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02-09-10, 11:59 AM

Ri ro trong bo him vn ti

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Onli ne Sup luonghuyenthanh por Member t Join Date: Apr 2010

Location: hai phong luonghuyenth Age: 23 anh 02- Posts: 10 09-10, 11:59 Thanks: 11 Thanked 56 Times AM in 6 Posts

RI RO TRONG BO Email this Page HIM VN TI QUC T

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I. KHI NIM Trong bo him hng ha xut nhp khu vn chuyn bng ng bin, thng thng cc chuyn hi trnh thng gp cc s c: thin tai hoc tai nn bt ng ngoi bin. Do s c thng pht sinh trong chuyn hi trnh, tu vn chuyn c th gp ri ro rt nghim trng c lin quan ntai nn bin, bao gm cc s c nh: tu b mc cn (stranding), chy (Fire), chm ( Sinking),..khi xy ra nhng tai nn ny tu v hng thng b tn tht rt nghim trng. V vaayj trong nghnh bo him ngi ta thng gi nhng tai nn ny l him ha bin (Perils of the sea). Mt him h a ngoi bin c th gy ra bi nhiu ri ro.

Trong hp ng bo him ngi ta quy nh ch bi thng tn tht do nhng ri ro c bo him gy ra. Ri ro bo him phi l nhng tai nn bt ng ngoi bin ch khng phi l mi ri ro trn bin. Ri ro phi l ri ro khng lng trc ch khng phi l s kin chc chn s xy ra. N phi l nhng nguy c do tc ng ca bin gy ra m ta khng th no i ph c, ch khng phi l nhng hot ng bnh thng ca sng , gi ( Ordinary Action of Waves and Winds). Tm li ri ro l nhng tai nn, s c bt ng xy ra trong hnh trnh v lm cho hng ha b thit hi. ri ro mang tnh ngu nhin v bt ng

Trong mt chuyns hnh trnh ng bin c rt nhiu dng tai nn bt ng khc nhau. Sau y ta s tm hiu mt s ri ro c bo him v mt s ri ro c loi tr tuyt i. Ngoi ra ta cng xt thm mt loi ri ro c bit khng thuc ri ro hng hi ( Marine Risks) m ta thn gi l nhng ri ro c bit (Extraneous) trong phn loi ri ro. II PHN LOI C hai cch phn loi: Theo ngun gc v phn loi theo iu kin bo him 1. PHN LOI THEO NGUN GC

- Ri ro do thin tai (Act of God) l nhng ri ro gy nn nhng chn ng v a cht, thay i t ngt v hi lu, v kh hu nh: Bin ng, bo (cp 8 tr ln), gi lc, st nh, sng thn, thi tit xu v nhng tai nn, tai ha t nhin khc m con ngi khng chi ph c. - Ri ro tai nn bt ng ngoi bin (Accidents of the sea): tu ch hng hoc phng tin vn ti mc cn, chm m, b lt, b ph hy hoc b tu mts tch, chy n hoc b m va vo phng tin vn ti khc, m va vt th ni c nh hoc vt th ni khc tri trn bin, k c bng tri nhng khng phi l nc, hnh ng phi php ca thuyn trng v thuyn vin v nhng tai nn khc.

- Ri ro do cc nguyn nhn khc: + Do li lm ca cong ngi: ng hng khng chc chn, cu mc lm rch bao hng, quay tu lm tu va vo cu cng +Do bn thn tnh cht hng ha: bng gn, ay, thuc n, gp thi tit nng bc c kh nng t pht chy + Do chin tranh: Cc v kh chin tranhhoawcj cc vt th tri trn bin ( ng li, bom mn)hoc cc hnh ng do chin tranh gy nn ( cm gi, cu lu, cu thc) +Do nh cng, ni lon, bo ng gy nn.

2 PHN LOI THEO IU KIN BO HIM Ri ro c chia thnh ba nhm. - Ri ro hng hi ( Marine Risks). - Ri ro c bit (Extraneous Risks). - Ri ro loi tr (Excluded Risks). A. Nhm ri ro hng hi (Marine Risks) Bao gm cc thin tai v s c bt ng ngu nhin ngoi bin khng th lng trc c ( nhng khng bao gm mi him nguy trn bin). Thin tai: l nhng tai ha do sc mnh thin nhin ch khng phi do ch cong ngi gy nn. Trong

nghip v bo him trn bin, n khng phi l tt c mi tai hado thin nhin gy ra, m ch l nhng tai ha m con ngui khng th chng li c nh thi tit khc nghit, sng thn, ng t hoc ni la phunHm ngha ca chng c l gii nh sau. + Thi tit khc nghit ( Heavy Weather) hay cn gi l thi tit xu, thng l bo , gi xoy, bin ng, sng lnxy ra trn bin gy lt tu hoc nghing tu lm gy thn tu, v tu, h my mc thit b, t gy ra nhng tn tht cho hng ha thit b, t gy ra nhng tn tht cho hng hoc chuyn ch trn tu nh hng ln nhau, v nt, r r.. Cn ch l ophair t cp 8 tr ln mi c xt l ri ro thin thai.

+ St (Lighting): hng ha c bo him b tn tido st trc tip gy nn hoc st gy ra do ha hon trn bin hay trong qu trnh vn chuyn. + Sng thn (Tsunami): ch yu ch v tri t thay i mnh,c ch h xung c ch dng cao nn gy chn ng mnh t to nn nhng con sng ln, dn n hng ha b tn tht hay mt mt + ng t hoc ni la phun (Earthquake or Volcanic Eruption ): ch nhng tn tht tn hi i vi hng ha c bo him do ng t hoc ni la phun trc tip hay gin tip gy nn. Tai nn bt ng ngoi bin: c

chia lm hai nhm + Nhm ri ro chnh: mc cn, chm tu, chy, m va. + Nhm ri ro ph: mt tch, sng cun, vt hng ha xung bin, cp bin a) Nhm ri ro chnh: bao gm cc ri ro thng xy ra nht trong chuyn hnh trnh: mc cn, chm chy, m vaCc ri ro ny c bo him trong mi iu kin bo him. i) Ri ro mc cn Trong cc ri ro ngoi bin th tu b mc cn l mt trong nhng ri ro gy ra tn tht ng k vi tu bin v hng ha. Tu b mc cn l khi

y tu chm t hoc chm phi mt hng ngi vt v lm cho con tu khng th chuyn ng c. Ta phn bit hai trng hp: + Mc cn (stranding ): l khi y tu chm phi mt t hoc chm phi chng ngi vt khc lm tu khng th chuyn ng c v thng phi c mt ngoi lc khc ko tu ra khi ni mc cn. +Nm cn (Grondinh): l khi con tu ang trong t th bnh thng, nhng ri s c xy ra v d: tu b chm y v nc thy triu xung, phi dng li mt thi gian ch thy triu ln mi c th ra khi ni nm cn v tip tc hnh trnh. Nh vy, tu thng b vng hay

