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3DP.1.3 Fthenakis Valencia 2010

3DP.1.3 Fthenakis Valencia 2010

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Artigo Fthenakis - Columbia University
Artigo Fthenakis - Columbia University

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Environmental Aspects of Thin Film Module Production and Product Lifetime

Vasilis Fthenakis
PV Environmental Research Center Brookhaven National Laboratory
and

Center for Life Cycle Analysis Columbia University
Invited Plenary Presentation at the 25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, September 9, 2010 email: vmf@bnl.gov web: www.pv.bnl.gov www.clca.columbia.edu
1

PV Sustainability Criteria
„

Photovoltaics are required to meet the need for abundant electricity generation at competitive costs, whilst conserving resources for future generations, and having environmental impacts lower than those of alternative future energyoptions

Sustainability Metrics: „ Low Cost „ Resource Availability „ Minimum Environmental Impact

2

Thin-Film PV -The Triangle of Success Low Cost Affordability Affordabilityin inaa competitive competitiveworld world Cd Cdin inCdTe CdTe& &CIGS CIGS -Si/mc-Si NF 3 in NF inaa-Si/mc-Si 3 Resource Availability Tellurium in CdTe Indium in CIGS Germanium in a-SiGe 3 Lowest Environmental Impact .

90% by 2040 (high scenario) * 322 MT/yr Te demand for other uses has been subtracted 4 Fthenakis.Tellurium for PV* from Copper Smelters Tellurium Availability for PV* (MT/yr) 5000 4500 4000 3500 Te (M T/yr) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 High Low 2010 •Global 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 Efficiency of Extracting Te from anode slimes increases to 80% by 2030 (low scenario). Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2009 .

Te Availability for PV: Primary + Recycled 5000 5000 4500 4500 4000 4000 3500 3500 Tellurium Availability for PV (MT/yr) High Low Recycling -yrs Recyclingevery every30 30-yrs 10% 10%loss lossin incollection collection 10% loss in recycling 10% loss in recycling Te e (M T/yr) T T /y r) 3000 3000 2500 2500 2000 2000 1500 1500 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 2010 20 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 5 .

3 14 9 13.Assumptions for Thin-Film PV Growth PV Type 2008 Conservative Efficiency (%) 2020 Most likely Optimistic CdTe CIGS a-Si-Ge 10.9 9.3 10 Fthenakis.7 14 16.2 6. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2009 Update 2010 6 .7 12.2 15.8 11.

8 1.2 13. 2009 7 .3 16.2 2. 0.2 11.1 1.7 12.2 1.3 12.3 1.8 10. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews.3 14 14 9 9 13.7 9.9 15.Assumptions for Thin-Film PV Growth PV Type 2008 2008 Efficiency Efficiency (%) (%) 2020 2020 Conservative Conservative Most Most likely likely Optimistic Optimistic Layer Thickness (µm) 2008 Conservative 2020 Most likely Optimistic CdTe CIGS a-Si-Ge 10.9 9. Fthenakis.6 1.2 1.5 1.7 14 14 16.5 1.3 10 10 3.8 11.2 15.7 6. 1.2 6.

CdTe PV Annual Production Constraints CdTe PV (GW/yr) 250 200 Optimistic Optimistic Most likely Most likely Production can increase with direct mining starting at ~2015 CdTe PV (GW/yr) 150 100 Conservative 50 0 2010 Conservative 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 8 .

June 23. 2010 9 * 1/2 of In production growth is allocated to PV . IEEE PVSC.CIGS Material-based Growth Constraints* CIGS PV (GW/yr) 250 200 CIGS PV (GW/yr) Optimistic 150 Most likely Conservative 100 50 0 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070 2080 2090 2100 Fthenakis.

Q: material and energy inputs E: effluents (air. Q M. Q M. Q E E E E E Recycling Recycling M.Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Concerns Concernsabout about accidental releases accidental releases of ofCdTe CdTe M. solid) E 10 . water. Q Raw Raw Material Material Acquisition Acquisition E M. Q M. Q Material Material Processing Processing Manufacture Manufacture Use Use Decommiss Decommiss -ioning -ioning Treatment Treatment Disposal Disposal M. Q M.

