P. 1
Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

|Views: 41|Likes:
Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Dan Alexis Morco Arinzana on Aug 15, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/11/2013

pdf

text

original

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.[1] The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy to fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered an exothermic redox reaction. The overall reaction is broken into many smaller ones when it occurs in the body, most of which are redox reactions themselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is a combustion reaction, it clearly does not resemble one when it occurs in a living cell. This difference is because it occurs in many separate steps. While the overall reaction is a combustion reaction, no single reaction that comprises it is a combustion reaction. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and a common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The energy stored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes. STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION (1) First stage of cellular respiration: First stage of cellular respiration is glycolysis. It occurs in the cytoplasm of cell. In this stage, glucose is degraded and generates energy. There are two types of glycolysis present, one is aerobic glycolysis and another is anaerobic glycolysis. In aerobic glycolytic pathway, glucose becomes oxidized in the presence of oxygen, and one molecule of glucose yields two molecules of ATP, two molecules of pyruvate (also called pyruvic acid) and two molecules of NADH. One molecule of NADH provides three molecules of ATP via the electron transport chain. Therefore, in aerobic glycolytic pathway, one molecule of glucose generates 8 molecules of ATP. Pyruvate, the end product of aerobic glycolysis enters into the mitochondria where it converted into Acetyl CoA and produces two molecules of NADH by oxidative decarboxylation. Acetyl CoA takes part in second stage of cellular respiration for ATP generation and NADH provides ATP via the electron transport chain. In anaerobic glycolytic pathway, glucose becomes oxidized without participation of oxygen, and each molecule of glucose provides two molecules of ATP and two molecules of lactate. Lactate is diffuses into the blood circulation and taken up by the liver where it reconverted into glucose. Though anaerobic glycolysis provides only two molecules of ATP, it is a valuable source of ATP under several conditions, including in cells deprived of sufficient oxygen such as in hypoxic state, in shock and during heavy exercise, or in cells that lack mitochondria. (2) Second stage of cellular respiration:

The second stage of cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrial matrix of cell and takes part through the Citric acid cycle (also called Krebs cycle or TCA cycle). Oxygen is essential in this stage. Acetyl CoA is the substrate of Citric acid cycle. Two molecules of Acetyl Co-A are produced in first stage of cellular respiration by breakdown of one molecule of glucose. In second stage, these two molecules of Acetyl Co-A are oxidized to carbon dioxide with release of two molecules of ATP, six molecules of NADH and two molecules of FADH2. One NADH provides three ATP and one FADH2 provides two ATP via the electron transport chain. Therefore, in second stage of cellular respiration, two molecules of Acetyl Co-A provide total 24 molecules of ATP. (3) Third stage of cellular respiration: The third stage of cellular respiration occurs via the electron transport chain. This chain is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of cell. In this stage, NADH and FADH2 donate electrons. These electrons are passed along the electron transport chain from one carrier to another. Eventually the electrons combine with oxygen and hydrogen ions to form water. Free energy is released in this stage as electrons are passed along the electron transport chain from one carrier to another. One molecule of NADH releases three ATP and one molecule of FADH2 releases two ATP via the electron transport chain.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->