PART 5 GSM – Switching & Mobility

Lecture 5.1 Protocol architecture overview

Giuseppe Bianchi

The GSM network layer
Î Divided in three sub-layers Ö Radio Resource Management (RR)
ÆProvides a communication link between MS and MSC;

Ö Mobility Management (MM)
ÆManages DB for MS location

CM MM RR Transmission

Ö Communication Management (CM)
ÆControls user connection

Î Underlying base: Ö Transmission level

Giuseppe Bianchi


Î Manages administration of frequencies and channels Ö Mostly deals with air interface
ÆSeveral RR functions considered in previous part

Î Guarantees stable link upon handover
ÆSurprise! handover is part of RR, not MM!

Î Function summary: Ö Monitoring BCCH, PCH Ö RACH administration Ö Request/assignment of channels Ö MS power control & synchronization Ö Handover Î Where is RR: Ö MS, BTS, BSC, MSC
Giuseppe Bianchi

Î Manages user location and tasks resulting from mobility Î Function summary: Ö TMSI assignment Ö MS localization Ö Location updating Ö MS authentication Ö MS identification, attach/detach Î Where is MM: Ö MS, MSC

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Î Controls calls, supplementary services, and SMS Î Function summary: Ö Call establishment (from MS, to MS) Ö Emergency call management Ö Call termination Ö DTMF signaling (Dual Tone MultiFrequency) Ö In-call modification Î Where is CM: Ö MS, MSC, GMSC

Giuseppe Bianchi

Protocol placement
CM MM RR Trans. MS
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2 handover (physical mobility) Giuseppe Bianchi 4 .Protocol outline MS CM MM RR RIL3-RR RSM BTS BSC RIL3-CC RIL3-MM Relay MSC Anchor MSC HLR MAP/D BSSMAP MAP/E TCAP LAPDm LAPD SCCP MTP SCCP MTP SCCP MTP RIL3: Radio Interface Layer 3 RSM: Radio Subsystem Management BSSMAP: BSS Management Application Part MAP: Mobile Application Part Giuseppe Bianchi TCAP: Transaction Capabilities Application Part SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part MTP: Message Transfer Part LAPD: Link access Protocol on D channel LAPDm: Link access Protocol on Dm channel PART 5 GSM – Switching & Mobility Lecture 5.

typically –98 to –106 dB) Î MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH: maximum allowed transmitted power on RACH Î (parameter transmitted on BCCH. SCH) to get parameters ÆAt least once every 5 minutes ÆBSIC (from SCH) refreshed every at most 30s Giuseppe Bianchi Camping cell selection path loss criterion C1 Select cell with greatest c1(n)>0: C1(n) = RXLEV(n) − − RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN − − max[0.e. read FCCH. simply select cell with higher RXLEV! Giuseppe Bianchi 5 .Neighbor cells BTS 2 BTS 1 BTS n Î A station must: Ö monitor beacon power level of neighbor cells Ö Keep detailed track of best 6 neighbor cells Ö DECODE their BCCH (i. typically 31-39 dBm) Î P: maximum MS power (from MT class) When cell parameters are the same. (MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH − P )] Î RXLEV(n): received power from BTS(n) Î RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: minimum received power level required for registration in the cell Î (parameter transmitted on BCCH.

when MS idle! ÆNo need to inform BTS at all! Î Exception: Ö When cell reselection implies a Location Area Update ÆNeed to inform the network! Î Additional restriction: Ö C2>CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS Giuseppe Bianchi 6 . reselect cell with better path loss performance (no time hysteresis included) Giuseppe Bianchi Consequences of cell reselection BTS BTS Î None. TEMPORARY_OFFSET: BCCH parameters Î If all parameters = 0. CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET.Cell reselection criterion (C2) Î Reselect cell with greatest C2>0: C2(n) = C1(n) + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET − − TEMPORARY_OFFSET × H(PENALTY_TIME − T) ⎧0 x < 0 where H(x) = ⎨ ⎩1 x ≥ 0 Î T: amount of consecutive time since considered cell became with C1>0 Î PENALTY_TIME.