2005 2005 French French Ministry Ministry of of Ecology. 2004 2004 German German Ministry Ministry of of the the Environment. Energy. Fthenakis et al. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2009 2009 11 . Ecology.. 2004 2004 EC-JRC. Environment.CdTe PV Product Life –Accidental Releases „ PV Roof-top fires Negligible emissions during fires Fthenakis. Energy. US-DOE. (BMU). Progress in Photovoltaics. 2005 Based Based on on standard standard protocols protocols by by the the ASTM ASTM and and UL UL Expert Expert Peer Peer reviews reviews by by:: BNL. US-DOE. EC-JRC. BNL. (BMU). 2004.

5 -1 0 0 -0.5 -3 -3.5 0 10000 20000 30000 -7 -8 0 5000 Cd (counts) 10000 Cd (counts) Fthenakis. 2005 12 .5 -4 0 10000 20000 30000 Cd (counts) -2.CdTe PV Fire-Simulation Tests: XRF Analysis Heat XRF-micro-spectroscopy -Cd Mapping in PV Glass 1000 °C. Fuhrman. Progress in Photovoltaics. Fitts and Wang. right end of sample 0 -0. Lanzirotti.5 -2 position (mm) -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -1. Section taken from middle of sample XRF-micro-probing – Cd Distribution in PV Glass 1000 °C.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -1 position (mm) position (mm) -1.5 -4 -4. Heiser.

Progress in Photovoltaics.“ leached Cd concentration in the collected water is no higher than the German drinking water concentration. Report. 1998) • < 4 mm fragments “Leached Cd exceeds the limits for disposal in inert landfill but is lower than limits for ordinary landfills (Okkenhaug. Norgegian Geotechnical Institute. Frauhoffer Institute Solid State Technology.” (Steinberger.CdTe PV Product Life –Accidental Releases „ Leaching from shuttered modules • 10 mm fragments -Rain-worst-case scenario. 2010) Uncontrolled Uncontrolleddumping dumpingof ofCdTe-modules CdTe-modules will result in greater environmental will result in greater environmentalrisks risks compared with disposal in approved compared with disposal in approved landfill landfillsites sites 13 .

1997. Se. Fthenakis. (ribbon).26 26thIEEEPVSC.CdTe PV Product Life –Accidental Releases „ Leaching from shuttered modules • 10 mm fragments -Rain-worst-case scenario. 2010) We We advocate advocate for for all all PV PV modules modules to to be be recycled recycled at at the the end end of of their their life life 14 All AllPV PVmodules moduleswould wouldfail failthe theCalifornia Californiatests tests c-Si c-Sifor forAg. Frauhoffer Institute Solid State Technology.and andCu Cu(ribbon). Norgegian Geotechnical Institute. Eberspacher 1998 .a-Si a-Simarginally marginallyfor forAg Ag th Eberspacher IEEEPVSC. Report. 2010) • < 2 mm fragments “CdTe PV sample failed California TTLC and STLC tests” (Sierra Analytical Labs for the “Non-Toxic Solar Alliance”. Ag. CIGS CIGSfor forSe. Eberspacher 1998 1997.” (Steinberger. 1998) • < 4 mm fragments “Leached Cd exceeds the limits for disposal in inert landfill but is lower than limits for ordinary landfills” (Okkenhaug. Pb.Pb.“ leached Cd concentration in the collected water is no higher than the German drinking water concentration. Eberspacher& &Fthenakis. Progress in Photovoltaics.

The Triangle of Success Low Cost Recycling Resource Availability Lowest Environmental Impact 15 .

58 100 100 100 100 100 (mg Cd/GWh) 0.79 7. 303-334.4* 0.05 0.13* 16. 8.52* 0.30 7. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.Atmospheric Cd Emissions from the LifeCycle of CdTe PV Modules –Reference Case Process 1.7 40 6 6 0. Zn Smelting/Refining 3.58 0.79 0. CdTe PV Manufacturing 6.55 Plus Plus 200 200mg mgCd/GWh Cd/GWhfrom from fossil fuels in the electricity fossil fuels in the electricity mix mixin inthe thelife-cycle life-cycleof ofCdTe CdTe PV PV Fthenakis V. Mining of Zn ores 2. CdTe PV Recycling TOTAL EMISSIONS (g Cd/ton Cd*) 2. CdTe Production 5. Cd purification 4. 2004 * 2009 updates 16 .1* (% ) 0.06 0. CdTe PV Operation 7.02 0.