mc cn theo con nc c tnh cht nh k ( nm cn) th khng th gi l tai nn bt ng. Do trong b cc iu khon bo him 1963 nh bo him khng chu bi thng cho nhng tn tht do nm cn gy ra. Tuy nhin, trong b nhng iu khon bo him mi sau ny(1982), phm vi trch nhim ca ngi bo him c mc cn v nm cn. hiurox thm khi nim nm cn ta xt mt trong s cc trng hp sau: nu tu ch chm y ri li tip tc hnh trnh( Touch and Go ) th khng gi l mc cn; nu tu b cn vng sng lch, knh quy nh( trong bo him v tu bin c quy nh c th) hoc ko l qua m bn cng khng gi l mc cn; hoc trnh bo, thuyn trng li tu vo mt cng. lc nc triu xung, tu

b chm y cng khng c coi l mc cn; trng hp thuyn trng li tu vo ch cn trnh b chm cng thuc phm vi nh ngha ny. Mun gi mt con tu l mc cn th vic mc cn phi xy ra do mt hu qu ca mt s vic ngu nhin hoc khng bnh thng, lm cho tu b chm phi t hoc mt chng ngi vt khc v phi dng li ch s gip bn ngoi. Vic mc cn ny c th xy ra trn bi ct, trn hoc ngng gc gn cng Tuy nhin ngi ta khng quy nh c th l tu phi dng li mt thi gian bao lu mi gi l mc cn. Thc t tu phi mc cht vo

y sng hoc y bin n ni hnh trnh b gin on trong mt thi gian ng k. Trch nhim bo him: trng hp mc cn thuc phm vi trch nhim ca ngi bo him l trng hp c mt s can thip ca mt tc ng bn ngoi. N phi l mottj s khch quan trong qu trnh hng hi bnh thng. Mc cn l mt tai nn bt ng ngoi bin, do nu mua bo him theo iu kin ICC(C), bo him vn chu trch nhim v nhng tn tht cho d c trc tip do mc cn gy ra hay khng, khng k tn tht xy ra trc, trong hay sau khi mc cn. V d mt tu c th b mc cn m hng ha khng b hng mt cht no,

tuy nhin sau tu b bo v nc bin lm hng hng(tn tht ring) mc d khng c s ph thuc nhn qu gia s c th nht( tu mc cn) vi nc bin lm hng hng. Ri ro mc cn c nh bo him chu trch nhim bi thng c tn tht ton bboj v tn tht b phn trong tt c cc iu kin bo him k c iu kin ICC nhguw trnh by trn. ii) Ri ro chm m( Sinking) Tu c coi l chm m khi ton b phn ni ca con tu nm di mt nc v tu khng th tip tc cuc hnh trnh. Nu tu ch ngp mt phn hoc

bp bnh trn mt nc th khng gi l m v trng hp ny thng xy ra khi sng gi ln, tr khi ngoif ta chng minh c l do tnh cht ca hng ha nn tu khng th chm su hn na, chng hn nh tu ch g dim hoc cc laoij thng rng d nc vo nhiu n cng bp bnh trn mt nc ch khng chm hn xung y. Cho nn i vi tu b trng thi bnh thng th ch khi no ton b phn ni trn mt nc b chm trong nc v tu khng chy c na mi gi l m. V khi mt chic tu b m th hnh trnh coi nh khng hon thnh c. Trch nhim bo him: i vi ri ro tu m, trch nhim ca ngi bo him cng tng t nh ri ro

mc cn. Ngha l tn tht bboj phn vn c bi tng trong trng hp ngi tham gia bo him mua bo him vi iu kin(ICC). ii Ri ro chy (Fire) Ni chung chy l do la gy nn. Cht ch m ni th chy khng phi l mt tai nn bt ng ngoi bin nh n c ghi trong hp ng bo him v coi nh mt ri ro ln. La bc chy trn tu l mt vn rt nghim trng v so vi mt v chy trn b th n kh dp tt hn. Theo quan im thng thng, la phi n mt mc no mi c coi l mt v chy. C rt nhiu nguyn do gy ra chy:

+ Do bin c thin nhin nh st nh. + Do s sut ca con ngi gy ra nh c phng ha nhm mc ch no . + Do bn thn tnh cht hng ha d bc chy khi gp nhit hay thi tit nng, chng hn nh: than, bng, thuc n Trch nhim bo him: ng v mt trch nhim ca ngi bo him m ni th ngi bo him ch bi thng cho nhng trng hp chy sau y: + Bi thng cho nhng ti sn c bo him pht nhit bt ng do nguyn nhn khch quan gy ra. Thng thung chy phi c sc

nng, c nh sngTuy nhin cng c trng hp la ch chy ngm, khng pht ra nh sng hoc khng tm ra nguyn nhn, cho nn chy to hay chy nh u thuc phm vi trch nhim ca ngoif bo him. theo mu hp ng thng thng ( Common Form Policy) th ngi bo him chu trch nhim v chy k c chy do st nh hoc do khi( Smoke). + Bi thng cho nhng trng hp chy do s sut hoc c ca thuyn trng hay thy th, v d nh thy th ht thuc vt tn xung sn lm cho hng ha b chy. + Bi thng cho nhng trng hp b chy tu trong nhng hon cnh chnh ng nh: t chy trnh

khi b bt hoc tiu dit mt th bnh truyn nhim. + Bi thng cho nhng trng hp hng ha b chy lan, v d nh hng thuc n bc chy t pht v chy lan sang nhng hng ha khc th ngi bo him ch chu trch nhim bi thng cho hng ha b chy lan ny(nu nhng hng ha ny c mua bo him). Nhng tn tht do hnh ng cha chy gy ra i vi hng ha cng c bi thng, v d nh hng b nng, b t. Tm li, bo him ch chu trch nhim bi thng cho tt c nhng trng hp chy, tr khi chy do n ni hi, do con ngi c gy nn hoc chy do bn thn tnh cht hng ha. bc b trch

nhim ca mnh trong nhng trng hp chy do bn thn tnh cht hng ha, ngi bo him chng minh l hng ha xp ln tu trong tnh trng khng thch hp. V d nh gai ay l mt hng d pht nhit , nu chng minh c l khi xp hng xung tu, gai c b m t nn sinh ra chy th bo him khng chu trch nhim. iv) Ri ro m va (Conllision) m va tc l khi tu hay phng tin vn chuyn khc m hay va phi nhau hoc m va phi vt th c nh, vt th chuyn ng, vt th ni, k c bng nhng khng phi l nc. Tai nn m va ch hn ch trong trng hp chic tu ny m va

tu khc theo quy nh ca iu khon m va trong b cc iu khon bo him 1962. Vy theo ca b iu khon ny ta hiu ch tu nh th no? Cn trc ni t ch ny n ch khc trong cng do ng c ring hoc do tu ko cng gi l tu. Nu mt chic tu b chm ma cn c hi cu vt v s cha li chy tip th bt c mt chic tu no khc m vo cng gi l m va. Nhng nu va vo li ca mt chic tu nh c th khng gi l m va v li khng gi l m va v li khng phi l b phn ca bn thn con tu. y chng l phn bit hai vn : ri ro m va ( Collision Risks) v trch nhim m va ( Conllision Liability).

