comparability of educational degrees. (Source: SEAMEO INNOTECH Study) Figure 4. Antonio. Language and Science Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 3 Batomalaque. Bella and Ditapat. both Public and Private The sad state of basic education in the country can be partly attributed to the congested basic education curriculum. On account of the Bologna Process4. the short basic education cycle is a deterrent in pursuing recent initiatives like the APEC and ASEAN mutual recognition projects. The Washington Accord5 prescribes a minimum of 12 years of basic education as an entry to recognition of engineering professionals.washingtonaccord.

the proposal to expand basic education was revived. Jan. The Commonwealth government even then.Vocational Languages Philippines:Implications for the K to 12 Education Program. and added two years to high school. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2006 2008 The poor quality of basic education as reflected in the inadequate 2006 preparation of high school graduates for the world of work contributes toEFA the Philippine 20 relatively high unemployment rate among the career paths/ choices young and the educated. the use of the vernacular in lower Primary grades. VII.Academic Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 4 . Exploratory Courses for Academic Specialization • Journalism • Mother Tongue 6 • & Foreign Languages Esther Care and Ethel Valenzuela.Entrepreneurship -Tech Voc . which did not happen (de Jesus. See Table 3. did not feel that 11 years provided adequate preparation for tertiary education or the work place. Math for Specific Purposes • Life Sciences/ Physical Sciences • Literature • Contemporary Issues (local and global) • Career Pathways . Year 1949 1953 1960 1970 1991 Source UNESCO Mission Survey Education Act Swanson Survey PCSPE EDCOM Report Philippines Education Sector Study (World Bank and ADB) PCER Philippine EFA 2015 National Action Plan Presidential Task Force on Education Compul ory Table 2. It decided to reduce the primary cycle to six years. the provision of textbooks. Analysis of Basic Education of the VI. and the institution of a longer basic education cycle Implement a compulsory one-year pre-baccalaureate stage as prerequisite for students interested in enrolling in higher education degree programs Lengthen the educational cycle by adding two years to formal basic education (one each for Primary and high school) Extend pre-university education to a total of 12 years. Total Basic Education Cycle of Asian Countries Until the 1930s.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM The Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of only three countries in the world (the other two being Djibouti and Angola of Africa) with a 10-year pre-university program. 2011 Table 1. 2011 Areas sted in enrolling in higher education degree programs Country Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Timor-Leste Vietnam Total Basic Education Cycle Total Duration of Pre. (Refer to Table 1) In 1949. 2012. Learning SEAMEO INNOTECH. 6 Since then the call for extension of the Philippine basic education duration persisted as presented in Table 2. the Philippines actually had 11 years of basic education: seven years of primary and four years of secondary schooling. 01/08/2010). which was duly done.University Education Recommendation Restore Grade VII in primary education Revise the Primary school system by adding one year (Grade VII) Restore grade 7 in Primary education Extend secondary education by one year to better prepare students who have no plans to take up university education Retain the 10-year basic education phase while institutionalizing career counseling in Primary and secondary schools in preparation for higher education Prioritize student learning through curricular reforms. Technical. benchmarking the content of the eleventh and twelfth years with international programs 11/12 12 12 12 12 11 10 11 12 12 12 13/15 13 13 14 14/15 12 10 12/14 12 12 14/15 1998 2000 Source: SEAMEO-INNOTECH. Edilberto. Historical Bases of the Additional Years of Education.

Available Skill-Based Jobs (Source: NSO. Unemployed vs. This implies a mismatch between graduates’ skills and job demands. Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 5 . Figure 5. 80. Unemployment Rate in the Philippines. 2010.000++) and also a huge number of unemployed high school graduates (972. Aside from being young.6% are between the ages 15 to 34 years. Figure 5 also shows that there is huge number of skills-based jobs available (650. with 51.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Table 3 shows that of the total unemployed in 2010.458).5% from the 15-24 years old sub-group. most of the unemployed are at least high school graduates. 2009 and 2010) Table 3.

General Education Policies : A Report . 2-year college preparatory and 2-year vocational curriculum. respectively. Like the K to 12 curriculum. The pitfalls of the 2-2 Plan implementation could be attributed to “insufficient preparation before the plan was implemented and the continued high ’prestige’ Table 4. the 2-2 plan was introduced for the secondary schools in 1958 which was revised in the offering of electives for secondary students in 1973. However. one of the guiding principles of the 2-2 Plan was that “the curriculum of each school should provide vocational courses which are geared to the occupations. The issue of curriculum congestion which resulted to the learners’ lack of mastery of basic competencies was the reason behind the introduction of the decongested New Elementary Education Curriculum (NEEC) and New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) in 1983 and 1989. and the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. This is because the introduction of the 2-2 Plan. equipment for vocational education and lack of guidance counselors10. General Education Policies : A Report . the curricular revisions were backed up by research findings and recommendations. For relevance. DepEd Board of National Education. the elementary curriculum underwent three (3) revisions while that of the secondary curriculum underwent four (4) before the K to 12 curriculum. In terms of curriculum development. 1967-1972. Similar to that of the K to 12 curriculum. Table 47 shows that since 1945. General Policies on Education. Basic Education Curricular Reforms 8 7 Prepared by Avelina T. In the 2-2 Plan. it was met with strong opposition especially from the private sector which requested for its deferment due to lack of money. to give students choice on career path. resources and industries of the community or region where the school is located. 1959-1961 10 Board of National Education. 8 The 2-2 Plan was a differentiated curriculum leading either to a college or a technical course. both general and vocational secondary schools offered the basic or common curriculum of academic courses with one unit of Practical Arts in the first two years. former Director of the Bureau of Secondary Education. Llagas . facilities. Board of National Education. 1959-1961 9 Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 6 . In the last two years. was relevant only to the secondary. the general secondary schools offered a pre-college academic curriculum with one unit of vocational elective each year while the vocational secondary schools offered more specialized vocational courses with one unit of academic elective each year.”9 It was seen to be a very responsive curriculum.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Historical Development of the Basic Education Program The historical development of the Philippine basic education program proves the Department’s continuing effort at improving the quality and relevance of basic education.

