You are on page 1of 45

ARTIST2 IMA & ADCN

Presented by

Jean-Bernard ITIER
STP Manager IMAP

A380 Integrated Modular Avionics


The history, objectives and challenges of the deployment of IMA on A380

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Presentation Topics and Scope


To explain what IMA is and its background To explain how IMA has been deployed on the A380
ADCN  Modules


The Future of IMA


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 2

Why IMA?
Since the A300
Increasing

number of software controlled systems

New functionality for performance

Flight management systems Fuel management systems


New functionality for improved safety

Flight envelope protection Ground proximity warning Traffic collision avoidance


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

New functionality for improved maintenance

Aircraft condition monitoring


New functionality for improved passenger comfort

Cabin environment control

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 3

Why IMA?
The Indirect Consequences
Every

system = 1 or more computers / controllers Every aircraft type = new computers Every computer =
Airframer development and management costs

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Part number costs Documentation More wires More power More sources of unreliability Increased obsolescence risk

Airline impact

Spares Tooling Increased fault finding

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 4

Why IMA? Traditional LRU


This implies that quantities of maintenance spares be
stored for each fleet at different places. During the aircraft life cycle, the cost of modifications, including parts obsolescence mitigation and functional upgrades, becomes even more significant for the airlines.

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 5

Why IMA? Traditional LRU


Each computer type is
uniquely designed for the system and aircraft
Application

software e.g. fuel control Hardware PCBs Operating System

Manufactured by
system supplier
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Dedicated wiring for


Digital and single wire control Information to other computers

each connection 100s km cabling per aircraft


Page 6

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Why IMA? Historical background for the emergence of IMA


Functionality
A340 -600 105 104 103 A320 102 101
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A330

A380

(arbitrary log scale)

Number of electronic equipment

100

Concorde

A300B

A380 with IMA

A310

80 60 40 20

1970

1975 1980 1985

1990

1995

2000 2005

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 7

Why IMA?
The response
Integrated

Modular Avionics

Concept Not a specific set of technologies or components


Integration

Multiple systems applications executed on the same computer Data communications integrated onto a high speed multiplexed network
Modularity
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A set of standard non system specific computers Computers that can be configured to provide part of their resources to a particular system application

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 8

What is IMA?
IMA Variations / Proprietary Solutions ?
Avionics

network

ARINC 429 ARINC 629 AFDX


Avionics

computers

Cabinet of modules, backplane, gateways

Honeywell AIMS
Cabinet of cards
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Honeywell Primus EPIC


Independent modules as LRUs

Honeywell VIA

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 9

What is IMA?
Cabinet of modules

Functionality split between modules:


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Supply Modules, Gateways, Processing, IO Inter module communications backplane ARINC 653 Operating System Originally ARINC 629 Single supplier . for everything Boeing 777
ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380 Page 10

Power

What is IMA?
Card File

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Semi open architecture third party hardware Processing, IO and gateway cards Proprietary DEOS Operating System Proprietary backplane Business and Regional Jets
Embraer,

Raytheon, Dornier
Page 11

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

What is IMA?
Independent Modules as LRU

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Derivative of AIMS repackaging


Provides

processing, IO and PSU in one package

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 12

What is A380 IMA?


Since

mid 80s the former Airbus partners have done research on IMA for their systems (PACTS, IDEE3, NEVADA, PAMELA, VICTORIA)
With the objective to merge different system design approaches and different procurement approaches

Closed loop control systems, data management and processing systems Safety critical and non safety critical Software only functions to full multi-domain systems like fuel Complete design in house, integration of components to fully outsourced

Therefore
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

the IMA solution had to:

Be suitable for different types of systems (I/O needs / Performances / Safety ) Be suitable for a large number of systems and their suppliers to allow real competition Compartmentalised to allow parallel developments to be managed

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 13

What is A380 IMA?


