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Encyclopedia of Social Work in India Volume III

Encyclopedia of Social Work in India Volume III


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Published by S.Rengasamy
Encyclopedia of Social Work in India Consists of Four Volumes and this is the Third Volume
Encyclopedia of Social Work in India Consists of Four Volumes and this is the Third Volume

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Published by: S.Rengasamy on Aug 13, 2013
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Narendra Gopal Nag

Office of the Registrar General, India, Ministry of
Home Affairs, New Delhi.

Aging is generally associated with fatigue
and decline in functional capacity of the
organs of the body due to physiological
transformation. No sign of aging is by itself
regarded as a disease even though all of them
in their totality form the syndrome called old

It is ironical that people yearn to live long
but have to face hardships on attaining a
longer span of life. The status of aged varies
in different societies and cultures according
to Hasan (1974)'. For most persons in the
middle salaried class aging may mean forced
retirement. For the poor and the working
class aging may mean a state of dependence
and abject poverty. The vast majority of aged
are not able to or permitted to work. Loss of
work and earning results in an increasing
number of aged becoming not only
economically dependent, but this process also
brings about psychological and personality
changes in the aged which affect their social
status and role. The subject has received
some attention in India in recent years as is
evidenced from a few publications dealing
with one or more aspects of aging. There is
now greater recognition of the need for social
security measures for the aged in the country
in the light of the demographic, social and
cultural changes that are taking place in
contemporary Indian society.

Old age is usually regarded as synonymous
with pensionable age or age at retirement. In
consonance with the concurrent practice of
retirement at the age of 58 from government
service, a person could be regarded as aged
from the age of 58 onwards. In fact, there is a
controversy as to whether the persons who
are 60 or over should be regarded as aged or

only those who have reached the age of 65.
Most of the State Governments have
stipulated the age of sixty-five and above for
eligibility as a beneficiary under the old age
pension scheme for the destitute old (non-
contributory). But it is to be acknowledged
that due to poverty and other factors the
standard of health of the people in India is
poor as compared to the affluent Western
countries. As a result, the process of aging
sets in early in our country notwithstanding
some improvements in health standards
during recent years. This has created a rather
paradoxical situation. Though the
introduction of modern health technology and
medicine has increased the span of the life, it
has also contributed to a higher proportion of
aged or retired persons in the composition of
the population having little income of their
own, who have to depend on others for their

The traditional norms and values of Indian
society laid stress on showing respect and
providing care for the aged and elderly
persons. As a consequence, the aged
members of the family were normally taken
care of in the family itself. Those who had no
family were looked after by the community
or caste organisations, through institutions
like the sadavarta, dharamshala, math and
the village council or the Panchayat. These
have been catering to the needs of the aged
and the infirm destitutes in a traditional way.
In certain parts of Arunachal Pradesh, for
instance, the elderly and the aged if they so
desire, are even today provided for as
'perpetual' guests in the Kebang—the village
council—by the community.

The Hindu joint family, which was the unit
of social organisation, itself provided an
element of social security as well as status to
the aged. The reciprocal obligations of the
parents to support the child in infancy and of
the son to support the parents in old age
resulted in 'social insurance' through the
cohesion of the traditional family comprising
two or more generations. 'In the past, old age
was associated with virtues, knowledge and


wisdom. Referring to a youngman as an
'elder' was considered to be a great mark of
honour... The joint family of India had often
been referred to illustrate the status of the
aged in rural agrarian societies with the aged
'partiarch' as the executive head of the
household.'' As compared to the Western
countries, the aged persons in India, as far as
possible, were not left to fend for themselves
by their relations. However, as discussed in
the subsequent account, recent changes in the
social values, social structure and economy,
coupled with the demographic transition,
have created problems for the aged who are
now under a severe strain.

Magnitude of the Problem

In India poverty, unemployment,
underemployment and inflation have created
a situation in which traditional social
institutions are no longer able to discharge
their duties towards the elderly and the aged.
Religious trusts and charitable institutions,
like sadavarta, dharamshala, etc., haVe not
only failed to enlarge the scope of their
welfare activities for the aged but have also
failed to maintain their past activities for
want of financial support from the public,
besides change in their outlook.

