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1 Background of the study Even though the history of education in Ethiopia dates as far back as the introduction of Christianity in Ethiopia during Ezana in 3300A.D, the first attempt to open school of European style was for the first time made by the Jesuit in the 16th century. This attempt was not continued due to the outstanding of Jesuits following the removal of emperor Susinyos. Toward the end of the 19th century, several factors accentuated the need for modern education. The establishment of strong central government and permanent urban seats of modern development of modern sector economy like manufacturing activities, establishment of foreign embassies of Adwa, are, among others, the main factors that have contributed for the development of modern education in Ethiopia. Modern education has started at the beginning of the 20th century and officially commenced in 1908 with opening of Menelik 1st School in Addis Ababa. (Ministry of education, 2004), Ethiopian education in general has two systems of main sub-sectors that are institutionally separate:1. Formal educational sub-sector, which consist of academic and technical and training at primary, secondary and tertiary level; and 2. Non-formal education which includes:Technical vocational skills trained and extensive contact for youth and adults. Between 1962 and 1994 the general education in Ethiopia divided into three these are:• • • primary school (grade1-6) junior secondary school (grade7-8) senior secondary school (grade9-12)
Education reforms in 1994 revised the structure so that it now cons in 1994 revised the structure and modify the previous system of education so after 1994 consists of primary education (grade18) which also consists of first cycle (grade 1-4) which aims at achieving the functional literacy and the second cycles (grade5-8) prepares students for further education, general secondary education and training, and second cycles of the secondary education (grade11-12), that prepares student for higher education.
1.1.1. Educational policies and strategies in Ethiopia. Attempts to formulate the education sector policies during imperial regime were limited to a proclamation (1943 and 1948) which deals with the organization and duties and responsibilities of the ministry of education and its duties. It was made to adapt the Ethiopian education to the needs of the country and expands the coverage of the activities in the provision of special training for the sector and education system. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004), 1.1.2. Performance of education sector in the Ethiopia. Education directly improves the productivity and rates of return and earnings of people. In addition to this, education has or wide range of indirect effects, which instigate positive changes in peoples attitudes toward work and society. It make easier to learn new skills throughout their lives and hence facilitate their participation in modern economies and societies. It also important factor which affects the health and life expectancy of individuals, because if equips them with the knowledge and the means to present control and direct disease. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004) Primary school enrollment increased from about 957,300 in 1974/75 to nearly 2,450,000 in 1985/86. There were still variations among regions in the number of students enrolled and a disparity in the enrollment of boys and girls. Nevertheless, while the enrollment of boys more than doubled, that of girls more than tripled. Urban areas had a higher ratio of children enrolled in schools, as well as a higher proportion of female students, compared with rural areas. (Ministry of Education, 2004) The number of junior secondary schools almost doubled, with fourfold increase in Gojam, Kefa, and Welega. Most junior secondary schools were attached to primary schools. The number of senior secondary schools almost doubled as well, with fourfold increase in Arsi, Bale, Gojam, Gonder, and Welo. The pre-Revolutionary distribution of schools had shown a concentration in the urban areas of a few administrative regions. In 1974/75 about 55 percent of senior secondary schools were in Eritrea and Shewa, including Addis Ababa. In 1985/86 the figure was down to 40 percent. Although there were significantly fewer girls enrolled at the secondary level, the proportion of females in the school system at all levels and in all regions increased from about 32 percent in 1974/75 to 39 percent in 1985/86. (Ministry of education, 2006)
1.1.3. Education in Oromia Regional states Regarding to Oromia regional states of Ethiopia, it is one of the regions in the country where both formal and non-formal education do not reach the majority of the population. The school in the regions are unevenly distributed and mostly physically and materially and deteriorated. This deterioration is due to cultural and other constraints there is a higher dropout rate at the lower level which mostly affects girls’ participation in the education of the region. (Finance and Development Bureau of Oromia, 2005), Education system of Oromia regional state normally consists of formal and non-formal education. Formal education comprises of primary, secondary educations, technical and vocational educations. The data that recorded in 2005 in Oromia regional bureau of educations shows that, two teachers training institute (TTI), four teachers training college (TTC), 38 technical and vocational education training (TVET), of which 36 and 2 are government and non-government centers respectively. Moreover, there are 164 secondary schools, and 4893 primary schools in the Oromia regions. (Regional Education Bureau of Oromia, 2005), Education in Aweday town 22.214.171.124 Performance of education in oromia regional state As can be seen from the trend of growth of number of educational facilities stated in the previous section, tremendous efforts were made to improve access to education facilities over the past seven years (1987-1995 E.C). According to the available data in this regard the number of primary schools has increased from 4069 to 4893. Likewise, the number of secondary schools has also increased from 108 to 164, which is a commendable achievement over a shorter period of time. This generally indicates that on an average the regional government has been constructing and putting in operation about 103 primary and 7 secondary schools each year. It is apparent from this, that the rate of increase in senior secondary schools facilities is by far significantly lower than that of primary schools affecting the quality of and access to secondary level of education. 126.96.36.199. Enrollment of education in oromia regional state The analysis of the performance of primary education enrolment shows that there was an increment over the past seven years from 21% (1987) to 66.7% in 1995. Generally, the primary education enrolment rate was growing at an average rate of about 5.8% per annum. By and large, the current level of enrolment as well as the annual growth rate compared to the level of 1987 is encouraging. Nonetheless, the level of primary education participation has remained low compared to the achievements of some of the regional states (Tigray 77.6% and SNNP 67.5%). 3
On the other hand, the gender gap is getting wider growing from 12% in 1987 to 31% in 1995. Therefore, it is obvious that what has been achieved over the past seven years has favored male than female signifying the required level of attention to be paid in order to improve female's participation in primary education. Lack of proximity, lack of opportunity to go to the next higher level of education, low income of parents, lack of awareness of the benefits of education by some parents and poor facilities are among factors contributing to lower enrolment rate at primary education level. Similar to gender gap there is significant disparity of enrolment rate among godina's. In line with this, Arsi has attained the highest enrollment rate of 86.3% in 1995, whereas Borena is standing at only 46.6%, which is the lowest enrollment rate compared to all other godina's of Oromia. (Education bureau of Oromia, 2006) 188.8.131.52. Education in Aweday town Aweday town is one of the towns of the Eastern Hararge Zone of Oromia which is located between Harar and Haramaya towns. In this town there are both private and public schools. Among these schools kindergarten, primary schools and high schools which are owned by public and private owners. This implies even the institution or schools are owned not only by government but also by private. The education problems in Aweday town in the region are very high. Lack of class rooms, problems faces student in the schools, among the town of Oromia region the least or the lowest in development of education is Aweday town.
1.2. Statement of the problems The number of school going children is increasing from year to year. Here is a need to provide the educational facilities for them through opening of various types of educational institutions. Because of different constraints like poverty, cultural factors majority of the population do not send their children to school at distant place. The characteristics of education sector can be expressed mainly in terms of accessibility, affordability, adequacy and quality. This factor can affect school attainment through their effect on enrollment learning outcomes both directly and indirectly through of their effects on school attendance. Private tuition and more generally the learning enhancing behavior of children and their related home hold. Accessibility to schools usually determine by distance from home to school for children. Female student’s enrollment is negatively affected by cultural and gender related problems.