+ Ri ro m va l nhng thit hi v vt cht ca i tng c bo him do tai nn m va gy ra. Ri ro m va l ni n trc nhim ca ngi bo him i vi bn thn con tu v hng ha b tn tht. + Trch nhim m va: l ni n trch nhim i vi ngi th ba, lin quan n tu khc, hng khc. Trch nhim m va c chia lm hai dng: - Tu m va vo cc ngoi vt khc ngoi tr cc con tu ( ngm, bng tri) - Trng hp hai tu m va vo nhau: thng xy ra ba trng hp:

(1) C hai tu u khng c li: v d c hai tu u gn nhau gp bo ln x vo nhau . Nh vy c hai tu u khng c li . Nh vy c hai tu chu trch nhim m va . Ri ro gy nn tn tht bn no th bn chu. Nu ch tu c mua ba him th nu b thit hi, nh bo him phi bi thng cho ch tu. (2) Trng hp mt bn li hon ton: bn b li s bi thng cho bn kia ton b nhng ri ro tn tht do ri ro m va gy ra. Nu ch tu c mua bo him th nh bo him s chu trch nhim bi thng cho nhng tn tht ca tu ca ngi c bo him v k c nhng tn tht do ngi c bo him phi n b thit hi do m va. V d tu A v tu B m va vo

nhau, tu A c li hon ton. Tn tht c xc nh nh sau: Tu A (c li 100%) Tu B Tu b thit hi 100.000 USD 200.000 USD Hng ha b thit hi 300.000 USD 100.000 USD Nh vy, ch tu A phi bi thng cho ch tu B 300.000 USD ( 200.000 USD tn tht v tu v 100.000 USD tn tht v ahngf), bi thng cho ch hng A 300.000 USD tn tht v hng ha v t chu 100.000 USD tn tht v tu. (3) Trng hp c hai bn u c li: c th do s sut trong vic li

tu. Trc y, nu trng hp 2 tu u c li th ngi ta gii quyt theo trch nhim n (Single Liability). y l hnh thc gii quyt n gin nht. Theo hnh thc nychur tu b tn tht t s phi tr cho ch tu bn kia 1/2 s chnh lch tn tht gia hai tu. V d: tu A v tu B m va vo nhau, c hai bn u c li ngang nhau. Tu A tn tht 200.000 USD v tu B tn tht 160.000 USD. Cch gii quyt nh sau: Tu B phi tr cho tu A s tin chnh lch gia hai tn tht, tc l 20.000 USD. Trong v d ny nu tu A c mua bo him th nh bo him bn A khng phi bi thng v trch nhim m va m ch n b ring v ri ro am va m thi (20.000 USD). Ngoi ra nh bo him bn A

cn nhn li 20.000 do bn B tr phn chnh lch khi gii quyt trch nhim m va, v theo nguyn tc bi thng, ngi c bo him khng bao gi cj n b vt qu phn mnh b tn tht ( ngi c bo him ch tu A nhn tin bi thng 200.000 USD t nh bo him ca mnh). Hin nay tp qun chung quc t trong trng hp m va c hai bn cng c li thng c gii quyt theo trch nhim gi l trch nhim cho ( Cross liability). Theo cch ny ngi ta phn nh mc li ca i bn gii quyt vic bi thng cho hp l. Chng hn, tu A mc li , tu B mc li th c theo t l hai tu s n b ln nhau. Nu ch tu c mua bo him th nh bo him s bi

thng theo iu khon m va, tc bi thng 100% i vi tn tht ca tu mnh bo him v t l phn trm phm li phn tn tht m tu mnh bo him thanh ton cho tu kia. V d: tu A m va vo tu B, trch nhim mi bn l 50%. Tu B tn tht 300.000 USD, hng trn tu A tn tht 100.000 USD. Theo nguyn tc th ch hng A i tu B bi thng ton b 100.000 USD. Trong khi theo trch nhim m va, tu B c quyn i tu A 50% tn tht v tu, tc 300.000 : 2 = 50.000 USD v 50% phn tin tr cho ch hng A tc 100.000 : 2 = 50.000 USD m tu A phi tr cho tu B. Cho nn ch hng A tn tht 100.000 USD nhng ch mi c bi thng c 50.000 USD,

50.000 USD cn li theo trch nhim cho trong am va, ch tu A s bi thng cho ch hng A, nu ch tu A mua ba him th phn chnh lch ny nahf bo him nahanj n b li hng ha. Mt v d khc: tu A v tu B am vo nhau. Trch nhim mi bn: tu A b li 80% v tu B b li 20%. Tn tht c xc nhh nh sau: Tu A Tu B Tn tht v tu 100.000 USD 200.000 USD Tn tht v hng ha 300.000 USD 100.000 USD Li

80% 20% Nh vy: Ch tu A phi bi thng 200.000 USD x 80% = 160.000 USD cho ch tu B v 100.000 USD x 80% = 80.000 USD cho ch hng B. Tng cng l 240.000 USD. Ch tu B phi bi thng 100.000 USD x 20% = 20.000 USD cho ch tu A v 300.000 USD x 20% = 60.000 USD cho ch hang A. tng cng l 80.000 USD. b) Cc ri ro ph: Bao gm cc ri ro thng xy ra trong mt chuyn hnh trnh: tu b mt tch, hng b vt xung bin hay b sng cun xung bin, cc manh ng hoc

hnh ng manh tm ca cc thy th trn tu, cp bin Cc ri ro ny c th c bo him hay khng ph thuc vo cc iu kin bo him. + Tu b mt tch (Missing) Tu c coi l mt tch khi sau mt thi gian hp l no con tu phi cp bn m ngi ta khng nhn c tin tc g v con tu. Th no l mt thi gian hp l? Vic quy nh khong thi gian ph thuc vo lut ca mi nc, ty vo loi tu, loi hng, tnh cht hnh trnh v con ng di ngn khc nhau, Ophaps i vi nhng chuyn i thng thng, ngi ta n nh khong thi gian l 6 thng v mt nm i vi nhng chuyn i xa. Nhng lut

