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PHN I. KHI QUT V FRP ( COMPOSITE ) FRP l loi hn hp lin kt bao gm: Polyester bt bo ho v c gia cng vi si thu tinh nn cn gi l Composite. Hin nay vt liu FRP c ng dng rng ri trong vic ch to cc sn phm c tnh u vit v chu c nhng iu kin thi tit khc nghit, chu c s hao mn ho hc, chu c s n hi, chng mi mn, c bn c hc V vy FRP ngy cng c s dng rng ri trong cc ngnh cng nghip hin i nh vic ch to tu thuyn, nh ca, t, trang tr ni tht Vic ch to Polyester bt bo ho c thc hin trong l phn ng vi s h tr ca cc dng c tin tin, vi s gim st ca chuyn vin chuyn nghip. C bn thnh phn chnh trong quy trnh ch to Polyester. Quy trnh sn xut c lin quan ti s polymer ho m ti cc polymer chnh c to thnh v ho tan trong styren. Cc thnh phn ca nha lng Polyester bt bo ho: 1. Acid bt bo ho nh v lin kt 3 chiu trong mng polyester 2. Acid bt bo ho ngn tng n v bt bo ho trong chui polymer 3. Glycol dng ester ho trong lin kt cc acid hnh thnh polyester 4. Styren lc u nh mt dung mi ho tan polyester bt bo ho trong mng polyester bt bo ho bt u t cht xc tc peroxyt, styrene tahm gia s polymer ho vi cc lin kt bt bo ho trong mng polyester to thnh sn phm lin kt 3 chiu. PHN II. TNG QUT V POLYESTER BT BO HO MT S LOI DUNG MI V QU TRNH PHA CH SI CT THU TINH
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Hin nay trn th trng c rt nhiu chng loi polyester c nhiu nc sn xut nh: Nht Bn, Singapore, i Loan, Hn Quc, Autralia Nhng do yu cu v th trng v cht lng ca tng loi nn c hai loi thng dng c cht lng v uy tn l Fgi ca c v SHCP.DYNO ca Singapore. Di y xin gii thiu mt s loi, m s, cng thc pha ch tng loi. I. GII THIU V POLYESTER: 1. GELCOAT Nha Gelcoat polyester c nhiu loi v c cng dng khc nhau nh: Bc ngoi sn phm, dng lm khun, trang tr nhng c hai loi chnh l: G3253T v G3253T-NC A. C IM G3253T l loi gelcoat thuc h Isophthatic Neopentyl glycol, ng rn nhanh, chng chy dng ph ngoi thng thng. N khng c sp v cht xc tin thch hp cho c hai cng ngh p tay v sng phun. Tuy nhin ngi ta thch s dng cng ngh phun hn bi v n c th p dng cho tt c cc loi nha v khi trng lp ph mng n khng b n bt. Nha G3253T c b mt bng ngay sau khi ng rn. N c tnh c tt, bn vi nc, bn vi ho cht yu v tia t ngoi, do lm tng cng bn cho sn phm. Ngoi ra gia lc gel ho v lc ng rn ngn cho nn c th tng cng nng sut. G3253T NC l loi nha c cht chng chy, co xc tin nhng khng c sp (N). C hai loi gelcoat trn c th pha mu tu vi loi mu c cht lng tt. B. NG DNG
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Ti liu v vt liu composite FRP