PRIM3 FCGU3B FCGU3A SEC3 FM3 ADIRU3 CMV ECB SFCC1 PRIM1 SEC1 FCGU1A FCGU1B PRIM2 FCGU2B FCGU2A SEC2 SFCC2

Integrated Modular Avionics

IOM 1 IOM 3 ADIRU1 FM1

SW-11 SW-1

18+2FT 13+1FT
SW-19 SW-9

18+2FT

SW-12

IOM 2 IOM 4 ADIRU2 FM2

SW-2

CDS L1 EEC2 EEC4 A B A B

CDS L2 CDS L3

CDS C1 CDS C2 CDS R3

CDS R2

CDS R1 A B A B EEC1

EEC3

SCI CPIOM-C1 CPIOM-C2 SW-13 SW-3 SW-14 SW-4 AESU 2

CABINET
display actuators

CPIOM-D1 ACR 1 AESU 1 IOM 5 IOM 7

16+2FT

15+2FT

IOM6 IOM 8

CPIOM-F1 CPIOM-F3 CIDS1 SDS1

CDAM

CPIOM-F2 CPIOM-F4 CIDS1 SDS1

18+2FT
CPIOM-A2 CPIOM-A3

SW-15 SW-5 CPIOM-A1 CPIOM-A4 CPIOM-B1 CPIOM-B4

SW-16

18+2FT SW-17
SW-7

SW-6 CPIOM-G1 CPIOM-G3

15+2FT
CPIOM-G2 CPIOM-G4

Federated architectures
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A629
sensors LRU sensors Multi-transmitter bus network

CPIOM-B2 CPIOM-B3

CPIOM-E1 SPDB 1 SPDB 3 SEPDC1 SPDB 5 SPDB 7

OSCU CPIOM-E2 SPDB 6 SPDB 8 SEPDC2 SPDB 2 DSMS SPDB 4

disp lay

LRUs

MODULE AFDX NETWORK

actuators

LRU black box

CONCEPTS & TECHNOLOGIES EVOLUTIONS


ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380 Page 14

What is A380 IMA? - Airbus Concept


IMA shared resources are:
the

avionics communications network: the solution selected is AFDX (Avionics Full Duplex Ethernet), fully compatible with Ethernet network of Open World and based on common switch modules Modules, i.e. Core Processing & Input / Output Modules or CPIOM, Input/ Output Modules or IOM, ,...) for hosting of several applications and signal acquisition/transmission
Other systems or equip t

CPIOM
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A429, discretes , analog

SW SW applic applic

IOM

IOM Other systems or equip t

O/S

AFDX network 28VDC network (Norm / Ess )


ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380 Page 15

What is A380 IMA? Airbus Concept


The AIRBUS IMA concept is based on shared Modules. A modulefocused approached has been preferred compared with the previous concept of Cabinet. Its key features are: ARINC 600 IMA Module packaging connected to AFDX network Robust partitioning in computing resource & communications Determinism of application execution & data exchanges Standardised Application Programming Interface (API) to avoid obsolescence impacts on applications Conventional equipments mixable

Resource sharing has a direct impact on the way to design and


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

implement systems since it creates new dependencies between them, both from a technical and a process point of view.

This concept has been selected as the baseline for systems design on
Cockpit, Utility, Energy and Cabin domains and extended globally on all the domains.
ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380 Page 16

What is A380 IMA? - ADCN Network & Topology


FCSC1 SFCC1
COM MON COM

FCGC1
MON COM

MON

Flight COMFCGC2 MON Control FCGC3 FCSC3 TBC


COM MON COM MON

FCSC2
COM MON COM

SFCC2
MON

AFDX Network: 100 Mbits Redundant Network (A&B) with independent alimentation AFDX switches = 2 x 8 NB of ports (connections) possible on each switch (2024) MTBF of the switch is very high (100 000 hours expected) Up 80 AFDX subscriber

IOM
ADIRU1 EEC1 A FM1

S_1 _1

S_1 _2 S_1 SW13 _3


ADIRU3 FM3 FM2

IOM
ADIRU2

Cockpit
ACR1 ATC1

Engines

L1 L2

C1 L3 C2 R3

R2 R1
ATC2 ACR2 opt

B EEC3 A A EEC4 B
FW2 FCDC2 AESU2 SCI
COM

EEC2 B

FW1 FCDC1 AESU1

IOM
SCI

S_2 _1
ELM CBM SB24 HSM AIC? CDAM

S_2 _2
ELM CBM HSM SB24 AIC?