Anh th khng n nh thi gian c th m cn ty trng hp xc nh thi gian hp l. Nhng thng thng hay c th theo lch trnh ca tng con tu trn tng tuyn ng gp 3 ln hnh trnh tu, nu hnh trnh ngn th s ln t hn. Tuy nhin thi gian cn thit xc nh vic mt tch ca mt con tu khng c t hn 3 thng. Nu vic thng bo tin tc b nh hng bi chin tranh hoc nhng hot ng qun s th thi hn ni trn l 6 thng. Ton b tn tht hng ha trong trng hp ny nahf bo him s chu trch nhim bi hon. Lut hng hi 1906, iu 58 quy nh r: khi mt tu lin quan trong mt phin trnh b mt tch v trong

mt khong thi gian hp l khng nhn c tin tc g ca tu th c nh tn tht ton b thc t . V vy trong mi trng hp, khi tu b mt tch th nha bo him chu trch nhim theo nh cc ri ro bo him. Ri ro tu b mt tch l mt ri ro ng bin, c bo him trong tt c cc iu kin abor him c (1963) v mi (1982). + Vt hng xung bin (Jettison) hay hng b sng cun xung bin ( Washing Overboad): vt hng xung bin l hnh ng nm hng ha hoc mt phn thit b ca tu xung bin lm nh tu hoc cu tu khi gp nn. l mt s hy sinh c tnh cht t nguyn khi tu gp nguy c bo v phn

tu hay hng cn li. V d,tu b mc cn, thuyn trng vt bt mt s hng cho nh tu, lm ni tu ln nhm thot khi ni mc cn. hoc tu b bo lm nghing sang mt bn, thuyn trng phi vt bt mt s hng thng bng v tip tc hnh trnh. Nu vic vt hng v l do chnh ng th nht thit phi c lnh ca thuyn trng, v bt k ngi no lm vieecj th cng coi l i l ca ch tu nhm mc ch cu tu v hng. Tuy nhin, bo him s khng chu trch nhim v vic vt hng xung bin v ni t hay v tnh cht ca hng ha. V d thi tit xu lm tu phi ko di hnh trnh lm cho tht tru b thi nn phi vt xung bin

Khi tu gp nn , thng l hng ha b vt xung bin trc tin l laoij hng xp trn boong, sau mi n hng trong hm tu. Nu hng ha xp trn boong ng vi tp qun thng mi hoc ]cj bo him ring trn hp ng l Including Jettison and Washing Overboard th s c bo him bi thng. Trng hp xp hng tri vi tp qun thng mi quy nh, ch tu phi thanh ton tn tht do vt hng xung bin. Nu hng xp trn boong c s tha thun gia tu v ngi gi hng th trch nhim ca ch tu s ty thuc vo cc iu kin ca vn n ng bin. Vic vt hng xung bin l mt tn tht u tin ca tn tht chung. Tuy nhin khi ch tu chuyn ch

hng ha ca chnh mnh th ch c mt quyn li c lin h, do khng c c s i mt hnh vi c tn tht chung v khng th i bi thng theo n bo him hng ha v hi sinh tn tht chung. Du vy, theo cc iu kin bo him(Institute Cargo Clause ICC) quy nh vic vt b hng ha vn c bo him, ngay c trng hp khng c hnh vi tn tht chung. Khi bi thng tn tht, ngi bo him c hng mi quyn li v ngha v nh ngiuf c bo him. Nh vy ri ro hng b vt xung bin c bo him trong tt c cc iu kin bo him c v mi. + Hng b sng cun xung bin (Washing Overboard): hng b sng cun xung bin l mt ri ro bt

ng xy ra ngoi bin do bo hoc sng lnHng ha b sng cun xung bin thng l hng ha c xp trn boong tu, do nu hng ha c xp ng c\vi tp qun thng mi hoc c bo him ring trn hp ng l Including Jettison and Whing Overboard th s c nh bo him bi thng. Nu ch tu xp hng tri vi tp qun quy nh th ch tu phi thanh ton tn tht hng b cun xung bin. Nu hng c xp theo tha thun gia ch tu v ngi xp hng th trch nhim ca ch tu s ty thuc vo cc iu kin ca vn n ng bin. Trong b cc iu khon bo him 1963 th ri ro ny c bo him

trong tt c 3 iu kin FPA, WA, AR. Nhng trong b iu khon bo him 1982 th ri ro do sng cun xung bin ch c bo him theo iu kin ICC(B) v ICC(A), khng c bo him theo iu kin ICC(C). Cng cn ghi nhn rng ngi c bo him phi chng minh hng ho tht s b cun xung bin ch khng phi rt mt khi tu (Not Simply Lost Overboard) v ri ro ny khng c m rng bo him hng trn boong b mt do rt xung bin khi tu lc trong chuyn ng. Cn ghi nhn thm l iu khon bo him ICC(B) khng m bo beer, mp( Breakage, Denting) hoc tn tht hay tn hi khc do hng ha b x git( Shifing) v bin ng bt thng. Cc tn tht nh

th c bo him theo iu kin bo him c WA v l him ha bin c. Ri ro ny trong ton b cc iu khon bo him mi ch c iu kin ICC (A) bo m. Nh th trnh c cc tranh chp thng xy ra vi iu khon c A v nguyn nhn trc tip l mt him ha bin c hay v xp hng khng ng( Faulty Stawage) m nguyn nhn ny th A khng m bo. Cc manh ng(Baratry) v hnh ng manh tm( Malicious Acts) ca thuyn trng v cc thy th trn tu: cc manh dng v hnh ng manh tm ca thuyn trng v thy th l mt trong nhng ri ro cc bo him. N bao hm khi nim xo tr hay lng gt ca thuyn trng hay thy th gy ra i vi hng hoc tu, c hi cho

ch tu hoc ngi thu tu. N m ch mi hnh ng phm php hoc sai lm c ca thuyn trng, thy th lm nh hng n quyn li ca ch tu hoc ca hng ha. Nhng hnh vi phm php ny khng bao gm nhng sai lm v cch on, gii quyt vn hay nhng sai lm do bt cn thng thng gy ra. Nhng hnh ng bun lu ca thuyn trng, vic li tu i lch khi hng khi ng i quy nh v mc ch ring ca mnh u l hnh vi phm php. Lm m tu , hng hng hoc hng b bt gi phc v cho mc ch ring ca thuyn trng hay thy th u thuc phm vi ngha ca hnh ng phi php. Tuy nhin nu ch tu bit v vic

sai tri ca thuyn trng hay thy th th k gi l manh ng, v h khng th ng cho mt ngi i din ca h lm mt vic c hi quyn li ca chnh bn thn h . Trng hp thuyn trng c c phn trong tu th hnh ng lm hi n quyn li ca nhng ngi c c phn khc cng gi l phi php. Thng thng trong nhng trng hp ny quyn li ca ngi c bo him b nh hng, cho nn gia ngi c bo him v ngi bo him c tha thun bi thng nhng tn tht do hnh ng phi phphay lm li ca ch tu v i l ca h gy ra. y c im cn lu l mun quy mt tn tht l do mt ri ro c bo him gy ra th ta phi chng minh