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V l loi bao ph nn c th s dng c vi nha thng nh l loi vt liu h tr thch hp sn xut cc sn phm i hi hp th nc thp v chu c ho cht. C. C TNH Gelcoat G3253T v G3253T NC c cc c tnh sau: Mu nht 30 C Thi gian ng rn Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C D. S DNG C hai loi trn s to b mt bng sau khi ng rn hon ton. S ng rn nhanh hay chm tu thuc vo hm lng pha ch cht xc tc ( Butanox ) v cht xc tin( Cobalt). Thng s dng 11,5% xc tc v 0,5% xc tin. pha trn u mu vi nha nn s dng my trn. Nu thy gelcoat c nht cao (c ) c th dng Styren monomer ( SM ) pha long cho d phun hn. Tuy nhin nu thm qu nhiu s nh hng n cht lng ca gelcoat. Ch : Nu ho tan cht xc tin ( Cobalt ) vo trong gelcoat hon ton trc khi cho cht xc tc vo. Trnh pha trn ng thi v chng phn ng vi nhau s gy n. 2. NHA C POLYESTER Bao gm 2 loi 3114 v 3116 :Xanh xm :40-50 Poises :17-22 Pht :34-40 Pht :6 thng

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A. C IM Nha 3114 v 3116 l hai loi c c nhit to nhit thp thuc loi Orthophthalic, dng c cc sn phm trang tr. N khng cha sp v khng c cha cht xc tin. Nha ny c dng chy t do v sc cng b mt thp nn c th dng lm nhng vt khng c bt. Loi c nht thp dng c cc sn phm phc tp trong khi loi c nht cao dung c cc sn phm c bn c hc mc d kh gia cng hn. Hai loi ny c mu trong sut, c co thp thch hp lm trang tr, cc sn phm c lm t hai loi ny c bn va p tt v c tnh cch in B. NG DNG Dng c cc sn phm trang tr: m ngh, s gi, chn giy, chp n ng, khay, cn bt, hoa cm thch gi, cc sn phm cch in. C. C TNH C cc c tnh sau: Mu nht 30 C Thi gian gel ho 30 C Thi gian ng rn Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C D. S DNG PHA CH
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:Trong sut :4-6 Poises :9-12 Pht :20-25 Pht :110-120 pht :6 thng

Ti liu v vt liu composite FRP

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Dng to sn phm p khi ng rn hon ton Nng pha ch 1% cht xc tc 0,5% cht xc tin. Cch lm thch hp l lm nhiu lp v khi lm sn phm c dy th nhit gel cao nn d b nt v, nn gim cht xc tc tu theo mi lp. Cht xc tin Cobalt phi c ho tan hon ton trc khi cho cht xc tc vo. 3. NHA POLYESTER BN VI S N MN Gm 2 loi: LP-8Q v LP-8BQTN A. C IM LP-8Q l loi nha ng rn nhanh chng chy thuc loi Bisphenol dng cho nhng yu cu bn vi s n mn. N khng cha sp v cht xc tin, thch hp cho c hai cng ngh p tay v sung phun. Nha ny dng thm t vi si thu tinh, c th s dng cun si, c tip xc, n v quay ly tm. LP-8BQTN l loi nha c cht chng chy, c xc tin nhng khng c sp. Nhng sn phm c lm t loi nha ny sau khi ng rn hon ton c c tnh cu trc cao. N c bn ti u vi acid, baz mnh, nhiu mi trng ho hc n mn khc v n cng c bn nhit tt. Ngoi ra sn phm cng c tnh nng c hc tt do lm bn tng ln. B. NG DNG LP-8Q c s dng rng ri trong cng nghip ho cht v thc phm. c ng dng lm thng cha acid, baz, nhin liu, nng sn thc phm, vt ngn ng, thp lc hi t, ng container C. C TNH
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C cc c tnh sau: Mu nht 30 C Thi gian gel ho 30 C Thi gian ng rn Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C D. S DNG V PHA CH Nha LP-8Q to ra sn phm p khi ng rn hon ton. lm c nh vy, cn phi trn ng cch cht xc tc v cht tin nhit phng vi khong thi gian va lm tng bn vi nhit v nc, ho cht c ti u. Cn phi ch trng n qu trnh sau khi ng rn sn phm. Thi gian gel ho ph thuc vo lng xc tc v xc tin,thng thng dng 1-1,5% xc tc cng vi 0,5% xc tin. C th iu chnh qu trnh gel ho di hn hay ngn hn tu thuc vo tng hay gim xc tc hoc xc tin. Tuy nhin theo nguyn tc lng xc tc khng nn qu 2% v khng c thp hn 0,5%. Trong khi cht xc tin nn dng trong khong 0,4%-1% cn phi cn o chnh xc. Nu nht ca nha gia tng khi thi gian lu tr ko di, c th cho them SM gim nht xung mc yu cu. 4. NHA DNG LM CM THCH NHN TO: 2719 2719 l nha thuc loi orthophthalic ng rn nhanh v c mi, to nhit thp dng lm cm thch nhn to. N cha sp nhng khng cha cht xc tin, loi nha ny trong v c mu nht, khi dung cht xc tin CM( cobalt ) s c tnh nng phn tn mu tt v n nh mu sau khi ng rn. nht ca nha 2719 tng i
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:Trong :4-5 Poises :15-18 Pht :35-40 Pht :130-140pht :6 thng