1.3. Objectives of the study. The general objectives of this study are to be identifying the problems and prospects of education in Ethiopia particularly in Aweday town. In addition to these general objectives there are other specific objectives these are:1. To study the existing availability and capacity of various types of educational institutions and number of admission seekers in Aweday town. 2. To identify the problems of available institutions and their causes and effects. 3. To explore the opportunities for expansion of various education in the near future. 1.4. Significance of the study This research is significant in that it can add as pot of information to the existing body of knowledge on the educational sectors in general and on factors affecting the development of education sectors in particular. Besides, the result of the findings of this research paper will serves as building block for any interested individuals or groups who are willing to carry out further and detailed studies on related topics. And it could be help some how to imitate policy concerns, which are necessary to tackle the problems of education. 1.5. Scope of the study. As to the geographical coverage, this research is confined to the problems and prospects of education in Aweday town in the year 2008. In terms of dimensional aspects of problems and prospects of education it considers factors affecting prospects of educational sectors, on the other hand focuses on the performance of educational sectors. The factors that affect prospects of educational sectors are have various constraints such as poverty, economic problems, family related barriers, cultural constraints; school related problems are the main scope of this study. 1.6. Limitation of the study Research work requires availability of sufficient time, money and other resource. Time is a major resource affecting the research work; in addition, the willingness of concerned or high school teachers and students to give adequate information will be limitation of the work. Consequently, the one that most limiting factors for the study is that the data requirements are not fully satisfied due to lack of time series data on the problems and prospects of education sectors in the zone of eastern Hararge particularly in Aweday town. 1.7 Methodology of the study
1.7.1 Types and source of data. On the problems and prospects of education, education bureau of Oromia, Federal ministry of education, economic and development bureau of Aweday town, directors of kindergarten, primary, secondary, high school and some written materials on educational problems and prospects were used as a source of this study. Regarding world problems and prospects the data that collected different documents like internet world bank on the problem of education UNESCO documents are also used as a source of educational problems in case of gender gap in education. 1.7.2. Method of Data collection The data collected by using both primary and secondary method of data collection. In primary data collection the researcher collect data by preparing questionnaires and in the case of secondary data collection the researcher collected data from different documents, Ministry of Education, a written material which has been done on the problem and prospects of education. 1.7.3. Method of data analysis The data analyzed by using descriptive statistics, ratios, and percentages. 1.8 Organization of the paper This research contains four chapters. The first chapter comprised from background of the study, statement of the problems, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation, methodology, and organization of the paper. The second part describes related literature of the study. The third chapter explains the discussion and analysis and discussion of the data. The fourth chapter based on the third chapters gives recommendation and conclusion.
CHAPTER TWO 6
2. LITERATURE REVIEWS This chapter contains two parts. The first part discussed related literatures which is theoretical while the second part explains empirical literature. In this chapter the researcher will be discuss the related literature from the previews research paper and other documents which 2.1. Theoretical literature 2.1.1 Constraints on the Impact of Formal education Some of the major factors influencing the provision of formal education and limiting its effectiveness for poor and disadvantaged people are: 1. Global economic relations: - these play a key role in determining the effectiveness of formal education in achieving development for society as a whole. Even where the state invests heavily in education and is committed to social equality and development. 2. Differentiated access and opportunities: - education promotes social advancement, raises the states of women and leads to improvements in health and childcare. However, educational opportunities is limited by the proximity to urban centers, poverty, and by discrimination based on gender, class race or cultures. For example, in Costa Rica, the national figures for adult illiteracy in 1984 were 7 percent, but in the poorest rural areas was almost 20 percent. The discrimination suffered by the people because of their cultures or limits their access to education and their opportunities to use it effectively. They have to choose between potential alienation from their own culture, and the need to master language and cultural forms of the dominant society in order to survive successfully within it. These choices are experienced differently by women and men. (Eade and William, 1995). 3. Gender: - this is crucial factor in determining educational opportunities; girl’s often fore worse than boys’ interims of primary school enrollment. There are considerable differences in the level of the males and females education in most arts of the world. In the Afghanistan, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Somalia, and Nepal, females’ illiteracy in 1990 was twice as high as the figures for males. In Salvadoran rural women’s organization founded by Oxfam only one percent of the members could read one percent of the members could read and write. Bangladesh is an extreme example, where of the 60 percent of all children who enroll fewer than 10 percent are girls the ratios are generally worse at secondary level and above. Fewer than have as many girls as boys are enrolled
in secondary school in Sub-Saharan Africa 15 percent and 44 percent respectively. There are many factors for unequal educational opportunities of girls and boys. Mothers are likely to have received inadequate schooling themselves, and their daughters generally bear the burden of domestic work and childcare from an early age. The expectation of early marriage or (fact of teenage pregnancy) is also used to justify cutting short girl’s education. In self-fulfilling cycle, since greater employment opportunities exists for men than women, boys’ education takes priority over girls’ education because they are more likely to be able to use it. Cultural factors can reinforce gender based discrimination women are often regarded as bearers of traditional culture, particularly, culture identifies are threatened. In such circumstances, they may be formal education (Eade and William, 1995) 4. Poverty:-the poorest people are hardest hit inflation, unemployment, and cuts in services. They cannot always afford to keep children at school, particularly at the secondary level. Costs of education including clothes, books, equipment and maintenance, and fees. The economic difficulties of poor families increase the pressure on children to earn money either instead of or in addition to going to school. A further formal education is irrelevant to their economic and cultural need which in often born out by a chronic lack of employment opportunities which make use of skills gained at school. In addition, poor children live in environment where study is difficult and where poor health, over work, and malnutrition may leave them without energy and concentration to learn (Eade and William, 1995). 2.1.2. The gender gap in education. Low adult literacy rates prevail throughout the developing world. In fourteen developing countries where literacy date are available, only one in five adult women can read, where as the literacy rates for men ate as low in only five of these countries. Recent estimates suggest that only one out of two women in Asia is literate and only out of three in sub- Saharan Africa (UNESCO, 1992). School enrollment rates have been rising for both girls and boys at all levels in the past two decades. Primary school enrolment, in particular, has out paced the growth of youth population, although a few low income countries especially, in sub-Saharan Africa experienced decline in primary enrollments in the 1980’s. (UNESCO, 1992).