Families now find it difficult to meet their
obligations to the aged. The demographic
changes in family structure due to
urbanisation and industrialisation have
resulted in changes in other aspects of family
life, like sentiments, behaviour patterns, and
attitudes. According to Williams, "Economy
of the industrialised and urbanised society is
in many ways incompatible with stable
family structure."3 The mobility resulting
from industrialisation and urbanisation has
triggered off changes in the socio-economic
spheres which have developed stresses and
strains in the family and the aged no longer
occupy the same position as in the past. The
generation gap is widening, Changes that are
overtaking social institutions are also
affecting family relationships. The attitude of
youngsters is now becoming more
individualistic and the unquestioned regard

for authority and respect to the elders is much
less in evidence. One of the findings of a
study by Soodan in Lucknow city is that
more heads of the households are from
younger age groups and two-thirds of the
aged live in households where the head of the
household is the son.4 Those aged who are
not regarded as head of the household are
rarely consulted by the family members.
Widowers are not looked after properly
during their illness. According to one-half of
the aged respondents, their absence from the
family would not disrupt the family

Economic plight and inflation have
enhanced the difficulties of old persons as a
large number of families do not have the
means to meet the physical needs of their
members and, understandably, the old and
the infirm in particular are adversely affected.
Some of them even leave their families to
fend for themselves in the community owing
to frustration due to neglect and hardships
faced by them.

Even in Indian villages which are
somewhat remote from the cities the family
life and social values have been undergoing
significant changes which are not favourable
to the aged. As early as in the mid-fifties,
Dube had highlighted the gap between the
ideal norms and actual practices in intra-
family relations in Shamirpet village in
Andhra Pradesh5. Though 'respect for age'
was recognised as one of the four basic,
ideals by all the communities in the village in
the building of the structure of the family, in
actual practice this was observed to a certain
extent by higher castes. These ideals were
'diluted' considerably in respect of
communities of intermediate social levels,
and among those of lower social levels even
traces of these ideals were not visible.
Respect was shown to the aged in rituals
only. In day-to-day life such consideration
was rarely noticed. Disruption of joint
families was so frequent at the lower level
that the ideal of family solidarity had
practically lost its meaning. A case study of


120 households revealed that 78 per cent of
the sons in the village had established
separate households within five years of their
marriage. The parents dominated the family
till their middle age. When they approached
old age they gradually receded to the
background. The control of the household as
well as village affairs had passed on to
middle-aged persons. This was despite the
relatively better position in which the aged
were placed in the rural setting as compared
to the urban, as highlighted by such studies as
the one by Marulasiddaiah6 in Dharwar
district of Karnataka.

It can be safely surmised that changes in
kin-ship and family organisation in
conjunction with urbanisation and
industrialisation have been more to the
disadvantages of the aged, It would seem that
industrialisation and urbanisation have
impinged upon the inbuilt mechanism of the
Indian joint family system to provide social
security to its members. In urban areas, the
general economic inadequacy of the nuclear
family has made it difficult to discharge its
obligations in matters of providing social
security to its members, especially the aged.
This is also supported by recent studies on
the subject. For instance, according to
Bhatia7 the main forces of change affecting
the aged are community development and
industrialisation which have reduced the
status of the aged individual as adviser and
spokesman of the village and guide of the

Demographic Dimensions

The distribution of population by age
groups varies in different countries and often
at different periods in the same country
owing to demographic transition or change in
the level of the vital rates of population. The
higher the expectancy of life at birth
accompanied by low birth rates and death
rates, the higher will be the proportion of the
aged in a population. The higher expectancy
of life is closely related to improvements in
health and educational standards achieved by
a country. India has a much lower proportion
of population in 60+age group (in 1971 it

was 5.97 per cent and in 1981 it was 6.9 per
cent) as compared to developed countries
where the persons aged 60+ form nearly 12
to 18 per cent of the total population These
countries have low birth rates and death rates
accompanied by high expectancy of life.

