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Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits

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Posted: Aug 29, 2007 License:

Tom McGuire (/member /Tom+McGuire/)
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easy (/tag/type-id/category-technology/keyword-easy/ cnc (/tag/type-id/category-technology/keyword-cnc/ mill (/tag/type-id/category-technology/keyword-mill/ desktop (/tag/type-id/category-technology/keyworddesktop/) stepper (/tag/type-id/category-technology/keyword-


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Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits

Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits
(/member/Tom+McGuire/ ) Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS

by Tom McGuire motor (/tag/type-id/category-technology/keywordmotor/)


cnc_guide (/tag/type-id/category-technology/keywordcnc_guide/)


6 Steps


+ Collection


This is a follow up to the Easy to Build Desk Top 3 Axis CNC Milling Machine ( Once you get the machine all put together its time to make it go. So it's time to drive the motors. And here I've put together a circuit that I think is the absolute cheapest ( and easiest way to control stepper motors with step and direction signals. It works with many of the free or low cost softwares that produce step and direction signals through the parallel printer port. I'll explain how it works but for those of you who just want to get on with it... The_Next_Step ( But I would suggest for those of you who are unfamiliar with circuits to do it on a bread board (see pictures). This way you can easly correct any mistakes and try different things. This schematic is just to control one motor so for the milling machine you need 3 of these circuits and 3 motors. From Left to right and top to bottom. I try to draw schematics so that positive voltages are toward the top and ground or negative volge is toward the bottom. Inputs are to the left and outputs to the right. Fist off the voltage that you are going to use to run the motor needs to be stepped down and regulated for the logic chips. I used a 6.2 volt Zener to do this because it's low enought for the logic chips to receive the signals from your printer port and high enough for the outputs to drive many of the standard power FETs, so you may not have to use logic FETs like the schematic shows. So the resistor R1 drops the voltage, the Zener diode regulates it to 6.2 volts and the capacitor C1 filters out any noise from the motor, and this voltage powers the two IC's. The first IC (CD4516) is called an up/down counter. One signal from the printer port will tell the counter if it will count up or down and the other signal, called step, will increment or decrement the counter by one count. Now were only going to use two outputs from the counter Q1 and Q2. With this binary counting method there are only 4 combinations of output from the counter: 00, 01, 10, and 11. These lines are fed to the A and B inputs of the other IC (CD4028) which decodes these combinations to 4 seprate outputs. I did a trick here using the C input to work as an Enable input. If the Enable(optional) is connected to the parallel port and the computor tells it to shut off all of the outputs to the FETs will go low(Off). So the four outputs of the decoder drive the FET transistors and the FETs drive the four poles of the motor. Now everybody wants to know what the light bulb is for. Its not so much whether you use a bulb or a resistor, its that a bulb comes with a socket. You can get these wedge base light bulbs from 1 watt to 20 watts. Start with may be a 4 watt bulb and if you find you need a little more beef you just pull it out and put in a 10 watt bulb. It's really handy. And I found it's good to have some voltage drop there as kind of a ballast for the motor windings. The diodes catch some of the current that comes out of the motor each time the FET transistors turn off. The diode feeds this current back to the supply. When you get the circuit up and running find a power supply that puts out more voltage than you really need and then change out light bulbs till you get it running smoothly. Some of my stepper motors are 5 or 6 volt and some are 12 volt but it all works out.