Many countries have no universal primary education for males and females. But girls enrollments continuous to lag behind in many others, most dramatically in south Asian, west Asia, north Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. With exception of Sri Lanka, all south Asian nations have much lower gross enrollment ratios (GER) for girls than for boys. In Bhutan, girls’ enrollment in 1983 was 19 percent compared to 34 percent for boys; in Nepal, 49 percent for girls’ and compared with 110 percent for boys’, in Pakistan, 38 percent versus 73 percent; in Bangladesh, and 50 percent versus 110 percent. Where as in Latin America and nearly all East Asia countries such large male-female differences had disappeared by 1985 (UNESCO, 1992). At post primary levels, the gender gap widens in some countries, but narrows in others, why does the gender gap exist? The supply of schools has expanded greatly in the past twenty five years, leading to accommodating the increase in primary school enrollment over that period. Moreover, there are few restrictions to the admission of girls at the primary school level. To understand why, despite this expansion, a large proportion of school or dropout early in many developing countries, one need to consider the many factors affect the education of girls and boys differently. For many families the differed possible benefits do not seem large enough to offset immediate costs like school fees or the loss of child labor parents do not often consider the less obvious benefits that education generates (like improved productivity) when deciding whether to send children to school or to favor sons, partly because they are the ones expected to go out and earn more family income, so this may be the cost of efficient response by parents to constraints of family resources. One less or from experience is that expanding access simply by building more schools, relating admission policies or instituting quotas for girls may lead to higher levels of female enrollment at margin. Distortion with labor market due to discriminating employment practice against women reduce, their attempt earning and benefits that women can expect to gain from education even when jobs are available. Example, restriction against the living of married in wage paying-jobs in manufacturing or service sectors. Explicit or implicit entry barriers against women in certain occupations serve as obstacles to education. Some of these barriers begin at the primary school level, with teachers and text book projecting attitudes that discourage school attendance and performance of girls. Stereotype may persist of girls not being as good as boy in technical subjects or mathematics. Even obstacles which begin at the post primary level can nevertheless
inhibit girls’ school attendance and motivation at the primary stage. In Dominica Republic, three of the most important schools for middle level technology training bar women even though they have stipends from the national governments. In Pakistan, women are also allowed to enroll in seventy-two of the secondary school, vocational institution because of strict sex segregation. (UNESCO, 1992). In some societies, customs dictates that son take possibility for their parents, whilst girls marry out of their families at the early age and into their husband’s families. The earlier marriage age, the fewer parents enjoy the benefits of their daughter’s education. In Bangladesh, 75 percent married women living in rural areas were married by the age of seventeen. In India, 75 percent of this group were married by the age twenty-two some evidences suggests that when girls do not marry so early, but spend some of their time working in the labor force, parents are more willing to educate their daughters. (www.unesco.org/edu/html) In Hong Kong women who tend to marry at a later age and help their parents in the interims appear to reach higher educational levels than others. In parts of southern India, because the more educated women are recognized as having a higher potential for earning, some grooms parents are willing to accept pre-payment of dormitories in the form of higher level schooling of the perspective daughters in law. (UNESCO, 1993). Parents also may have poor knowledge of the benefits of education to the family’s current health and welfare and prosperity of their grand children. They may not be aware that the benefit of education are inter generational and accumulates over time. Or of families may not be appreciating the benefits of girls’ education in countries where the “Suitable” of educated women to be good wives in held in doubt. A balance must be starving between providing courses that help women. Fulfill traditional roles, but at the same time not allowing curricula to lock women out of wider educational opportunities. Education itself, along with economic change, can and should be powerful force in modifying traditional view points on girls’ schooling. (UNESCO, 1992). Even if they are aware of potential long-range benefits of education, parents may be unable to afford the tuition, materials, transportation, boarding fees and others. Costs of sending girls to school. Location, distance and even clothing requirements can make the effective cost of school attendance higher for girls. Gender differences enter in when, for instance, parents are more
reluctant to send girls to school without proper clothing of young daughters’ in some cultures deters them from allowing girls’ to attend distant schools requiring long travel daily or residence away from home. (UNESCO, 1992) In countries where religion requires seclusion of women parents allow girls’ to attend only single sex schools with female teachers, or they withdraw girls at the onset of puberty. Thus, the availability of schools with female teachers may be of decisive importance, in low-income countries. Only one third of primary, less than one fourth of secondary, and just over one tenth of tertiary education teachers are women. The shortage largely reflects the limited pool of potential women teachers, as a result of low schooling levels of girls, and the reluctance of young women teachers to work in rural areas. This reason is because cultural attitudes discourage young, single women from moving far from home and living alone. The shortage supply of safe dormitories for women even in technical training institute exacerbates the situation. Also women from rural areas usually do not qualify to enroll in teacher training schools in the cities, and there are few programmes in rural areas to identify, recruit and train girls to become teachers. Finally, parents may not feel able to afford to send girls to school if it means their labor cannot be used in traditional ways. Although in some countries boys perform a large share of family labor such as livestock herding, with few exception girls do more work than boys in the home and in the market place. In Nepal and Java (Indonesia) most young girls’ spend at least a third more hours per day working at home and in the market than boys of the same age groups as much as 85 percent more hours. 129-150 percent more hours than boys. Clearly, girls who work more than their brothers will less likely to attend school, perform less well. In addition to lost labor, parents in many countries feel that girls will lose important training at home in childcare, household and crafts if they go to school. (UNESCO, 1992). 2.1.3 Gender literacy and cultural difference Gender literacy and cultural difference one area of apparent Controllers concern the extent to which the obstacles to girls and women’s education are similar across cultures. One view is that in all cultures, although in varying degree, male/female relationship place obstacles in the way of girls’ and women’s full participation in education. Patriarchy is manifested in two ways: the sexual division of labor, and control over women’s sexuality. Both these factors so condition a women’s worldview that marriage, husband, and
family become the be-all and-all for the existence. They also limit women’s mental horizons and push education from her attention. As girl’s grow up, socialized into their future roles as sexual division of labor the second components, control over women’s sexuality, ensures that women maintain their roles as wives and mothers and is the cause of women’s inability to control their fertility and its associated consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, the practice of early marriage, restricted physical mobility for women, and domestic violence. (UNESCO, 1992), Who benefits from all this? Whose interests are served as by these existing conditions? In feminist theory, it is undoubtedly men who benefit. Does this mean that feminists are setting women against men and women and men against women? The answer is no most feminists seem to be seeking a more egalitarian society in which women are treated as equals with men “According to feminist theory, the problem of women’s illiteracy will not be solved merely underlying problem is not technical. For change to occur, individual men in a male-dominated state will have to re-examine and modify their own values and attitudes. An alternative view is that cultural difference between countries is more important than some feminist would accept. For example, successful literacy ventures in Pakistan are often community based; the important thing is to change total attitudes. In Feriur-ban Karachi this has been done. Successfully using flexible working hours both formal and non-formal teaching methods, and education both parents and children, adults are motivated to learn via primary economic interests (functional literacy) who has become the subject of the basic education curriculum. Residential facilities for teachers based in community have led to greater school community interaction and help facilitates more opportunities for girls and for more women. The whole programme has helped produce a positive, confident self concept of women. However, cultural constraints are undeniably powerful. For, example, the word “child”, which is gender is neutral in English language, has masculine connection in south Asia. Here the stark reality is that, by and large, girls are denied that joyful care free period of growing and learning that is called child hood. Very little value is attached to girls she is caught in a men of cultural practices and social prejudices from the moment of her birth. Although she works twice as hard as her brother, and her labor contributes to the survival of the family, neglect and malnutrition, treated as lesser human being and brought up to believe that she does not count. Therefore, in any society that aims to social justice in any policy that seeks to move towards quality of educational opportunity, attention has to be focused is contrary to entrenched cultural values. Changes in education that do not enhance the states of
women are not likely either to be generally accepted or to reduce women’s present state of under development. 2.1.4. Problems that female student face in Addis Ababa High schools Another researcher (Emebet, 2003) classified problems of girl’s education under subheadings of economic constraints, family related barriers and cultural barriers economic constraints. The impact of poverty on women’s education can be studied at two levels: Country level and family level. Although the degree of poverty in country affects the education and in general the life of its citizens, the effect can be moderated by the socioeconomic status a family has within the society (Emebet, 2003 p.33) In discussing the effects of poverty on the education of women, Njeuman (1993) explained that much improvement has been observed in the education of women since the 1960’s (Emebet, 2003). However, poverty is still slowing the progress. Discussing African, the pointed out that among thirty poorest countries in the world, twenty are found in Africa. Under these circumstances, the major concern is the provision of education for children in general; it is difficult to give special attention to girl’s, she further pointed out that although many developing countries put sign out amounts of money and energy into education, several of them were not able to provide it for all school age children. (Emebet, 2003 p.34), Enrollment of girls in school does not guarantee success and completion in these poor countries. Strongest (1990) noted that in all developing countries were the United Nations under took studies, during recession years; girl’s often experienced a change in parental plans for enrollment. In such years parents choose retain daughters at home assist with work and income generating activities, which would result in lower female attainment. (Emebet, 2000). Because of this fiscal strait, the inequality of males and females in the area of education is quite staggering. Hyde (1993:101) pointed out that in Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the most enduring kinds of educational inequality are one observed between males and females. This inequality is reflected in lower levels of attainment and higher dropout and repetition rates for girls. It is also apparent in different curriculum choices offered to or made by men and women at the secondary and tertiary levels; most notably in the low enrollment figures for women’s in scientific and technical fields (Emebet, 2003 p.34).
