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Nghin cu thc nghim ng x un ca bn b tng ct thp gia cng bng tm ct si tng hp

Th.S. Nguyn Ch Thanh (ch bin) KS. Phm Th Thu Thy Vin Thy cng, Vin Khoa hc Thy li Vit Nam

Tm tt:

Bn b tng ct thp l cu kin ph bin trong kt cu k thut cng trnh dn dng, cu ng v thy li. Sc chu ti ca kt cu ny c th c tng cng nh vic ng dng tm composite dn trn b mt chu ko. ng x ca kt cu sau khi gia cng l phc tp do s phn phi li ni lc khi chu ti ca kt cu. S c mt ca tm gia cng lm thay i trng thi ph hoi ca tm un, c bit s ph hy c th xut hin do s bong bt dnh bm gia bn b tng v tm composite. Trong phm vi bi bo ny, ng x ca ca bn b tng ct thp chu un c gia cng bng tm composite c nghin cu thng qua phng php th nghim. Cc kt qu thu c s c phn tch v tho lun.
Experimental study of flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete plate strengthened with FRP laminates Abstract:

The reinforced concrete structures are common in structural civil engineering, road and irrigation constructions. Load carrying capacity of the structures can be enhanced through the use of FRP laminates (fiber reinforced polymers) stuck on the tension surface of structures. Behaviour of the structures after strengthening is complicated due to the redistribution of internal forces by loading. The presence of the FRP laminates causes the changing of the failure states, especially damage may occur due to the debonding between concrete members and composite plates. Within this paper, the behavior of a reinforced concrete strengthened with composite plates are analyised through experimental methods. The achieved results will be analyzed and discussed.
1. Gii thiu

Vic gia cng cho kt cu b tng ct thp sau mt thi gian khai thc khng nh ngha quan trng trong ngnh xy dng v l mt thnh phn chnh trong nhim v ca ngnh cng trnh. S cn thit ca vic gia cng bt ngun t vic thay i iu kin s dng ca cc cng trnh hin hu. Khi kt cu khng m bo kh nng chu lc di tc dng ca ti trng th vic gia cng c th gip cho kt cu phc hi mt phn cng nh nng cao sc chu ti tho mn iu kin khai thc. Mc tiu y l, vi s gia cng nh nht c th nhng t c kh nng khai thc cao nht. Vi cc kt cu s dng bn b tng ct thp, ng x chu lc ch yu l un v ct. Vt liu liu composite mi gia cng cho kt cu b tng c tim nng ln v c th m nhim c c hai vic: sa cha gia cng v lm tng sc chu ti ca kt cu. Vi u im nh, cng cao, m un n hi ln v kh nng chng n mn cao, vt liu composite ct si cc-bon v thy tinh rt thch hp cho vic gia cng kt cu b tng ct thp. Hn th na, vic s dng cc tm composite bc ln b mt cu kin cn c th bo v v hn ch s g cng nh n mn ca cc phn ct thp bn trong lng b tng.
So vi dm, kt cu bn b tng ct thp thng c chiu cao mt ct nh hn nhiu. Khi c s tham gia ca lp vt liu gia cng composite b mt chu ko ca cu kin, chiu cao vng chu nn c tng ln ko theo vng chu ko gim i. Do , nu i vi kt cu dm c gia cng bng tm composite b ph hoi c th do tn hi ca phn b tng chu ko ti mt ct c m men un ln, th trong trng hp vi bn b tng c gia cng s ph hoi do bong bt gia lp gia cng khi b mt cu kin l ch yu [1]. 2. Nghin cu th nghim 2.1. Mc tiu ca th nghim v cc tham s

Mc tiu ca th nghim l xem xt ng x chu ti ca bn b tng ct thp chu un vi s tham gia ca vt liu gia cng composite. Ngoi ra, cc vn c quan tm l ti trng ln nht m bn gia cng c th chu c cng nh dng ph hoi ca kt cu. Trong bi bo ny gii thiu kt qu nghin cu ng x ca 4 bn b tng ct thp trong c 3 bn c gia cng 2 lp vt liu composite mt di vi kiu b tr trc hng. Cc thng s ca chng trnh th nghim c trnh by trong bng 1.