Hobby cnc (/id/Hobby-cnc/ by mraspotcnc (/member

(/id/Hobby-cnc/) CNC Eggbot (/id/CNCEggbot/) by derwassi (/member/derwassi/ (/id/CNC-

Easy CNC conversion of a small mill (/id/EasyCNC-conversion-of-a-smallmill/) by fred27 (/member/fred27/)


DIY CNC Router Plans : How to Build (/id/DIY-CNC-Router Plans-How-to-Build/) by MakeItWithJason (/member


DIY 3axis CNC plotter out of old printers (/id/DIY-3axisCNC-plotter-out-ofold-printers/) by mrworf (/member/mrworf/

(/id/DIYSee More (/tag/type-id/?q=)

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Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits
by Tom McGuire

Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits
(/member/Tom+McGuire/ ) Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS ) 6 Steps )


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Step 1: The Circuit Board of Appeals


OK here's what your all looking for. I made a simple PC board layout that includes 3 motor driver circuits connected to a 25 pin D sub Parallel printer port connector. Here's a picture of the layout. At the top of the picture you see a place for a voltage regulator. You can use that or you can put a resistor and Zener Diode in its place(like the schematic shows). On the right edge is a place for the 25 pin D-sub connector that connects to the parallel printer port. You just jam the PC board between the two rows of pins and solder it. On the left side are places for the lamp sockets. You need to look over the schematic to see where some of the parts go but it's all there.



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by Tom McGuire

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Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits
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/O3CW/F6B7SU6F/F0HO3CWF6B7SU6F.pdf)30 KB


Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS



6 Steps



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oso1993 (/member/oso1993/) says: would this setup work with mach3 ?
(/member /oso1993/)

Jul 19, 2013. 4:58 AM

Reply (C35MPK4HJAI25PX)

woodspinner (/member/woodspinner/) in reply to oso1993 Jul 21, 2013. 12:47 PM yes
(/member /woodspinner/)


B.Soares (/member/B.Soares/) says:

Jul 18, 2013. 9:59 AM


(/member /B.Soares/)

Beautiful work Tom, I would like to thank you for sharing this driver. I'm gonna try it soon. I purchased the components but I only found the MOSFETs IRF630 and IRF540. ¿Can I use one of this types?

xxrayexx (/member/xxrayexx/) says:

Jul 7, 2013. 9:20 PM


(/member /xxrayexx/)

Connect them to the parallel port pins you specified in your port setup. For this example the PL8 & PL9 for the X-Plane connects to pins 3 & 2 of the parallel port

kumar1 (/member/kumar1/) says:

Jul 7, 2013. 12:22 AM


hi, i am planning to build a 3d printer, but their is no how to's or hardly any info on it. so im going with bare bones nothing. except use hardware similar to the purpose, my main problems currently is (/member making up a circuit to drive the 3d machine, preddy much cut to the chase the setup this board /kumar1/) provides is almost everything i need except i need to know if its compatible with 3d printer software.. i think it is but if you have any info that would help please let me know,.

tramakatsa (/member/tramakatsa/) says:

Jul 1, 2013. 9:19 AM


(/member /tramakatsa/)

where do outputs PL8 and PL9 go on the stepper motor driver diagram? Thanks in advance.

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Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits
Dylogic (/member/Dylogic/) says: Hey,
Reply (C1MAGNJHIF0716J)

Jun 26, 2013. 4:42 PM

Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits
(/member/Tom+McGuire/ ) (/member I would like to replace the bulb with a resistor but how can I determine the ohms I need and /Dylogic/) wattage??? Download the (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf ) (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS Thanks ) 6 Steps

by Tom McGuire


+ Collection alihureiby (/member/alihureiby/) says: Jun 15, 2013. 9:54 PM


hello guys. somebody can help me . i want to make a cnc router with 4 stepper motor, but actually is has 3 axis. (/member in Y axis it need 2 stepper motor, so it can use this board or not? so i can paralel 2 stepper cable to /alihureiby/) make one.? many thanks

Hi alihureiby, Yes you can parallel 2 stepper cable (/member to make one, but it will be better (if /Syed+imran/) possible) to add one more same MOSFET paralelly (on PCB) on that axis you want to add those 2 stepper motors. Good Luck.

Syed imran (/member/Syed+imran/) in reply to alihureiby Jun 23, 2013. 3:17 AM

Reply (C40WQDTHI3TY77S)

holychachi (/member/holychachi/) says:

May 28, 2013. 7:38 PM


(/member /holychachi/)

I'm trying to come up with a way to control twelve steppers... Any ideas besides multiple driver boards?