The above situation is clearly observed in the Ethiopia case. In urban areas we find female enrolled in high schools in great number; 50.6percent of the students in Addis Ababa in the academic year 1998/99 were women as sited in (Emebet, 2003 p.34). However, this high rate of enrollment is accompanied by a staggering rate of repetition. In the same academic year 61.4 percent of the repeaters were females (MOE, 2000 p.62). Among the students who are enrolled in the various higher education institutions for undergraduate degree programme, only 11.6 percent were females. The percentage of female students in science fields is more discouraging (Science 9.7 percent, Medicine 11.7 percent, Technology 12.9 percent, and Agriculture 4.7 percent)) Emebet, 2003, p.34/5). One of reflection of poverty in developing countries is the uneven distribution of schools across the regions. This related to school distance. In most of the larger cities, we find a good concentration of schools of all levels, including colleges, through some students in rural areas have to travel for hours to find a single high school distance is identified to be an important factor affecting girls education in many developing countries. Sronguest (1989) indicated that this holds true for rural as well as urban areas where transportation costs may be high. In many rural areas of Ethiopia, as the girls pass to high school they are require to go towns to learn. This situation pushes many parents to take their daughters out of school. (Emebet, 2003 p.34). Several studies indicated that the socio-economic states of the family are highly correlated with the enrollment and persistence of daughters. Hyde (1993) explained that girls who come from economically advantaged families are much more likely entered and remained in secondary schools than are girls from disadvantaged families. A similar situation is observed in Ethiopia. In a study of female student in higher educational institution, it was found that among the 118 schools attended by the respondents, only 13 were private or catholic schools and almost all these schools were located in the capital or cities. Thirty-five percent of the female students who entered colleges came from these 13 schools. In some cases, family socio-economic status (SES) plays more important role than parental education in getting children in to private schools is often considered a status symbol. (Emebet, 2003 p.35). 184.108.40.206. Poverty At the both country and family level, is a detriment to the education of women although it interferes with the education of all children, its correlation is much stronger for female.
Stronguest(1998:150) explained that the higher the income of the family, the greater the desire of parents for their daughters’ education (Emebet, 2003 p.36). 220.127.116.11 Family related barriers Family plays a very important role indenturing the degree of access girls have to education and their level of achievement. There are several family related factors, which including location of upgrading, parental schooling, and family income (FDRE report on education, 2005 p.36). Geographical location, urban or rural, can significantly affect the education of children. According to several studies carried out in developing countries, growing up in rural communities worsen school opportunities for females more than for males. In the study carried out in Ethiopia, Abraham, etal (1991) found that urban girls enrolled in school are more likely to persist than rural ones. The study findings remained consistent, both when girls were studied alone, and when they were compared to boys. The urban-rural distinction also influences to greater extent the academic performance of female students. Abraham, etal (1991) stated that in Ethiopia, girls enrolled in schools found in urban areas had better performance on the national exam than the girls who attend schools located in rural areas (Emebet, 2003 p.35). Though, in general, girls in the cities have a better prospect of accessing and succeeding in their education, and also studying the field/subjects they want, they have their-share of barriers to over come. In Genet’s (1994) study, was indicated some of the problems of girls in Addis Ababa high schools encounter were lack of study time to heavy load of house hold chores, dropping out because of failure to pass exams and pregnancy, and teachers’ biased attitudes. (Emebet, 2003 p.36) 18.104.22.168 Cultural barriers Culture influences the education of women in various ways. One is the cultural division of labor, Zewdie and Jungles (1990) study of four peasants associations in Ethiopia indicated that women spend about 15 or more hours on various chores important for the household. Under this circumstance, it is the girls who share the burden of their mothers by spending time on the chores instead of their studies. Though on time use study has been carried out in the cities, Genet (1994) pointed out that parent, and females’ students themselves and their teachers indicated that the female students spend much time on the household chores (Emebet,2003 p.36). Early marriage parents are other cultural impediments to girls’ education. Studies in many developing countries indicated that the number of girls attending school abruptly drops when the
reach the age of 15 to 19. One major reason for the phenomena is early marriage. In most developing countries, early marriage and education are anti theatrical. Bach, etal (1985) reported that more education women attained, the older their age at marriage. The issue of women’s education in developing countries is very complex. It is affected by several factors among which are economic, political, and social. Other factors, related to culture or religion. The effect of these factors usually differs from place to place, and one factor can be influenced by any of the others. Studies indicate, however, that they operate in most developing countries and negatively affect women’s education, (Emebet, 2003 p.36).
