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Khi hon mn Constatine

Thi im xy dng: nm 315. a im: Roma Italia.

Khi hon mn constatine c xy dng ti khu trung tm th Roma - Italia gn u trng ni ting Colosseum c t trn vng t ly nm gia i Esquiline v Caelian. Khi hon mn Constatine c xy dng k nim chin thng ca Constatine vi Maxentius trong trn nh trn cu Milvian vo 28 thng 10 nm 312, cng vm Constantine - mt khi hon mn c dng ln ti Rome. N c t gia Coloseum v i Palatine.

Ton cnh khu vc Khi hon mn Constatine v u trng Colosseum

Ngy nay cng trnh Khi hon mn Constatine vn nm mt trong nhng khu vc quan trng v ni ting nht ca Roma bn cnh u trng Colosseum l mt cng trnh mang tnh biu tng ca Italia. Khi hon mn Constatine c t v pha Ty-Nam ca u trng Closseum, c xy dng theo hng Bc Nam. y l im cui cng trong on ng diu hnh.

Khi hon mn Constatine Khi hon mn Constatine c coi nh hc theo cch xy dng ca Khi hon mn Septimius Severus c xy dng trc n 100 nm. Nhng thng s chnh v cng trnh:

Chiu di: 25,9m Chiu cao: 21m Chiu rng: 7,4m Gm c 3 cng, mt cng chnh v hai cng bn. Cng trung tm cao 11,5m, rng 6,5m. Hai cng bn mi cng cao 7,4m rng 3,4m.

Gn vi phn cng pha di l phn pha trn vi cc hng ch v ph iu trang tr c to t gch reveted v cm thch. Phn ny c tch ra vi phn cng vm pha di bng cc thc ct, tng trang tr v cc g nh ra. Khi hon mn c s dng cho cc Hong dn on qun ca mnh i qua sau mi trn chin thng. Tuyn ng ny bt u ti Campus Martius, dn qua Circus Maximus v xung quanh i Palatine, ngay lp tc sau khi qua Khi hon mn Constantine, on diu hnh s r tri ti Sudans Meta v diu

hnh dc theo Sacra Via v qua cc ngn i Capitoline, i qua c hai Khi hon mn Titus v Septimius Severus. Khi hon mn Constantine c xy dng bng phng php ghp , cc phin ln vi khch thc ln nh khc nhau c ct gt vung vc mt cch chnh xc ri c ghp li vi nhau to thnh phn chnh ca cng trnh, sau cc phn ha tit ph iu trang tr c ghp vo hon tt cng trnh.

Mt bn pha ng Khi hon mn Constantine

Trong xut thi trung c Khi hon mn Constantine c s dng nh mt phn trong h thng thnh ly ca La M. V cc cuc nghin cu lch s ti y mi ch c din ra t cui nm 1990.

Phn trang tr
Phn vm c trang tr vi rt nhiu cc b phn ly t cc cng trnh tiu biu ca nhng nm trc do cc v Hong trc xy dng, n c ngha nh mt s khc ghi li mt du mc ca Hong Constantine l s khng nh ng l mt v vua tt ca ngi dn La M ch khng phi mt ngi xm lc La M. L cng trnh k nim chin thng ca Constantine, cc bc ph iu trn cng trnh khc ha li cc chin dch ca Hong , truyn t ngha trung tm: li khen ngi ca Hong trong hai trn chin, v cc bn phn dn s ca Hong . Cc hnh nh khc h tr mc ch ny: cc phn trang tr ly t cc i tng nim Hong Trajan, Hadrian v Marcus Aurelius c t xung quanh phn trang tr miu t Hong Constantine, v ni dung ca cc phn iu khc gi ln hnh nh ca nh lnh o chin thng v o c.

Mt li gii thch c a ra cho vic s dng li cc phn ca cc cng trnh khc vo cng trnh ny l thi gian xy dng qu ngn t lc bt u xy dng (t cui nm 312) n lc hon thnh (ma h 315), do cc kin trc s s dng tc phm ngh thut hin c b p cho vic thiu thi gian to ra mt cng trnh mi. Cng c th l do mt l do khc na l , ngi ta cho rng nhng ngi La M th k th IV thiu cc k nng ngh thut sn xut tc phm ngh thut chp nhn c v do cp bc cc ta nh c t im

cho tng i ng i ca h. iu gii thch ny khng cn c cho l chnh xc trong thi gian gn y, bi v ngh thut ca thi c xa c nh gi cao ngay c trong thi k ny.

Cc phn ly t Trajanic: V pha trn cng ca Khi hon mn Constantine, l tc phm iu khc ln khc ha chn dung ngi Dacians c t pha trn nh ca cc cy ct nh ra pha ngoi, n cho thy ngi Dacians c cp bc quan trng v lng t trng cao trong cc tng lp ca quc. Mt bc tng i din cho mt Dacian cng c tm thy trong Boboli. N c a ti t Rma, ni m n c trang tr Villa Medici, nhng cng tc Grand. Bc tng i din cho mt Dacian ang cho du khch ti cc u hm dn n nh i. Trong tt c cc tc phm iu khc miu t Dacians, h lun c miu t mt cch rt trang nghim v ng t ho, cho thy rng h vn coi trng ngay c sau khi ngi Dacia b nh bi bi Trajan. cc tm ph iu hai bn (cao 3m) trang tr phn trn ca hai cng vm pha bn, cho thy cnh hong Dacia trong chin tranh. Cng vi hai ph iu bn trong ca cng t v trung tm, v tm ph iu ln miu t cnh n

mng chin thng ngi Dacia. Cc v tr ban u ca ph iu ny l ca mt cng trnh Trajan.