IOM
Fuel
MON

COM
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Fuel LG,TP&BS COM MON


MON

Energy
ext lights ctrl

LG,TP&BS
COM MON

Fuel&LG
IRDC
VSC

S_3 _1
PWCU

ECB CIDS IPCU

CIDS PESC

S_3 _2

IPCU

IRDC

SPDB

S_4 _1

Cabin

S_4 _2
DSMC3

SPDB

DSMC1&2 CPIOM-B-1&2 CPIOM-A-1&2

CPIOM-A-3&4 CPIOM-B3&4

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 17

AFDX - Generality
Freedom of choice for data format (harmonized at aircraft level) Integration of LRU, IOM (Input Output Module) & CPIOM (Core Processing
Input Output Module)
LRU
Appli B
1 partition

Technology based on COTS standards


CPIOM
Appli B
partition 1

IOM
Appli D
partition 3

LRU

Appli C
partition 2

E/S
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

E/S ADCN

E/S E/S

Switching

table defined through configuration

ARINC 600: 2 MCU


Traffic

policing (enforcement of allocated bandwidth)


ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

QUADRAX Connectors
Page 18

AFDX technology Addressing : MAC,IP,UDP


Appli A
1 partition
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2

Appli B
1 partition
1 2

E/S
Appli D Appli E

E/S

Appli C
partition 1
(RAM ; CPU)

partition 2
(RAM ; CPU)

1 2

E/S

Avionics communications are based on multicast:


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

one

transmitter one or several receivers

Asynchrony individual clocks


Alt = 10 000 ft
ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

NO reconfiguration capability in the AFDX network


UDP SRC / UDP DEST IP SRC / IP DEST MAC SRC / MAC DEST

Page 19

AFDX: Performances
Does AFDX sustain expected real time performance:
Yes:

real time performances were really challenging, both on the ES and the switch (ES wire speed reception ie 200 Mbits/s ; switch wire speed switching, with only bottleneck on output buffer).

Packet loss percentage:


0

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

% in the switch by definition (a configuration where the switch cannot guarantee that no frames are lost is not schedulable and thus not produced) Nevertheless frame may be lost due to Bit error rate (target 10-8) Failures

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 20

What is A380 IMA ? - AFDX Network use


Switches Configuration process:
System Team

NCD : VL & Paths

Data base
Confcheck determinism OK Confgen Create configuration Loads
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Switches Datalaoding
ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380 Page 21

What is A380 IMA?


Impact on the system development process = Risks
At

the component level:

IMA developed before system > requirements mismatch Maturity of IMA components > impacts multiple systems Technical capability > impacts multiple systems
At

the Industrial level:

Management > Dedicated trans-national IMA team Procurement >


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Arbitration process, Contractual resources, Change in supplier business model


Development > User Groups, Hot Lines, Bi-laterals Certification Support Process > Airbus
ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380 Page 22

What is A380 IMA?


Pre launch
 Partner

activity to review available solutions and proposals

Many suppliers example Smiths, Honeywell, Rockwell Collins, Thales, Diehl, BAe Systems Front runner - Cabinet / rack + ARINC 629

Joint launch team to define the avionics solution


 Architecture,

scope, key technologies, supplier pre-selection  AFDX as the network


ARINC 629 future growth, cost ?
 IMA

computers as dedicated LRUs The Open Architecture solution

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Multiple system suppliers Scalable Multiple IMA suppliers including Airbus make policy for key technology System suppliers able to develop and integrate separately Minimise the management and co-ordination activities to be performed by Airbus focus on systems

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 23

What is A380 IMA? - IMA integration perimeter

Function on A380 Cockpit


Flight Warning, FCU Back-Up, Weight & Balance Back-Up Computation Flight Control Data Concentrator Air Traffic Communication

Energy
Electrical Load Management, Circuit Breaker Monitoring, ATA 24 BITE

Utility
Fuel Measurement & Management Braking, Steering, Extension/Retraction, Others (Tyre pressure, etc.)