2.1.5. Major Quality Indicator 22.214.171.124. Class size student/section ratio Class size is a subject of considerable debate among educators, psychologists and philosophers. The issue at stake is whether or not class size is not quality determination. Theoretically, an optimal class size is a size that allow for sufficient interaction between teachers and student through question/answer session, group activities and student assignment. Nardos (1998) states that class size should allow the teacher to observe pedagogical principles such as knowing ones students by name and attending to the particular needs of each student (Befekadu, Berhanu and Getahun, 2000/2001). Broadly speaking, there are two schools of thought regarding the effect of class size on quality of education. The traditionalists argue that if the size is too large, the teacher could not perform any of these activities effective or could not perform them at all. Therefore, the quality of education will be low. However, the latest thinking is that is not absolutely necessarily for teacher to lead all teaching and learning activities. Innovative techniques could be introduced to help students take a charge of the learning process. Examples of innovative techniques are peer evaluation, group work and computer assisted instruction. These techniques reduce teacher burden and result in considerable financial saving for the institution and quality of education will not fall. Notice that according to this view, the negative effects of large class size can be partially compensated using these new techniques. In the absence of this technique, however, quality will suffer from large class size. (Befekadu, Berhanu and Getahun 2000/2001) In developed countries like UK 25-30 students per class is considered a reasonable size for an effective teaching learning process. But such small sizes have considerable implications, more
teachers and more class rooms. In developing countries such as Ethiopia cannot afford such class sizes. Thus, a higher size is to be expected, the issue, however, is how high can they go without seriously affecting the quality of education? According to some educations in Ethiopia high schools. Particularly, in grade nine, the number of student in each class room has passed the 100 mark in some urban schools. In the upper grades 65 students per section is regarded as a good number because it is the lowest number we can find in some schools. Even with this number for instance, it is not possible to take students to the laboratory to do experiments, practical learning in which students actively participate cannot be conducted as sited in (Befekadu, Berhanu and Getahun, 2000/2001). Class size in Addis Ababa University has also increased significantly in recent years. In the economic department of AAU, which we are the most familiar with, for example, the number of 2nd and 3rd year students (where there is one section per year) has increased from 43 students per sections in the early 90’s to over hundred since the mid 90’s without any increase in the teachers or instructional materials such as large class size inhibits teachers from giving written assignments because it could take along time to grade. Because of that, students at many faculties of AAU are evaluated by one in a semester, usually objective type questions for their final exam which surely is inadequate to evaluate form AAU without writing a paper save for the revered senior thesis. That is partly many educators and businessmen complain about the low level of language proficiency (both oral and written) among University graduates. This observation indicates that there is a clear relationship between class size and quality of education in Ethiopia knowledge learn in classroom. It should be noted that class size is only one variable that contributes to quality of education. (Befekadu, Berhanu and Getahun 2000/2001) 126.96.36.199. Student/teacher ratios (STR) The student/teacher ratio is also indicates the quality of education as class size refers to the average number of in a given lesson; student/teacher ratio is a measure of the over all burden on teachers. In other words, it measures the utilization of teachers force. In the new Education and Training policy, the recommended student/teacher ratio for senior high school is 40. The Ministry of education data schools that student/teacher ratio has been increasing over the last five years. In the 1995/96, the national average was 33 students per teacher. By 1999/2000, this has risen to 43. According to Getachew and Luiseged (1995), twenty-five years ago, the national average was 30
students per teachers. This indicates that the utilization of the secondary school teacher force has been increasingly but only slightly. Like all indicators of quality, regional variations are evident in student/teacher ratio. In 1999/2000 academic year, the three highest student/teacher ratios were observed in Tigray (61), Addis Ababa (50) and Amhara (49). Data supplied by Addis Ababa Administration Education Bureau indicate that the average student/teacher ratio is 50 for academic year of 2000/01. There are some regions with student/teacher ratios for below the national average. For example, Afar (23) and Somali (19). 188.8.131.52. Number of qualified teachers Another important indicator of quality of education is the number of qualified teachers. The governments’ education policy has clearly indicated what the standard for teacher qualification ought to be. According to the New Education and Training Policy, the minimum qualifications for teachers at all levels are: First cycle (1-4) schools teachers should have obtained the certificate from teacher training institute (TTI) Second cycle (5-8) school teacher should have obtained diploma from teacher training college (TTC). Senior secondary (9-12) school teachers should have obtained degree in the subject they are assigned to teach. However, not all teachers meet this minimum qualification at the moment. This is particularly true at primary level where teachers are not always recruited through the proper channels. It is not uncommon for example, to see in primary schools around the country failures and dropouts from high schools teaching primary students without any training in teaching techniques. The Ministry of Education estimates that there are over 17000 teachers unqualified and under qualified currently teaching at lower and upper primary levels. To remedy this chronic problem the Ministry of Education has recently launched an aggressive campaign to raise the standard of teaching at all primary teachers using a variety of modes of education including distance education and summer schools. The objectives is to upgrade unqualified or under qualified teachers in the first five years of education sector development program (Education Bureau of Education, 2007).
When teacher is qualified it often means obtaining a diploma or degree in a subject he/she is assigned to teach. Example, a teacher who teaches history in high school should have degree on the subjects of history. It rarely refers to acquiring the necessary teaching skills. It is generally assumed that graduates can teach without proper training in teaching techniques and instructional decisions. This of course, is not always the case. Therefore, efforts to upgrade teachers should also include equipping graduates with the necessary teaching skills to ensure quality of education at high schools and higher education levels. Qualified and motivated teachers are perhaps the most important variable in providing quality of education at each stage and build strong base for the next stage of schooling. The problem of qualification goes beyond the formal criteria and is possibly worse because formal achievements of diploma do not necessarily imply that person has really learned what the diploma signifies. The problem is a series decline in the quality of higher education institutions. In the developing country such as Ethiopia, we need qualified teacher who can use their imagination to make the limited resource go along way. But the vicious cycle becomes apparent if the teachers are trained in a poor education environment. They are required to teach in a poor education environment than they went through. Clearly, the issue of teacher qualification and its impact on quality of education is series concern for the country. (MOE, 2008) Even when qualified, teachers need to be motivated to be effective in teaching. This necessitates putting a proper material and incentive in place to keep them going in the face of difficulties. As stated earlier, the material incentives provided to teachers is too low to be a source of motivation. The good news here is that the government has recognized this problem and seems to be willing to address it. In addition to the professional upgrading stated above, the government is planning to put in a place of a new career structure that recognizes the newly acquired qualification. (Ministry of Education, 2006). The degree to which both of these initiatives will help ease the problem of the shortage of qualified teachers or whether more radical solution need to be derived remains to be seen. 184.108.40.206. Availability of facilities In developed countries where choice is the norm, parents visit schools to look at availability and condition of facilities before making decision on where they enroll their children. Even in developing countries like Ethiopia, the Ministry of Education believes that school facilities have impact on the access, quality and equity.
School faculties are tools to attract students in general and girls in particular. In developing countries, where students to a given school have to choose among several schools, facilities play an important role in attraction students to a given school facilities also ensure that students learn in state environment. In Ethiopia, the choice of schools in the public sector is very limited almost non-existent. The expansion of private schools is good sign that parents will soon have choice, at least those that can afford it. Therefore, the Ministry of Education should set a minimum standard to help parents make the right decisions. For example, each school should have: • • • • • Separate latrine facilities for boys and girls Adequate water supply point for washing and drinking Counseling services for personal education related problems Adequate laboratory facilities appropriate to the level of education Sufficient play group for personal and educational purposes.