However, the number of the aged as well
as their proportion to the total population
have shown a steady increase in India over
the decades owing to the twin factors of
decrease in the birth and death rates and
increase in the life expectancy at birth due to
improvements in the general health and
nutritional standards of the population8. For
the 1901-1911 period, the birth rate was
estimated at 49.2. It went down to 39.9 by
1941-50 and further decreased to 37.1 during
the 1971-80 decade. On the other hand, the
death rate declined more significantly from
42.6 in 1901-1911 to 27.4 in 1941-51 and to
19.0 in 1961-70 decade. The life expectancy
at birth for the decade 1941-50 was estimated
at 32.1 and for 1951-60 at 41.3. For the base
year 1966 (1961-70) it was estimated at 46.4
for males and 44.6 for females. The projected
values of expectation of life at birth shows
the following trends

The expectancy of life at birth has been
increasing on an average by 0.50 per year10.
The sample registration scheme data"
released by the Registrar General, also more
or less support the above data on expectation
of life at birth for 1976. Besides, census data
undisputedly reflect significant changes in
distribution of age-groups over a period of
time. If a somewhat liberal definition of the
aged, viz., persons of the age of 55 and
above, is considered, according to the 1971
census, these numbered 45.5 million forming
8.3 per cent of the total population of the
country and thereby registered an increase of
10.9 million or 31.8 per cent during 1961-71
decade12. If a more conservative and less
controversial age of 60 is accepted as the cut
off point for the aged, such persons, as per
the 1961 census, numbered approximately
24.7 million or 5.6 per cent of the total
population of the country. During the 1961-


71 decennial period their number had gone
up to 32.7 million or nearly 6 per cent of the
total population. Even if a stiffer test of aging
is applied and only persons of 65+The above
table shows that there was a steep increase in
the total population as well as in the
population of the aged over the decades,
particularly after 1941. The population of the
aged increased from 12.1 million in 1901 to
32.7 million in 1971. However, the
percentage of increase was higher in the case
of aged persons. It is significant that the
percentage growth of aged 60+, which used
to be lower than that of the general
population, first registered a steady increase
and then a sharp upswing in the recent
decades as illustrated in the table

Life Expectation at birth in India




Males 50.12 52.62 55.12 57.62
Females 48.79 51.55 54.31 57.07


(in million)

of aged
(in million)

1901 238.4


1941 318.7


1951 361.1


1961 439.2


1971 547.9



growth of

growth of

1921-31 11.0


1941-51 13.3


1951-61 21.5


1961-711 24.8



1971-81 22.82


1981-91 18.89






According to this table, the percentage of
the population growth of the aged which used
to be 5.2 against 11.0 (more than double) for
the population as a whole during the 1921-31
decade registered a sharp increase during
1961-71 decade—32.4 per cent against 24.8
per cent for the general population. The
turning point came after the independence of
the country. The percentage of growth among
the aged went up from 8.9 per cent in the
1941-51 decade to 26.0 per cent in the 1951-
61 decade. On the other hand, the percentage
of growth of total population which was 13.3
per cent (nearly 5 per cent higher than that of
the aged population) in the 1941-51 decade
showed a moderate increase during the 1951-
61 decade.

If the expectancy of life shows the same
upward trend recorded in the recent decades
in conjunction with reduction in the birth
rates and death rates, the proportion of aged
persons is expected to register a significant
increase by the turn of the century.
According to the present projections the
percentage growth of total population of the
country is expected to be 22.8 in 1971-81,
18.9 percent in 1981-1991 and 17.6per cent
during the 1991-2001 decade. The
corresponding figures for persons aged 60+
are 31.6, 38.0 and 39.0, respectively. Thus,
the percentage growth of the aged population
is expected to be more than double than that
of the total population in the 1991-2001
decade. In other words, the population of
persons aged 60+ is expected to register a
substantial increase and form a much more
significant proportion of the total population
than hitherto recorded. This expected
increase in the population of the aged would
in turn contribute to a still higher dependency
ratio of the non-productive group of adult
population, which is required to be looked
after by the "relatively younger working
population. This has implications for the
economy of the country as well as for social
policy in relation to social security for the


In retrospect, it is seen that the age
structure of the population due to
demographic transition has magnified the
problem of the aged in the numerical sense
by substantially adding to their numbers,
whereas the recent socio-economic changes
have further aggravated their problem.