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Cabin
Bleed, Overheat Detection, Supplemental Cooling Cabin Pressure & Ventilation Control, Air Conditioning
ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 24

IMA Modules
8 different part numbers / 30 modules of
CPIOM per chipset developed by 2 suppliers AIRBUS (EYY): Thales Avionics, associated with Diehl Avionik System:

They host 21 avionics functions developed by


10 suppliers

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

1 single part number of IOM called IOM-A All modules are ARINC600, 3 MCU box, around
4.2 kg, with 50 000 hours MTBF objectives

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 25

What is A380 IMA ?


What makes IMA different ?
Standardised

Software Environment

ARINC

653 Operating System

Application software is independent from the hardware


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Like Windows No direct access to I/O Internal process control services Health Monitoring services

Enables Obsolescence protection for system software

Software largest NRC element of systems Production life = 20 years, Aircraft life = 50 years

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 26

What is A380 IMA? - CPIOM


UTIL. - NVM Managt RessourceBITE Dataload A615A Module Managt Instrumentation
PARTITION PARTITION

AVIONIC

AIRBUS API
A 653 Operating System Drivers Boot

AVIONIC

AIRBUS API + Extensions

SNMP-MIB

IO SW BASIC SOFTWARE

Power Supply

RAM Flash NVM

CPU MPC755 Partitioning Control Intra LRM Communication


USB

DSP TMS320C33 + internal Ram Interface

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

PCI

AUDIO Flash

DSI / DSO

Interface

USB

DSI / DSO /DGO

DSI/DSO DGI

CPU Board

AFDX

DSI / DSO IO_Ext Board


ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

IO_DSP Board
Page 27

What is A380 IMA ?

What makes IMA different?


Partitioning

The performance of each system must be unaffected by any other

To allow systems to be developed, tested and verified separately To allow system faults to be contained To allow new systems to be added post certification
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 28

What is A380 IMA ?


What makes IMA different?
Partitioning
Application Software1 Application Software 2

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Resources with performances

Health Monitors

I/O

Memory RAM

Processor Time

Health Monitors
AIRBUS UK LTD

I/O

Memory Processor RAM Time


Page 29

Partition environment
ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

What is A380 IMA ?


What makes IMA different?
Partitioning

Timing

Strict allocation to each system application


 Periodic fixed scheduling at application level  No prioritisation at application level

Application 1

Application 3

Application 1 Application 3

Application 2

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

12.5 ms

Time

25 ms 5 ms 15 ms

AIRBUS UK LTD

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 30

What is A380 IMA ?


What makes IMA different?
Partitioning

Timing

Strict allocation to each system application


 Periodic fixed scheduling at application level  No prioritisation at application level

Application 1

Application 3

Application 1 Application 3

Application 2

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

12.5 ms

Time

25 ms 5 ms 15 ms

AIRBUS UK LTD

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 31

What is A380 IMA ?


What makes IMA different?
Partitioning

Timing

Strict allocation to each system application


 Periodic fixed scheduling at application level  No prioritisation at application level

Overruns are prevented


Application 1 Application 3 Application 1

partition is suspended

Application 2

Application 3

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

12.5 ms

Time

25 ms 5 ms 15 ms

AIRBUS UK LTD

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 32

What is A380 IMA ?


What makes IMA different?
Partitioning

Memory

Segregated allocation to each application Configuration is linked to design I.e. application accesses only the memory
configured for it Violations detected and prevented by MMU
Application Software 1

MMU
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Module Configuration

AIRBUS UK LTD

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 33

What is A380 IMA ?


What makes IMA different?
Partitioning
Application Software 1
Write sampling port( xx, value)

I/O

Application Software 2

Segregated allocation to
each system application Some shared input data e.g. ARINC 429 All access is through OS calls

CPIOM GLOBAL CONFIGURATION TABLE

ARINC 653 Operating System


xx = A429

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Discretes
AIRBUS UK LTD

ARINC 429

AFDX

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 34

What is A380 IMA ?