Ti liu v vt liu composite FRP

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thp d m t, loi bt khh nhanh v chp nhn mt hm lng cht n cao, do m bo s gia cng d dng. B. NG DNG Nha ny c s dng lm nhiu loi cm thch vi nhiu hnh dng v mu sc c bit. c ng dng lm sn nh tm, mt bn, b phng tm, tng cm thch nhn to v m no nhn to. C. C TNH Nha lng polyester 2791 c nhng c tnh sau: Mu nht 30 C Thi gian gel ho 30 C Thi gian ng rn 30 C Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C D. S DNG V PHA CH Nha 2719 to ra sn phm p khi ng rn hon ton. lm c nh vy, cn phi chn ng cch cht xc tc v cht tin vi khong thi gian va . Thi gian gel ho ph thuc vo lng xc tc v xc tin. Thng th cn 1-1,5% xc tc cng vi 0,5% xc tin. C th iu chnh lng pha ch thi gian gel ho di hn hay ngn hn bng cch tng hay gim xc tc hoc xc tin nhng khng c cho lng xc tc c qu 2% v khng c thp hn 0,5%. Trong khi cht xc tin nn dng trong khong 0,4%-1%. Cht xc tin c ho tan hon ton trc khi cho xc tc vo trnh trng hp ho trn trc tip d gy phn ng v gy n.
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:Trong :4-5 Poises :8-10 Pht :20-22 Pht :120-130pht :6 thng

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5. NHA PH NN G DN 3312-3319 A. C IM M 331 l loi nha ng rn nhanh, thuc loi orthophthalic dng lm sn phm nha nn g,n cha sp v cht xc tin NC hoc CM tu theo yu cu. Loi NC c hm lng Cobal cao hn loi CM v do c th ph ngoi lm kh v cng nhanh hn. Tuy nhin loi CM c s dng khi sn phm cui yu cu c mu vng nht v trong sut. Nha 331 c trn th trng c nht khc nhau t 2-9 poises. Nhng loi nha ny c m s t 3312-3319 vi con s cui cng tng trng cho nht. Khi s dng c th tit kim gi thnh vi loi nht thp hn th c th t cht lng tt hn khi s dng loi c nht cao.N c kt dnh tuyt ho v c th loi bt nhanh chng do m bo gia cng d dng. G bc loi nha ny c b mt trong sut v sng vi cng tt. Tuy nhin tr nhm v nh bng s c yu cu kh b mt bng yu hn B. NG DNG Nha 331 l nha c cng thc c bit s dng trong g bc nha nh vn trang tr hoc vt liu trong v bc tivi, g v cc vt dng gia nh khc. Vi mc ch trang tr, ngi ta s dng giy nn vi hoa vn v mu sc c bit. Nu ch cn mu trn khng c hoa vn, sc t ( Poste ) phi c trn vi nha trc khi s dng. C. C TNH
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Nha lng 331 c nhng c tnh sau: Mu nht 30 C Thi gian gel ho 30 C Thi gian ng rn 30 C Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C D. S DNG V PHA CH Nha 331 c th kt dnh dng v chc chnvi nn g khi ng rn hon ton. lm c nh vy cn phi c s kt hp chnh xc lng xc tc v cht tin. Thi gian gel ho ph thuc vo lng xc tc v xc tin. Mc thng thng l 1% xc tc cng vi 0,5% xc tin. C th iu chnh lng pha ch theo thi gian tu nhng khng vt qu qu 2% v khng c thp hn 0,5% cht xc tc, cht xc tin nn dng t 0,4-1%, cht xc tin phi c ho trn hon ton trc khi cho xc tc vo trnh trng hp n. 6. NHA POLYESTER DNG LP NGI: 2671L-2671S A. C IM Nha 2671L l loi nha ng rn nhanh, thuc loi orthophthalic dng lm tm dn sng c mu trn,n cha sp nhng khng cha cht xc tin Loi nha ny trong sut, do khi dng cht xc tin CM (Cobal- Mco ) s to ra cc tm trong sut c tnh cht chu thi tit tt v bn cao vi ch s phn x c xc nh bi cht lng si thu tinh s dng. nht ca nha 2671L tng i thp, do si thu tinh d dng
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:Hng :5-8 Poises :5-7 Pht :12-15 Pht :150-160pht :6 thng

