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“Is an establishment for selling of the product(or service) in individual unit to the final consumer for consumption. Retailers provide service to the consumer on one hand(primary retail role), and on the other hand, serve producers and wholesalers(secondary retail role)”.
PLANING TO OPEN A RETAIL PHARMACY:
The pharmacist who has an aptitude for business, financially sound and ready to invest money in business can open a realistic/wholesale drug store. The success of a drug store depends on a number of factors some of which are ; its location and proper layout design sound financial management qualified and experienced staff honesty, sincerity and hard work behaviour among staff members and with customers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Considerations For Opening A Retail Pharmacy
Whenever a person decides to opens a drug store the most important conciderations are;
A DECISION. whether to establish a new or buy an established retail pharmacy .1.
price may be too high 2. 4. physical facilities and fixtures may not be according to the specifications. 1. reduced uncertainaities. or outdated.Merits of buying an established pharmacy include 1. since various risks are exposed Demerits of buying an established pharmacy. the inventory may be near to expiry 3. need repairs or replacement . reputation or image of the present owner may be poor and will take time to establish a good repute 4. may have favourable price 2.saves time and efforts of finding a right place 3. already has demonstrated the value of its location and thus . pharmacy’s ability to attract customer can be evaluated/predicted and com pared with other existing pharmacies.
The planning is needed in various areas including selection of retail category. 1. type of license. and spectrum of activities to be offered.LAUNCHING A NEW PHARMACY Launch of a new pharmacy require a comprihensive plan for a successful business. financial sources . in rural areas or small town . staffing. physical facilities . location decision.the following considerations are made SELECTION OF RETAIL CATEGORY/TYPE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACY SELECTION OF SITE For selection of site following factors must be considered Availability of finances Density of population Buying habits of the public Number of doctors in the surrounding area Existence of hospital Number of drug stores existing in the area Business locality Flow of traffic . After a decision is made to launch a new pharmacy. 2.
Application for the grant of licence .Minimum Qualifications A person who is interested to start a retailsale drug store must be Registered Pharmacist With State Pharmacy Council A person who does not possess degree or diploma in pharmacy can also open a drug store but the licence for the retailsale of drugs will only be granted to a registered pharmacist employed for the purpose 2. STAFFING 5. Minimum space area of 10 square meters 3. free standing location 2. SPECTRUM OF SERVICES 6.OPTIONS FOR LOCATION The two options for location are 1. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF A RETAIL PHARMACY(design and layout) 4. PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES Legal Requirements To Start A Drug Store 1. shopping centers 3.
(1) DESIGN a. A part from these another major factor is PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT . the interior design (2) STORE LAYOUT (3) MERCHANDISE PRESENTATION . Physical Characteristics of a pharmacy are used to develop an image and draw customers . its management and sufficient capital are major factors contributing to a pharmacy’s success. consist of.PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF A RETAIL PHARMACY (Design and Layout) The location of pharmacy . the exterior design b.
display windows.(1) DESIGN a. exterior design The uniqueness of the store front and the creative use of entrance. and distinctive outdoor signs can help creat a favourable pharmacy image .
interior design interior elements that serve as attention attractors include fixtures lightining flooring colors scents and sounds temperature width of aisles cleanliness modernization merchandise assortment display of prices .and personnel .b).
n Objectives of the various designs n The type of community pharmacy n Types of layout design n Style of layout design .(2) STORE LAYOUT Involves Planning the internal arrangement of departments Allocating the amount of space for each department Arrangement of drugs in each department . Before a pharmacist under takes to design a layout or modernize the pharmacy He should consider the.
the six specific objectives are To enhance the general appearance of the pharmacy and to project a professional image To control payroll expenses through convenience and efficiency of the layout To improve patrons’ satisfaction and convenience To maximize the utilization of space To disperse and control the traffic pattern within the pharmacy. OBJECTIVES OF LAYOUT DESIGN The major objective in the design of exterior of pharmacy is. and To provide surveillance and reduce pilferage . To attract more patrons into the pharmacy The overall objective of interior layout design is To increase the amount of the total purchases of each person who enters the Pharmacy In addition to the above.
. The premises has proper and adequate facility for storage of drugs and for their protection from direct sunlight. including refrigeration facility. In case of a medical store.5 ft. the person shall display the word “Pharmacy” in white writing on a green colored signboard having minimum length of 5 ft and width of 2.5 ft. In case of a pharmacy. dust or dirt. the person shall display the word “Medical store” in white writing on a blue colored signboard having minimum length of 5 ft and width of 2. In case of medical store 96 sq ft with minimum breadth of 08 ft in front and height of 08 ft.Legal Requirements (drug Act 1976 and Punjab Drug Rules 2007) The covered area of the premises is not less than 140 sq ft with minimum breadth of o8 ft in front and height of 08 ft.