Tc phm iu khc ln khc ha chn dung ngi Dacians. Bn cnh l mt bc ph iu pha bn trong chn ca Khi hon mn miu t li cnh Hong trong mt trn chin, ngi ang ci trn lng nga chun b cht u k th, pha di chn nga l mt k th, pha trc l nhng ngi ang cu xin s thng xt ca Hong , pha sau ngi l nhng ngi lnh tiu biu nht ca ngi.

Ph iu nh mt bn pha ng ca Khi hon mn Bc ph iu pha trn cng mt bn pha ng ca Khi hon mn miu t mt trn chin. Cc phn ly t Hadrian: Pha trn mi cng t v bn l cp ph iu t i tng nim Hong Hadrian. Chng hin th cc cnh sn bn v hin t cc v thn: (pha bc, t tri sang phi) i sn ca heo rng, hin t thn mt tri Apollo.

Sn bt mt con s t, hin t thn sc mnh Hercules (Pha nam, tri sang phi) khi hnh i sn, hin t thn rng Silvanus. Sn bt mt con gu, hin t n thn sn bn Diana

Hnh nh Hong Hadrian c thay i li tt c cc huy chng (Cc khung iu khc hnh trn): pha bc, thay vo hnh nh Hong Constantine trong nhng cnh sn bn v thay vo hnh nh Hong Licinius hoc Hong Constantius-I trong nhng cnh hy sinh; pha nam ngc li. Cc ph iu, c ng knh 2m, c ng khung trong Porphyry (mt loi la mu tm), khung ny ch cn tn ti pha bn phi ca mt tin pha Bc. Cc phn ly t Marcus Aurelian: pha trn cng vm chnh gia, cc dng ch chnh c v tr ni bt nht. N l ging ht nhau trn c hai mt ca kin trc. Tnh c cc dng ch trn c hai tm chm khc c hai bn th c tt c 8 tm chm khc ch nh vy trn Khi hon mn. Cc bc ph iu c tc nn vinh danh ca Hong Marcus Aurelius, v hin th (bn pha bc, t tri sang phi) Hong tr v n Rome sau chin dch (adventus), bt u t khi Hong ri khi thnh ph v hng v con ng Flaminia Via cho mt ngi bn con ng.

Ph iu miu t Hong tr v Rome v ang cho mt ngi

Ph iu t v hong phn phi tin trong nhn dn (largitio)

Hong thm vn mt t nhn ngi c, (pha nam bn tri sang phi) mt k th Chieftain b bt v c dn n trc Hong , mt cnh tng tng t vi cc t nhn khc.

V Hong ni chuyn vi cc binh s (adlocutio), v hong hy sinh ln, cu v b (suovetaurilia)

Cng vi ba tm ph iu trong Bo tng Capitoline, cc ph iu c th c ly t Khi hon mn mt tng i k nim chin tranh ca Marcus Aurelius' chng li Marcomanni v Sarmatians t 169 - 175, ginh c chin thng v tr v Rome nm 176. Trn bc ph iu largitio, hnh nh ca con trai Marcus Aurelius l Commodus b xa b sau s kin memoriae damnatio khi m thng vin La M coi Commodus phm phi ti hy hoi danh ting v lm mt thanh danh La M.

Bn bc tng ngi Dacians pha trn 4 nh ct Cc phn c lm thi Constantine: khung iu khc hnh trn tng t cc phn kin trc Hidrian, c ngun gc Constantinian, c t hai bn nh ca vm, pha ng mt tri tng ln cao, pha ty l mt trng. C hai u l hnh nh xe nga.

Hnh nh thn mt tri mt bn pha ng

Hnh nh thn mt Trng mt bn pha Ty Cc phn chnh miu t hnh nh Hong Constantine. Nhng ph iu miu t cnh trong cc chin dch ca Constantine chng li Maxentius, y cng chnh l l l do cho vic xy dng Khi hon mn.

Ph iu bt u pha ty vi "Cuc khi hnh t Milan". N tip tc, pha Nam miu t cuc bao vy ca Verona, c cho l trn chin quan trng min Bc Italy, cng trn tm iu khc cn khc ha: cc trn chin thng trn cu Milvian gia qun i Constantine vi qun Maxentius v hnh nh k th cht ui trong sng Tiber . Mt pha ng Khi hon mn l hnh nh Hong Constantine v qun i ca ng, cc nh iu khc dng nh trnh vic s dng hnh nh ca chin thng, Constantine c l khng mun c hin th chin thng ca mnh trn thnh ph Vnh Cu.