2.2. Mu th nghim Hnh hc v vt liu 2.2.1. Bn b tng

Sc khng un ca bn b tng c gia cng bng tm composite c nghin cu vi mu th nghim c kch thc b rng 600mm, di 1000mm v dy 60mm. Tt c cc bn u c ch to cng mt loi cng thc b tng. phn nh trng hp bt li ca cht lng b tng i vi kt cu thc t khi b suy gim, b tng c chn c mc 200#. Mt bn khng s dng bn gia cng tm composite v c dng lm bn i chng khi th nghim cho cc bn khc. Tt c cc bn u s dng cng mt loi ct thp c cng chy 290 MPa. ng knh ca thp dc v ngang l 6mm vi bc ct thp 150mm. B dy lp b tng bo v l 10mm. Cc kch thc hnh hc cng nh vic b tr ct thp ca mu th nghim c th hin trn hnh 1.

2.2.2. Lp vt liu gia cng composite

Vt liu composite c lm t cc si trong mt kt dnh polyme v c bit n nh l ct si polyme (fiber-reinforced polymers FRP). N c xem nh l mt gii php thay th cho vt liu v k thut truyn thng trong gia cng kt cu. Vt liu ct si tng hp c u im l nh, khng b r v c cng ko cao. Hn na, nhng vt liu ny c th c sn xut nhanh chng theo mt s hnh dng to thnh cc tm

composite v c th un cun ph hp vi cc loi b mt ca cu kin trc khi cho keo dnh kt gia chng. Cc tm composite c b dy tng i mng c th tha mn c yu cu v mt kin trc cng nh nhng tiu ch khc lin quan [2]. Trong cc th nghim c thc hin nghin cu ny, cc tm gia cng composite c ly t nh cung cp Fyfe vi chng loi SEH-25A c b dy 0,635mm, cng chu ko 521 MPa, m un n hi 26,1 GPa v dn di cc hn 2,0%. Keo dnh c s dng c cng chu ko l 72,4 MPa, m un n hi 3,18 GPa v dn di 5,0%. Trong trng hp chu un, keo dnh c cng l 123,4 MPa v m un n hi l 3,12 GPa.
2.4. Thc hin th nghim

Cc bn c ln lt gia ti ti bn im i xng nhau vi gi tr bng nhau thng qua mt gi phn ti theo nguyn tc n by n khi b ph hoi (xem hnh 1). Ni dung cng vic o c kt qu th nghim bao gm: o chuyn v ( vng) ti im gia bn. u o bin dng kt ni vi my o chuyn v v bin dng tnh SDA 830C do Nht Bn ch to. S liu o c ghi t ng vo tp d liu lu tr trong my tnh iu khin dng c o v c ghi theo cc bc thi gian nh sn. o cc bin dng ti bn im dng cc cm bin c dn vo b mt trn v di ca bn c s nh hnh 1. Cc cm bin s dng l loi ca Nht sn xut, c di 5 cm v sai s l 1. Vic gia ti bng my ko nn vn nng HUTM sn xut t M v th nghim theo tiu chun ASTM. Qu trnh gia ti c lp trnh theo bng phn mm iu khin my HUTM. S liu o v lc v chuyn v ca u gia ti cng c ghi t ng vo tp d liu.

3. Kt qu th nghim v tho lun 3.1. c tnh vt liu

xc nh c tnh ca vt liu, 6 mu b tng hnh lp phng kch thc 100mm x 100mm x 100mm c th nghim. Cc kt qu tnh t th nghim cc mu ny c ly trung bnh v tng hp trong bng 2. phc v cho vic m phng li ng x ca cc bn ny vi vic xem xt tnh cht phi tuyn vt liu, cc thng s cn li ca vt liu c tnh ton theo tiu chun Model Code 2010 [3] v cc tiu chun tnh ton thit k trong nc cha c [4]. Nh vy, ngoi cng chu nn ca b tng c c t kt qu th nghim nn mu, cc thng s vt liu cn thit khc nh cng chu ko v m un n hi ca b tng cng c xc nh. Bng 2: Kt qu th nghim ca mu b tng
(thc hin cng thi gian vi th nghim bn)

Mu bn th nghim B01 B04

Tui fc,cube (100mm) fck fcm fctm (ngy) 2 2 2 (N/mm ) (N/mm ) (N/mm ) (N/mm2) 28 27,82 21,59 29,59 2,33

Ecm

(N/mm2) 29383

3.2. Th nghim bn

Trng thi ph hy ca mu th nghim i vi bn khng gia cng v c gia cng c ghi li v th hin trong hnh 3. i vi bn khng gia

cng, dng ph hy l do m men un. Ngay v tr t ti c ti trng cc b ng thi cng l v tr c m men ln nht v trong trng hp th nghim bn khng gia cng b ph hy ti v tr ny (hnh 3a). Ct thp b chy do trong khi b tng vng nn vn cn c th chu lc c. Khng ging nh trng hp vi bn B01, cc bn c gia cng lp vt liu composite c ph hoi do s bong bt ca lp gia cng ti v tr c m men v lc ct u ln. Ton b cc bn B02, B03, B04 u c dng ph hoi ny (hnh 3b).