and establishes a connection with a new BTS.handover Î Procedure in which an MS releases a connection with a BTS. where MS is in idle state) Î Handoff: synonymous of handover Î Needs two mechanisms Ö Handover preparation: detection of cell-border crossing ÆBased on radio link quality measurements Ö Handover execution: setup of a new channel in a cell. possible in UMTS Giuseppe Bianchi Hard. Seamless. communication is interrupted Ö Soft Handover: when two channels are simultaneously set-up (old and new) ÆNot possible in GSM. and tear-down of a previous channel Î Improved handover mechanisms: Ö Seamless handover: when active call performance is not impaired ÆNot possible in GSM: for about 100-200ms. Soft handover before Hard handover (GSM) MSC during MSC after MSC BSS 1 f1 MS BSS 2 BSS 1 f1 MS BSS 2 BSS 1 MS BSS 2 f2 MSC MSC MSC Seamless (DECT) BSS 1 f1 MS BSS 2 BSS 1 f1 MS BSS 2 f2 BSS 1 MS BSS 2 f2 Soft handover (UMTS) MSC MSC MSC BSS 1 f1 MS BSS 2 f1 BSS 1 f1 MS BSS 2 f1 BSS 1 MS BSS 2 f1 Giuseppe Bianchi 7 . while ensuring that the ongoing call is maintained Ö The MS remains in dedicated state (unlike cell reselection.

may imply a location area update Ö Driven by traffic congestion conditions Ö Also called load-balancing Giuseppe Bianchi Ö Inter-MSC ÆMost complex: need to change MSC Types of handover Switching point for all inter-MSC handover Switching point for internal handover Anchor MSC: the MSC that first managed the current call A-MSC Relay MSC: the MSC that currently manages the call R-MSC A BSC BSC BSC Switching point for inter-BSC handover A-bis BTS BTS BTS BTS radio interface Giuseppe Bianchi 8 .Handover classification Classification by motivation Î Rescue handover (mandatory handover) Classification by typology Î Internal handover Ö Intra-BTS ÆNew radio channel in the same cell ÆNot termed as “handover” but as“subsequent assignment” Ö Driven by radio channel quality degradation Î Confinement handover (network-directed handover) Ö Target: minimize radio interference Ö Assign new channel when old channel results critical for total interference Î Traffic handover (network-directed handover) Ö Inter-BTS (Intra-BSC) ÆUnder control of same BSC Î External handover Ö Inter-BSC (Intra-MSC) ÆChange reference BSC.

8 To (dBm) -110 -109 -108 -107 … … -48 To (%) 0.4 12.8 1.8 - Ö Up-link signal quality (BER) received from MS ÆRXQUAL_UL < L_RXQUAL_UL_H Ö Distance between MS and BTS Æadaptive timing advance parameter > MAX_MS_RANGE Ö Interference level in unallocated time slots.2 0.6 3. Î Measurements performed at MS.4 0.Handover taxonomy Î BCHO: Base station Controlled Handover Ö Handover detection: BS Ö Handover Execution: BS Î MCHO: Mobile Controlled Handover Ö Handover detection: MS Ö Handover Execution: MS Î MAHO: Mobile Assisted Handover Ö Handover detection: MS Ö Handover Execution: BS Î GSM: somehow a BCHO with a flavor of MAHO Ö Handover decision always taken by BSC Ö Based on measures taken at both BTS and MS Ö New channel selection decision taken at BSC or R-MSC or A-MSC (depending on handover type) based on traffic consideration Giuseppe Bianchi Handover preparation Î Measurements performed at BTS Ö Up-link signal level received from MS lower than threshold ÆRXLEV_UL < L_RXLEV_UL_H RX signal level RXLEV_0 RXLEV_1 RXLEV_2 RXLEV_3 … … RXLEV_62 RXLEV_63 Bit error Ratio RXQUAL_0 RXQUAL_1 RXQUAL_2 RXQUAL_3 RXQUAL_4 RXQUAL_5 RXQUAL_6 RXQUAL_7 From (dBm) -110 -109 -108 … … -49 -48 From (%) 0.4 0.2 6.4 12.8 1.2 6.6 3. Ö Down-link signal level received from serving cell ÆRXLEV_DL < L_RXLEV_DL_H Ö Down-link signal quality (BER) received from serving cell ÆRXQUAL_DL < L_RXQUAL_DL_H Ö Down-link signal level received from n-th neighbor cell ÆRXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) Giuseppe Bianchi 9 .2 0.