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by Tom McGuire Hi, (/member/Tom+McGuire/ ) Small error in Port Setup printscreen of Tom. (/member Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf ) Option 1: set pin 14 Reverse = True (instead of False) /dirver/) Option 2: set pin 4, 7 and 14 on NU (as Enable is optional). You can than use pins 4,7 and 14 (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS ) 6 Steps (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/step2/Circuit-Cloning/ (reverse=true) for something else. See pictures. Regards, + Collection Favori Dirk

Reply (CSU3C8BHGU2DQ73) (/member/dirver/) says: Stepper May 18, 2013. 1:19 AMDriver Easy dirver to build CNC Mill Motor and circuits




sonnbonics (/member/sonnbonics/) says:

Aug 9, 2012. 12:11 PM


Could I make 5 of these and control a 3D printer?
1 (/member /sonnbonics/)

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to sonnbonics May 16, 2013. 2:31 PM Multiply the schema for 5 motors instead of 3. (/member Could be done.

Reply (CU0K5ETHGH70T1N)

What software and mechanics will you use ? Regards, Dirk

1 (/member /sonnbonics/)

sonnbonics (/member/sonnbonics/) in reply to dirver May 16, 2013. 10:01 PM well, i have since bought a 3d printer, but i use pronterface. you think it would work?


dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to sonnbonics May 18, 2013. 12:44 AM Sonnbonics, I've looked further and in KCam4 (/member you can only connect 4 motors. /dirver/) X, Y, Z and A. And yo have to check if there are


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pins available on your parallel-port Pins 1, 16 and 17 are available in the KCam4 software but you have to check if they are by Tom McGuire hardware available. (/member/Tom+McGuire/ ) Also you have to check if Pronterface is capable of stearing your motors via the parallelport AND via pins (not bit's = processor needed). Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf ) This last one can be probably done by exporting to KCam4 and use KCam4 for driving your (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS ) 6 Steps (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/step2/Circuit-Cloning/ motors. Why you need 5 motors ? X, Y, Z = OK, the spindle you can mis-use to control the fluidwire. + Collection Favori Therefore you need 4 outputs.

Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits

Regards, Dirk

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to dirver May 18, 2013. 1:00 AM Sonnbonics,
(/member Just tested the following: /dirver/)


Tom has foreseen pins 4, 7 and 14 as pen-enable (optional). If you put NU in the port-setup of KCam4 in the place where you could enter 4, 7 and 14 everything is still working (because of the flag Motor Enable --> Always On). Therefore you can use pins 4,7 and 14 (wrong IO-address in KCam4 !!!, &H37A instead of &H378) to control your 4th motor. Succes, Dirk

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to sonnbonics May 16, 2013. 10:36 PM Sonnbonics,
(/member What is the brand and type of the /dirver/)


3D printer ? So I can see more specs. A 3D printer is probably just a bunch of steppermotors which work with special software (like e.g. Pronterface). Is a bit a X-Y-Z-milling machine but with a fluid instead of a spindle with drill ?? Or am I wrong ??? Regards, Dirk

sgaspe (/member/sgaspe/) says:

May 21, 2012. 8:05 PM


(/member /sgaspe/)

I used 2N60 as the FET. But it seems like didn't working. Please let me know what is the best FET for use. My motor drives using 12V.

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to sgaspe May 16, 2013. 2:37 PM RFP12N01L Fet's. Regards, (/member Dirk

Reply (C5JL9LUHGH70T24)

SpiderSpartan (/member/SpiderSpartan/) says: Jun 16, 2012. 1:47 PM Can anyone tell me if Xenon or Halogen bulbs would work as the light bulbs in this circuit or (/member would there be too much delay in those? /SpiderSpartan/) Thanks.

