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Semiconductor Metal Contacts

Elizabeth Geyerman ECE/PHYS 5700 March 8, 2013

Types of Contacts


Depends on dopant concentration and surface polarity




Rectifying Non-Rectifying

Schottky Effect
Similar to PN junction diodes Requires low doping concentration
Less than 1017 cm-3

Barrier height depends on the work function of the metal

Creating Schottky Contacts

Metal is sputtered onto clean substrate Annealed to allow metal to react with silicon Oxide is grown over silicon Unreacted metal is etched away Oxide is etched off

Implanted Ohmic Contacts

Higher doping lowers contact resistance
Small depletion region allows tunneling

k b Rc ~ e qRT


k: Boltzmann constant R: Richardsons constant b: Barrier height

Creating Ohmic Contacts

Choose a metal with a work function close to that of the semiconductor
For p-type, difficult to find metals with high enough work function

Increase surface doping as high as possible Common Schemes

Aluminum-Silicon Al=4.06 eV, Si= 4.05+ (Ec-EF)eV, Eg=1.1 eV Titanium-GaN Ti=4.33 eV, GaN=4.1+ (Ec-EF) eV , Eg=1.4 eV Nickel-GaAs Ni=5.04 eV, GaAs=4.07+ (Ec-EF) eV, Eg=3.2 eV

Creating Ohmic Contacts

Contact is sintered at 450 C for 30 min to diffuse oxide layer Aluminum diffuses into silicon
Spikes can penetrate as deep as 1um

Spiking Liability Control

Deep Junctions Aluminum/silicon alloys
Silicon condensation, increased resistance

Barrier metallization

Moustakas, J. S. (1993). Metal contacts to gallium nitride. Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Boston University. Simin, G. (1998). South Carolina College of Engineering and Computing. Retrieved March 6, 2013, from Streetman, B. G. (1980). Solid State Electronic Devices. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-hall. W.O. Barnard, G. M. (1996). Metal contacts to Gallium Arsenide. Journal of Electronic Materials. Y. Takada, M. M. (2010). Proposal of a new physical model for Ohmic contacts. Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures. Zeghbroeck, B. V. (2011). Principles of Semiconductor Devices. Retrieved from University of Colorado Electrical and Computer Engineering.