Dimensions of The Problem

Though the problems of the aged can be
looked at in different ways, basically these
can be grouped into four major areas as
follows: (1) economic; (2) familial; (3) health
and medical care; and (4) housing.

Psychological or emotional problems and
social problems are the derivatives of familial
problems. The key to the problems of the
aged and their solution lies in the above

It is obvious that in a poor country like
India the major problem of the aged is
economic. A survey of the aged conducted in
Madras city by the Madras School of Social
Work (1972)13 showed that 68 per cent of
old persons reported poverty as their main
problem as they found it difficult to make
both ends meet. About 25 per cent reported
that they were financially well-to-do, while
the remaining just managed to eke out their

The familial problems are mainly
concerned with neglect and poor up-keep and
in its wake give rise to emotional and
psychological problems associated with
sickness. The feeling of dependency on
others during sickness causes emotional
disturbance, besides adverse emotional
reaction while lying ill. Another type of
emotional disturbance is rooted in loneliness
and physical isolation mostly among those
who have outlived their relations, or are
estranged from them, and live alone. But
unlike some Western countries, this problem
is not so acute in India. The study on aged
persons in Madras revealed that only 2 per
cent suffered from bouts of loneliness. These

were mostly widows/ widowers living either
alone or with a son or a daughter
Health and medical care is a major problem
for the aged, The study of about 2,000 aged
conducted in Delhi by the Delhi School of
Social Work (1974)17

indicated that about 57
per cent aged had impaired vision, besides
the following other main medical and health
problems: (1) poor dental health; (2)
insomnia; (3) impaired hearing/deafness; (4)
giddiness/hypertension; (5) forgetfulness/
nervous disorders; and (6) lack of free
movements of limbs.

The housing conditions of most of the aged
and the infirm are generally far from
satisfactory. The problem is particularly
acute among those who live alone, They are
obliged to share accommodation with others.
As a matter of fact, this problem is also
associated with the economic problem.

As the degree of activeness or infirmity is
an important consideration for examining the
problems of the old, they can also be
categorised on the basis of their mobility
status: (1) bedridden; (2) house-bound; (3)
ambulator; (4) capable of going out with
difficulty; and (5) capable of going out
without difficulty.

The problems of the aged can also be
classified on the basis of community care: (1)
those who are able to live in their own homes
or with relatives; (2) those requiring
residential accommodation, including care
but not medical or nursing care; and (3) the
sick and infirm.

Non-Institutional Services

Old persons in affluent countries are
mostly assured of a fairly decent living owing
to the comprehensive social security
measures which are available. Compared to
what has been done for the aged in the
Western countries, the efforts made in India
are not even a drop in the ocean. This is
mainly attributed to financial constraints.
There is no legislation requiring payment of
pension or financial assistance to the aged.


The Central Government have no programme
for payment of old age pension to the general
population nor do they give any grant to the
State Governments for the purposed
Progressively more and more State
Governments and Union Territory
administrations are introducing the scheme of
financial cash assistance to the aged or
destitutes. By April 1982, it was in existence
in 20 States and 7 Union Territories. While
some States paid attention to this important
aspect of social security quite early (in the
late 50s or early 60s), others could take up
this scheme only recently. The eligibility
criteria for old age pension vary in different
States and Union Territories The amount of
pension usually ranges from Rs. 30 to Rs. 60
per month. Most States have prescribed the
age 65+ for eligibility. Some States have
relaxed this in the case of widows and the
disabled. Some States allow an additional
amount for dependents. A minimum period
of residence in the State is also prescribed.
Most States are now moving in the direction
of giving Rs. 60 per month as pension as
recommended by the Seventh Finance
Commission. The coverage of beneficiaries
has been progressively increasing and in
1980-81, it is estimated that about 2.8 million
persons were receiving old age pension.

