BUILDING DEFECTS Definition of building defect

Defects within new buildings are areas of non-compliance with the Building Code of India, various Indian Standards and published acceptable tolerances and standards. Defective building construction not only contributes to the final cost of the product but also to the cost of maintenance, which can be substantial. Defective construction may lead to the complete failure of a structure.

Conditions under which building construction takes place are often far from ideal with the focus mainly being on speedy delivery. Defects resulting of inaccurate construction can be avoided by ensuring that proper inspection mechanisms are in place. The mechanism been discussed is in the form of inspection. Defects are generally caused by inadequacies in design, poor workmanship, building usage not in accordance with design and lack of or incorrect maintenance. Within the realm of building or remodeling your home, construction defects are much like a cancer that eats away at your very core, your physical integrity, your strength and ultimately your ability to exist.

A construction defect is that which makes a project dangerous, unsafe or causes real damage to the consumer. Building defects affect society at large due to possible danger posed; they also result in direct and indirect cost in repairs, abnormally high maintenance, disputes and possible loss of building use. Construction defects usually include any deficiency in the performing or furnishing of the design, planning, supervision, inspection, construction or observation of construction to any new home or building, where there is a failure to construct the building in a reasonably workmanlike manner and or the structure fails to perform in the manner that is reasonably intended by the buyer. Construction defect would result from:

1. Defective building material or components-materials: i.e., inferior material such as building bricks,cement, roofing material, poorly manufactured windows 2. A violation of Building Codes at the time of construction. 3. Failure to meet professional standards for design at the time plans were approved. ◊ Design: i.e., faulty rcc roofing design contributes to water intrusion 4. Failure to build according to accepted trade standards for good and workmanlike construction. Workmanship: i.e., substandard or shoddy work 5. Engineering/Soil: i.e., structural failures and earth movements

Constrution Defects generally observed on the site No structure is perfect. Even the best built and best maintained structures will always have a few items in less than perfect condition. Below are some of the items we most commonly find when inspecting a home: Common Defects RCC Construction Defects-. It is necessary to achieve the perfect quality of RCC after castig.RCC can fail due to inadequate strength or reduction of durability due to improper casting.All structural members as beams,slabs,coloums,retaining walls must retained their full strength and need to be water tight.Lack of proper copaction and curing might lead to several defects as pores,honey combing,cracks,pores,cavities spalls,delamination.One of the seruious defects is also the rusting of rods due toexposer of steel to atmosphere.

A typical location for a spall is along a joint, usually the result of the joint functioning improperly. (67216 Windows-Defects associated with windows most often have to do with leaks, which can be a result of poor installation. This means the windows were not flashed properly, or the window product itself is defective and leaking. In many homes windows are difficult to operate. This can be a sign of soil settlement, structural deficiencies or just a bad product. We investigate the windows by performing several different tests to determine whether or not a particular window is leaking. If it leaks, we then remove a small area of stucco or siding to better understand the cause of the leak.

Brick walls-substandard quality of masonary work,poor workmanship and lack of supervision will cause the cracks in masonary work,give dampness to the structure,create an unleveled surface and so on.

dampness to a building

Plumbing defects Plumbing defects are commonly found include dripping faucets, leaking fixtures, slow drains etc.There are several pressure inlets and outlets in sewer and water lines consisting of several plumbing fixtures,T bends,Lbends,several traps, and so on. All this sources and junctions are to be properly sealed, otherwise there is every possibility of corrosion.

Roofing Problems with roofing material are the single most common defect we find. Usually it doesn't mean the roof needs replaced, simply that it is in need of maintenance or repair.

Scaling is a scabrous condition where the surface mortar has peeled away, usually exposing the coarse aggregate.

Ceiling stains Caused by past or present leaks, ceiling stains are very common. It can be difficult to tell whether the stains are from leaks still present, or were caused by leaks which have since been repaired. Electrical hazards Most common in older homes, but often found in newer homes as well. Electrical hazards come in many forms, from ungrounded outlets ,substandard use of materials ,incorrect wiring by the electerician.

Rotted wood Caused by being wet for extended periods of time, most commonly found around tubs, showers and toilets inside, or roof eaves and trim outside in case of wood3en structures which is more frequent in European countries.

Water heater installations Many water heaters are not installed in full compliance with local plumbing code.This might be a cause of hazardous accidents

Defects observed due to lack of proper Project Management or supervision.
In order to examine the quality of construction work in progress on a number of low-rise traditional housing schemes the Building Research Establishment in United kingdom mounted a major research project with the National Building Agency in 1993. The results were ranged according to frequency and the 35 most frequent defects was identified and listed (Assaf, Al-Hammad, Al-Shihah, 1995). Listed below are the causes of defects that were identified: Defects caused due to ManMaking use of inexperienced, unqualified inspectors, Avoiding and ignoring inspection completely ,Non implementation of corrective actions during the construction process,Inaccurate measurement, Lack of communication,Non-compliance with specifications,Inability to read and understand/interpret drawings,Insufficient site