Reply (CC0V90TH3IHU872)

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to SpiderSpartan

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Reply (CIU7Y68HGH70T21) May 16, 2013. 2:37 PM Why use expensive bulbs ? by Tom McGuire The bulbs (/member/Tom+McGuire/ ) (/member mentioned are /dirver/) simple car or Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf ) bicycle ones. (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS ) 6 Steps (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/step2/Circuit-Cloning/ Depends on the powersupply voltage. + Collection Favori Regards, Dirk

Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits

mastertiger (/member/mastertiger/) says:

Jul 8, 2012. 11:46 AM


i make this circuit for my cnc machine i use 60n06 as mosfet (/member stepper motor 4.6A /mastertiger/) i use power supply 17v i make limitation circuit for current but i have two problem 1- 60n06 Heated so much i put heatsink but nothing change 2- voltage across motor is only 1.4v i don't know why i use 17v supply voltage please help

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to mastertiger May 16, 2013. 2:36 PM Measured out the ic-pins as mentioned in the guideline ? (/member Your ic's should have 3V -> 5V input /dirver/) to work (see datasheet). If not, check your power supply and part R1 (resistor 1K). Regards, Dirk

Reply (C3YS5IKHGH70T1W)

2 (/member /Tutorial+Master/)

Tutorial Master (/member/Tutorial+Master/) says: Sep 12, 2012. 2:56 PM Hi, how powerful are the steppers?

Reply (CPE9RE5H703Q5IA)

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to Tutorial Master May 16, 2013. 2:28 PM Here in Belgium, they can lift 1 full package of 24 bottles of Belgium (/member Beer.... ;-) /dirver/) Depends on the motors and powersupply, not the circuit. Regards, Dirk


brcoenen (/member/brcoenen/) says:

Sep 21, 2012. 11:05 AM


(/member /brcoenen/)

Hello, can some one tell, or show me, how the lamp connects to the circuit on the pcb, i don't see it on any of the pics of pcb's or finished boards. I just see it standing there all by its self. Thank you

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to brcoenen May 16, 2013. 2:26 PM + from the pcb to lamp 1, mass from lamp 1 to motor 1. (/member + from the pcb to lamp 2, mass from /dirver/) lamp 2 to motor 2. .... Do not want to be smart and put all together.. does not work !!! Tried this before :-(

Reply (CTSLF2KHGH70T19)

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by Tom McGuire

So you need: 3 x 5 wires per motor + 2 for the spindle = 17 wires. Regards, (/member/Tom+McGuire/ ) Dirk

Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits
Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf )

(/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS ) 6 Steps (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/step2/Circuit-Cloning/ Reply (COS4I36H82UFK4X) wl888 (/member/wl888/) says: Oct 13, 2012. 10:16 PM Tom or anyone with the answer please
(/member firstly thanks for your Instructables. /wl888/)

+ Collection


have built the stepper control your design rev 2/11/07...cheep stepper. CD4516 and CD4028. have built two boards so far. for both boards, on slow clock test runs fine in forward, but misses Q4 output on the CD4028 every 2nd pass in reverse (tested with LED's) ie: direction to ground. Apart from this every thing else works ok. have You come across this before ? , if so, what is the cause / fix. Regards Doug

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to wl888 May 16, 2013. 2:22 PM Doug, Already replaced the CD4028 ? (/member Also checked the pcb ? /dirver/) Re-tip the solderpads whith your solderpin. Perhaps a very small mistake ? Regards, Dirk

Reply (C2XK3X5HGH70T0L)

brcoenen (/member/brcoenen/) says:

Jan 7, 2013. 6:32 PM


Just wondering, is there a parallel port mode that i should be setting the port to? I thought at one time as reading through all the posts I saw someone say something, but don't remember what it was, have (/member read alot of posts, and with the little inconsitant errors and non workings i have had to finally get to a /brcoenen/) motor move I have to ask.