the TA resolution. up to 30dB in urban operation (to fight shadowing) RXLEV (cell A) Handover RXLEV (cell B) HANDOVER ALGORITHM: operator-dependent! GSM standard SUGGESTS a simple reference algorithm.A note on MS distance Î Distance can be measured based on TA Î TA = advance bits Ö Ideally. is: d (TA) = TA c ⋅ tbit = TA 2 300000[mt / ms] ⋅ 2 1 [ms ] 270. RXLEV (cell A) Handover RXLEV (cell B) Î Handover Margin Ö To avoid ping-pong handover effect Ö 5-10 dB in normal operation. in mt.833 ≈ TA ⋅ 554mt Ö INSUFFICIENT for microcells! Ö Sufficient only to understand we are going out of the cell Giuseppe Bianchi Handover preparation – additional metrics Î Transmission power Ö Maximum MS transmission power Ö Maximum serving BTS transmission power Ö Maximum neighboring BTSs transmission power Î congestion status Ö of serving BTS Ö of neighboring BTSs Æ provided they can support the MS. but implementation left to operator Giuseppe Bianchi hysteresis 10 . TA should be set as TA[bits ]⋅ tbit = 2d c ⇒ d= TA ⋅ c ⋅ tbit 2 Ö Hence.

channel assigned. etc) handover detection handover detection handover complete clear command clear complete handover access (an access burst on new TCH!!!) physical info (new TA.handover procedure skeleton 1) Handover request goes up to switching point MSC 2) Switching point prepares new path on fixed net 3) Switching point sends HO command to MS 4) MS accesses new channel 5) Old channel/path torn down 4 BTS BTS 1 5 BSC 3 2 BSC Giuseppe Bianchi Signaling for intra-MSC handover (simplified) MS BTS-A Measurement info BSC-A MSC BSC-B BTS-B MS handover required (destination cell) handover request Channel allocation Channel activation ACK handover command handover req. ack (contains handover handover command command message prepared by BSC-B with info on BCCH. power) handover complete Measurement info Giuseppe Bianchi 11 .

as an ISDN circuit must be set between MSCs Ö We’ll not enter into details (just the basic ideas) Î Two cases First MSC change (basic handover) Second MSC change (subsequent handover) MSC-A MSC-R1 MSC-A X MSC-R1 MSC-R2 X Note the role of the Anchor MSC! X Giuseppe Bianchi PART 5 GSM – Switching & Mobility Lecture 5.Inter-MSC handover Î More complex.3 location registration/update Authentication & Ciphering Giuseppe Bianchi 12 .

with goals: Ö Determine where the user is Ö Authenticate user Î Differences: Ö Location Registration ÆUser first access to PLMN » Needs to send IMSI and receive TMSI Ö Location Update ÆSubsequent accesses to PLMN (either in old or new MSC/VLS) » Also after MS shut-down! » TMSI-based identification Î Registered user: Ö The PLMN knows the LA where the user is (or is supposed to be) Giuseppe Bianchi 13 .Location Area vs MSC service area LA-1 LA-2 LA-3 MSC LA-4 VLR … LA-n Giuseppe Bianchi Registration vs update Î Very similar procedures.

LAC] ÆCountry Code (CC): 3 digits ÆMobile Network Code: 2 digits ÆLocation Area Code: max 5 digits Giuseppe Bianchi LR/LU (very) basic idea MSC BSC 2 BTS BTS 1) Obtain LAI from BCCH 2) Register MS ID into local VLR 3) Update pointer at HLR VLR 3 HLR BTS 1 MS Giuseppe Bianchi 14 .Procedure start-up ÎMS switches on ÎDetects BCCH carrier ÖTune and synchronize ÎListens to BCCH ÎObtains Location Area Identifier ÖLAI: [CC.MNC.

Upd. IMSI Auth. additional data TMSI Insert Subscrib. Info. IMSI Auth. Parameters) AUC Loc. LAI Update Loc. Param. Req. Data Kc Forward new TMSI IMSI. Upd. Kc SRES Authentication Response Signed RESult: 32 bit SRES Equal? Ki RAND A8 Kc Giuseppe Bianchi 15 . MSRN Start Ciphering Insert Subscrib. LAI Auth. RAND HLR / AUC MS Ki RAND A3 SRES Authentication Request Challenge: 128 bit RAND VLR SRES. Request IMSI. Parameters) authentication Update Location IMSI. Req. Accept Locat. Info (Auth. Accept IMSI Activate ciphering TMSI Realloc Cmd Locat.Location Registration MS BSS/MSC VLR HLR Auth. Area IMSI. Upd. Upd. Info (Auth. Accept TMSI Realloc ACK TMSI ACK Giuseppe Bianchi Authentication (managed by VLR) IMSI. Data ACK Locat.