Ph iu din t cuc hnh qun ca Hong

Ph iu miu t cuc bao vy ca Verona

Ph iu miu t qun Maxentius cht ui trn sng Tiber Trn mt pha Bc l hai di iu khc vi hnh ng ca Hong sau khi s hu Rma: Constantine ni chuyn vi cc cng dn t trn khn i, v phn phi tin cho ngi dn.

Hong din thuyt trc dn chng t trn i cao

Hong ban pht tin cho ngi dn

Ph iu chn Khi hon mn Cc ph iu di chn Khi hon mn miu t li hnh nh n thn t do mt trc di chn n thn l mt t binh ang qu. hai bn chn ct l hnh nh ngi lnh cng t binh v gia nh ca h.

Cc ph iu di chn Khi hon mn

Phn chnh
B tr chung ca mt tin chnh l ging ht nhau trn c hai mt ca kin trc. N c chia cho bn ct Corinthian lm bng cm thch mu vng, mt trong s c chuyn vo thnh ng John Lateran v c thay th bi mt ct bng cm thch trng. Cc ct ng trn cn c cho thy con s chin thng mt trc. Ct Corinth l 1 trong 3 ct c bn ca kin trc Hi Lp v La M c. L ct hoa m nht vi nhng rnh nh v u ct c trang tr cu k vi nhng l r v ng xon c. Ci tn ct Corinth c t tn ca 1 thnh ph Hi Lp l Corinth, mc d ln u c xut hin v s dng rng ri l Athens. Mc d c ngun gc t Hi Lp, ct Corinth thc s him khi c s dng ti Hi Lp. N c a vo cc kin trc ca La M, nh n Mars Ultor trong h thng n ta Augustus, Maison Care Gaul pha nam, n bc i vng Vienne. C 2 loi ct Corinth: Corinth La M v Corinth Renaissance.

Cc spandrels ca cng t v chnh c trang tr bng cc ph iu miu t n thn chin thng s liu v danh hiu, cc tm ph iu nh hn cho thy v thn sng. C s ct v ph iu spandrel l t thi ca Constantine.

Ph iu N thn chin thng c tc 2 bn trn cng vm chnh

Ph iu thn sng c khc 2 bn trn cng vm ph

Ch khc

Trn hai mt chnh ca Khi hon mn u c khc vo cc hng ch ln. Cho n nay cc hng ch ny vn c th c c d dng. Hng ch nh sau: IMP CAES FL Constantino Maximo P F AVGUSTO S P Q R QVOD INSTINCTV DIVINITATIS MENTIS MAGNITVDINE CVM EXERCITV SVO TAM DE TYRANNO QVAM DE OMNI EIVS FACTIONE VNO Tempore IVSTIS REM-PVBLICAM VLTVS EST ARMIS ARCVM TRIVMPHIS INSIGNEM DICAVIT Flavius Constantinus Hong Caesar, Augustus ln nht, o c, v phc thay ngi: bi v anh ta, t x mnh t Thin Cha, v s v i ca tm tr ca mnh, a t nc t tay cc bo cha v tay ca Ngi cng mt thi gian, vi qun i v lc lng v kh, Thng vin v dn chng Rome dnh ring cho Ngi kin trc ny, vinh danh vi chin thng.

Nhng li instinctu divinitatis ("ly cm hng t thn thnh"). y cho thy mi lin h gia Hong Constantine cng vi tn gio: truyn thng Kit gio, Constantine cho rng chin thng ca ng l do cha ban x mnh , v c s ng h ca cha. Cc ti liu chnh thc (c bit l tin xu) vn cho thy hnh nh ni bt ca thn Mt tri cho n nm 324, trong khi Hong Constantine bt u h tr cc nh th Thin cha gio t nm 312. Trong tnh hnh ny, cc t ng m h ca dng ch c th c xem nh l n lc lm hi lng tt c cc c gi c th l c m h, v c th d chp nhn c cho c ngi ngoi gio v Kit hu. Nh l phong tc, k th cng l k bi trn khng c nu tn, m ch c gi chung l "bo cha", da trn khi nim v vic git hi chnh ng ca ngi cai tr c ti, cng vi hnh nh ch c chin tranh ", n c xem nh nh l s bin minh ca cuc ni chin chng li ng Hong Maxentius ca Constantine. Hai ch khc ngn ngi bn trong vic vn chuyn trung tm tin nhn tng t nh cng t v: Constantine n khng phi l chin thng, nhng gii phng Rome t ngh nghip: LIBERATORI VRBIS (gii phng thnh ph) - FVNDATORI QVIETIS (ngi sng lp ha bnh)

Trong mi ca archways nh, ch khc c: VOTIS X - VOTIS XX

SIC X - SIC XX

Cc nh s hc a ra gi v ngha ca cc t ny: "Solemn nguyn cho k nim 10 nm k nim 20 nm" v "10, k nim 20 nm". C hai tham kho decennalia Constantine, tc l k nim 10 nm triu i ca ng (tnh t nm 306), m ng t chc ti Rome vo ma h nm 315. N c th c gi nh rng cc kin trc tn vinh chin thng ca ng c khnh thnh trong thi gian ng ang trong thnh ph.

Phn ha tit trang tr phn g