Partitioning enables:
System

independence

Systems of different DAL(A,B,C) level can be developed at their DAL level Systems can be integrated and tested to separately
Incremental

Qualification

Modifications to one application have no effect on other applications

Qualification activities following a modification are limited

Configuration Parameters Partitioning and Configuration


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

IMA

must be configurable

Resources Time, Memory and I/O Implemented with Configuration Tables - loadable
Two

groups of tables:

Tables managed by Airbus have a global effect Tables managed by the Function Supplier only have a local partition
ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380 Page 35

What is A380 IMA?


Qualification

of the module within a usage domain represented by the set of configuration parameter ranges Usage Domain
Represents guarantees on

Functionality Performance e.g. service call times


For the range of configurations the module can be used in

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 36

What is A380 IMA ? - IMA Modules Qualification


Qualification and system certification are major parts of IMA
The

objective of the qualification approach is to give System Suppliers credit to be used as part of their system certification Based on credit
The function / system supplier takes credit from the qualification activities of Module Manager and Module Supplier Does not have to prove functionality, performance and behaviour of the module.
System Supplier Certification
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Configuration Qualification Module Qualification

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 37

What is A380 IMA?


New Industrial Roles - the biggest change with IMA
Introduce

a new role in system development

IMA Manager

Control the use of module resources


Provides resources against user system requirements Maintain spares margins Support the prediction and verification of resources

Provide resource configuration tables


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Develop configuration tables

Perform confidence testing on the Integrated Module Perform qualification activities for the module configuration

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 38

What is A380 IMA ? - Avionics Functions


Integration:
integration

tests are performed

on HBOSS again on HBOSS with instrumented code for structural coverage analysis then on TBOSS for target compatibility verification and for providing certification evidences
Additional
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

unit tests may be identified to achieve all coverage objectives The whole process is automated to ease non-regression testing between HBOSS and TBOSS
HBOSS Software testing on host stations TBOSS Software testing on representative target BIL Function Verification on Real Module

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 39

The future

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

The future of IMA


A380 IMA reused on A400M/A350 :
Mature

avionics hardware available immediately NRCs, risks minimised

Next Aircraft IMA2G:


Extend

the scope of IMA the flexibility of IMA Generic Secure Platform

Flight controls, Open world


Increase
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Optimise the IMA architecture

Decentralised I/O / Smart sensors Reconfiguration


Enable more systems to be integrated within IMA

High Critical to Low Critical


Enable greater levels of integration on single IMA units

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 41

The future of IMA


Change in technologies:
AFDX

greater bandwidth solutions, low cost solutions greater integration All protocols supported
IMA

Cabinet, Card File ? all have advantages Faster processors Multi-processor inevitable New OS possibly, parallel for Open World New Fields buses technologies ?
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Tools

- greater integration & Industrialisation


Platform Architecture definition Avionics configuration Application development, validation and verification Fast ramp up Technologies choice for Resources industrialisation Fast FAL Integration Auto test
Page 42

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

The future of IMA Historical background for the emergence of IMA


Functionality
A340 -600 105 104 103 A320 102 101
AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

A330

A380

(arbitrary log scale)

Number of electronic equipment

100

Concorde

A300B

A380 with IMA

A310

80 60 40

Future A/C
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

20

1970

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 43

Thank you for your attention


AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 44

AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. This document and all information contained herein is the sole property of AIRBUS S.A.S.. No intellectual property rights are granted by the delivery of this document or the disclosure of its content. This document shall not be reproduced or disclosed to a third party without the express written consent of AIRBUS S.A.S. This document and its content shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied. The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They are based on the mentioned assumptions and are expressed in good faith. Where the supporting grounds for these statements are not shown, AIRBUS S.A.S. will be pleased to explain the basis thereof. AIRBUS, its logo, A300, A310, A318, A319, A320, A321, A330, A340, A350, A380, A400M are registered trademarks.

AIRBUS UK LTD. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

ARTIST2 - Integrated Modular Avionics A380

Page 45