administrative and society as a whole are given the needed attention. and Mathematics. General Education Policies : A Report . Reduce congestion of subjects. Increase individual's ability to cope in a fast changing world. The issue on lack of mastery of concepts and skills partly due to a congested curriculum did not end even with the already decongested 2002 BEC. This was called 2010 SEC. the Department of Education restructured the NEEC (1983) and the NSEC (1989) into the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). music. Connect related subjects Increase the time allotted for Science. dance. improving the quality of teachers. is a decongested curriculum consisting of five (5) core learning areas from as many as ten (10). and other aspects of Philippine culture. This curriculum design is focused on teaching for understanding and on 11 Board of National Education. the Bureau of Secondary Education implemented the 2002 BEC based on the Understanding by Design (UbD) framework for meaningful and integrative teaching. The 2002 BEC. and Develop nationalism among Filipino learners for responsible citizenry After the introduction of the 2002 BEC. In 2010. English. 1959-1961 Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 7 .11 To respond to the need on improving curriculum relevance to increasing diverse contexts of learners as a result of globalization and in addition to the issue of an overcrowded curriculum that haunted basic education.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM value of the college preparatory course in the eyes of parents and students. instructional. the Bureau of Elementary Education conducted a thorough review of the competencies to enhance the vertical articulation of competencies. It makes use of the “backward design” which necessitates determining targets and goals and assessment first before identifying and planning learning activities to ensure clarity of targets. Thus the K to 12 Basic Education Program is not only concerned with curriculum decongestion but also with other critical concerns like addressing shortages of educational inputs. Increase the importance of the arts. the forerunner of the K to 12 curriculum. and strengthened stakeholder participation. It had the following objectives:        essential and big ideas. sports. Improve attitude towards work to increase productivity . The K to 12 Basic Education Program is a comprehensive program in the sense that the support systems to ensure its implementation – the family and other stakeholders. This means that the clamor for quality basic education cannot be responded to by mere curriculum decongestion.

improved quality of teachers Process Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program 1. Philippine education standards to be at par with international standards 2. Promote good education governance in the entire Department 10. Develop culture-sensitive. Formulate transition management plan for the K to 12 implementation 12. school head items. significantly addressed shortages or gaps in educational inputs (teacher items. Universalize kindergarten by 2012 6. Institute reform in assessment framework and practice for learner-centered basic education 8. classrooms. more emotionally mature graduates equipped with technical and/or vocational skills who are better prepared for work. instructional materials) 4. broadened and strengthened stakeholder support in the improvement of basic education outcomes 5. textbooks 9. Identify K to 12 model schools per region and per specialization tracks that will model senior high school by SY 2012-2013. critical and creative thinking and life skills 5. culture-responsive and developmentally-appropriate print and non-print online learning resources for K to 12 3. teachers. TESDA and other education stakeholders 2. Decongest and reform the basic education curriculum in coordination with CHED. improved internal efficiency 6.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Outcome Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program The K to 12 Basic Education Program seeks to realize the following: 1. Conduct in-service training for teachers relative to the implementation of the K to 12 curriculum 4. improved system of governance in the Department 7. 8 . Pursue legislation to institutionalize K to 12 Basic Education Program 11. Focus on integrated instruction to equip learners with skills for future employment. Address basic input shortages in classrooms. middle level skills development and higher education 3. Institutionalize school-based management for school empowerment Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 7.

the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum is geared towards the development of a holistically developed Filipino with 21st century skills who is ready for employment. middle level skills development and higher education upon graduation from Grade 12. entrepreneurship. Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 9 . THE K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM Goal As Figure 6 shows.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM II.

The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Figure 6. The K to 12 Graduate 10 .

moral and spiritual values. and civic responsibility and interactive communication. 2) personal. respect for human rights. The learning and innovation skills are 1) creativity and curiosity.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM The K to 12 graduate is equipped with the following 21 century skills: 1) information. critical and creative thinking. and vocational efficiency”12.deped.ph Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 11 . 4) productivity and accountability. scientific and technological knowledge. Article XIV. 2) critical thinking problem solving skills and risk taking. Section 3. media and technology skills. The life and career skills are: 1) flexibility and adaptability. economic and technological literacies and multicultural literacy and global awareness. love of humanity. and local. The ideal K to 12 graduate is one who has discovered his/her potential in a child-centered and value-driven teaching-learning environment. media literacy. moral character and personal discipline. Information. appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country.13 The overarching goal of the K to 12 Curriculum is achieved when every K to 12 graduate demonstrates the desired outcomes as illustrated below: Philippine Constitution. 3) effective communication skills. 5) leadership and responsibility. national and global orientedness. the following skills must be taught: 1) teaming. media and technology skills include 1) visual and information literacies. observance of rights and duties of citizenship. 3) social and cross-cultural skills. http://www. and 6) ethical. 2) initiative and self-direction. social. The ideal K to 12 graduate is one who manifests patriotism and nationalism. (2) 13 DepEd’s vision statement. collaboration and interpersonal skills. one who is enabled to create his/her own destiny in a global community. 2) learning and innovation skills. To develop effective communication skills. strong ethical and spiritual values.gov. basic. and 4) life and career skills. scientific. one who is prepared to become a responsible citizen and an enlightened leader who loves his/her country and is 12 st proud to be a Filipino.

The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Figure 7. The K to 12 Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Framework 12 .

values and attitudes learned. values and attitudes learned. The Language subjects are Mother Tongue. Physical Education and Health (MAPEH). Co-curricular and community involvement programs are irreplaceable opportunities for the learner to reinforce and put into practice the knowledge. Arts and Humanities. Science and Health is called Science. Co-curricular and community involvement programs are irreplaceable opportunities for the learner to reinforce and put into practice the knowledge. Co-curricular programs and community involvement programs are an extension of the core subject areas and the teaching and learning process. The learning areas in the K to 12 curriculum can be grouped into two: 1) core compulsory learning areas and 2) areas of specialization. and Technology and Livelihood Education – cuts across the grade levels from K to Grade 12 to nurture the learner’s holistic development. The Learning Areas of the K to 12 Curriculum Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 13 . They are an integral part of the school curriculum that enhances the holistic development of the learner. Health is joined to MAPEH. The cocurricular programs in a large sense also serve as a laboratory of life where what is learned in the classroom context can be applied in practical terms yet be used as a further teachable opportunity. Araling Panlipunan. Filipino and English. These are enumerated in the discussion of elementary and secondary education. Music. The Arts and Humanities subjects are Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM The Learning Areas The cluster of subjects of the K to 12 curriculum – Languages. Math and Technology and Livelihood Education. There is no demarcation line among the cluster of subjects – to indicate that the curriculum is organized to cut across subject lines and to put across the concept that the whole curriculum is life itself. skills. Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga for the secondary and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao for the elementary are now renamed Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. Arts. Co-Curricular and Community Involvement Programs Co-curricular programs and community involvement programs are an extension of the core subject areas and the teaching and learning process. They are an integral part of the school curriculum that enhances the holistic development of the learner. There are changes in the nomenclature of some subjects. Math and Science. The other subjects are Science. skills. The cocurricular programs in a large sense also serve as a laboratory of life where what is learned in the classroom context can be applied in practical terms yet be used as a further teachable opportunity. Figure 8.

