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PHNG PHP MI TRONG VIC TNG CNG KH NNG CHU LC CA KT CU B TNG CT THP ThS. Bi Ngc Dung, Khoa Xy dng, Trng i hc Dn lp Hi Phng Abstract: Strengthening system for reinforced concrete structures with near surface mounted (NSM) fiber reinforcement polymers (FRP) is emerging as a promising technique. This system involves bonding FRP into grooves cut along surface of concrete structure by two layers of adhesive. Main reasons for using this system include: achiveving a good strengthening effect with a relatively small work effort; strengthening work can be carried out without many changing dimensions and appearance of structure. Specially, FRPs nearly beeing inside concrete structure which lead to reduce significantly effects of chemical environment, impacted force and fire on this system. This is a new strengthening system in civil and building constructuction. Nowadays, this system has not any guidelines for design or construction and most results of researches are obtained by experimental tests. 1. Gii thiu t liu tng hp hay cn gi l composite v ang c s dng ph bin trong nhiu lnh vc k thut v cng ngh. Trong lnh vc hng khng v v tr, n c ng dng hn 6 thp k nay, cn trong ngnh xy dng cng c hn 3 thp k. Vt liu composite c nhiu u im nh: t l gia cng v trng lng rt ln; kh nng chu ko, chu n mn, tnh n nh cao. Hin nay, nhng loi FRP thng c s dng trong ngnh xy dng bao gm: Carbon FRP, Aramid FRP v Glass FRP. Cht kt dnh thng dng l epoxy, do y l loi vt liu c c trng c l a dng, khng bay hi hay co ngt trong qu trnh thi cng v c bit l kh nng chu lc rt tt. Modulus n hi v cng chu ko ca epoxy thng l 3.3 Gpa v 75Mpa.

Hnh 1: Vt liu composite v th th hin kh nng chu ko

Kt cu b tng ct thp c s dng ph bin nht trong nhiu lnh vc xy dng. Qua qu trnh khai thc, cng ca kt cu s b nh hng bi rt nhiu tc nhn nh iu kin kh hu, ha hon, nt, n mn, t bin hay co ngt Chnh v vy, vic tng cng kh nng chu lc cho kt cu bng FRP l rt thch hp. Do FRP c trng lng nh, kh nng chu lc ln, khi thi cng ch cn phi s dng nhng thit b thi cng n gin nn gi thnh xy dng khng cao v FRP c th ng dng vo tt c nhng kt cu c bn trong xy dng nh

Kt cu dm, ct, sn hoc tng. Do nhng c tnh u vit ca vt liu nn nhng kt cu c sn hoc lm mi khi s dng u c nhng u im sau: - Tng cng kh nng chu ct, un v ko. - Do vt liu FRP c kh nng chu ko cao v mm nn ph hp vi nhng kt cu chu ng t. - Kh nng chng li cc tc nhn mi trng cao. - Tng cng kh nng chu ph hoi mi. - Gim kh nng bin dng (un) ca kt cu di tc dng ca ti trng thit k v s dng. Mt s bin php tng cng cho bng FRP hin nay nh sau: - FRP nm bn trong ng vai tr thay th cho ct thp. - FRP c dn trn b mt. - FRP c dn gn b mt. - c bit l, FRP cng c th thi cng v ng vai tr nh ct thp d ng lc. 2. FRP nm bn trong y l mt phng php s dng FRP thay th cho mt s thnh phn ct thp trong kt cu BTCT. Cng tc thi cng hay thit k hon ton tng t nh kt cu BTCT. Phng php ny khng c s dng ph bin do ch yu ch c th ng dng vi loi kt cu thi cng mi v khng pht huy c ht nhng u im ca loi vt liu tng hp. Phng php ny hin nay c ng dng ph bin nht trong vic tng cng kh nng chu lc ca kt cu

Mt ct ngang dm

Hnh 2: Dm b tng ct thp c tng cng bi thnh FRP nm bn trong

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3. FRP dn trn b mt kt cu BTCT