ri ro l mt nguyn nhn trc tip ca tn tht. Nhng i vi ri ro do hnh vi phi php th hnh nh c phn c ni rng hn. N khng phi nht thit phi l nguyn nhn trc tip ca tn tht m ch cn l nguyn nhn phi hp th bo him vn c th chu trch nhim. V d nh thuyn trng bun lu gh vo mt cng ngoi qui nh ca hnh trnh lm chio tu b bt v hng ha b tc ot. Bo him bi thng tn tht v hng mc d tn tht chnh l do s bt ng xy ra. Trong b cc iu khon bo him c 1963 th nhng hnh ng phi php ca thuyn trng v thy th c bo him trong c 3 iu kin bo him. Trong b cc iu khon bo him mi 1982 th ri ro ny ch

c bo him trong iu khon bo him cao nht l iu kin ICC(A) + Hnh vi cp bin (Piracy): cp bin cng l mt ri ro c bo him. Aats kh phn bit gia trm bo ng gia ngi ngoi tu v cp binv trong nhiu trng hp cp bin khng khc g trm bo ng Cp y c ngha l cp bo ng hoc cp bng v lc v khng bao gm trm cp n gin, n cp vt hoc ly trm. Ri ro ny c c bi thng hay khng cn ty thuc vo iu kin bo him m ngi c bo him la chn khi k kt hp ng bo him. Trc y b cc iu khon bo

him 1963 khng bo him ri ro ny, n c coi nh l ri ro chin tranh nn phi mua bo him ring . Nhng trong b cc iu khon bo him 1982 th ri ro cp bin c quy nh trong n bo him nhng ch iu kin bo him ICC(A). B. NHM CC RI RO C BIT (EXTRANEOUS RISKS) n bo him n thun ch bo him nhng ri ro ng bin(Marine Risks), ch yu l nhng ri ro c tnh cht nghim trng nh: tu b chm m, mc cn, m va, chy tu,... nh trnh by trn. Song hng ha vn chuyn bng ng bin cn d b nhng loi ri ro khc ty theo tng bn cht mt hng, tng

phng thc ng vi (Means of Packing), phng tin vn chuyn ...Do , bo him heo iu kin min tn tht ring (FPA) hay c tn tht ring (WA) u khng m bo tt c cc loi tn tht c th xy ta i vi hng ha trong qu trnh vn chuyn bnh thng. p ng nhu cu bo him ca ngi tham gia bo him, ngi bo him tha thun bo him thm mt s nhng ri ro c bit trn c s phi c bo him theo ri ro ng bin, m rng thm nhng ri ro c bit (Marine Risks + Extraneous Risks). + Hng tn hi do ma v nc ngt (Rain Fresh Water Damage R.F.W.A). + Khng giao hng (Non delivery

ND). + Mt cp, mt trm hoc khng giao hng ( Thief, Piferage and Non Delivery TPND). + R chy hoc giao thiu hng (Leakage, Shortage bLkge,Ltge) + v, cong, bp ( Breakage, Bending, Denting Bkge, B.D) + Tn hi do mc ( Hook & Contamination H.D). + tn hi do c xt hoc lm xc + Tn hi do du m. + Tn hi do tip xc vi du hoc hng khc (C.O.O.C Contact With Other Cargo).

+ Tn hi do axit + Tn hi do chut b (R.V). + Tn hi do nm mc + Tn hi do r st (Rusting). + Tn hi do m hi, hp hi hm tu ( Sweating and Heating S.H). + T bc chy + Nhim bn Trong nhng ri ro c bit trn, nhng ri ro thng xuyn xy ra nht l: 1. R.F.W.D: Rain Fresh Water

Damage 2. R.F.S.W.D: Rain fresh sea water damage 3. S.H: Sweat Heating. 4. H&C: Hook & Contamination 5. T.P.N.D: Thief, Pilferage,Non Dilivery 6. B&C: bending and contact 7. Shortage. Chng ta c th nghin cu c hteer nhng ri ro ny nh sau: Mt cp, mt trm hoc khng giao hng (T.P.N.D) + Mt cp ( Thief); mt trm (Pilferage): trong hp ng bo him hng ha,lc u ch c ch trm cp, ch ny khng bao gm nhng hnh ng n cp c tnh cht b mt hoc do thy th hoc

hnh khch trn tu n cp. N phi l hnh ng dng bo lc ch khng phi l nhng s n cp thng thng. Nhng trong thc t nhiu da phng, vic n cp theo ngha thng thng tr thnh ph bin v tn tht do n cp gy ra ln n mt t l ng k. Do bo him dn n nhng yu cu ny v m rng thm trong nhng ri ro c bit (Extraneous Risks). Mt cp mt trm c ch s mt cp nguyn kin hng hoc hng ha bn trong bao b. N l mt hnh ng n cp c tnh cht b mt. Nhng bo him ny c th tha thun bng cchthoar thun ghi r tng ri ro c th thm vo cc iu kin bo him WA hoc FPA hoc iu kin ICC(C), ICC(B).

Ri ro ny c bo him sn trong cc iu kin AR v ICC(A). Do khi mua bo him theo hai iu kin ny khng cn tha thun thm, ngi c bo him vn c bi thng tn tht nu ri ro mt cp trm xy ra. + Khng giao hng (Non delivery): ri ro ny c ngha l nguyn mt kin hng s khng c giao ti cng n v khng c dn chng v nguyn nhn tn tht. Ta c th gi vic giao thiu nguyn boa nguyn kin l khng giao hng ngha u nh nhau. Thng thng vic giao thiu nguyn bao, nguyn kin hoc khong giao hng l do mt cp, mt trm gy ra. i khi li do nhng

nguyn nhn khc: c th l kim nhm, m nhm khi giao khi xp lm cho khi lng thc t khng khp vi nhng s liu ghi trn ti liu. V vy vn chnh l phi c giy t chng minh hng thiu thuwcj t c xp ln tu hay khng. V trn c s bo him mi xt bi thng, v trong nhng trng hp ny khuyt im c th do ngi vn ti, c th do ngi xp hng. Song v mt php l, khi tu giao thiu nguyn bao nguyn kin trong mi trng hp ngi vn chuyn phi chu trch nhim. + Giao thiu hng (Shortage): giao thiu hng ng l mt phn hng ng trong mt iu kin no hay trong mt bao no hoc mt khi lng hng ri no khng

c giao y ti cng n. Cng ging nh trng hp khng giao hng, nguyn nhn ca nguyn nhn ny thng l do mt cp hoc mt trm. Ngoi ra vic thiu hng cn do d cn ong khng chnh xc gia khi lng hng khi xp ln tu v khi d hng khi tu. l s thiu ht trng lng. i vi nhng trng hp ny b him thng phn bit nhng ri ro, nhng nguyn nhn khch quan quy trch nhim ai l ngi gy ra: do tu hay l do ngi gi hng. Trng hp ny th bo him khng bi thng. Trong kinh doanh, c nhng loi hng ha thng b hao ht trng lng t nhin, chng hn nh cht