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to brcoenen May 16, 2013. 2:21 PM Nothing to set, just check the base io-address of your LPT1 port. (/member Mostly 37xBh. /dirver/) This must be the same as in KCam4. Regards, Dirk

Reply (CT0BG56HGH70T0H)

pinkugkc (/member/pinkugkc/) says:

Jan 16, 2013. 9:34 PM

Reply (C6OLS9LHBUZH659)

there is no need any programming on microcontroller???
(/member /pinkugkc/)

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to pinkugkc May 16, 2013. 2:19 PM Correct, just see the settings (pin's) on the KCam4 screen (/member Port-setup. /dirver/) KCam4 just puts pin's high/low. That's all. The high/low's are translated to on/off trought the fet's. No programming involved. Simple. Regards, Dirk


CANNONMAN1 (/member/CANNONMAN1/) says:

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Reply (CJDXQ3WHCJO1ONH) Feb 6, 2013. 8:25 AM HELLO, GETTING READY TO ORDER by Tom McGuire PARTS AND NEED TO (/member/Tom+McGuire/ ) (/member KNOW IF THERE IS /CANNONMAN1/) SPECIFIC PART Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf ) NUMBER/MAKE ETC. (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS ) 6 Steps (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/step2/Circuit-Cloning/ FOR THE N CHANNEL LOGIC MOSFETS. WANT TO MAKE SURE I + Collection Favori GET THE CORRECT ONE AS THEY ARE PRETTY COSTLY. THANKS, ED

Easy to build CNC Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to CANNONMAN1 May 16, 2013. 2:18 PM Ed, Use the RFP12N10L Fet's. (/member Perfect for the job. /dirver/) Regards, Dirk


axlrus (/member/axlrus/) says:

Apr 30, 2013. 11:35 AM


What voltage should i use for light bulbs????? My motors are 6v, and power suply 24. 12v bulbs got realy hot, and with 24v bulbs motors run powerless. What happens there, and how to calculate proper (/member resistor to replace the bulb. Thanks

dirver (/member/dirver/) in reply to axlrus May 16, 2013. 2:16 PM If your motors are 6Volt than put max. 6Volt to the pcb. (/member Otherwise (perhaps already) you /dirver/) may crash the motors. As Tom mentioned,use a simple powersupply (3 - 4,5 - 5 - 6 - 7,5 - 9 - 12) Volt switchable. Regards, Dirk


sanjaysy (/member/sanjaysy/) says:

May 6, 2013. 4:18 AM

Reply (C7CGJ8SHG85CN0S)

I built using PDF files from your instructable. it looks like +ve & -ve terminals have been connected using 1K resister, where are circuit says +ve & +ve terminals are connected with Zener & capacitor in (/member parallel with 1K series resister. do i looking at the right bottom.pdf. i'm a mechanical engineer & /sanjaysy/) limited knowledge of electronics, your help will be highly appreciated. Attached a sketch with markups. Thanks in advance. regards, sanjay

(/files/deriv/FVY/6XG6/HFWSUVA4 /FVY6XG6HFWSUVA4.LARGE.jpg)

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by Tom McGuire

Sanjay, (/member/Tom+McGuire/ )

dirverCNC (/member/dirver/) in reply to sanjaysy Easy to build Mill Stepper Motor and Driver circuits Reply (CAF79C7HGH70SZQ) May 16, 2013. 2:14 PM
(/member Download (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?download=pdf You mixed up the R1 (1K resistor)


with C6 (capacitor 220uF). (/id/Easy-to-build-CNC-Mill-Stepper-Motor-and-Driver-ci/?ALLSTEPS Regards, Dirk


6 Steps


+ Collection


slh1 (/member/slh1/) says:

Mar 22, 2013. 10:46 PM

Reply (C3V6618HELWX10J)

(/member /slh1/)

Hi mister! Is it possible to connect your driver to the 4-lead 2-phase bipolar stepper motor? since I could only find this type of motor in my area. Thanks

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