gii thch cho dng ph hy ny, hnh 4a minh ha dng lc trong bn khi gia ti. Di tc dng ca ti trng, kt cu b un cong theo hng xung di. B tng phn trn chu nn v ct thp cng nh bn gia cng v b tng phn di chu ko. Hai lc ny ngc chiu nhau v gy ra lc trt gia bn b tng v tm gia cng. Ti v tr c lc ct ln, th lc gy trt ny cng ln. Cng v dng lc ngc chiu ny quyt nh n trng thi ng sut ca b tng m c th l trng thi ng sut chnh c

phng xin. Khi ng sut ko chnh ln hn cng chu ko ca b tng, s to ra vt nt xin. Vt nt ny tip tc pht trin theo s gia tng ca ti trng. S chnh lch v chuyn v ca hai phn mp bn tri v phi ca vt nt cng to ra lc ko bc tch lp gia cng khi b mt b tng. Lc ny kt hp vi lc trt gia b tng v lp gia cng khi ln s to ra vt nt dc theo lp dnh kt. Khi ti trng tip tc tng ti mt gi tr ln, lc bc tch ny tc dng ln c mt lin kt ko di ti im cui cng ca bn (qua im gi) v ton b lp kt dnh b ph hoi (hnh 4b). S ph hoi ny l t ngt nh kt qu thu c biu 5.

Cc quan h chuyn v - ti trng ca cc bn ny c th hin trn hnh 5. y, bn B01 vi ch ct thp thng th hin mt min chy do rt ln v c chuyn v trng thi ti hn l 38mm. trng thi ny, bn c t l chuyn v tng i so vi chiu di nhp un l 3,8%. Ti trng ln nht m bn B01 chu c l khong 17 kN. Ngc li, cc bn B02, B03 v B04 gn nh khng c min chy do do b ph hoi t ngt bi s bong bt ca lp gia cng. Cc ng cong quan h gia chuyn v v ti trng c cng mt dng v gi tr ti trng ti hn cng nh chuyn v ti hn tng i gn nhau. y, gi tr trung bnh ca ti trng ti hn l xp x 50 kN, ca chuyn v l 11mm. Nh vy, kt cu bn c gia cng c sc chu ti ln xp x bng ba ln so vi kt cu khng gia cng (300%). Hnh 6 trnh by kt qu o bin dng ti mt di v mt trn ca bn c gia cng v tr gia bn. B tng chu nn c bin dng nn ln nht khong -2. Lp vt liu gia cng c bin dng ng vi ti trng ph hoi l 4,4. Gi tr bin dng ny cng khng nh l b tng vng chu nn cng nh ct thp thng vng chu ko cha b ph hoi. bn khng gia cng (B01), bin dng ln nht v tr gia bn ti th chu nn l -0,9 v th chu ko l 1,2. Cc gi tr ny cho thy chuyn v ca bn ch yu do bin dng ca ct thp ti v tr c vt nt gy ra, ng thi l lng ct thp thng trong bn l nh nn kt cu cha khai thc c ht phn

b tng chu nn.

4. Tng kt

Sc chu ti ca kt cu bn c gia cng bng lp vt liu composite c tng ln nhiu, trong trng hp th nghim ny l khong 200%. Kt qu th nghim cho thy ton b cc dm c gia cng b ph hoi do s bong bt ca lp gia cng ti v tr c m men v lc ct tng i ln. Vic nghin cu nh hng ca mc gia cng ti s dnh bm gia b tng v lp vt liu gia cng cng vi ng x ca vng chu ct v un l rt cn thit. c th kho st v phn tch y hn ng x ca bn b tng ct thp c gia cng bng vt liu composite, cc th nghim sau cn tp trung vo xem xt s nh hng ca hm lng ct thp thng, v tr tc dng ca ti trng cng nh s dnh bm gia b tng v lp vt liu gia cng.

5. Ti liu tham kho

[1] N.C. Thanh: Nghin cu thc nghim sc chu ti ca dm b tng ct thp c gia cng bng tm composite , Tp ch Ngi Xy dng, S 238, Thng 8, 2011. [2] ACI: Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures , Report by ACI Committee 440, American Concrete Institute, July 2008. [3] MC2010: Model Code 2010, First complete draft , Volume 1 & 2, fib Bulletin 55, 03-2010. [4] TCVN 4116:1985: Tiu chun thit k kt cu b tng v b tng ct thp thy cng, Tiu chun Vit Nam 4116:1985, 1985.