supervision,Lack of communication between the owner, architect/engineer, project manager,Employing unqualified supervisors, Unqualified labor force, Inability to read and understand/interpret drawings Defects due to Shabby and non-confirming workmanship Making use of defective or damaged formwork,Excavations to close to an existing building and exposing the foundations ,Non-conformance with waterproofing specifications,Inability to read and understand/interpret drawings, Insufficient concrete cover,Improper construction of cold joints, Loss in adhesion between materials.Stripping formwork too early,Unacceptable soil compaction procedures,Inadequate curing procedures, Defects due to Materials and equipmments Multinational construction experience,Defects resulting from the wrong selection of materials,Using materials unsuitable for the climatic conditions,Using cheap materials,Making use of expired materials,Inadequate storage facilities,Misuse of equipment,Equipment not performing to specification,Lack of the proper equipment,Cross referencing and detailed referencing on drawings lacking,Conflicting details on drawings,Details of sections on drawings lacking, Speedy completion of certain activities specifically where equipment is on hire,

Quality and Safety Concerns in Construction
Quality control and safety represent increasingly important concerns for project managers. Defects or failures in constructed facilities can result in very large costs.Even with minor defects, re-construction may be required and facility operations impaired. Increased costs and delays are the result. In the worst case, failures may cause personal injuries or fatalities. As with cost control, the most important decisions regarding the quality of a completed facility are made during the design and planning stages rather than during construction. It is during these preliminary stages that component configurations, material specifications and functional performance are decided. Quality control during construction consists largely of insuring conformance to these original design and planning decisions. Insuring accurate and useful information is an important part of maintaining quality performance. Other aspects of quality control include document control (including changes during the construction process), procurement, field inspection and testing, and final checkout of the facility, a.Work and Material Specifications b.Organizing for Quality and Safety c.Work and Material Specifications d.Total Quality Control e.Quality Control by Statistical Methods f.Popular Defect Management Software Sections

Defect Categorisation as per Trial courts
The trial courts have recognized that construction defects are tangible and can typically be grouped into the following four major categories

1. Design Deficiencies - Sometimes, design professionals, such as architects or engineers, design buildings and systems, which from a performance standpoint, do not always work as intended or specified. 2.Material Deficiencies – The use of inferior building materials can cause significant problems, such as windows that leak or fail to perform and function adequately, even when properly installed. 3.Construction Deficiencies (Poor Quality or Substandard Workmanship) - Poor quality workmanship often manifests as water infiltration through some portion of the building structure. Cracks in foundations, floor slabs, walls, dry rotting of wood or other building materials, termite or other pest infestations, electrical and mechanical problems, plumbing leaks and back-ups, lack of appropriate sound insulation and/or fire-resistive construction between adjacent housing units, etc. 4. Subsurface / Geotechnical Problems- These types of conditions typically lead to cracked foundations, floor slabs, and other damage to a building. A worst-case scenario in some instances could render a building uninhabitable, as well as uninsurable. The courts have typically used these categories and associated standards to determine culpability for construction defect problems.

Buiding Mitigation Process
• Plan Review  Review of the plans, drawings and manufacturers’ installation instructions to address the many potential deficiencies we typically find, addressing them before construction begins.  This review is for both code compliance items and non-code items. Non-code items are items which lead to better construction practices with fewer deficiencies during and after construction. • Inspections  Inspecting in-progress construction to ensure the construction complies with the plans, drawings, and manufacturers’ installation instructions. Deficiencies will be reported to the specified parties, when the deficiencies are addressed by proper repairs, those items will be re-inspected to verify the deficiencies have been corrected in compliance with the construction documents. Forsenic Investigation/Construction defects Analysis Professionals provide experienced construction defect professionals to assist with visual inspections and the testing process, if required. Based upon your specific needs, they supply a written report, detailing the actual cause and origin of the alleged defects, photographs that will document actual conditions, and any destructive testing findings. Their reports,inspections will be based on the original building code at the time of construction.

Interim Remedial Works
After the investigation by the engaged building professional, they may specify temporary measures to be implemented for eliminating the immediate hazard before the long term remedial actions. Such measures may include locating the defective part, temporary shoring or support to certain parts of the buildingif required, the removal of the dangerous part, and the closure of part or whole of the building as per requirement. In case of emergency,the temporary safety measures may be carried out by the contractor .

Liabilities
Building professionals and legal advisers would identify the liability. Insures may wish to be involved in the investigation process so they should be notified immediately of the incident If the liable party is identified and a prompt agreement on the repair works and compensation can be reached, the liable party should take immediate action to remove any hazard posed or rectify the defects caused. Popular Defect Management Software Sections:Computer can play a significant role in Project Management by keeping Quality and cost control.The defects can be minimized by applying stict supervision on the site.several softwares have come in the market which help a professional to manage the site easily. Some of them include• Construction Software • Building Software • Engineering Software • Project Collaboration Software • Project Management • Construction Projects • Construction Project Management

Prevention and Protection
• Maintenance • Maintenance Management (Preventive) • Periodic Inspections or Replacements • Continuous Monitoring • Smart Materials and Intelligent BMS • Built-in Automatic Feedback System • Protection or Upgrading / Strengthening

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