715. Kc) to be used for the considered MS also in subsequent accesses Giuseppe Bianchi ciphering Î A5 algorithm is known (to allow roaming) Î Generates two ciphering sequences Ö one for uplink.RAND] Î To reduce signaling.648 Æ 221=2. SRES.304 Î 114 bits per frame.097.648 < 222=4.A8 run ONLY in the AUC at the home HLR ÆKi is NEVER transmitted away from AUC or MS! Î Generally implemented together Ö [SRES. one for downlink Ö Sequence periodic with period 26x51x2048=2.194. A8 algorithms (one-way hash functions) Ö Stored into the SIM ÆAlong with secret key Ki Ö Note that roaming operator DOES NOT need to know them! ÆSince A3.Kc] = A38[Ki. real implementation slightly different: Ö VLR sends IMSI Ö Receives back several tuples of (RAND. 22 bits Kc 64 bits Frame number FN. depending on frame number Î XOR-ed with burst data field Frame number FN.152 < 2.715. 22 bits Kc 64 bits MS S1 In-clear uplink In-clear downlink XOR A5 S2 S1 enciphered uplink enciphered downlink A5 S2 BTS XOR In-clear uplink XOR XOR In-clear downlink Giuseppe Bianchi 16 .Authentication (details) Î Side effect of authentication: Ö Generate encryption key Kc via A8 algorithm Î Secret A3.

Data Forward new TMSI IMSI. LAI authentication Activate ciphering Start Ciphering Kc Insert Subscrib. Param. Accept IMSI TMSI Realloc Cmd Locat. Upd. additional data Ins. subs. Req. Request TMSI. Info N x (Kc. Upd. Info. IMSI Auth.SRES) Giuseppe Bianchi Changing MSC/VLR HLR VLR MSC Public Publicswitched switched telephone network telephone network PSTN PSTN VLR MSC Base Station Base Station An MS always has a dedicated entry in the HLR Plus one entry in JUST 1 VLR (related to the MSC the user is connected to) Giuseppe Bianchi 17 . MSRN Generate New TMSI AUC Loc. Accept TMSI Realloc ACK TMSI ACK Auth. Area TMSI. but with TMSI) BSS/MSC VLR HLR Update Loc. IMSI Auth. Upd.Location Update in same VLR MS (same as location registration. Upd.RAND.SRES) Auth. data ACK Locat. Info N x (Kc. Accept Locat. LAI Update Location IMSI.RAND. Req.

only for a given Location Area!! ÆSome author (Mouly-Pautet) uses the term » TIC (Temporary Identity Code) = 4 bytes » TMSI = TIC+LAI = unambiguous user identification Î While entering a new Location Area: Ö user must identify itself with TMSI+LAI pair.Kc) authentication Update Location IMSI. at every LU / IMSI_attach for LU (value transmitted ÆVia TMSI_Reallocation_Command/TMSI_Reallocation_Complete ÆRATIONALE: renew TMSI when transmitted in clear! (TMSI reallocation occurs in ciphering mode) on BCCH) IMSI_attach = a special LU in a same Location Area. Upd. additional data Ins.SRES. MSRN Generate New TMSI Cancel Location IMSI Cancel Locat. Request TMSI(+ old LAI). LAI Update Loc. subs. old LAI) IMSI response (IMSI. Accept IMSI Giuseppe Bianchi 18 . data ACK … Locat. IMSI_attach follows an IMSI_detach (power-down of MS) Î Meaningful only in a given VLR Ö Specifically. LAI determine VLR-old From old LAI Send parameters (TMSI.RAND. Giuseppe Bianchi Location Update: different VLR MS BSS/MSC VLR-new HLR VLR-old Loc. ACK Activate ciphering … Start Ciphering Kc Insert Subscrib.TMSI Î TMSI = Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Ö 4 octets (32 bits) Operator may set a 6min up to 24hrs periodicity Ö Renewed periodically. Area TMSI(+ old LAI). Upd. Data Forward new TMSI IMSI.