Ti liu v vt liu composite FRP

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thm t vi nha to iu kin gia cng d dng. C hai loi 2671L v 2671S u c th cho trc cht xc tin khi s dng trong qu trnh p lin tc. B. NG DNG Nha 2671L v 2671S thch hp sn xut nhng tm trong sut n sng n gin, dung lp ngi, ng dng lm nh knh, tri chn nui, h bi, sn trong, phng tp th dc, bi u xe C. C TNH C nhng c tnh sau: Mu nht 30 C Thi gian gel ho 30 C Thi gian ng rn 30 C Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C D. S DNG Nhng sn phm lm t 2671L c c tnh chu c thi tit tt c th ngoi tri trong thi gian lu di. lm c nh vy cn phi c s kt hp chnh xc lng xc tc v cht tin nha ng rn nhit phng vi thi gian . Thng thng l 1-1,5% xc tc cng vi 0,5% xc tin. C hai loi u c th iu chnh theo thi gian gel ho di hay ngn bng cch tng hay gim ph gia.Tuy nhin theo nguyn tc lng xc tc ny khng vt qu qu 2% v khng c thp hn 0,5% v cht xc tin nn dng trong khong 0,4-1% nhng phi cn ong chnh xc. Cht xc tin
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:Trong sut :3-4 Poises :48-22 Pht :35-40 Pht :140-150 pht :6 thng

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phi c ho tan hon ton trc khi cho xc tc vo trnh trng hp nu nht ca nha gia tng khi thi gian lu tr ko di, c th thm SM gim nht xung yu cu nhng khng c qu liu c th lm gim c tnh ca nha. 7. NHA P THNG DNG 268BQT 268BQTN 268QT 268QTN 268QT-LSE 268QTN-LSE

Vi thot styren tha mc thp 268BQT-LSE A. C IM Nha BQT l loi nha ng rn nhanh chng chy thuc h orthophthalic. Mc ch l tm thm cc sn phm thng thng. N cha sp v cht xc tin, thch hp cho c hai phng php p tay v sng phun. Nhng loi cn li cng c mc ch cng sn trn th trng bo gm: 268BQTN ( cha thm sp ) 268QT ( cha c cht xc tin ) 268QTN ( cha c sp v cht xc tin ). Loi nha cha c sp dng tm thm phn nh v y. Vi loi nha cha c cht xc tin ngi s dng phi thm vo tu theo yu cu s dng. Loi 268 LSE c bn th ging nh 268 thng thng nhng c tnh nng rt c bit l b thot Styren monomer (SM) rt thp (15+5g/m2 230C trong vng 30 pht) lm cho nng Styren trong phn xng t hn. B. NG DNG Nha ny c ng dng lm cht gia cng si thu tinh a dng nh: Thuyn, can, k xe but, bung in thoi, gh sn bng , c m hnh, bn d tr v cha nc, thp lm lnh, chu
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268BQTN-LSE