values as a result of a strong liberal education. skills. development of attitudes and values. adequate preparation for the world of work entrepreneurship. values. MEDIA. attitude and values: mastery and application basic skills Development and mastery of complex knowledge and skills.  In Grade 1. aptitudes and interest. Arts.Vocational  Others Consolidation of complex knowledge and skills. development of attitudes. AND TECHNOLOGY SKILLS  LEARNING INNOVATION SKILLS General Academic Program LEARNING DOMAIN  Values Education  Physical Health & Motor Development  Social & EmotionalDevelop ment  Cognitive Development  Creative Arts  Language LiteracyCommunic ation Subjects         Mother Tongue Filipino  English Mathematics Science Araling Panlipunan Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao MAPEH • • • • • • • • English Filipino Mathematics Science Araling Panlipunan MAPEH Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao EPP • English • Filipino • Mathematics • Science • Music. Consolidation of complex knowledge and skills. PE & Health (MAPEH ) • Araling Panlipunan • Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao • Technology & Livelihood Education TLE Exploratory Courses  Languages o -English o -Filipino  Literature  Mathematics  Science  Contemporary Issues NONE NONE NONE Specialization in TLE  Academic Specialization o Mathematics o Science o Languages o Journalism o Sports and Arts  Technical. middle level skills development and higher education. oral Filipino is taught in 1st Semester and oral English in the Second Semester For Grades 7 and 8 only  LIFE AND CAREER SKILLS  EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 14 .The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM INFORMATION. development of attitudes. Development of knowledge.

and the DepEd is provided with a common reference tool for national assessment. mainstreaming learners with disability into general schools. – The learner is the very reason of the entire curriculum system. It is built on the principle that every child has a right to education and that the education system needs to be flexible to accommodate the learning needs of all learners.] It reaches out to all kinds of learners regardless of ability.gov. individual differences. “We affirm the right of every Filipino child especially the less advantaged to benefit from such system. accepted and feels safe even if in his/her learning exploration he/she commits mistakes. and social status. takes part in meaningful learning experiences and experiences success because he/she is respected. 2. It is learner-centered. learners understand what are expected of them. how he/she learns and develops and what his/her needs are were highly considered in the making of the K to 12 curriculum framework. It is research-based. – What learners should know and be able to do and the levels of proficiency at which they are expected to demonstrate what they know and can do are clearly stated in the form of standards unpacked into competencies. With a standards. age.”14 [referring to the existing educational system. 3. disconnected and meaningless teaching. The holistic learning and development of the learner is its primary focus. Selection of activities is informed by age-appropriateness. ethnicity. the use of the spiral progression approach in the teaching of Math and Science.and competencies-based curriculum. He/she is empowered to make choices and to become responsible for his/her own learning in the classroom and for a lifetime. He/she learns at his/her own pace in his/her own learning style. It is standard-based and competency-based. parents are clear on what are expected of their children. – The new features of the K to 12 curriculum are backed up by hard data. – The vision statement of DepEd states. 5. gender.ph Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 15 . and creating a non-discriminatory education system where all learners have equal opportunity to learn. – The K to 12 curriculum considers the various developmental stages of learners.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Distinctive Features and Guiding Principles 1. and social and cultural diversity. The use of Mother Tongue as a medium of instruction from K to Grade 3 is supported by a research finding that children learn better and are more active in class and learn a second language even faster when they are first taught in a language they understand.deped. and the development of alternative delivery modes to provide equal opportunity for all are backed up by the recommendations of the DepEd-commissioned researches conducted by SEAMEO INNOTECH and University of Melbourne. 4. The emphasis is on making schools learnerfriendly. It is developmentally appropriate. teachers are guided on what to teach and how to teach. The learner-centered K to 12 curriculum gives prime importance to developing self-propelling and independent lifelong learners. condition. Teacher creates a conducive atmosphere where the learner enjoys learning. It is inclusive. 14 DepEd’s vision statement. Who the learner is in his/her totality. http://www. With standards. competencies are connected to ensure integrated and meaningful teaching instead of isolated. The strengthening of ICT-integration in the basic education curriculum in order to meet the 21st century skills required by employers.

the K to 12 curriculum respects cultures and experiences of various ethnic groups and uses these as resources for teaching and learning. In the K to 12 curriculum. 6. culture. MAPEH and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao and the deliberate teaching of the investigatory process in Science as a separate topic by Grade 7. Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 8. This means that learning is built upon prior knowledge. repetitions of competencies were weeded out. just. This is one of the core and compulsory subjects from Grades 1 to 10. the K to 12 curriculum is designed to respond to the need for a nationalistic and productive citizenry who contributes to the building of a progressive. It is culture-responsive and culture-sensitive. The continuum of standards and competencies from the elementary to secondary level is ensured by the unified curriculum framework for each learning area from elementary to high school. – The K to 12 curriculum is aligned with national education and development goals enunciated in the laws of the country and to the ten-point education agenda of the President. the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) makes the curriculum truly culture-responsive. It also responds to the Millennium Development Goals and Education for All. As the curriculum framework shows. 9. – The curriculum offers a subject in Values Education with the descriptive title Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. national and global community. – To be truly inclusive. – To allow for mastery of competencies and to give more emphasis to the development of student understanding and on learning how to learn. In short. It is seamless. every teacher is a Values Education teacher as all subject matter is a potent vehicle for values integration. The standards and competencies are developed following expanding spiral progression model. 7. It is relevant and responsive. heritage and values. skills. values and attitude of students to ensure vertical continuity. Given the multi-cultural characteristics of Philippine schools. Values and Character Education is also one of the 6 domains in Kindergarten. To make it responsive to Muslim learners. The new curriculum was redesigned in line with the standards and competencies desired of a K to 12 graduate. 10. and humane society and whose personal discipline is grounded on ethical. Teachers are expected to provide lessons that cater to a culturally diverse population and honor the cultural heritage of all learners. moral and spiritual values. It is decongested.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Other research recommendations that were integrated in the K to 12 curriculum are the use of the expanding spiral progression approach in the teaching of Science. Mathematics. In the K to 12 curriculum. – The K to 12 curriculum consists of a continuum of competencies which provides transition from one grade level to another without unnecessary duplication. the learner learns and develops in a value-driven environment where everyone is respected and is valued for he/she is. It is value-driven. 16 . The curriculum likewise addresses the demands of global citizenship and partnership for development that ensures environmental sustainability. the K to 12 curriculum responds to the learning needs of the learner of the 21st century and the local. Learning mother tongue language helps learners retain their ethnic identity. the K to 12 curriculum continues to offer Madrasah education with subjects in Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) as a vital component of the basic education system. Araling Panlipunan.