2168. Technol. 2007 Fthenakis. Environ.7 0. Sci. 42. 515(15).4 0 as i m on oSi nS m cS dT oa G O il C bo uc N C al le ar e i l 0.3 0. Thin-Solid Films. 2008 17 N at ur .9 rib Fthenakis and Kim.2 0.Total Life-Cycle Cd Atmospheric Emissions 50 44.6 0.7 0. Kim & Alsema.3 40 30 g Cd/GWh 20 10 3. 5961.

GHGs Used in PV Module Manufacturing Substance Source CF4 C2F6 SF6 NF3 c-Si surface etching c-Si reactor cleaning a-Si/nc-Si reactor cleaning a-Si/nc-Si reactor cleaning PV: PV: climate climate killer? killer? The The NF3 NF3 story story Photon PhotonMagazine. Magazine. 2008 18 .December December2008 2008 Weiss et al (2008). Geophysical Research Letters. Nitrogen trifluoride in the global atmosphere.

NF3 Production • Oerlikon –NF3 Use in PV 19 .NF3 Emissions in a-Si/nc-Si PV Life-Cycles ‹ Analysis based on detailed data from Air Products –NF3 Production Applied Materials –NF3 Use in PV ‹ Qualitative information from • Kanto Denka .

Ridgeway.40 0.15 2000 0.20 3000 0.00 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: R.30 0.Trends in NF3 Production and Emission Factors Global NF3 Manufacturing Capacity (Metric tons) 8000 NF3 Emission Factor Relative to Global Production 2000 ‐ 2008 0.05 0.25 6000 5000 4000 0.10 1000 0.35 0.45 7000 0. Air Products 20 .

3% 0. Ridgeway.0% NF3 Dryer Losses NF3 Reactor Losses NF3 Liquifier Losses NF3 Analytical Losses All Other Vents Mar-09 Apr-10 Target Source: R.1% 0. Air Products 21 .4% 0.6% 0.Emission Trends in NF3 Manufacturing Known NF3 Emission Factors 0.8% 0.7% Em ission Factors (% ) 0.5% 0.2% 0.

5 27.NF3 Emission Measurements in Typical a-Si and tandem Si PV Fabs Factory A B C D E F Average Source avg NF3 DRE Conc (ppm) (%) 1.02 0.S.1 0.25 0.89 Emission Factor (%) 0.11 Applied Materials Applied Materials Applied Materials Third Party Third Party Third Party For average U.87 99. insolation (1800 kWh/m2/y) NF3 life-cycle emissions add 2 .1 0.98 99.0 8.6 11.0 8.98 99.13 0.75 99.5 2.02 0.7 g/kWh of CO2-eq 22 .90 99.90 99.0 99.

pv.bnl. and environmental constraints to large scales of sustainable growth. Recycling spent modules will become increasingly important in resolving cost. The controlled use of NF3 in the a-Si/nc-Si PV industry will not alter the environmental benefits of PV replacing fossil fuels if best practices are adopted globally.gov . „ „ Email: VMF@BNL.GOV 23 www. resource.Conclusion „ Thin-film PV can reach very high rates of growth without being impaired from material availability issues.

R. Huyng Chul Kim – BNL Daniel Clark. Solar Technologies Program Jeff Britt .Acknowledgment „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Support from US-DOE. Alex Heard. Tim Mays. Nagaraj .bnl. Mehran Moalem –Applied Materials Al Compaan –U. Dave Eaglesham. email: VMF@BNL. Bill Stanbery -HelioVolt Marc Suys.Uni-Solar D.gov 24 .GOV web: www. Lisa Krueger -First Solar Robert Ridgeway –Air Products Jim Sites –Colorado State U.pv.Cytec Funsho Ojebuoboh. 5NPlus Bolko von Roedern –NREL Ken Zweibel –George Washington U. Toledo Xunming Deng –Xunlight Subhendu Guha .Global Solar Jun Ki Choi.

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