New VLR not capable of determining old VLR from old LAI 2.But when no valid TMSI information available (e. after a DB restore after crash).g.Normally based on TMSI .Special cases 1. Old VLR does not recognize TMSI MS MSC Identity Request Identity Response IMSI Ö Identification procedure Æ IMSI transmitted in clear PAGING: . based on IMSI Giuseppe Bianchi PART 5 GSM – Switching & Mobility Lecture 5.4 Call Management & routing Giuseppe Bianchi 19 .

(Answer) Giuseppe Bianchi 20 .Alerting = ACM .setup = IAM .Notation ÎA call involves two “Parties” ÎCalling Party (caller) Öuser generating the call ÎCalled Party (callee) Öuser receiving the call ÎMobile Originating Call (MOC) ÖCall originated by an MS ÎMobile Terminating Call (MTC) ÖCall directed to an MS Giuseppe Bianchi Call establishment basics MS Mobile Terminated Call Fixed MSC party setup Call confirmed alerting connect alerting connect setup Mobile Originated Call MS setup MSC setup alerting Connect Fixed party Call proceeding alerting Connect Connect Ack DATA In ISDN ISUP: .Connect = ANS DATA (Initial Address Message). (Address Complete Message).

Call establishment steps MS Mobile Terminated Call network MS Mobile Originated Call network Paging request Channel request Immediate Assignment Paging Response Authentication Request Authentication Response Ciphering mode command Ciphering Mode Complete Setup Call Confirmed Assignment Command Assignment Complete Alerting Connect Connect Acknowledge Connect Acknowledge Setup Call proceeding Assignment Command Assignment Complete Alerting Connect Channel request Immediate Assignment Service Request Authentication Request Authentication Response Ciphering mode command Ciphering Mode Complete Giuseppe Bianchi Radio Resource allocation three standardized solutions Î Non-Off Air Call Set-Up (Non-OACSU) Ö Normally used (previous description) Î Off Air Call Set-Up (OACSU) Ö TCH assigned only when the called party actually responds! Î Very Early Assignment (VEA) Ö Immediate assignment of TCH ÆFastest signalling process ÆWaste of resources ÆBest utilization of radio resource (avoids allocation if callee not available) ÆCall drop if no TCH is available at this point VEA RACH Non-OACSU RACH OACSU RACH TCH (FACCH) TCH (DATA) SDCCH TCH (FACCH) TCH (DATA) SDCCH TCH (DATA) Connection established Callee responds Giuseppe Bianchi 21 .

DTMF signaling Î Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency Ö Digital tones associated to terminal keys Æ‘0’…’9’…’#’… Î Inband signalling Ö transmitted in the traffic channels! Ö Not in the signalling network MS MSC Start DTMF (w. key code) Key Pressed Start DTMF ACK Stop DTMF On air interface: Ö Signal trasmitted on FACCH as signalling data (code of pressed key) Ö Otherwise coded compression would distort DTMF tones Ö Tone generated at MSC when STOP DMTF message received On FACCH) Giuseppe Bianchi Routing an MTC ISDN PLMN MSCC 5: MSRN VLRB 6: TMSI MSCB ng gi pa 7: GMSC N SD SI SRN M 2: 3: M 4: M SR N 1: M SI S D N MSCA HLR Giuseppe Bianchi 22 .

Routing an MTC (alternative) reduces signalling load during LU During an LU within a same VLR.8877665 MSC HLR 335.335.1234567 Giuseppe Bianchi 23 .NDC.1234567 PLMN 1 (ITA) MSRN +44. MSRN is NOT signaled! MSRN retrieved on a per-call basis! (choice of solution depends on trade-offs) PLMN MSCC 7: MSRN VLRB 8: TMSI MSCB ng gi pa 9: GMSC N SD SI SRN M 2: 5: M 6: M SR N 1: M SI S D N ISDN MSCA HLR 3: IMSI 4: MSRN Giuseppe Bianchi Routing calls to Roaming MS ISDN (UK) International Switching Center PLMN 2 (UK) MSC ISDN (ita) Transit Exchange Local Exchange International Switching Center GMSC 1 MSISDN +39.