Judged against this minimum standard, facilities currently available at schools are well below what needed. For example, among schools that responded, below 30 percent reported to have latrine facilities. There is no indication of the condition of these latrines. Similarly, only 2 percent reported to have a clinic services, against there is no indication of the condition of these clinics The present of pedagogical centers is very encouraging. Among schools, 71 percent reported to have a pedagogical center although there is no indication in the survey about the quality of education of these centers. This Ministry of Education survey also asks schools if they operated under a shift system and about 69 percent they do in 1990/2000 Fasil (1990). Since double shift system was introduced during the second five year plan (1968-1973). Since double shift system automatically doubles the school capacity, it recognized as the major factor in increasing enrollment all over the country. However, its impact on quality was immediate concern. Shift students spend less time on lessons no-shift students do. Where there is shortage of teachers, some teachers may have to teach double shifts. These increase teacher’s burden, and by definition, decrease their effectiveness (Ministry of Education, 2006). 220.127.116.11. Indicator of Internal efficiency Internal efficiency refers to the best use of school resources within the school and output. It measures the relationship between school and outputs. A school is internally efficient when its educational goals are satisfied, the wider goals of the society are the subject of external, 20
efficiency discussed below student/teacher ratio, student/section ratio, and average school size are indicator of resource utilization. Schools with the highest figures for these indicators are sending to have used the resources at their disposal efficiency (Befekadu, Berhanu and Getahun, 2000/2001). However, this interpretation needs careful consideration on the one hand, in a country where nearly half of the school age children are out of school, it may sound un reasonable to teach classes with half their view, over crowded classes are the underlining reasons for poor quality education. Therefore, educational planners and policy makers should consider the intervention between quality and access indicators. Increasing access to education elite out commensurate investment in infrastructure is bound to have negative effect on quality 18.104.22.168. Indicator of External Efficiency The objective of the society are used to measure external efficiency, which can be judged by the balance between social cost and benefits, or the extent to which education satisfied man power and employment needs. More specifically, the external efficiency of school may be judged by how schools will prepare pupils and students for their roles in the society, as indicated by the employment prospects and earning of students. Such as measures depend on external criteria rather than on the results entirely within the school as sited in Befekadu, Berhanu and Getahun, 2000/2001) This is a function of a number of factors. The chief among them is the relevance of the curriculum to the development needs of the country. For a number of years, the Ethiopian education system has been accused of being a carbon copy of foreign education systems. Some of the accusations are that the system has been dominated by: • • Foreign languages at the expense of local languages World history and world geography at the expense of teaching local history and local geography. 22.214.171.124. Gender Specific Indicators At the present widely accepted that educating girls is the most important contributors to improvements in quality of life at household as well as at national levels. Girls, when they become mothers, make important economic decisions at household level. Therefore, educating girls help the household and the nation in a number of ways including the following:
• • •
Make better household decisions Improve family planning Participate in the nations social, political and economic affairs • • •
The Ministry of Education looks at three specific indicators involving female student Proportion of female students in a given school year Gender gap and Gender parity incident
2.2 Empirical Literature 2.2.1. Adult and youth illiteracy rate in the LDCs Problem of education is the highest among the east African and sub-Saharan Africa countries for example according to the table 2.2.1 below the illiteracy rate of Ethiopia is the highest among the sub-Saharan Africa. Table 2.2.1 which shows the youth and adult illiteracy rate in Eastern and sub-Saharan Africa Country Ethiopia Rwanda Kenya Angola Burundi Central African republic Source: UNESCO illiteracy rate report, 2006 According to the above table 2.2.1 the illiteracy rate of both youth and adult is the highest among the sub-Saharan African countries particularly; Ethiopia has the highest illiteracy rate in both youth and adult illiteracy rate. Among the above country listed in the table Ethiopia has 61.5 percent of female youth illiteracy rate and 37.8 percent of male illiteracy rate and total of 49.65 percent of youth illiteracy rate. And Rwanda has also 23.1 percent of female youth illiteracy and 21.5 percent of male youth illiteracy and total of 22.3 percent of youth illiteracy rate. Kenya has 19.3 percent of female youth illiteracy rate and 20.2 percent of male youth illiteracy rate and total of 19.75 percent of youth illiteracy rate. All countries of Africa which listed above are less youth Youth illiteracy rate (%) Female Male 61.5 37.8 23.1 21.5 19.3 20.2 36.8 16.3 29.6 23.2 53.1 29.7 Total 49.65 22.3 19.75 26.55 26.4 41.4 Adult illiteracy rate (%) Female Male 77.4 50.0 40.2 28.6 29.8 22.3 45.8 17.1 47.8 32.7 66.5 35.2 Total 63.7 34.4 26.05 31.45 40.25 50.85
and adult illiteracy rate than Ethiopia so Ethiopia has the highest illiteracy rate in eastern and subSaharan Africa which shown in the above table. 2.2.2. Primary education in Ethiopia The change of structure of primary education over time has the implications on the school age of the pupils involved. This in turn affects primary level, despite the fact that not all students in primary education belong to that age groups. Primary enrolment increased on average during the years 1974-2008. it increased from 961,580 to 3,080,710 in 1974-1990, from 2,871,325 to 7,401,473 in 1991-2001, 8,508,410 to 8,943,683 in 2002-2008/09 In terms of growth rate, enrolment in primary education recorded as a growth rate of 8.1 percent 17 percent, 5 percent 0.5 percent in 1974-1990, 1991-2001 and 2002-2008/09 respectively. Which show decrement in the enrolment ratio but on average increase in enrolment of primary education in Ethiopia. (MOE, 2002)
3.1. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS PART This chapter composed from two parts. The first part focuses on the data analysis which is supported by the data collected from Aweday town Administration Bureau. The indicator emphasized are various types of education, the number of teachers and students in the institutions, educational level of teachers in primary, secondary and high schools, section student ratio and student teacher ratio are the most focus of this part. The second part of data analysis and discussion focuses on the analysis based on the data collected through preparing questionnaires which were filled out by teachers and students of high school and teachers of high school Table 3.1. The number of institution (schools) in Aweday town, 2009. Types of Institution Owned by Kindergarten Private First cycle primary >> >> (1-4) Primary (1-8) Primary (1-4) Primary (5-8) Primary (1-8) Secondary (9-10) Secondary (11-12) >> >> Government >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> No. of institution 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1
Source: Aweday town bureau of Education, 2009 According to the above data there are totally 12 educational institutions without colleges and higher education in Aweday town. Among those schools mentioned, 5 are governmentally owned while 7 are schools operating privately. On the other hand, there are no colleges or universities or no higher education in Aweday town since it depends on other town educationally. Regarding to kindergarten or Nursery school, they are three numbers and there are three first cycle primary (14) schools all of which are non governmental schools, there is one primary schools (1-8) which is also owned by private. Regarding to governmental schools, there are one primary (1-4) schools; one (5-8) schools or secondary cycle primary, there are one primary (1-8) schools, and one secondary (9-12) schools are found in Aweday town. Table 3.2 the number of students, number of teacher’s section-student ratio and number of section in governmental schools in Aweday town.
Schools From (1-4) From (5-8) From (9-10) From (11-12)
Number of student Male female Total 2070 1753 1043 845 1236 910 343 122 3306 2663 1386 967
Number of teachers Male female total 30 38 29 15 18 14 __ __ 48 52 29 15
Number of section 80 50 20 10
Section-student ratio 1:41 1:53 1:69 1:96
Source: Aweday town Bureau of Education, 2009 __ Not available According to the above data given table 3.2 above shown in the governmental schools (1-4); there are 2070 males and 1236 females students and total of 3306 students in the first cycle primary schools. The number of male teachers 30 and female teachers 18 and total of 48 teachers and number of section in the same level of first cycle primary school is 80. From the data given above the second cycle primary (5-8) schools there are 1753 males and 910 females and total of 2663 students and number of teachers are 38 male and 12 female teachers and total of 50 teachers in the second cycle primary schools and the number of section is 50. On the other hand, first cycle secondary (9-10) schools there are 1043 males and 343 females and total of 1386 students and the number of male teacher 19 and with not available number of female teachers in this level and the number of section in this cycle 18. Consequently, the second cycle secondary school (1112) schools there are 990 males and 180 females’ students and total of 1170 students. In this the second cycle secondary there are only 12 teachers and number of section is 12. The above table also shows level of classes, number of sections, and section student ratio. Accordingly, in classes from grade 1-4, the ratio is one in forty one. This means in a single section, 41 students learn for 1-4 classes, while 53 students are learning in section for the second cycle primary schools (5-8), and 69 and 96 students are learning in a section for first cycle secondary schools (9-10) and second cycle secondary schools (11-12) respectively. Table 3.3 shows the number of students, number of teachers and number of section in private school in Aweday town.