Institutional Services

The only other noteworthy scheme
undertaken for the welfare of the aged relates
to the institutional service of homes for the
aged, organise by State Governments or by
the voluntary organisations. Despite the loss
of status and often facing harsh treatment
from their relations, the aged prefer to stay
with their family. But in extreme cases in the
face of humiliation and degradation,
particularly at the hands of the daughter-in-
law or the son, there are instances of a
widower foresaking the son's home in favour
of a public institution for the aged. Besides,
there are some old persons who are
practically alone in the world because they
remained bachelors of were widowed early
and do not have any near relations, like a son
or a daughter, with whom they could reside

or share the home. For them the only solace
is the old age home run by a voluntary
organisation or a State Government. Homes
for the aged run by State Governments do not
require any contribution from the inmates
owing to the precondition of their practically
having no income. Generally, they are
reported to be poorly run.18 For certain
categories of old destitutes it is inevitable to
have such homes for want of care from
relations or total absence of near relations.
Since such homes are few in number, some
destitutes and aged infirms, who have no
regular means of livelihood, take to begging
and often find their way into beggars' homes
wherever begging has been abolished under
the anti-beggary Act. Voluntary organisations
have been pioneers in providing institutional
services for the aged. But at present there are
only a few such organisations which provide
home care and treatment service for the aged.
Some voluntary organisations receive
contributions from the inmates according to
their family income status. Homes run by
voluntary organisations generally receive
grant-in-aid either direct from the State
Government or from the Central Social
Welfare Board.

There is obviously enough scope for
improvement in the quality and coverage of
the scheme of the old age pension. Some
writers have actually made a few suggestions
in this regard. Agarwal and Goel'9 have
suggested that the Employees' Provident
Fund Scheme should be converted into an old
age pension insurance scheme or into an
invalidity and survivors pension scheme,
Idgunji20 has also suggested this measure
with some minor variation. Rastogi21 has
urged the need for administrative reforms in
regard to the implementation of the scheme
by associating technical personnel having
interest in social welfare, rather than
entrusting this work to revenue officials.

Considering the needs of the aged, it is
imperative to take supportive action for
mitigation of their sufferings particularly by
increasing the scope of old age pension,


which is required to be given not only to
those who have no income and who have no
relatives having direct responsibility for their
care, but also to those as well who have
relatives whose financial resources are
limited. What is needed more than
institutional facilities today are measures
which would help in strengthening the family
through supportive action so that most of the
aged are taken care of within the family
itself. Lack of financial resources has been
felt to be a major hurdle. Quite modest
proposals which have been made in the past
years have been given up on this ground.
However, keeping in view the present
demographic and social trends in the country,
there does not seem to be any escape from
the need for introducing a uniform social
security scheme of pension, or financial
assistance, to provide succour to the aged.
This is an imperative need if a realistic and
integrated view of development is taken,
specially involving family welfare. It is true
that significant financial resources will be
required to cover all the eligible aged and
infirm persons. But it has to be appreciated
that in a developing country investment in
social security, particularly in relation to
familial welfare, is also an investment in
other aspects of family welfare. In view of
the high population growth in the country,
considerable resources are being devoted to
population control and family planning. But
family planning cannot be considered in
isolation. Studies on family planning have
fully demonstrated that because of economic
compulsions in India one of the reasons for a
large family is the desire of the parents to
have sons who are duty bound to support and
look after them in the old age. According to a
study conducted in India, half of the Indian
women aged 55-59 were without their
husbands and many of the old women were
supported by their sons22. Even a young
woman is aware of the need to have children
to care for her in the later years, if only from
the pitiable example of those older women
who are without living children and so were
bereft of firm security in life23. The men also
feel the same strong desire for children as do

their women folk.24 When asked to limit the
family size, an oft repeated argument is "But
who will look after me in my old age?" This
has acted as a strong disincentive for limiting
the size of the family, particularly in the
absence of social security measures for aged.
The most effective social and economic
security is sought and found in the son.
However, now that the family planning
programme has been accepted as an
integrated family welfare programme, an
investment in old age pension and other
measures of social security for the old should
be considered not merely as a socially desired
social security measure but as an incentive
for limiting the family size as well.