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trng cy, phng tm, thng cha nhin liu, thng rc, m an ton, ng ng dn nhin liu, h rc t hoi, sn xe hi, cc khung sn b tng, gh, bn, cc sn phm gia dng khc. Si thu tinh tm thm vi loi nha ny s mang li cho sn phm c bn c hc tuyt ho. Nha 268BQT v cc ng loi ca n c chng nhn bi hang Registers Loyel ngnh hng hi s dng ng tu. C. C TNH Nha 268BQT c nhng c tnh sau: Mu Cht xc tin 6% hm lng Cobalt Thi gian gel ho 30 C Thi gian ng rn 30 C Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C D. TNH CHT Nha 268BQT nguyn cht: - hp th nc (trong 7ngy) - cng Barcol - Nhit bin dng - gin di im gy - Trng lng ring 25oC - co rt th tch khi ng rn - Hm lng cht bay hi - bn un - Modul un - bn va p : 0,35% : 48 : 67,3oC : 3,2% : 1,13kg/l : 9% : 35,6% : 8,4kgF/ mm2 : 563,1kgF/ mm2 : 3,9 kgF- cm/cm
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:Hng :0,5% :15-18 Pht :30-35 Pht :130-140 pht :6 thng

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Mat tm thm (34,4% hm lng si thu tinh) ng rn c 1,192% hp th nc trong 24h v 0,28% trong 7 ngy. E. S DNG Nha 268 to ra sn phm p khi n ng rn hon ton. c c nh vy phi kt hp liu lng chnh xc thng thng cn 1% xc tc cng vi 0,5% xc tin (6% hm lng Cobalt) ng vi 268 BQT hoc 268 BQTN ngi ta ch cn 1% xc tc. 8. NHA POLYESTER BN NHIT DNG BC: 261HR A. C IM Nha 261 HR l loi nha ng rn nhanh, chng chy, thuc h orthophthalic. bin tnh c bit bc. N khng c sp v cht xc tin, thch hp cho c hai phng php p tay v dng sng phun. Nha d dng tm t vi si thu tinh gia cng, c th dung cun si, c tip xc, quay ly tm v n thanh. Trng lng phn t cao v nhit bin dng cao ca nha 261 HR c th to ra sn phm c s dng trong mi trng nhit cao. Nhng sn phm c ng rn hon ton bng nha ny cho tnh nng cu trc cao, n c bn nhit cao, bn vi acid, kim yu v cc cht n mn ho hc yu. NG DNG Nha 261 HR c s dng rng ri trong k ngh thc phm v ho cht. c s dng lm ng cng, ng dn, vt liu lt, chn ng, thp lc hi t, bn cha Acid, phao nh du, thp hi ng n hiu hi dng, xng sa cha tu ni v cc thit b
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chu c nhit v mi trng n mn. B. C TNH Nha 261 HR c nhng c tnh sau: Mu nht 30 C Thi gian gel ho 30 C Thi gian ng rn 30 C Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C C. TNH CHT - hp th nc (trong 7ngy 23oC) - Nhit bin dng - cng Rockwell - bn va, p Charpy - Moduslus un - bn un - bn ko : 0,18% : 151oC : 1,15M : 9,3 : 34,3kgF/ cm2 : 931kgF/ cm2 : 509,6kgF/cm2 :Trong sut :4-5 Poises :15-18 Pht :35-40 Pht :110-130 pht :6 thng