Number of students Male Female 450 271 Total 1,200 841
Number of teachers Male 17 12 Female 3 3 Total 20 15
Number section 12 7
primary(1-4) Second cycle 570 primary(5-8)
Source: Aweday town Education Bureau (ATEB), 2009 According to the table 3.3 above which shows the number of students, number of teachers and number of sections in the private schools. For instance, in the first cycle primary schools (1-4) there are 750 males and 450 females and total of 1,200 students in this level with the number of male teacher 17 and female teacher 3 and total of 20 teachers and the number of section is twelve. As indicated the second cycle primary schools (5-8) there are 570 males and 271 females and total of 841 students in this level. The number of teacher also has shown those 12 male teachers and 3 female teachers and total of 15 teachers in the second cycle primary schools with number of sections seven.
Table 3.4 Teachers and level of education in governmental schools in Aweday town, schools (112). Level education TTI Diploma Degree Total of Number of teachers Male Female 30 38 18 86 18 12 __ 30 Total 48 50 18 116
Source: Aweday town capacity building, 2009
As shown above, those male teachers whose level of education TTI are 30 while female teachers are 18 which mean the number of total teacher in this level is 48. Which all are TTI. Regarding to diploma level of education, 38 males and 12 females are diploma graduates whose quality of education is more than that of TTI. Concerning degree graduates, there are 18 males and the number of female’s degree graduates is not available. On the other hand, among the total teachers found in the governmental schools from 1-12, the ratio of TTI teachers is 41.37 %, the ratio of diploma graduates 43.10 % and the ratio of degree graduates is 15.51 % when the female teacher is compared to male teachers. Table 3.5 levels of grades number of teacher and teacher student ratio in governmental schools in Aweday town. Level of grades 1-4 5-8 9-10 11-12 Number of Teachers 48 50 18 12 Teacher-student ratio 1:68 1:53 1:77 1:97
Source: Aweday town Bureau of Education, 2009 As indicated in the above table 3.6 the first cycle primary school there are 48 teachers and 1:68 teacher-student ratio. This means for each teacher there are 68 students per teachers. In the second cycle primary from (5-8) there are 53 students per teachers and for the first cycle secondary schools (9-10) there are 18 teachers and 77 students per teachers and in the second cycle secondary schools there are 12 teachers and 97 students per teachers. Thus, the number of teacher in the second cycle secondary school is very small so there is large number of students in one class and with one teacher. The second part of chapter three or data analysis and discussion and finding is focused on the analysis based on the primary data which collected through questionnaire. It explores different constraints under the headings problems that the institutions (schools faces), problems that the teachers faces and constraints that affects students education. These constraints directly or indirectly affect the proper functioning of the institutions and reduce the quality of education. Below is the table that shows the major problems that high school faces. The questionnaire was filled out by teacher and students from randomly selected high schools. This table shows problems that the institutions face in general.
Table 3.6. The enrolment ratio of student in the kindergarten, first cycle primary and second cycle primary in Aweday town, 2009 Schools kindergarten Grade (1-4) Grade (5-8) Total Source: Aweday town Education Bureau, 2009 According to the above table 3.6 the enrolment ratio of kindergarten is smallest which are 5.5 percent and the enrolment ratio of first cycle primary school is the highest and it is 28 percent and the second cycle primary school is only 12 percent as we concluded the enrolment ratio of student in the kindergarten is the small one. This indicates that the enrolment ration of firs cycle primary is the highest than the second cycle primary and nursery schools in the town and the smallest in the enrolment ratio according to the above table 3.6 is kindergarten. Enrolment ratio 5.5 % 28 % 12 % 45.5 %
Table 3.7 Major problems that the institution (schools) faces (high schools faces) Types of problems 1. shortage of textbooks and material 2. Over crowded classes 3.Inadequate teaching aid 4. Other like • • • • • • Shortage of qualified teacher Low facilities Low facilities because of high repetition rate Shortage of qualified staff Distance related problems Financial and budget No. of respondent 2 6 2 2 Percentage 8% 24 % 8% 8%
problems 5. all of the above Two of the above Three of the above 8. if any other suggestion (don’t know policy Total
8 4 1 0
32 % 16 % 4% 0.00
Source: Questionnaire March, 2009 According to the above table the high school teachers and students were asked to identify the major problems that the educational institution faces. Among the total respondents, 8 % indicated that shortage of textbook and materials are the major problems. On the other hand, 24 % of the respondents believe that over crowded classes are the major problems. Again another 8 % of the respondents indicated that inadequate teaching aids are the main problems. Others about 8 % teachers and student believe that financial or budget, shortage of qualified staff, low facilities, shortage of qualified teachers, distance related problems, wastage of resources due to high repetition rate are the major problems. In addition to that, 32 % of the respondents indicated that all of the above mentioned problems that the high school faces are the major problems. Some others 9.82 % of the respondents believe that the first two of the above is the major problems and 16 % and 4% of the respondents are believe three of the above and don’t know policy or not mentioned are the main problems respectively. Table 3.8 Major problems that the teacher faces in their respective high schools in Aweday town. Types of problem 1. Teaching over load 2. Over crowded classes 3. Low motivation by the students 4. All of the above and any other including • • • • Misbehavior of students Distance related problems Low teaching aid or Low teaching facilities 29 No. respondents 3 4 3 2 of Percentage 12 % 16 12 8
5. All of the above 6. Two of the 7. Three of the above 8. Others (don’t know the policy) Total Source: Own survey, 2009
7 3 3 0 25
28 12 12 0.00 100
The teachers of high schools were asked to identify the problems that they face in their high schools. Accordingly, among those teachers who were asked, 12 % indicated that the key and common problem is teaching overload. 16 % of the respondents believe that the problem is overcrowded classes. And the 12 % of the respondents believe that major problem is low motivation by the students, and 8 % of the respondents believe that all of the above and any other including misbehavior of students, distance related problem, low teaching aid and low teaching facilities are the main problem. In addition to that, 28 % of the respondents believe that the common problem of teacher faces in high school is all of the above problems mentioned. 12 % of the respondents believe that two of the above problems are the main one. And 12 percent of the respondent believes that three of the above problems are the main problem. Table 3.9 Major problems that the high school student faces in Aweday town Types of problems • Overcrowded classes • Financial problems • Economic and family related problem Related problems • • • • All of the above like distance related Low motivation by teacher Learning over load Gender related problem 8 1 1 0 25 32 4 4 0.00 100 % No. of respondents 6 3 2 4 Percentage 24 % 12 8 16
• Cultural influence All of the above First two of the above First three of the above Other (don’t know the policy) Total Source: Own survey, 2009
As indicated on the above table 3.9 the high school students were asked to identify the major problems that the high school student faces. According to this 24 % of the respondents or students believe that the major problems was overcrowded classes and 12 % of the respondents financial problem is the major one that the high school students faces and 8% of the respondents believe that economic and family related are the main problem. On the other hand, 16 % respondents believe that all of the above like distance, low motivation by teachers, learning overload, gender related problems and cultural influence are the main problems that high school students faces. The other 32 % of the respondents believe that all of the above mentioned are the main problems and 4 % of the respondents believed that the first three of the above are the main problems. And 4% of the respondents believe that the first three of the above are the main problem. Table 3.10 Major problems that faces female student in Aweday town high schools Problem type 1. Gender disparity 2. Economic and family related 3. cultural constraints 4. others like Distance related problems Boys dominancy in the class academic performance Embarrassment on their way to schools 5. All of the above 6. Two of the above 7. Three of the above 8. Not known Total Source: Questionnaire March, 2009 4 3 3 0 24 16 % 12% 12% 100% Number of respondents 6 3 2 4 Percentage 24 % 12 % 8% 16 %
According to the above table 3.10, the respondents are asked the problems that faces female student the high schools, according to their response 24 percent or 6 of the respondents believe that the major problems that face females in high schools is gender disparity, 12 percent or 3 of the respondent believe that the main problem is economic and family related, 8 percent of the respondents says the major problem that face female in school is cultural constraints, 16 percent of the respondents believe that the main problems are others like distance related problem, boys’ dominancy in the class academic performance and embarrassment on their way to schools.