the learner is offered multiple career pathways for technology and livelihood education continued on Grades 11 and 12 where he/she is offered other specializations such as academics. The K to 12 curriculum promotes the use of technology for an engaging. In Technology and Livelihood Education. Learners do not learn isolated facts and theories divorced from their lives. – The flexibility of the curriculum is in keeping with the constitutional mandate of schools “to encourage non-formal. – For holistic learning. areas are so chosen to avoid duplication. as well as self-learning. make connection across the areas and to include other cross-curriculum elements (mensuration. It meets international standards not merely by adding two years to the 10 years of basic education but also by ensuring that the standards of the 12-year basic education is equivalent to the 12-year basic education offered in other countries. 3) “learning to be”. The cocurricular activities and community involvement programs enable learners to build on their classroom learning and apply the knowledge and skills learned. It is flexible. The K to 12 curriculum emphasizes the significant role that co-curricular activities and community involvement play in the holistic development of the learner. Learning is organized around the 4 fundamental types of learning: 1) “learning to know”. and efficient instruction. sports and the arts in addition to technical and vocational education. It is integrative and contextualized. Learning involves change in knowledge. subjects are taught using the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach. -– The K to 12 curriculum is benchmarked with curricula of other countries. It expands the local orientedness of the learner to national and global concerns. 2) “learning to do”. This is in response to RA 9155. 14. and indigenous learning systems. It is ICT-based. – ICT is taught in the junior high school as one of the Technology and Livelihood Education courses and is now integrated starting Grade 1 not Grade 4 as it is done in the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. technical drawing. values and attitudes. Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 17 . occupational health & safety and tools/equipment maintenance) in order to ensure greater cohesiveness in the curriculum as a whole. As early as Grade 9. national and global events and concerns and builds patterns of interconnectedness which help them make sense of their own lives and the world. Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001 which states that “The 15 UNESCO’s Report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st century. independent. They are genuine opportunities for contextualized learning. informal. 13. Section 2(1). the K to 12 curriculum provides a balance of a common core of compulsory academic courses and electives to meet needs of learners and community in the 21st century. For flexibility. It is global. use of hand tools. Schools are encouraged to localize the curriculum to respond to their teaching-learning needs. skills.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM 11. Graduates of the K to 12 curriculum will be recognized as such in other countries. It enables learners to relate local. effective. and 4) “learning to live together”15. and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs” (Article XIV. They can likewise enrich the curriculum without sacrificing the established content and performance standards and competencies to make the curriculum responsive to their needs. 12.

needs and aspirations of a school community are reflected in the program of education for children. subject specialists. Drop-Out Reduction Program (DORP) and Alternative Learning System (ALS). General Policies on Education. or higher education. 1967-1972. public and private higher education institutions. computer-aided instruction. it limited the students to only two choices – college or vocational education. It is broad-based. The 1957 2-2 Plan for secondary education and 1958 revised elementary education curriculum provided for the preparation of students in the world of the academe or the world of work. 17 16 Education Act of 1982. The State shall ensure that the values. government agencies such as CHED. It includes MTB-MLE which is built on the basic idea to use the child's first language in teaching – learning so the child is provided with a firm foundation for ongoing education in Filipino and English. This curriculum was crafted based on the suggestions from sectoral representatives. out-of-school youth and adult learners. and (c) acquire the essential educational foundation of his development. and multi-grade classes as these programs target learners who have unique needs not addressed by the formal school system. – The K to 12 curriculum is a product of the collaborative effort of curriculum specialists. college readiness standards formulated by CHED. DSWD and DOLE. at least four (4) – employment. However. Board of National Education. Unlike the past curricula. business and industry. It provides multiple pathways for further studies and career development aligned to international standards and manpower requirement of the 21st century. The K to 12curriculum affords the student more choices after graduation. to (a) attain his potentials as a human being. national and global development.” The K to 12curriculum lends itself to alternative delivery modes of instruction which support self-paced study options such as Open High School Program. Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. The K to 12 curriculum builds on the previous curricular reforms. educational associations. Schools and learning centers shall be empowered to make decisions on what is best for the learners they serve. TESDA. and feedback from practitioners. The K to 12 curriculum outshines the past curricula in addressing the demands of a knowledge-based economy for local. the K to 12 curriculum includes an integrated and play-based Kindergarten curriculum as a commitment of the Philippines to EFA.17 Like its forerunners. recommendations from researches.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM State shall encourage local initiatives for improving the quality of basic education. modular teaching. (b) enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society. the K to 12 curriculum is decongested not interms of the number of subjects (2002 BEC) but in terms of competencies. The K to 12 curriculum takes pride in the unified frameworks for elementary and high school for all the learning areas.”16 16. and Araling Panlipunan in the K to 12 curriculum but are taught using the integration approach. middle level skills development. practitioners and education stakeholders representing NGOs. Makabayan as a learning area in the 2002 BEC is split into Music. NEDA.E.1951-1961 & 1958-1960 Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 18 . It is enhanced. Health. 15. the two major languages of education in the Philippines. – K to 12 curriculum provides for a broad general education that will “assist each individual in the peculiar ecology of his own society. P. Art. entrepreneurship.