RETAIL CATEGORY/ TYPE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACY Before transforming the idea of retail pharmacy to a real business. There are four major types of community pharmacies . the owner must consider the form of retail to be adopted. Pharmaceutical center Prescription-oriented pharmacies Traditional pharmacies The super drug store .
-. and the uncluttered floor space are the hallmarks of the pharmaceutical center -.It is similar to the prescription-oriented pharmacy. PHARMACEUTICAL CENTER designed and developed by McKesson & Robbins and American Pharmaceutical Association.The pharmaceutical center.the atmosphere . --The design and layout of this center is not so critical as with other types coz no merchandise of any kind is displayed. --The décor . . --The inventory is confined to legend and non legend medication and few convenient goods.
are displayed near its vicinity --the pharmacy may have separate room for fitting trusses and other orthopedic and surgical appliances. and prescription accessories. home health care appliances and supplies. --Cosmetics. PRESCRIPTION – ORIENTED PHARMACIES --This type of pharmacy usually occupies 1.000 square feet --and is so designed that the patrons will have a comfortable waiting area near the prescription department --health related items. gifts and a limited number of other items are displayed in the other areas of the pharmacy .000 to 2. including drugs.
it is generally agreed that the best traffic flow can be achieved with 3:1 lengthto-width ratio . be convenient for both consumers and employees.000 square feet . and provide the opportunity for maximum sales at minimum expense --Although traditional pharmacies vary in design. project a professional atmosphere. --the major objective of the layout design for this type of pharmacy is to disperse the customers and expose them to all areas in the pharmacy -.000 and 5.TRADITIONAL PHARMACIES --The traditional or conventional pharmacy usually occupies between 2.These pharmacies also should have a pleasing appearance.
The supper drug store occupies more than 5.000 square feet or more. --The basic objective in a supper drug storeis trffic control rather than traffic dispersal. --generally 10. --Many lines of goods are sold in this type of drugstore. THE SUPPER DRUG STORE -. . with the design approximating a square. and the layout design is usually of the self-service type to facilitate traffic control and to provide maximum sales at minimum cost. which is achieved by the merchandising techniques used.000 square feet .
SERVICES OF COMMUNITY PHARMACY. ADV. it may be selling all drug categories including or excluding narcotics and other controlled drugs. Requires less investment No profit sharing Freedom in control and from restrictions DISADV The employee will remain an emploee leading to less interest Unable to attract or retain a qualified person . These major types of retail pharmacies may be Individual pharmacy store Or chain store INDEPENDENT / INDIVIDUAL PHARMACY An independent retail pharmacy is a setup with a single retail store without branches or any contractual aggreement with others.independent pharmacy exists at a single location. However .
particularly in big cities such as Karachi . Lahore .etc ADV. a subsidiary of FEROZESONS. CHAIN PHARMCY Chain pharmacy stores are branched stores existing at various locations but operating under a common ownership.etc. Nowshehra. Chain pharmacy concept was first initiated a decade ago by FARMACIA. This concept is gainning success and there is an increasing trend. better service. use of computer. Promotional activities can be initiated even with more investment . sales training . and Rwalpindi. Islamabad. Crunnently there are various chain stores at city level including FAZAL DIN’S PHARMA PLUS SHAZOO’S ZAKA PHARMACY PHARMAX CLINIXPLUS. More credibility Wide geographical coverage through many chains Economical buying due to bulk purchase making more profit Able to attract qualified persones because of having job structure Efficient as can afford use of more employees.
e professional.and drug super store.OWNERSHIP OF COMMUNITY PHARMACY As far as ownership is concerned community pharmacy is with either Sole proprietorship Partnership TYPES OF LAYOUT DESIGNS Historic types of service-oriented layout design 3 Types 1) clerk or personal service 2) self-selection 3) self-service each is designed to achieve the objectives of three basic types of pharmacies .i.traditional.respectively .
This is one of the compulsion for prescription products where there is no selection of the consumer at retail level. in this setup there is no provision of self-service or self-selection . It consist primarily of complete clerk service with only a small part of the merchandise exposed for patrons to handle.1) Clerk service The clerk service layout is the old traditional design used in most pharmacies before the trend towards self-service and mass merchendising. Thus. surgical and orthopedic appliances and supplies. This type of layout design exist for prescription and selected nonprescription drugs. The pharmacy personnels dominantly provide services for supply of drugs to the consumers. . The modern example of this layout design is the pharmaceutical center in which no merchandise is on display.it facilitates maximum interchange between pharmacy personnel and patrons.