3043125 “tromboning” MSC PLMN 2 (UK) Call to MSISDN +39.335.e.335.9876543 MSC Is the PRICE (!) to pay for simple routing and billing HLR Giuseppe Bianchi Tromboning technical solutions ÎFirst alternative: national-wise ÖAdd a new database .1234567 MSRN +44.335.NDC.Call to MSISDN +39.1234567 ISC (UK) ISC (ITA) GMSC 1 PLMN 1 (ITA) MSISDN +39.Roamer Location Cache (RLC) ÆConsulted by ISCs (which MUST support GSM-MAP!) ÎSecond alternative: PLMN specific ÖRLC within the PLMN + associated switch ÖCaller must dial special NDC number (the switch!) ÆI. must know the MS is roaming in the PLMN… ÖAdditional devices and protocol modifications required » Extensions toVLR or to GMSC » Details in “Lin-Chlamtac” Giuseppe Bianchi 24 .

RLC at ISC .Location Registration and call management RLC 3 bis ISC (UK) PLMN 2 2 VLR 1 MSC (UK) 3 PLMN 1 ISC (ITA) 4 HLR (ITA) Giuseppe Bianchi Short Message Service Î SMS: Ö messages up to 160 bytes Ö Message concatenation allowed Î Transmitted on air interface over: Ö SACCH (when user in conversation) Ö SDCCH (when user in idle state) Î Two transmission modes in a cell: Ö Point-to-point Ö cell broadcast Î Connectionless service Ö message switching (store&forward) Ö Implemented through the Short Message Service Center Giuseppe Bianchi 25 .

PSDN IWMSC Short Message Service Center Get routing info for terminating MS SMS-GMSC HLR PLMN MSC Giuseppe Bianchi Protocol hierarchy MS Short Message Application Layer (SM-AL) Short Message Transfer Layer (SM-TL) Short Message Relay Layer (SM-RL) SM-SC Short Message Transfer Protocol (SM-TP) MSC IW-MSC Short Message Short Message Relay Entity Short Message Relay Entity Relay Protocol (SMR) (SMR) (SM-RP) Connection Short Message Short Message Short Message Management Control Entity Control Protocol Control Entity Sublayer (CM-sub) (SMC) (SMC) (SM-CP) Quite complex signalling involved (see specific texts) Giuseppe Bianchi 26 .SMS routing management MSC PLMN Internet.

Number portability Î Subscriber may switch operator without changing his number Î First implemented in fixed network Ö Recently (may 2002) extended to mobile networks Î Essential for fair competition among network operators Ö UK survey: 42% of corporate subscribers were willing to change mobile operator. if number could be ported Î Resistence from leading operators Ö Number portability helps newer operators to compete with traditional ones Giuseppe Bianchi Notation ÎDonor switch ÖThe switch corresponding to a “ported” telephone number ÎRecipient switch ÖThe switch to which the ported number is attached Giuseppe Bianchi 27 . but 96% were.

Technical solutions a) call forwarding Originating network switch Donor network switch switch Recipient network Originating switch sets-up trunk to donor switch Donor switch sets-up trunk to recipient switch Simplest solution. as call forwarding is a feature available in virtually all switches But extremely inefficient routing and trunking resource consumption! Giuseppe Bianchi Technical solutions b) query on release SS7 ISUP IAM Originating network switch SS7 ISUP REL Donor network switch Number Portability DataBase switch Recipient network Donor switch “blocks” incoming call with a release message (REL) REL carries a QoR cause value. stating that called party number is ported Originating switch then queries Number Portability database Giuseppe Bianchi 28 .

as EVERY number must be looked-up! Giuseppe Bianchi Mobile Number Portability Î Same ideas as fixed number portability Ö The donor switch is the GMSC of the donor network Î Donor GMSC Call forwarding (if more efficient fixed number portability not supported) Ö While porting number. still suffers of tromboning! Giuseppe Bianchi 29 . may also get MSRN! Recipient network MSC MSRN GMSC IRN HLR MSRN (or IRN) Signaling relay function Note: If path must cross GMSC: Use Intermediate Routing Number Incoming call GMSC HLR Donor network solution if majority of numbers are ported (no interaction with donor) .but very high DB load.Technical solutions c) all-call query Originating network switch Donor network switch Number Portability DataBase switch Recipient network Originating switch queries Number Portability database for every call!! .

Mobile Number Portability (with all call query approach) approach) Recipient network Query MSRN MSC GMSC IRN Return MSRN HLR Incoming call Query IRN switch Return IRN Number Portability DataBase Giuseppe Bianchi improved – (with all call query approach) approach) Recipient network MSC GMSC HLR Mobile Number Portability MSRN Signaling relay function Incoming call Query MSRN switch Return MSRN Number Portability DataBase Giuseppe Bianchi 30 .

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