Among the problems that face the problems that faces female student in Aweday schools the most one is gender disparity.
Table 3.11 which shows comments of student on the school facilities in Aweday town Facilities Classroom Library Water supply Other recreation Excellent 2 __ 1 __ Very good 1 2 4 5 Medium 10 3 12 10 Low 12 20 8 10
place, sports Source: Questionnaire As indicated the school facilities only 2 respondents believe that classroom is excellent and one of the respondents very good and 10 of the respondents or student are believed that medium classroom facilities and twelve of the students believe that classroom facilities is low. And none of the respondents believe that library facilities are excellent and two of the respondents believe library facilities are very good and three of the respondents are medium and twenty of the respondents believe that library facilities are low. According to this table one of the respondents believes that water supply facilities are excellent and four of the respondents is very good and twelve of the respondents medium and eight of the respondents believe that low water supply facilities. As shown other recreation places and sport facilities none of the respondents believe excellent and five of the respondents very good and ten of the respondents medium and ten of the respondents believe that low other recreation places and sports. Table 3.12 the percentage of respondents on English language problems Response Yes No Number of student 20 5 percentage 80% 20%
Source: Questionnaire March, 2009 As indicated from the above table most of the respondents believe that English language is the major problem. That means among total of 25 students 20 of the student says yes and only 5 of the student answers no in percentage 80 % of the respondents believe that English language is
the main problems. And only 20 percent of the respondents believe that English language is not the problems. Table 3.13. Percentage and number of respondents on the toilet facilities problems in schools Response Yes No No. of students 15 10 Percentage 60% 40%
Source: survey march, 2009 From the above table there are 15 students’ answers yes among the total students of 25. The 60% of student who believes that toilet facilities are the major problems. Only 40% of the respondent believes that toilet facilities are not the major problems. From this we can identify that even the facilities of latrine is very poor
CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 4.1. CONCLUSION In the analysis part, the study founded that identifying the various educational institutions in Aweday town and attempted to identify the existing problems by identifying different indicators like number of institutions, number of teachers, number of students, number of sections, studentteacher ratio, student-section ratio. From this analysis the result is that there exist the shortage of educational institution in Aweday town, even high schools are not say to be enough for the town and there is no higher education in this town. Besides, there are high overcrowded classes; moreover, the indicators show that there are high shortages of qualified teachers that teach high school students. In addition to this, as education level increases, the proportion of number of female students’ declines in school there is low enrolment of female students. The second part of data analysis explores or identifying different factors which affect education by collecting and asking different respondents about the problems by preparing questionnaire this are Major problems that the institute or school faces are the following: • • • • • • • • Shortage of textbooks and materials Overcrowded classes Inadequate teaching aids Shortage of qualified teachers Low facilities High repetition of students Shortage of qualified staff Distance related problems • • •
Major problems that the teachers’ faces in the high school are or in schools are Teaching overload Overcrowded classes Low motivation of the students 34
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4.2. Recommendation
Misbehavior of the students Distance related problems Low teaching facilities
Major problems that the high school student faces are: Overcrowded classes Financial problems Economic and family problems Low motivation by teachers Learning overload Gender related problems Cultural influence
The other problem that faces schools are facilities like Low class room Low library facilities Low water supply Low recreation places, sports Low latrine facilities and so on.
The analysis part presents the problems that face schools (institutions), students, teachers and female students in the school of the town. In order to reduce these problems government and nongovernment or private individual must be engaged on the improvements of: Schools or increase the number of institutions Give affirmative action for the female student in order to solve the problems of the female students in the schools. According to the researcher recommended that problems of education in the town and all regions in the country solved in the following given suggestions: Since the number of existing educational institutions is very small in Aweday town, the concerned body, i.e. government and NGOs organizations should play a great role.
On the basis of the study the researcher recommended for future improvement of the following: • • • • For student section ratio is very high, compared to the availability of the teachers. So, the government should appoint teachers to regularize the school In some school there is shortage of teachers, so government must takes attention to these problems in order to solve it. It is found that in Aweday town female education is very low or poor. So, government and non-governmental organization are needed to motivate female in the town According to this study the main reason for low education in the town is poverty and ignorance of the people. So, a government takes care about this and eradicates poverty and ignorance of the people and education will improve in the future. • There is poor infrastructure facilities in the town even latrine facilities in the study area for education the government and other non-government should attempt to alleviate these problem.
Nasir Ousman is currently graduating students of the year 2001 E.C (2009/10) from Arba Minch University from department of economics. As a partial fulfillments for graduation I am undertaking a study on problems and prospects of education in Aweday town I would like to extend in advance heart felt thank to my respondents who avail valuable information toward successful completion of this study by answering the questions on the questionnaire. Put X in the box in front of the questionnaire if you agree with the questions asked and leaves it if you do not agree with it. 1. Name of the school____________________________ 2. Ownership of the school Government Private
3. Which of the following problems do you believe that the major problems that faces institutions schools in your town? (Only school teachers and students answers) A. shortage of textbooks and material B. shortage of textbooks and material C. Inadequate teaching aid Other like • • • • • Shortage of qualified teacher Low facilities Low facilities because of high repetition rate Shortage of qualified staff Distance related problems 37
Financial and budget problems
4. Which of the following is the major problem that the teacher faces in their respective high schools in Aweday town? (Only high school teachers answer ) A. Teaching over load B. Over crowded classes C. Low motivation by the students D. all of the above and any of other including Misbehavior of students Distance related problems Low teaching aid or Low teaching facilities
E. all of the above F. two of the above G. Three of the above H. Don not know policy 5. which of the following is the major problems that student faces in high schools in Aweday town? (Only high school student answer the questions) A. Overcrowded classes B. Financial problems C. Economic and family related problem D. Related problems • • • • • All of the above like distance related Low motivation by teacher Learning over load Gender related problem Cultural influence
6. Which of the following is the major problem that faces female students in high schools? (Only female student answers the questions) A. Gender disparity B. Economic and family related problem C. Cultural constraints D. Others like • • • Distance related problems Boys dominancy in the class academic Performance Embarrassment on the way to schools
E. all of the above F. two of the above G. three of the above H. not known 7. Give suggestion on the facilities of the following in your school? Excellent Classroom Library Water supply Other recreation and Sports facilities 8. Is English language is the major problems that affect the performance of students in your schools? Yes No very good medium low
9. Is your schools also have latrine facilities? Yes No
BIBLIOGRAPHY Befekadu, Berhanu and Getahun (2000/01), Ethiopian economic Association second annual report on Ethiopian economy. Debraj ray (1998), development economics, Princeton University. Educational journal vol, 7 section in the governmental schools public relation services (MOE), 2003, Addis Ababa. Academy for educational development/ BESO II and Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa. June, 2005 Economic Development 17th edition, Michael P. Todaro New York University,
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