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Semiconductor Metal Contacts

Elizabeth Geyerman ECE/PHYS 5700 March 8, 2013

Types of Contacts
Rectifying
Schottky

Non-Rectifying
Ohmic

Depends on dopant concentration and surface polarity

Rectifying/Non-Rectifying
n-Type
Non-Rectifying

p-Type
Rectifying

m<s

m>s
Rectifying Non-Rectifying

Schottky Effect
Similar to PN junction diodes Requires low doping concentration
Less than 1017 cm-3

Barrier height depends on the work function of the metal

Creating Schottky Contacts


Metal is sputtered onto clean substrate Annealed to allow metal to react with silicon Oxide is grown over silicon Unreacted metal is etched away Oxide is etched off

Implanted Ohmic Contacts


Higher doping lowers contact resistance
Small depletion region allows tunneling

k b Rc ~ e qRT

kT

k: Boltzmann constant R: Richardsons constant b: Barrier height

Creating Ohmic Contacts


Choose a metal with a work function close to that of the semiconductor
For p-type, difficult to find metals with high enough work function

Increase surface doping as high as possible Common Schemes


Aluminum-Silicon Al=4.06 eV, Si= 4.05+ (Ec-EF)eV, Eg=1.1 eV Titanium-GaN Ti=4.33 eV, GaN=4.1+ (Ec-EF) eV , Eg=1.4 eV Nickel-GaAs Ni=5.04 eV, GaAs=4.07+ (Ec-EF) eV, Eg=3.2 eV

Creating Ohmic Contacts


Contact is sintered at 450 C for 30 min to diffuse oxide layer Aluminum diffuses into silicon
Spikes can penetrate as deep as 1um

Spiking Liability Control


Deep Junctions Aluminum/silicon alloys
Silicon condensation, increased resistance

Barrier metallization

References
Moustakas, J. S. (1993). Metal contacts to gallium nitride. Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Boston University. Simin, G. (1998). South Carolina College of Engineering and Computing. Retrieved March 6, 2013, from http://www.ee.sc.edu/personal/faculty/simin/ELCT871/11%20Ohmic%20contacts.pdf Streetman, B. G. (1980). Solid State Electronic Devices. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-hall. W.O. Barnard, G. M. (1996). Metal contacts to Gallium Arsenide. Journal of Electronic Materials. Y. Takada, M. M. (2010). Proposal of a new physical model for Ohmic contacts. Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures. Zeghbroeck, B. V. (2011). Principles of Semiconductor Devices. Retrieved from University of Colorado Electrical and Computer Engineering.