D. D LIU KIM NGHIM V BN HO HC Nha 261 HR c nh gi nghim ngt ca phng th nghim theo cc mi trng ho hc khc nhau, ngi s dng c th lm th nghim ring ca mnh xc nh kh nng ng dng thch hp. E. S DNG Cng nh cc loi m s khc
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9. NHA P POLYESTER C SC MNH A NNG. 3254 BQT 3254BQTN 3254QT 3254QTN A. C IM Nha p cng thuc loi nha ng rn nhanh chng chy thuc h Isophthalic dng tm thm thng thng B. NG DNG Nha 3254 BQT v cc loi nha cng loi c s dng lm cc sn phm nha gia cng si thu tinh cht lng cao nh: thuyn , can, bung in thoi, container, sn xe hi Si thu tinh tm thm looi nha ny c bn c hc tuyt ho. C. C TNH C nhng c tnh sau: Mu nht 30 C Cht xc tin NC Thi gian gel ho 30 C Thi gian ng rn 30 C Nhit to nhit n nh trong ti di 25 C :Hng :4-6 Poises :0,5% :2-24 Pht :25-50 Pht :110-140 pht :6 thng

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D. TNH CHT Nha 268BQT nguyn cht: - hp th nc (trong 7ngy) - Nhit bin dng - cng Barcol - gin di im gy - Trng lng ring 25oC - co rt th tch khi ng rn - Hm lng cht bay hi - bn un - Moduslus un - bn ko - bn va p E. S DNG C th iu chnh lng pha ch c thi gian gel ho di hay ngn tu ngi dng. T l chun 30oC l 1% xc tc cng vi 0,5% xc tin (6% hm lng Cobalt) Tiu chun: Khng vt qu 2% xc tc, thp qu 0,5% Cht xc tin 0,4%-1% III. CC DNG CT SI THU TINH Nh phn I chng ta ni FRP l hn hp lin kt bao gm Polyester khng bo ho v c gia cng vi si thu tinh nn c gi chung l Compsite. Ring v ct si thu tinh trn th trng sn c hin nay gm cc loi: - Si Mat - Si Roving
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: 0,27% : 75oC : 45 : 4,4% : 1,08kg/l : 10% : 39,6% : 8,2kgF/ mm2 : 536kgF/ mm2 : kgF/ mm2 : 3,9 kgF- cm/cm

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- Si Rovinggun - Kevla 1. SI MT Si Mat l gm cc lp si lin tc hoc gin on phn b hn lon trn mt mt phng cc si c gi vi nhau nh cht lin kt c th ho tan c trong nha. Si Mat gm cc loi sau: Mat 300, Mat 450, Mat 600 Cc ch s pha sau l gi tr biu hin v trng lng ca si c ph trn din tch 1m2 V d: Mat 300 c ngha l trn 1m2 sn phm th phi mt 300g si Ch s ny cho chng ta tnh trc c s lng si cn ph trn b mt nht nh t quy ra mc nha cn thit tm thm mt din tch si mat m ta ph. Thng thng t l 1/2 c ngha l tm thm 1kg si th cn phi 2kg nha Polyester 2. SI PROVING (VI THU TINH) Vi thu tinh l tp hp nhng dy thu tinh di lin tc c an li vi nhau nh vo k thut dt. Vi thu tinh thng dng gia c lp u v cui ca sn phm tng kh nng chu lc ca sn phm. 3. SI ROVINGGUN Si Rovinggun l si c ko thnh t dy di v c ng thnh cun. Si Povinggun thng c dng cho sng phun hn hp v nha Polyester hoc dng an cc sn phm m ngh 4. SI KEVLA (GIP)
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Loi ny l loi c bit khng c dt t thu tinh m c dt t si tng hp n c tc dng lin kt ging nh Roving v c nhiu mu sc khc nhau. Loi si ny c tnh nng rt c bit khi c gia cng bi Polyester s tr thnh vt liu c tnh nng siu vit: Chng mi mn, chu nhit c cao, khng bin dng, chu n hi, c rn chc tt. Thng th loi vt liu ny c dng trong cng ngh ch to cc sn phm c bit dng trong Quc phng.

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