Other Welfare Services

Welfare activities in respect of the aged in
India are virtually confined to the old age
pension scheme and homes for the aged.
There is, however, scope for organising a
number of other welfare services, such as
medical care service, recreation and leisure
activities, home visiting services, assistance
in carrying out household chores, and
marketing and counselling service for
families caring for old persons. Such
measures can be organised with community
effort by soliciting voluntary support for
which some financial help can be provided
by the government. The success of these
measures largely rests on special efforts of
voluntary organisations in tapping manpower
resources particularly of the medical
profession and students and enlisting the
contribution of the community as discussed

(i) Medical Care Service: Geriatrics is one
of the major activities for the welfare of the
aged in industrialised countries. But hardly
any effort has been made in this direction in
India. However, with the cooperation of the
Indian Council of Medical Research and
hospitals and a measure of state support, it
should be possible to mobilise a voluntary
medical and health care service by enlisting
the help of doctors, nurses and para-medical


volunteers who can periodically attend to the
aged in their neighbourhood.

(ii) Provisions for Recreation and Leisure
Activities: It is apparent that aged persons
have a lot of leisure time with hardly any
decent recreational activity: Their main
leisure activities are going for morning and
evening stroll, listening to religious
discourses, visiting places of worship and
playing cards, etc. Even these activities are
confined to those who are not infirm and live
with families and do not have to worry much
about the basic necessities. However, because
of the transitional period through which
Indian society is passing traditional modes of
leisure activities are disappearing. Unlike in
the U.K., Canada, etc. at present there is
hardly any worthwhile planned effort for
organising recreational activities among the
aged in this country, It would be rewarding to
organise recreational day centres where
provision for in-door games, like cards, as
well as light reading material, such as
newspapers and magazines, can be made.
The panchayat ghar or the community hall
can be the centre of such activities. The
services of some comparatively active old
persons could also be channelled into
services that are badly needed in our
Community. Their rich experience and spare
time could be made use of for some
constructive activities that would also give
them satisfaction. These measures will also
go a long way in removing the sense of
loneliness of aged persons.

(iii) Voluntary Home Visiting Service: In
developed countries, voluntary home visiting
services have been organised which help in
solving the problems of loneliness and
reducing the strains and tensions of aged and
infirm persons. Volunteers from the student
community andothers making such regular
friendly visits of informal nature can also
take up tasks such as the following: (a) The
home visit service may provide for assisting
the aged and infirm persons living alone in
carrying out some important household
chores, preparing tea, making bed and

helping in dressing those whose limbs do not
function properly. Volunteers under the
scheme may also read interesting items of
news from newspapers to those who have
imparied eye sight and to others for
generating some interest and reducing their
boredom. They may also make purchases of
essential goods, particularly for the
ambulators and the housebound. They may
write letters on their behalf to their relations
and others if required, (b) Counselling
service can be provided to families having
aged persons posing problems. This will
particularly help in tackling the psychological
problems of the aged by guiding the other
family members on how to deal with their
problems. For organising the home visiting
service a few voluntary organisations and the
schools of social work could take lead in
mobilising and channelling the student
community in universities and colleges. In
fact, many students register themselves for
voluntary social service under the National
Social Service Scheme and during vacations
participate in voluntary construction or
developmental work. They could be
organised to regularly devote some of their
leisure hours for making friendly visits to old
and infirm persons in their neighbourhood.
As Schools of Social Work are generally
seized of the problems of the aged, they
could be involved in schemes for mobilising
the student community and organising home
visits in collaboration with voluntary


It is evident that due to socio-economic
changes in the wake of urbanisation and
increase in the proportion of the aged in the
population, the problem of the aged has
become formidable. With the impact of
industrialisation on society, the traditional
means of earning a livelihood and mutual-aid
institutions are rapidly dying out. The
ultimate responsibility for supporting the
aged is gradually shifting from the family to
the State. Studies on the aged have
highlighted their main problems and
emphasized the need for the State to provide


a number of social services for them both
directly and indirectly. This poses a challenge
to policy makers, administrators and social
workers, particularly because so far no
comprehensive services have been developed
for the aged, ostensibly on account of paucity
of resources. However, it is now apparent
that effective social security measures are
necessarily to be extended to the aged by
strengthening the institution of family as the
unit of social welfare through such measures
as increasing the scope of the old age pension
schemes, etc. Besides, there is need for
setting up a larger number of old age homes
with adequate amenities for those who have
no close relations to look after them. These
measures are all the more necessary as the
welfare of the aged has a bearing on family
welfare as a whole and particularly on
population control.

