# Formulae for Calculus 151 p.

1 Differentiation f (a + h) − f (a) f (a) = lim h→0 h General formulas: Product: (uv ) = u v + uv Quotient: (u/v ) = [u v − uv ]/v 2 Chain rule: [f (u)] = f (u) · u Constant multiple: (cu) = cu Inverse: dx/dy = 1/(dy/dx) Special functions: Deﬁnition: Graphing Symmetry: Even: f (−x) = f (x) (symmetric) Odd: f (−x) = −f (x) (skew symmetric) Asymptotes: Horizontal:
x→±∞

lim f (x) = a (two cases)

Vertical: lim± f (x) = ±∞ (four cases)
x→a

Increasing/Decreasing: f Positive on interval: Increasing f Negative on interval: Decreasing

Constants: c = 0 Local maxima/minima: d n n−1 Powers: x = nx Critical numbers: f (x) = 0, or undeﬁned; dx Exponential, logarithmic: or Endpoints d ln(x) = 1/x d ex = ex ; Concavity, inﬂection: dx dx d ax = ln a · ax f (x) > 0: upward; f (x) < 0: downward dx Trigonometric: f (x) changes sign: Inﬂection (∼) d sin x = cos x; d cos x = − sin x Differentials and Newton’s method dx dx d sec x = sec x tan x; d csc x = − csc x cot x dy = y dx; y ≈ y0 + dy dx dx d tan x = sec 2x; d cot x = − csc 2x f (a + ∆x) ≈ f (a) + f (a)∆x dx dx 1 − 1 Newton’s method: xnew = x − f (x)/f (x) d sin−1 x = √ ; d cos−1 x = √ dx dx 1 − x2 1 − x2 (iterate) 1 d tan−1 x = d cot−1 x = −1 ; Intermediate Value Theorem: dx dx 1 + x2 1 + x2 If f (x) is continuous on [a, b], f (a) < N < f (b), d sec−1 x = √ 1 then the equation f (x) = N is solvable, with dx x x2 − 1 a < x < b. d csc−1 x = √ −1 dx x x2 − 1 Limits Mean Value Theorem: f (x) f (x) L’Hospital: lim = lim f (x) cont. on [a, b], diﬀ. on (a, b): one can solve x→a g (x) x→a g (x) f (b) − f (a) – (when applicable) f (x) = , b−a lim (1 + 1/n)n = lim (1 + h)1/h = e n→∞ with a < x < b. h→0 Squeeze Theorem: If g1 (x) ≤ f (x) ≤ g2 (x) near a, and lim g1 (x) = lim g2 (x) = L, x→a x→a then lim f (x) = L.
x→a

limx→0

sin x =1 x

Formulae for Calculus 151 p. cot(x) = tan(π/2 − x) ln(1) = 0.14 e ≈ 2.7 ln 10 ≈ 2.4 3 ≈ 1. with F (x) an antiderivative.7 Triangle: 1/2 base×altitude Circle: πr2. cos 2(x/2) = 2 2 More identities: sin(x ± y ) = sin(x) cos(y ) ± cos(x) sin(y ) sec xdx = ln | sec(x) + tan(x)| + C Read the diﬀerentiation formulas from right to left! Algebra Slope: ∆y/∆x. sine: opposite/hypotenuse Fundamental Theorem of Calculus: b cosine: adjacent/hypotenuse (f continuous :) f (x)dx is F (b) − F (a). ln(1/b) = − ln(b) cos(x) = sin(π/2 − x). ln(e) = 1 csc(x) = sec(π/2 − x) ln x loga (x) = ln a Numbers (rough approximations) Area: √ √ π ≈ 3.7 2 ≈ 1. 2 Interpretations of derivatives 1st: Velocity or rate of change 2nd: Acceleration Logarithmic: Relative rate of change Slope of tangent line Integration Trigonometry Values: θ 0 π/6 π/4 π/3 π/2 √ √ 1 2 3 sin 0 1 2 2 2 √ √ 3 2 1 cos 1 0 2 2 2 Integration gives the signed area between the Right Triangles: curve and the x-axis (above−below).3 Cylinder: Base area × Height Base area × Height . Distance: (∆x)2 + (∆y )2 cos(x ± y ) = cos(x) cos(y ) ∓ sin(x) sin(y ) Quadratic formula √ : ax2 + bx + c = 0: then tan(x + y ) = tan(x) + tan(y ) −b ± b2 − 4ac 1 − tan(x) tan(y ) x= 2 2a 2 sin x + cos x = 1 (a − b)(a + b) = a2 − b2 tan2 x + 1 = sec2 x ln(ab ) = b ln(a) Co-functions: ln(ab) = ln(a) + ln(b). Volume: Box: Product of dimensions. Sphere (inside): Cone: 1 3 4 3 πr 3 Sphere (surface): 4πr2 ln 2 ≈ . Formulas: xn dx = x + C (n = −1) n+1 n+1 a tangent: opposite/adjacent secant: 1/cosine Multiples: sin(2x) = 2 sin(x) cos(x) cos(2x) = cos 2(x) − sin 2(x) 1 − cos x 1 + cos x sin 2(x/2) = .