But it could be for the nutritional supplements. handle. and thus be more competitive with the larger super drug stores. photo supplies . and selected non prescription drugs.and veterinary departments. A retail setup cannot run totally on self-selection bases on account of availability of prescription drugs. however . Much of other merchandise. cosmetics. many independent pharmacists now use the self selection layout design. contraceptives and other OTC health related items. This layout is most frequently found in the modern conventional pharmacies . is displayed in a manner that the patrons may see. This type of layout design dictates that clerk service be maintained at all service-oriented departments. prescription.2) Self selection In an attemt to provide adequate personal service in a more efficient manner. surgical and orthopedic appliances and supplies .such as cosmetics. and select themselves but prescription item has no possibility of self selection.
often refer as “self-selection” . 1) Center service 2) Lobby check out or bull pen 3) Off-the-wall 4) Right rear service. It is not possible to have 100 % self service in pharmacy because of the prescription drugs and item. STYLES OF LAY OUT DESIGN Styles of layout design emphasize physical configuration of the layout rather than the degree of service provided . This type of layout is most often used in super drug stores but for the non-drug items and commodities such as cosmetics and nutritional supplements. 4 distinct styles have been developed over past 3 decades include.3) Self service The term self service is restricted for layout utilizing a minimum of clerk service and exposes the maximum of customers to handle.
. two-sided wrapping counter and check out “island” located in or near the center of the selling area of the pharmacy. the objective is to align the major traffic-generating departments around the perimeter and then pull all of the traffic through the check out island in the center of the pharmacy. Usually convenience goods such as tobacco. candy and some times magazines and photosupplies are stocked in the island .1) Center service This style features an elongated .
and men sundries are stocked in the island . candy. photo supplies .2) Lobby check out style This approach utilizes a square. while seasonal and promotional merchandise are displayed in the lobby where the traffic is heavy . . The major traffic generatting departments are located around the walls which display counters or showcases placed in front of the wall shelves. the check-out island is supplemented by a short wrapping counter in the rear of the store in front of the prescription department. clerk service check-out island near the front of the pharmacy Space b/w front window and check-out is “LOBBY” Again tobacco.
short or long . Large super drug stores utilize a modification of this style. This style became popular for a time coz of the ease and low cost of installing fixtures. One or two rows of gondolas are placed in the center of the pharmacy. The main wrapping counter . This style features open display of merchandise on the wall shelving without showcases or counters in front of the wall shelves. is placed across the rear of the store in front of the prescription counter. .3) Off-the-wall style.
The right-rear service style is wel suited for most traditional pharmacies especially those that approximate a 3:1 length to width configuration. At the same time it permits personal clerk or professional services as appropriate. The concept permits selfservice where desirable and thus promotes efficiency and reduces costs.1) Right-Rear service style. This style frequently is called self-selection style coz it accommodates this concept so well.. .
Grid layout can be either With out aisles.All the above mentioned styles of pharmacies can be either Grid layout. or Free flow GRID LAYOUT All counters and fixtures are at right to one another so that merchendise is displayed in straight. parallel lines. or With aisels .
Allocating more space for one particular line of merchandise reduces the allocation for another. including Industry averages by type of merchandise The sales per square foot method . to allocate store space efficiently in order to attain the highest possible sales volume at the lowest possible cost. Coustmers can move in any direction and wander freely. and triangles. ALLOCATION OF SPACE Store space is a scarce and costly commodity. arches.FREE-FLOW LAYOUT Many of the fixtures are irregularly shaped such as circles. Management can perform space allocation in one of the sevsral ways. It is the task of pharmacy manager .
the prescription department and high-skill or speciality departments should be located in the rear or toward the rear of the pharmacy.a special room located in part of the stock room in the rear makes an ideal veterinary drug department --.LOCATING DEPARTMENT After allocating space to each department the pharmacy manager must decide on the locations for the departments within the pharmacy. if developed is another option --.if pharmacy does not have a fountain . --. a special fitting room is must. . greeting cards and gift department are the best choice to replace the fountain in the rear of the pharmacy. --. ---if the pharmacy has a surgical and orthopedic appliance department.the cosmetic and toiletry department is aligned with the non-prescription drug and prescription drug departments from front to rear respectively. --. --. along the right or longest wall --.a separate washroom for men and women should be located near the fitting room --. it should be placed in the rear of the pharmacy across from the main wrapping counter and the prescription department.if the pharmacy has a fountain .a photographic department .other departments can be used to fill the remainder of the wall space opposite the cosmetic and drug side of the pharmacy.
or Combinationp of these The products with more demand and more profits are displayed at prominent place. .ARRANGEMENT OF INDIVIDUAL PRODUCTS The roducts can be arranged by Package size Color Brands Customer’s intrest Price Alphabatically According to companies who have supplied the drugs. The eye level positions are more attractive as compared to the position at the bottom shelf.
. pharmacy chains use planograms to control the location of each department.PLANOGRAMS “Planograms show in a detailed schematic plan the amount of space allocated to and arrangement of each item within a department.” To ensure proper shelf positions in all their outlets.
Harry A. Smith Drug store and business Management By. Mahmood Ahmad & Nadeem Irfan www.com . A.REFERENCES Principles And Methods Of Pharmacy Management By. Dr. Google.K Gupta Store Evironment An Environmental psycology approach Journal of retailing Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing By.
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