Narendra Gopal Nag

Notes on Welfare of the Aged

1. SaiyidZafar Hasan, foreword to Kirpal
Singh Soo-dan, Aging in India, Minerva
Associates (Pvt.) Ltd., Calcutta, 1975.
Figures for India computed from A.
Chandrasekhar, Census of India, 1971,
Series I, Part-C (ii), Social and Cultural
Tables, Controller of Publications,
Government of India, Delhi, 1977, p.4.
Figures for other countries computed from

United Nations Demographic Year Book.

1976, New York, 1977, pp. 166-224.
2. K.G. Desai and Rekha Bhalla, Social
Situation of the Aged(Mimeo),
Institute of Social Sciences, Bombay,
3. Robin M. Williams, American Society—A
Sociological Interpretation,
New York,
Alfred A. Knopf, 1961, 2nd Edition, 1963.
4. Kirpal Singh Soodan, Aging in India,
Minerva Associates (Pvt.) Ltd., Calcutta,
5. S.C. Dube, Indian Village, Routledge and
Kegan Paul, Ltd., London, i955.
6. H.M. Marulasiddaiah, Old People of
Kar-nataka University, Dharwar,

7. H.S. Bhatia, "Rural Social Changeand the
Problem of the Aged", Social Welfare,
Vol. 11, No. 4, 1964, p.5.
8. Pocket Book on Population Statistics;
Census Centenary 1972, Registrar General
and Census Commissioner, India, New
Delhi, p. 96. Estimates for 1971-1980
based on P. Padmanabha, Census of India,
Series I, Paper 1 of 1979, Report of
the Expert Committee on Population
Controller, Department of
Publications, Delhi, 1979, p. 10.

9. ibid.
10. Ibid.
1 Sample Registration Bulletin (Mimeo),
Volume XIII, No. 2, Office of the
Registrar General, India, Ministry of
Home Affairs, New Delhi, p. 2.
12. Computed from A. Mitra; Census of
India, 1961,
Volume I, India, Part-II-C(i)
Social and Cultural Tables, Manager of
Publications, Delhi, 1965, p. 20.
Computed from A. Chandrasekhar,
Census of India, 1971, Series I, Part-II-
C(ii), Social and Cultural Tables,
Controller of Publications, Delhi, 1977,
13. Data (which excludes Sikkim) computed
from Sud-hansu Bhushan Mukherjee, The
Age Distribution of the Indian
Edst-West Population Centre,
Honolulu, 1976, p. 65.
14. Ibid. Figures for 1971-1981 and 1981-
1991 computed from P. Padmanabha;
Census of India, 1971, Op. Cit. Figure for
1991-2001 computed from The
Population of India;
1974, World
Population Year, Cicred Series, Office of
the Registrar, General, India, Ministry of
Home Affairs, New Delhi, p. 127.
15. Madras School of Social Work, Old
People in Madras City,
Madras, (Mimeo),
1972.16. Ibid.
17. Delhi School of Social Work, University
of Delhi, A Study of the Aged in Delhi
(Mimeo), Delhi 1974.
18. A.N. Agarawal, "The Introduction of
Old-Age Pension Insurance in India",
Labour Bulletin, Vol. 18, 1958, pp. 1-6.


19. V.K. Goel, "A Case for Conversion of
Employees Provident Fund Scheme into
Old Invalidity Survivors Pension: Trends
in India", Asian Trade Unionist, Vol. 6,
No. 2, 1968, pp. 1-20. Government of
India, The Third Five Year Plan, Planning
Commission, 1961. Government of India,
Draft Fourth Five Year Plan,Planning
Commissioner, 1969.
20. D.D. Idgunji, "Retiring Pensions for
Working People", Social Welfare, Vol. 4,
No. 10, 1957, pp. 4-5.
21. H.S. Rastogi, "A Commentary on Kerala's
Plan for the Aged", Indian Journal of
Social Work,
Vol. 25, No. 4, 1965, pp.
22. Thomas Poffenberger, "Motivational
Aspects of Resistance to Family Planning
in an Indian Village", Demography, Vol.
V, pp. 757-766.
23. David G. Mendalbaum, "Human Fertility
in India
Social Components and Policy
University of California
Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London,
24. Ibid.

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