lng b bc hi hoc cht bt b hao ht trong qu trnh vn chuyn. Nhng mt mt loi ny bo him khng chu trch nhim nu bao b hng ha vn cn nguyn vn. Tr khi bao b b, rch v do nguyn nhn khch quan c tc ng t bn ngoi gy ra bo him mi bi thng. Nu nguyn nhn rch v do bao b khng bn, khng p ng yu cu theo tp qun thng mi, khng sc chu ng trong qu trnh vn chuyn th nh bo him khng chu trch nhim d ngi c bo him c tham gia bo him theo iu kin AR hoc ICC(A). i vi hng chuyn ch ri khng bao b th thng khng tham gia bo him theo iu kin AR, ch bo him hteo iu kin FPA( nh

phn, than....) trnh b tn tht do hao ht t nhin ngi ta thngbaor him ri ro c th i vi tng mt hng khc nhau theo mt t l phn trm no + Hng b nng m (Sweating and/or heating): l ch tn tht ca hng ha do kh hu thay i t ngt hoc thit b thng gi thng gi trn tu mt tc dng, lm cho hi nc trong khoang tu ng li, dn n hng ha b m, b nng. Tt c nhng ri ro ny i hi cho ch hng phi chng minh cho ngi bo him thy l hng tn tht t nguyn nhn bn ngoi gy ra (External Cue). C ngha l khi ch hng nghi c tn tht do bn ngoi gy ra phi lp tc yu cu ngi bo him hay c quan

gim nhj tin hnh giam nh hng ha ca mnh, v ch ki no ch hng c cp bin bn gim nh, lc ngi bo him cn c vo m bi thng. Tt c nhng ri ro c bit ny c bo him trong iu kin AR. iu khon ny c phm vi bo him y nht (Marine Risks + Extraneous Risks). V trong iu kin ICC(A) ton b iu khon bo him mi 1982, tt c ri ro c bit ny u cng bo him. Tuy nhin khi mua cc iu kin bo him khc nhau nh: FPA,WA. ICC(B), ICC(C) ngi mua c th mua km theo cc iu kin ri ro c bit ny v ty theo cc loi hng ha c bo him, ngi bo him s tnh thm mt t l

nht nh. Ri ro nh cng, chin tranh, bo ng, ni lon (War and Strikes Riots Civil Commotions Risks W & CC Risks) : n bo him hng hi cng nh cc iu khon bo him FPA, WA, & AR cng nh b cc iu khon bo him ICC 1982 u loi tr cc ri ro chin tranh(War), nh cng(Strikes), bo ng,(Riots), ni lon(Civil Commotion). Nhng nu c yu cu ca ngi bo him v ri ro ny, ngi bo him s p dng nhng iu khon ring km theo n bo him v thu thm ph ph bo him (Additional Premium). Nhng iu khon ring ny l: iu khon chin tranh(Institute War clause), iu khon nh cng, ni lon v bo ng (Institute

Strikes Riots and Civil Commotions Clause) + Ri ro chin tranh (War Risks): thut ng ri ro chin tranh c ngha rng, n bao gm khng phi nhng cuc chin tranh thng thng gia cc nc m bao gm c cc cuc bo ng hoc khi ngha c tnh cht cch mng trong mt nc. Theo iu khon chin tranh th bo him s bi thng cho nhng tn tht hng ha do: - Nhng hnh ng th ch - Hot ng c tnh cht chin tranh, ni chin, cch mng, khi ngha. - Xung t dn s

- Mn, thy li, bom hoc nhng phng tin chin tranh khc. - Nhng ri ro nh bt gi, chim ot, tch thu, cu thc , cu lu. - Hu qu nhng hnh ng th ch c tnh cht chin tranh xy ra trc hoc sau khi tuyn chin. Bo him ri ro chin tranh c p dng t lc hng ho c bo him c xp ln tu cng xp v kt thc khi d hng xung tu ti cng d hng. Nu c chm tr htif khi d hng xung, bo him s kt ngay khi ht hn 15 ngy tnh t na m ngy tu n cng d cui cng. Hn na, n bo him cn bo him ri ro chin tranh lu ti 15 ngy trong khi hng c chuyn ti hoc ch i c

chuyn ti sang tu bin th hai. i vi ri ro do mn, hng ha c bo him trong khi vn chuyn bng thuyn b hoc s lan cng xp hng hoc d hng. Ri ro nh cng, ni lon v bo ng: theo iu khon ny, ba him chu trch nhim bi thng nhng tn tht vi hng ha khng trc tip gay ra tn tht gy ra do nhng ngi nh cng, cng nhn b xng hoc do bt c ngi no tham gia vo vic lm xo trn lao ng, bo ng hoc ni lon m cn do bt c ngi no c hnh ng c . Tuy nhin, ngi bo him khng chu trch nhim bi thng cc chi ph v chm tr do nh cng, bo

ng hoc ni lon. Thi gian bo him do ri ro nh cng , bo ng ni lon hon ton ging nh thi gian bo him ri ro hng hi. Nghia l trch nhim ca bo him l t kho n kho ( t lc hng ri kho ca ngi bn v kt thc lc giao hng vo kho cui cng cng ch). Thi gian bo him c hiu lc l 60 ngy, thi im no kt thc trc th trch nhim bo him s kt thc vo thi gian . C. NHM RI RO LOI TR Cc ri ro loi tr trong n bo him + Ri ro do chin tranh + Ri ro do nh cng, ni lon, bo ng

+ Hu qu trc tip hay gin tip ca phng x hay nhiu phng x pht sinh t v n nguyn t hoc vic dng nng lng nguyn t hoc cht liu phng x ht nhn. + H hng t pht sinh, t bc chy, hao ht t nhin hoc do c tnh t nhin ca hng ha c bo him. y l nhng ri ro khng c bo him trong n bo him, nu mun bo him lun c nhng ri ro ny th ngi bo him v ngi mua bo him c t tha thun thm. i vi hai ri ro chin tranh v nh cng, bo ng, ni lon nu mun c bo him th ngi c bo him phi mua ring.