Integrative. By collecting information about what goes on in their classroom. the learner is an active constructor of knowledge and a maker of meaning. and hypothesis building and problem-solving. The teaching-learning process is a rich opportunity to teach what it means to “live together”. informed decisionmaking. a “guide on the side” rather than a dispenser of information. Rather. The role of the teacher becomes one of a facilitator. It provides them opportunities to develop skills of creative and critical thinking. peers. To develop the 21st century skills of critical and creative thinking. issues and information in various ways and from various perspectives. the learners are challenged to explore other possibilities by applying higher order thinking skills in their decision-making endeavours.classmates. reflective and collaborative. Science is taught in relation to Math The pedagogical approaches are integrative. This may then lead to changes and improvements in their learning. inquiry-based. In Inquiry learning. Learning is a social activity and so must be collaborative. and by analyzing and evaluating this information. teachers. the fourth pillar of learning. Rather than examining an issue from any one perspective. The learners are encouraged to become active investigators by identifying a Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 19 .The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Pedagogical Approaches range of information. understanding the sources of information and evaluating the objectivity of information. family as well as community. Learning is intimately associated with connection with other human beings. The student becomes the active “meaning-maker” not the teacher imposing meaning. Inquiry-based. the “sage on stage”. With inquiry method. Reflective teaching means making the learners look at what they do in the classroom. This means that learners construct their own knowledge and understanding of what is taught out of their experiences. Reflective teaching encourages learners to engage in a process of self-observation and self-evaluation. Teaching of all the subjects is anchored on the belief that the learner is not an empty receptacle who is mere recipient of instruction. teaching departs from simply memorizing fact laden instructional materials (Bruner. Reflective. The curriculum ensures that the learners have the opportunity to examine concepts. Subject matter is taught using interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches. they identify and explore their own practices and underlying beliefs. The teaching-learning process should be interactive and must promote teamwork. 1961). think about why they do it. the use of the inquiry approach in teaching is a must. constructivist. Collaborative. Constructivist. They are thus better able to draw meaningful conclusions which are supported by evidence. progress is assessed by how well learners develop experimental and analytical skills rather than how much knowledge they possess. The teacher’s role is to plan and facilitate the exploration of the ideas and skills required in the curriculum. and think about if it works.

They are real life opportunities for contextualized and integrative learning. reflect on results .The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM and vice versa. Assessment is based on multiple information sources (e. the connectedness of topics taught is shown.g. Self-assessment (assessment as learning) develops in the learner personal responsibility for learning. within each subject itself.) Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 20 . Learning cannot be divorced from their lives. Assessment for learning is about assessing progress. Assessment in the K to 12 curriculum is. Cocurricular activities and community involvement complement teaching-learning in the classroom. why they did well or why they did not do well and learn from their experiences. review and observation in a classroom to check if learners are learning. Art. and works in progress. Learners do not learn from isolated facts and theories separate from the rest of their lives. The content in Science. The results of formative assessment are recorded for tracking learners’ progress. It makes appropriate use of both traditional and authentic assessment tools. reliable and realistic assessment of learning. The self. pretests. portfolios. monitors his/her progress by regularly undertaking informal and formal self-assessment and by actively reflecting on his/her progress (metacognition)in relation to his/her personal goals. In the K to 12 curriculum. the teacher and learner use assessment primarily to improve learning and teaching. comprehensive and involves multifaceted analysis of performance that uses a variety of techniques which has primary reliance on observations of performance and integration of diverse information. teacher adjusts instruction. What is taught in Science is reinforced by the lessons in Health. They are not mutually exclusive. not for grading purposes. formative assessment (assessment for learning) and summative assessment (assessment of learning.assessment process gives the learners an opportunity to assess themselves. Health. Formative assessment is an on-going assessment which includes. He /she sets his/her personal learning goals based on standards set. Before teachers introduce a new lesson teachers pre-assess the entry knowledge and skills of the learners by way of a pre-test. the assessment process involves the use of a wide array of traditional and authentic assessment tools and techniques for a valid. It begins as he/she becomes aware of the goals of instruction and the criteria for performance. It is given at the beginning of teaching (diagnostic) or in the process of teaching (formative) to guide instruction and teacher decision-making. Learning is contextual. written tests. Every end of the quarter is an opportunity to integrate learning by way of a culminating activity. in the words of Cronbach. Traditional and authentic assessments complement each other. If the learners do not possess the prerequisite knowledge and skills. analyzing and giving feedback on the outcomes of assessment positively and constructively. and Physical Education may become a reading material in English or the content in Araling Panlipunan and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao serves as reading material in Filipino. It practices self-assessment (assessment as learning). In formative assessment. teacher Assessment The K to 12 curriculum has a balanced assessment program. With the thematic approach.

Verbal or written feedback to the learner is primarily descriptive. junior high school and senior high school – summative assessment in the national level is conducted at the end of Grade 3. end of Grade3. will be conducted in four key stages. National assessment. These are the Occupational Interest Inventory for Secondary Students given in Grade seven and the National Career Assessment Examination given in Grade 8. The assessment in Grade 12 is conceived to accomplish several purposes. key stage 4. to determine the impact of the use of Mother Tongue as medium of instruction. Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 21 . to assess achievement of the K to 12 standards and to serve the purposes of a college entrance examination. namely: 1.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM observation. a form of summative assessment. 3. In addition to the usual assessment conducted at the end of each level of schooling – elementary. and 4. Except for assessment at the end of Grade 3. There are other assessments given to learners. key stage 1. This is referred to as assessment of learning (summative assessment). Teacher also checks learning at the end of a unit or term to determine how much has been learned. and points to next steps. end of Grade 10. all assessments apply to the alternative learning system. 2. This is one of the recommendations of the research conducted by the University of Melbourne. Structure of the K to 12 Curriculum. A balanced assessment for the K to 12 curriculum also means putting emphasis on assessing understanding and skills development rather than on accumulation of content. end of Grade 6. key stage 3. six years of elementary and six years of high school which is divided into stages: four years of junior high school and two years of senior high school. It is designed to measure the learner achievement at the end of a unit or term to gauge what he/she has learned in comparison with established standards. and conversation). Figure 9. It follows the K-6-4-2 model. Feedback emphasizes strengths. identifies challenges. Structure of the Curriculum K to 12 Curriculum includes Kindergarten. (See Figure 7). End of Grade 12. The assessment results are the bases of grades or marks which are communicated to learners and parents. key stage 2.