Chun b v qut lp epoxy

Dn bn FRP

Cng tc hon thin

Sau khi hon thin

Hnh 3: Thi cng dn FRP ln b mt KT CU BTCT BTCT lm mi hoc ang khai thc bng FRP. FRP c s dng l cc tm hay phin dn ln trn b mt ca b tng c x l bng mt lp cht kt dnh epoxy. Cng tc thi cng n gin, khng cn huy ng n thit b phc tp v ch yu c thi cng bng tay. Thc t, thi cng theo phng php ny hon ton ging nh phng php dn bn thp ln kt cu c sn tng cng nh ng dng nc ta trong mt s cng trnh cu. tng lin kt gia b mt b tng lp epoxy FRP, b mt b tng cn phi s l trc m bo nhn v sch. Phng php ny c bit c hiu qu vi vic tng cng kh nng chu ct v un cho dm. lm gim nhng tc ng ca mi trng, trong mt s cng trnh nht nh ngi thit k c th la chn phng php bc ton b ct hay tr cu bng cc tm FRP nh hnh 4. Phng php ny tn ti mt s nhc im nh sau: Tm FRP d b bin dng khi chu tc dng va p v nhit cao - Kh nng tch lp gia b mt b tng epoxy FRP ph thuc vo cht lng thi cng. - Ch ng dng vi FRP dng tm hoc di. 4. FRP dn gn b mt (NSM FRP) trnh c nhng nhc im ca phng php dn tm FRP ln trn b mt ca kt cu BTCT, NSM FRP ang ni ln l mt phng php y hiu qu cn c nghin cu. Thay v dn trc tip tm FRP ln b mt kt cu BT, trong phng php ny FRP c t vo trong rnh ct trn b mt ca kt cu b tng c lin kt vi b tng qua hai lp cht kt dnh nn tng cng c kh nng tch lp gia lin kt. H thng ny ng dng vi hai loi tit din in hnh ca FRP l thanh v tm. NSM FRP c u im vt tri so vi phng php dn trc tip FRP ln b mt b tng nhng im sau: - Tng cng din tch lin kt do s dng hai lp cht kt dnh vi hai b mt ca b tng. - Tng cng kh nng chng t, gy lin kt. - Gim thiu kh nng tch lp sm ca lin kt. - Bo v FRP khi nhng ph hoi bn ngoi nh tc ng ca lc va chm, mi trng, nhit cao (khi xy ra chy). - Gim cng tc chun b b mt b tng cn lin kt. Gn y nht, ACI 440.2R-08 (American Concrete

Hnh 4: Tng cng cho tr cu bng cc tm FRP

Hnh 5: Thi cng tng cng dm BTCT bng phng php NSM FRP

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Hnh 6: Hai loi vt liu FRP v EBR dng trong phng php NSM Institure, 2008) mi gii thiu mt cch s lc v phng php ny thng qua hng dn v thit k v thi cng tng cng kt cu b tng bng phng php dn bn FRP ln trn b mt b tng. Kch thc ca rnh ct v khong cch gia 2 rnh ct c gii thiu nh hnh 7: Vi tf v hf l chiu rng v cao ca tm FRP; db l ng knh ca thanh FRP;

Hnh 9: Vt nt trung gian gy ra t lin kt - Ph hoi do t lin kt gia b tng v FRP - Ph hoi do t tm FRP. - Ph hoi xy ra khi ng sut chng t ca FRP t ti trng thi gii hn v gy ra hin tng ph hoi gin. Ti im t gy, tm FRP s khng th chu c tc dng ca bt k lc no.

Hnh 7: Khong cch v kch thc ca cc rnh ct 5. Mt s m hnh ph hoi ca kt cu tng cng bi FRP - Ph hoi do ct v un l nhng dng ph hoi in hnh trong hu ht cc loi dm BTCT. Hin tng ny xy ra khi ng sut ct hoc un c trong b tng ln hn kh nng gii hn ca b tng. Ph hoi ny xy ra khi ng sut ti vng lin kt gia b tng v FRP qu ln, n gy ra s tut bn FRP ra khi b mt B tng. Ph hoi ch xy ti lp kt dnh epoxy hoc ti lp b tng lin kt.

Hnh 10: M hnh ph hoi do t lin kt gia b tng v FRP FRP

Hnh 11: M hnh ph hoi do t tm FRP

Hnh 8: M hnh ph hoi do un v ct trong dm - Ph hoi do vt nt trung gian - Ph hoi ny xy ra khi vt nt do ng sut ct hoc un tin st ti tm FRP v n s gy ra t lin kt gia b tng v FRP. M hnh ph hoi ny ch xy ra trong hoc gn vng c mmen ln nht. S t lin kt s bt u t u vt nt v lan truyn v pha u t do ca FRP.

6. Kt lun NSM FRP l mt phng php lin kt hon ton mi v b p c hu ht nhng khim khuyt ca cc m hnh khng lin kt. Vi vic thi cng n gin khng cn thit b my mc phc tp, s dng t din tch b mt b tng, tng kh nng lin kt gia FRP - b tng, kt cu FRP t b nh hng bi lc va chm, thay i ca mi trng, nhit cao. Phng php ny ngy cng c bit n nhiu hn v cng cn phi nghin cu su hn a ra mt quy trnh hng dn thit k v thi cng c th. Ti liu tham kho 1. Balaguru P, Nanni A and Giancaspro J. FRP composites for Reinforced and Presstressed concrete structures: A Guide to Fundamentals and Design for 2. ACI Committee 440. State-of-the-Art Report on fiber Reinforced Plastic. Reinforcement for Concrete structures. American Concrete Institute, February 1996

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