Cc ri ro loi tr tuyt i Trong mi trng hp ngi bo him s khng chu trch nhim i vi nhng mt mth hng hay chi ph do cc nguyn nhn sau: + Do vic lm sai tri c ca ngi c bo him: quy nh c nhn mnh trong iu lut bo him hng hi(Marine insuarance Acts MIA) 1906. Cn nhn nh rng d tn tht hay chi ph gy ra bi ri ro c bo him cng b loi tr nu c quy cho l do sai tri c ca ngi c bo him. Tuy nhin tr khi n bo him c quy nh khc, ngi bo him phi chu trch nhim v mi tn tht trc tip gy ra bi mt him ha c bo him v cho d tn tht c th khng xy ra

nu khng c hnh ng sai tri hay bt cn ca thuyn trng hay ca thy th on. + Do chm tr hay th trng xung gi hoc mt th trng: ngi bo him khng chu trch nhim bi thng cho bt c tn tht no trc tip gy ra bi s chm tr, cho d chm tr l mt him ha c bo him gy ra. Nh vy, nu tu chm tr v m va hay mc cn... v chm tr ny gy h hng cho hng ha th khng th i bi thng theo n bo him trn c s h hng c hp l quy cho l m va hay mc cn. hiu r hn ta xt v d:trong mt chuyn hnh trnh tu b mc cn. Ri ro mc cn ny khng lm hng ha b tn tht, nhng do vic

mc cn ny lm cho tu v n cng n chm tr mt thi gian, do hng ha b bin cht( chng hn nh hng thc phm ti sng b h thi). Trong trng hp ny ngi bo him khng chu trch nhimj bi thng v y l ri ro do chm tr gy ra. Nhng nu tu b mc cn v ri ro ny lm tn tht hng ha 30%, tn tht hng ha do tu v tr l 10% th ngi bo him ch phi chu trch nhim bi thng 30% ri ro mc cn, cn 10% do chm tr ngi mua bo him phi t chu. Bo him cng khng chu trch nhim bi thng i vi nhng ri ro do th trng xung gi hoc mt th trng. iu ny c bit c ngha i vi hng ha l sn phm mi, sn phm cnh tranh cn

chim lnh th trng.... V d nh vo ma nng th trng qut my, my lanhj ang ht hng do ngi kinh doanh ln k hoch nhp hng v vo u ma nng nhng vi l do no tu ch hng v chm tr vo cui ma nng, lm cho sn phm bn khng chy v b xung gi, tn tht ny ngi bo him khng chu trch nhim. + Do bao b khng ng quy cch hoc vic vn chuyn hng ha c bo him khng y , khng thch hp, nu chng minh c tn tht, tn hi hay chi ph tht s do bao b khng thch hp th tn tht ny ngi bo him khng bi thng. Tuy nhin nu n bo him quy nh bo m bao b ng gi (Covers The Packing) th bo him s bi

thng phn bao b b tn hi, nu hng ha c bo him s bi thng phn bao b b tn hi, nu hng ha c bo him bi tn hi do mt him ha c bo him gy ra. Trong trng hp ny thng thng ngi ta p dng mt t l gim gi tr cho ton b l hng ha m khng ni ti bao b (Without Special Regard to The Packing). + Do vi phm nguyn tc xut nhp khu hoc chuyn khu hoc hng ha khng giy t xut nhp khu. + Do ch tu, ngi qun l, ngi thu hsy ngi iu hnh tu khng tr c n hoc thiu vn v ti chnh gy ra. Loi tr bo him ri ro ny l nhm ngn cn ngi c bo him giao hng cho tu

m ngi iu hnh b kh khn v ti chn. Ri ro loi tr ny c th p dng cho mi tn tht ca hng ha hay cc chi ph m ngi bo him phi gnh chu m nguyn nhn pht sinh t vic bt lc ti chnh ca ngi chuyn ch. Nh vy nu ngi chuynn ch khng th tip tc hon thnh chuyn hnh trnh v d hng cng dc ng, ngi bo him khng c trch nhim v mi tn tht gy ra v vic d hng ny hay vic bc li ln mt tu khc, hoc gi v chi ph gi hng tip ( cn ch chi ph gi hng tip Forwarding Expenses) c bo him bi thngdo phi d hng xung ti mt cng dc ng ( cng lnh nn) v mt him ha c bo him m bo him ny khng bao gm s bt lc ti chnh ca ngi

chuyn ch). Thiu vn ti chnh (Financial Default) c th l trng hp ngi chuyn ch dng hng ha lm m bo cho cc trch nhim ti chnh cha hon tr (Outstanding F inincial Liabilities), hng ha li cng dc ng gii ta tu khi trch nhim v cng ph. Ngi chuyn ch d kin s quay li tr cng ph ly hng ha em giao nhng nu tu b chm m hoc chy trong trng hp , ngi c bo him c th mt hng ha m khng c bi thng theo n bo him ca mnh. + Do tu i lch hng bt hp l: bo him khng chu trch nhim bi thng trong moi j trng hp khng chng minh c l do tu i

chch hng l hp l. Cc trng hp tu i chch hng hp l l trng hp chch hng v l do nhn o. V d nh i chch hng cu vt sinh mng, trJ gip mt tu khc ang b lm nguy m sinh mng con ngi c th b nguy him hoc hnh ng ny c th l cn thit hp l c c s tr gip v thy thuc cho ngi no trn tu hay v s an ton chung ca tu (v d trn ng cp cng nhng cng ny b dch nn thuyn trng c quyn khng gh vo m i lch hng gh vo cng khc...) th c coi l chch hng hp l v c min tr. + Bo him khng chu trch nhim bi thng cho nhng tn tht l ni t, n t hay tn tht l do bn thn tnh cht hng ha gy ra, nh

vy nu hng ha b nt, t vt... do li k thut hoc li ch to khng thuc phm vi trch nhim ca ngi bo him. Hng ha d b h hng (Perishable Goods) hay b tn tht v ni t, do hng ha giao chm ( v d hng hoa qu), h hi ny khng c bo him bi thng. Nu ha hon l do hng ha b bc chy gy ra th tn tht ny khng c bi thng. Tuy nhin cn ch nu trng hp hng ha c bo him cht cnh hng ha d bc chy v ha hon xy ra do hng ha d bc chy gy ra lm cho hng ha c bo him b tn tht ny c bo him bi thng. Hng ha bi h hng, bin cht sau

mt thi gian no mt cch t nhin do bn thn tnh cht ca hng ha, khng do mt him ha no, cng khng do mt s chm tr gy nn th khng c bao him. V d hoa qu khi bt u hnh trnh cn ti tt nhng khi kt thc hnh trnh th b h thi. Tn tht ny khng c bi thng ( y c th l li ca ngi bn giao hng khng tt, hng ht thi hn s dng hoc do hai bn mua bn khng tnh ton k thi hn vn chuyn hng). + Bo him khng chu trch nhim bi thng do r chy thng thng, hao ht trng lng hoc gim th tch thng thng hoc hao mn thng thng ca i tng bo him. Loi tr ny p dng cho s bc hi ( Evaporation)

l nguyn nhn t nhin ca t tht hng ha lng. V d tht thot s lng du, hao ht hng ht....thng thng c mt min gii tha thun (An Agreed Alloowance) c khu tr trn s tn tht b phn i vi cc hng ha ny. + Tu khng c kh nng i bin: trong mi n bo him hnh trnh (n bo him hng ha) u c mt on kt mc nhin (An Implied Warranty) l tu phi c kh nng i bin. iu ny p dng cho mi tn tht, ch khng ch trn nhng tn tht lin quan n kh nng khng th i bin ca tu. Do nu on kt b vi phm, tc la tu khng c kh nng ii bin hay khng thch hp chuyn ch hng ha th c cc cch gii quyt nh sau:

Nu ngi c bo him bit tu khng kh nng i bin vo lc xp hng nhng vn cho tu chy th bo him khng chiu trch nhim bi thng cho bt c tn tht, tn hi hay chi ph no, cho d tn tht c lin quan n iu kin ca tu hay khng. Nu ngi c bo him bit c tu khng kh nng i bin v khng ng vic chuyn ch y th hai bn ( ngi c bo him v ngi bo him) c th tha thun hy b hp ng bo him. Nu ngi c bo him khng bit s vic ny trc khi tu chy v nu c ri ro xy ra, ngi bo him vn c trch nhim nhng

ngi bo him s khng kh nng i bin hay khng thch hp ch hng. Cn ch rngi bt c lc no trong chuyn hnh trnh, nu ngu bo him nhn c tin tu khng kh nng i bin th ngi bo hiemr u c quyn gi n yu cu hy b hp ng cho ngi c boo him. Tm li bo him l mt ngnh kinh doanh ri ro. l nhng ri ro bt ng, ngu nhin, khng ai c th lng trc c. Do mi ri ro do s xp t ca ngi c bo him hoc c ngi c bo him bit trc hoc hin nhin xy ra th u b loi tr tuyt i. V ngi boo him s khng chu trch nhim bi thng cho tn

tht, hay tn hi hay chi ph no pht sinh t nhng ri ro .


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#2 03-09-10, 10:27 AM

admi n

Join Date: Oct 2007 Location: Vietnam

Administra Age: 42 tor Posts: 713 Downloads: 246, Uploads: 58 Thanks: 299 Thanked 1,617 Times in 357 Posts Images: 421 Blog Entries: 1

Bi rt ny rt hay. Cm n luonghuyenthanh __________________

Life is just a game Some will win, some will lose But we all end up the same
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#3 07-09-10, 09:45 AM
Join Date: Aug 2010 Location: bien hoa Age: 47 Posts: 21 Downloads: 10, Uploads: 0 Thanks: 1 Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts

bao han
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Dung vay, bai cua ban hay qua. Rat phu hop voi cong viec minh dang lam, cam on ban rat nhieu. Minh moi gia

nhap dien dan, co gi mong cac ban giup do nhe. Xin cam on tat ca. bao han
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#4 08-09-10, 10:05 AM
Join Date: Aug 2010 Location: HA NOI Age: 24 Posts: 1 Downloads: 6, Uploads: 0 Thanks: 0 Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts

linhlinh 318
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nen mua bao hiem hang hoa

theo minh thi khach hang nen mua bao hiem hang hoa. dieu nay rat co loi va chang co hai gi ca. Bo ra chut tien mua bao hiem thoi nhung noi khong may co viec gi xay ra thi thiet hai cua ban se giam di rat nhieu. Theo minh thi cac forwarder nen tu van cho khach hang mua bao hiem hang hoa. linhlinh318
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#5 13-09-10, 02:01 AM
Join Date: Dec 2008 Location: hcm Age: 24 Posts: 1 Downloads: Member 36, Uploads: 0 Thanks: 0 Thanked 1 Time in 1 Post C.ta ko c quyn mua BH v c i tc ch nh cho nh BH ngoi

mrth ai

Rddooonnggf tnh vi my bn nhng VN quen mua bn theo kiu xut FOB, nhp

CIF nn chng bao gi nh BH trong nc c c hi, ng chn..... mrthai


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#6 13-09-10, 08:57 AM
Join Date: Aug 2010 Location: bien hoa Age: 47 Posts: 21 Downloads: 10, Uploads: 0 Thanks: 1 Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts

bao han
Member

Toi thay cac cty VN gianh quyen mua BH trong nuoc van duoc chu, mien la muc phi BH tuong duong, chat luong dich vu BH cua VN ko thua kem cac cty tren tgioi, & mot che do hau mai tot ... noi chung la moi cai ko khac "NGUOI" thi ko mot ly do gi "HO" lai ko chon "MINH". Toi luon hy vong vao mot ngay gan day se.... bao han
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#7

21-09-10, 03:04 PM
Join Date: Apr 2010 Location: Tp.HCM Age: 29 Posts: 15 Downloads: 5, Uploads: 0 Member Thanks: 0 Thanked 9 Times in 4 Posts Mua bo him ti VN!

hoang vu.p

Theo nh thng l t trc ti nay chng ta mua theo gi CIF, xut gi FOB. Mua theo iu kin ny khi c tn tht chng ta rt kh i bo him. Kinh nghim

ca mnh trong vic ny nn m phn mua hng theo gi CFR. Cn I mnh mua Vit Nam, nu c tn tht cng d i bi thng hn. __________________
============================= =============== PHAN HOANG VU (MR.) KINH DOANH C SN TY NINH (Bnh trng, Mui tm, Mng cu, Ko u phng) ng Nguyn nh Th, F.Trung M Ty, Q.12, Tp.HCM (cnh Trung Tm St Hch Li Xe qun 12) Skype: hoangvu.p Phone: 0909.670101 Mail: kinhdoanh@dacsantayninh.com.vn Website: http://www.dacsantayninh.com.vn ============================= ===============

hoangvu.p
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#8 06-10-10, 07:06 PM
Join Date: Apr 2009 Location: HCM C Age: 34 Posts: 17 Downloads: 16, Uploads: 0 Thanks: 3 Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts

doanh son
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Bi ca bn hay qu. Mnh ang cn ti liu lm bi th tm c

bi ca bn. Cm n bn nh. doanhson


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#9 07-10-10, 11:23 AM
Join Date: Mar 2009 Location: Lo Cai Age: 41 Posts: 257 Downloads: 8, Uploads: 2 Thanks: 255 Thanked 264 Times in 109 Posts

phuong nam72
Senior Member

Hin nay, trn th trng

bo him bt u p dng ICC (A, B, C) 1/1/2009 c phm vi bo him rng hn so vi ICC (A, B, C) 1/1/1982. Bi so snh 2 phin bn: http://www.mediafire.co m/?qfytbr05di6o503 __________________

Voir seulement pleuvoir sur les ....!


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#10 16-11-10, 05:29 PM


Join Date: Nov 2010 Location: Hanoi Age: 32 Posts: 4 Downloads: 3, Uploads: 0 Thanks: 0 Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts

uyenuon g
Member

Cng ty ti hin ang tin hnh m phn vi khch xut hng, khch yu cu bo gi CIF, vy tc l s bao gm gi sn phm, gi ng cng, gi nng cng, gi kp ch, gi vn

chuyn ng bin v bo him ng khng . Cc anh ch lm n cho bit Vit Nam th mnh c th mua BH vn ti bin hng no khng. Cng ty mnh trc y ch bn hng trong nc, gi li pht sinh mt hp ng xut khu, yu cu bo gi CIF, mnh run qu, cc anh ch h tr mnh vi. uyenuong
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