and cognitive. Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. The core compulsory subjects in the elementary are 1) English. Kindergarten teachers use spontaneous play as a natural way of teaching . Physical Education and Health. Physical Education and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. After completing the six-year elementary program. The skills and steps of the investigatory process which are deliberately taught in Grade 7 Science are also taught in Araling Panlipunan when the learners are asked for example to determine the authenticity of primary and secondary sources. emotional. skills. learners receive a certificate of graduation. 10157. an act institutionalizing pre-school education. 3) social and emotional development. 4) Science. With the passage of R. and habits essential for lifelong learning.learning in all domains of development: physical. otherwise known as the Kindergarten Education Act. 2) Filipino. environmental sustainability are favorite topics for writing and discussion in the Language classes. Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan is taught beginning Grade 4. science concepts and processes are integrated in the teaching of Languages. 3) Mathematics. Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. Science is offered only starting Grade 3. Science content such as the human body and its development is also discussed in Health. 2) physical health and motor development. Art. attitudes. 6) Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 22 . however. Not all subjects are taught beginning Grade 1. and Araling Panlipunan. motor. Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) and 8) Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan. 5) creative arts and 6) language literacy and communication. Mother Tongue as a subject is taught from Grades 1 to 3. The elementary curriculum provides various learning experiences that will enable learners to acquire basic knowledge. Oral Filipino and oral English are introduced in Grade 1. The teaching of Kindergarten employs the integrative approach to ensure that no learning domain is taught in isolation. It provides basic education to pupils aged six to eleven and it consists of six years of study. There are no formal subjects in Kindergarten.A. All these and more prove that science is all over the curriculum even before it is taught formally as a separate subject in Grade 3. there are six domains. values. Elementary Education Elementary education is compulsory and free. social. Recognizing the central role of play in young children’s learning and development. Teaching–learning activities are play-based considering the developmental stage of Kindergarteners.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Kindergarten Universal Kindergarten caters to children aged 5. 4) cognitive development. 7) Music. Science topics like climate change. Elementary education includes Grades 1 to 6. in the first semester and in the second semester. respectively. Instead. namely: 1) values education. Kindergarten is mandatory by SY 2012-2013. 5) Araling Panlipunan.

the learner chooses one course to specialize in from among the exploratory courses that he/she was oriented to in Grades 7 and 8. The TLE subjects that are offered are based on the Training Regulations from Technical Education and Skills Development Authority to enable the learner to obtain the National Certificate required by industry. 2) tech-voc. Sec. and 3) academics. 5) Math. 6) Physical Sciences. the apex of secondary education. Grades 7 to 10. In this level. Art. and 6) Contemporary Local Issues. The exploratory courses are a prelude to the earning of a COC in Grade 9 and a NC I/II in Grade 10. Specialization in academics includes course offerings in 1) science. 5) sports and the 6) arts. 3) Mathematics. and 8) Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE). 2) math 3) languages. 4) Philosophy. 3) Math. the learner is taught 5 basic competencies common to all TLE courses. In junior high school. In the exploratory courses. It is meant to build on the foundation knowledge. The specialization courses equip the senior high school learner with knowledge and skills in the career path of Education Act of 1982. 2) Filipino. 22 Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 23 . 4) World Literature. The proposed core compulsory subjects for Grade 11 are: 1) English. the learner goes through a proposed core of not more than 7 compulsory subjects and a required specialization for the learner’s career pathway chosen from among 1) entrepreneurship. (See Table 5). The subjects in senior high school are mostly the general education subjects in the first two years of college brought down to the basic education level. 7) Music. 2) use of tools and equipment. In Grade 10 he/she pursues the TLE specialization course that he/she has chosen in Grade 9 for him/her to obtain at least a National Certificate Level I or Level II (NC-I/NC-II) depending on the TLE course chosen. 2) Filipino. Physical Education and Health (MAPEH). 3) Philippine Literature. 6) Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. it consists of 4years of junior high school. and 7) Contemporary Global Issues. 4) occupational health and safety in the workplace. Grades 11 to 12. 2nd semester. 5) Araling Panlipunan. (Refer to Figure 9). The basic competencies are 1) mensuration and calculation. the learner takes 8 core compulsory subjects as follows: 1) English. the proposed core compulsory subjects are: 1) English. The TLE subjects in Grades 7 and 8 are exploratory. foreign and Philippine languages. the learner does not 18 yet obtain a Certificate of Competency (COC). 4) journalism. In Grade 9. 3) interpretation of plans/drawing. This means that the Grade 7 and 8 learner is given the opportunity to explore from a maximum of 4 TLE mini courses in Grade 7 and another 4 in Grade 8 which the school offers depending on community needs and school resources. Senior high school. For Grade 12. 2) Filipino. skills and attitudes developed in the elementary level and to discover and “enhance the aptitudes and interests of the student as to equip him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling. and 5) maintenance of tools and equipment. and 2 years of senior high school. 4) Science.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Secondary Education Secondary education is free but not compulsory. In Grades 7 and 8. 1st semester. consists of Grades 11 and 12. In this level. 5) Life Sciences.”18 With the K to 12 curriculum. the learner obtains a Certificate of Competency.

The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM his/her choice. homeless and street children. he/she continues the TLE specialization that he/she started in Grade 9 and pursued in Grade 10. Those who choose to go to college will take any specialization in academics. etc. Muslim communities. The vertical and horizontal transfers in Grades 11 and 12 presented in Table 5 refer to the advancement in the level of certification either upward like a ladder (vertical) or sideward like a bridge. An example is Building Wiring Electricity NC-II to Carpentry NC-II. the K to 12 curriculum structure includes an alternative learning system which is a parallel learning or delivery system to provide a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction. because apart from dropouts who are mostly from poor households. single parents. An accreditation and equivalency test for both academic and technical skills is an important component of the program. It caters to specific learner needs and requirements. Those who opt to go for tech-voc specialization will pursue the TLE specialization began in Grade 9. For ALS to be truly parallel with the formal system and for ALS graduates not to be marginalized. If the learner chooses tech-voc as a specialization in Grades 11 and 12. It shall be delivered through graded and non-graded modules. Alternative Learning System For an integrated system of basic education. child and youth laborers. print or non-print which will also be made available online. This enables him/her to acquire NC-II. victims of armed conflict. Horizontal transfer means going into different fields of training at the same qualification level. differently-abled. (See Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Figure 10. An example of a vertical ladder is obtaining NC-II for Building Wiring Electricity after getting NC-I for Building Wiring Electricity. it focuses on the teaching of the same standards and competencies of the formal system. K to 12 Curriculum in both Formal Education and Alternative Learning Systems 24 . there are special groups not reached by the formal education system: the indigenous peoples. Figure 10). inmates.

Core Learning Areas/Domains from K to 12 25 .The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM  For 24 TLE courses. refer to Table 5 Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Figure 11.

March Common DRAFT COPY|Table As of 12 2012 Competencies in the Grade 7 and 8 TLE Exploratory Courses and Specialization in Grade 11 and 12 26 .The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation 5.

Proposed Subjects for Grades 11 and 12 27 .The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Table 6.

The Components of the K to 12 Curriculum at a Glance 28 .The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Table 7.

5. and 4) communicate effectively in diverse environments (including multi-lingual). attitudes and intentions. Demonstrate understanding – This is shown in the learners’ ability to do the following: a) Explain – provide thorough and justifiable accounts of phenomena. Flexibility and adaptability – It is the ability to adapt to change. projections. Competency – This refers to a specific task performed with mastery. these are communication and literacies. b) Interpret – tell meaningful stories. anecdotes. critical thinking and problem solving . Core Content – This refers to the focus of teaching-learning process in the learning areas. creativity and innovation. or implausible. 9. Competence – This is a combination of knowledge. 2) listen effectively to decipher meaning. 4. development of self and sense of community. For K to 12 curriculum . national and global orientedness. 3) use communication for a range of purposes (e. d) Have perspective – see and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears. Effective communication skills – It is the ability to: 1) articulate one’s thoughts and ideas effectively using oral. Core Learning Area Standard – This is a broad statement that shows the degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to demonstrate after learning a particular learning area across K to 12 in relation to the desired outcomes and overall goal. see the big picture. responsibilities. written and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts. perceive sensitively on the basis of prior indirect experience. make subjects personal or accessible through images. negotiate and balance diverse views and beliefs to reach workable solutions. 10. motivate and persuade). facts. 3. Content – This is the scope and sequence of topics and skills covered in each strand/domain/theme/component. they are aware of what they do not understand and why understanding is so hard. to inform. varied roles. provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events. values. including knowledge. and data. life and career competencies. moral and spiritual values. prejudices. particularly in multi-cultural environments. offer apt translations. c) Apply – effectively use and adapt what they know in diverse contexts. e) Empathize. It also refers to the ability to perform activities within an occupation or function to the standards expected by drawing from one’s knowledge. 6. skills and values and attitudes (KSVAs) which are used to achieve outcomes in real life scenarios. 7. analogies.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM GLOSSARYOF TERMS 8. alien.g. 1. Certificate of Competency – a document issued TESDA to individuals who were assessed as competent in a single unit or cluster of related units of competency 2. and models. jobs. Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 29 . instruct. f) Have self-knowledge – perceive the personal style. and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding. schedules and context and to understand. skills and attitudes. Content Standards – Statements of what the learner should be able to know and be able to do.ethical.find value in what others might find odd. It allows the identification of difficulty levels.

2) initiative and self. is proud to be a Filipino and who appreciates cares for humanity. has essential knowledge. end of Grade 10. Life and career skills – These refer to the following abilities: 1) flexibility and adaptability. work independently and to direct oneself for learning. values and attitudes to continuously develop himself/herself to the fullest. Learning and Innovation Skills – It is adequately mastering basic competencies and using these basic competencies creatively for lifelong learning. 2004). to celebrate the richness and benefits of this diversity (American Council on International Education).direction. 12. Key Stage Standard – This is a statement that shows the degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to demonstrate in each key stage after learning a particular learning area in relation to the core learning area standard. using information accurately and creatively for the issue or problem at hand. 7-10 and 11-12. These are key stage 1. 4) demonstrate integrity and ethical behavior in using influence and power. 4-6. and 5) act responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind. communicate and work effectively outside one’s environment (Hunter. just. and humane society. to accept and cope with the existence of different cultural values and attitudes and. indeed. the world and the environment. It is acting on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the local and global community. 20. 21.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM 11. contributes to the development of a progressive. 19. The key stages are K-3. engages in critical thinking and creative problem solving. 18. 4-6. 14. end of Grade 3. key stage 3. Leadership and responsibility – It refers to the ability to: 1) Use interpersonal and problem-solving skills to influence and guide others toward a goal. Initiative and self-direction – It is the ability to manage goals and time. and key stage 4. Globally Competent Learner – He/she is one who is able to understand the interconnectedness of peoples and systems to have a general knowledge of history and world events. 15. 17. key stage 2. Grade Level Standard – This is a statement that shows the degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to demonstrate after learning a particular learning area in each Grade level based on the key stage standard. and applying a fundamental understanding Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of information 16. Global Competence – This means having an open mind while actually seeking to understand cultural norms and expectations of others. 7-10 and 11-12. has solid moral and spiritual grounding. end of Grade 12. Key stage – This refers to stages in the curriculum where assessment of learning is critical. managing the flow of information from a wide variety of sources. end of Grade 6. The key stages are K-3. 3) inspire others to reach their very best via example and selflessness. leveraging this gained knowledge to interact. 3) 30 . skills. 13. Information Literacy – Accessing information efficiently and effectively. evaluating information critically and competently. 2) leverage strengths of others to accomplish a common goal. Holistically developed Filipino – He/she is one who possesses a healthy mind and body.

Skill – It is the coordinated performance of related tasks with a certain degree of facility.19 and the 22. has little judgment. c. NC-I performs a routine and predictable tasks. and. It is a broadly stated expectation of what one should know and be able to do. and 5) leadership and responsibility. entertain and sell to learners every day. Spiral Curriculum – Big ideas. National Certificate – It is a certification issued to individuals who achieved all the required units of competency for a national qualification as defined under the Training Regulations. and. 26. 19 TESDA Circular No. produce quality results and be accountable for results. and evaluation and analysis of work practices development of new criteria and procedures. Productivity and accountability – It is the ability to manage time and projects effectively. 29. 30. b. It is the ability to question what lies behind media productions — the motives. estimating quantity or judging quality. 24. They are statements of the degree or quality of proficiency with which the learner is able to demonstrate his/her mastery of knowledge and skills and internalization of values and attitudes in relation to content standards. then a more spiral-like logic (form) may be necessary. “form follows function”. performs 25. s. If the goal (function of curriculum) is increased understanding. 4) productivity accountability. Media Literacy – It is the ability to sift through and analyze the messages that inform. Performance Standards – Statements of what the learner is going to do with what he/she has learned in terms of knowledge and skills. contributes to problem solving and work processes. and has little accountability. 27. works with some complexity and choice. NC-III performs a wide range of skills. has limited choice and complexity of functions. and d. the money. Social and cross-cultural skills – These refer to skills needed to interact effectively with others and work effectively in diverse teams. have responsibilities that are complex and non-routine.23. NC-IV performs a wide range of applications. important tasks and ever deepening inquiry must recur in ever increasing complexity through engaging problems and applications. 28. shows responsibility for self and others. National Certificate Level – It refers to the four (4) qualification levels defined in the Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework where the worker is: a. NC-II performs prescribe range of functions involving known routines and procedures. 23. provides some leadership and guidance of others. 2008 – Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS) Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 31 .The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM social and cross-cultural skills. it is something against which other things can be compared for the purpose of determining accuracy. and. Standard – In its broadest sense. the values and the ownership — and to be aware of how these factors influence message content. works under supervision.

32.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM 31. Technological literacy – It is the ability to use computers and other technology to improve learning. 21st Century Skills – These are the special abilities that learners need to develop so that they can be prepared for the challenges of work and life in the 21st century. Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 32 . productivity and performance.

Chestnut Hill. Marinas. Jan. I. M.F. Esther Care and Ethel Valenzuela.December 2004 UNESCO’s Report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st century.. Martin. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Advanced 2008. 19671972. Antonio. Philippine Daily Inquirer.org/Washington-Accord/FAQ. The Washington Accord.cfm (Accessed 11 September 2010 Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 33 . National Center for Education Statistics. 2010. Bella and Ditapat. 1987 Philippine Constitution http://www.gov.O.washingtonaccord. Basic Science Development Program of the Philippines for International Cooperation. (2009). Analysis of Basic Education of thePhilippines:Implications for the K to 12 Education Program. Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003.ph International Engineering Alliance. & P. Robitaille. Maria. 2012. General Policies on Education. Philippines: Curriculum and Development.V. January 8. University of San Carlos. de Jesus. http://www. Foy. UNESCO International Bureau of Education Board of National Education. 1951-1961 & 1958-1960 Care. REFERENCES Batomalaque. Education Act of 1982 Mullis. MA.deped.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM VI. Edilberto.. D.

USec. Jr. Chat Sebastian) Congressman Salvador Escudero (represented by Ms. Wadel Cabrera) Dr. Redentor Quilala Ms. Socorro Pilor Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 34 . Mariano Piamonte Mr. Jimmy Soria Dr. Curriculum sub-TWG Members Senator Edgardo Angara (represented by Dr. TWG on Curriculum DepED. Maria Josefina J. USec. Armin A. Edicio dela Torre Fr. Rhona CaoliRodriguez) Mr.Yolanda Quijano USec. COMMITTEES ON K TO 12 CURRICULUM Steering Committee Members Name Br. Tacbas Dr. Chito Salazar (sometimes represented by Mr. Lolit Andrada Chairperson Co-Chairs Parent Teacher Association Representative Student Government Representative PASUC Philippine Business for Education COCOPEA Academe (Private) Academe (Public) Partylist Representative E-Net Academe (Private) DepED. Dan Rola and/or Dr. Zenaida Lao Mr. Tonisito Umali Dr. France Castro House of Representatives Technical Working Group Chairpersons National Economic Development Authority Department of Labor and Employment Department of Social Welfare and Development ACT Dr. Valencio R. Cynthia Diano and/or Ms. Anely A. Ester Ogena Rep. Luistro FSC Dr. Transition Management sub-TWG on SHS system readiness assessment DepED. Jose Campos Dr. Albert Muyot ASec. Jr. Joel Villanueva Institution Department of Education Commission on Higher Education Technical Skills and Development Authority Senate Advisers Ms. Curriculum sub-TWG on 11 and 12. Tiffany Uy Dr. TWG on Transition Management DepED. Capones (sometimes represented by Ms. delos Reyes. Lauro B. TWG on Communications DepED. Gregorio Bañaga. Francisco Varela USec. Roque-Ricafort) Dir. TWG on Legislation DepED. Erlinda M. TWG on Research DepED. Burgo) Ms. Rizalino Rivera USec. Bala (sometimes represented by Ms. Alicia R. Isagani Cruz Dr.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM VII. Patricia Licuanan Sec.

Planning Office Consultant Consultant DAP Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 35 . Erlinda M. TWG on Communications DepED.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Dr. TWG on Research DepED. Napoleon Imperial Dir. Milagros Valles K to 12 Secretariat Magdalena Mendoza Institution DepED CHED TESDA COCOPEA? JRU PWU/ FAPE FAPE DLSU MFI DepED. Brenda Corpuz Dir. Paraluman Giron Dr. Vincent Fabella Mr. Francis Varela Mr. Curriculum sub-TWG on Assessment DepED. Aniceto Orbeta Magdalena Mendoza Institution DepED CHED NEDA Chairperson Members K to 12 Secretariat JRU DepED. Alex Escano USec. Reynaldo Vea Dr.Francis Varela USec. Amelou Reyes Dr. Milagros Valles on instructional materials Curriculum Sub-TWG on K to 10 DepED. Tonisito Umali Mr. Beatrice Torno Dr. sub-TWG on SHS system readiness assessment DepED. Jess Mateo Dr. Transition Management sub-TWG on SHS modeling Technical Working Group on Transition Management Name ASec. Arnie Azcarraga Engr. Carol Porio Dr. Capones (represented by Ms. Jess Mateo Dr. Rosario Manasan Dr. Lolit Andrada Dir. sub-TWG on SHS Modeling DAP Chairperson Members Technical Working Group on Research Name USec. Vincent Fabella Dr. Napoleon Imperial Dr. Imelda Taganas Dr. Rizalino Rivera ASec. Curriculum sub-TWG on teacher education DepED. Rhona Caoli-Rodriguez) Dr. Planning Office Curriculum Consultant DepED. Nelia Benito Dr.

sub-TWG on Assessment Dr. Socorro Pilor DepED. Araling Panlipunan Convenor Dr.The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Technical Working Group on Curriculum Name Institution Chairperson USec. sub-TWG on instructional materials Dr. Health Convenor Dr. Imelda Taganas TESDA Dr. Dina Ocampo UP. Paraluman Giron Sub-TWG on 1 to 10 Dr. Math Convenor Dr. Fe Hidalgo UST. Napoleon Imperial ASec. Lolit Andrada DepED. Merle Tan UP NISMED. sub-TWG on 11 and 12 Dr. Imelda Taganas TESDA. Raul Limbo Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED Dr. Languages (English. Maris Diokno UP. Larry Gabao PNU. Rizalino Rivera Dir. Wadel Cabrera Ms. Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao Convenors Dr. Mother Tongue) Convenor Dr. Yolanda Quijano DepED Members Mr. Music and Art Convenor Dr. Evelina Vicencio UE. Tina Ganzon Mr. sub-TWG on teacher education Dr. Kenneth Tirado Mr. Mary’s. Brenda Corpuz Curriculum Consultant Dr. Beatrice Torno DepED. EPP-TLE Convenor Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 Technical Working Group on Communications Name USec. Ian Garces AdMU. Nelia Benito DepED. Physical Education Convenor Dr. Tonisito Umali Magdalena Mendoza Institution DepED DepED CHED DepED. Dennis Faustino St. Filipino. Dorris Ferrer ASec. Jess Mateo Mr. Planning Office DepED Communications Philippine Business for Education CEAP TWG on Transition Management DAP Chairperson Members K to 12 Secretariat 36 . Science Convenor Dr.