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REPUBLIKA SRBIJA

VISOKA ŠKOLA PRIMENJENIH STRUKOVNIH STUDIJA,
VRANJE



GRAFIČKI RAD
Nastavni predmet: Automatizacija 1
Studijski program: Primenjena informatika




Predmetni nastavnik: Student:
dr Nebojša Dimitrijević, prof. Jelena Milenković 124/PI


Vranje, 2012.

1



Za logičku funkciju :


( ) ( )
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 1 2 3
, , , y f x x x x x x x x x x = = + +



1. Odrediti savršenu disjuktivnu i savršenu konjuktivnu normalnu
formu.

2. Formirati kombinacionu tablicu.

3. Odrediti minimalnu formu logičke funkcije sledećim metodama :
- Metodom algebarskih transformacija,
- Tabelarnom metodom,
- Petrikovom algebarskom metodom,
- Grafičkom metodom Vejć – Karno.

4. Nacrtati logički dijagram.

5. Realizovati logičku funkciju pomoću monostabilnih razvodnika
3/2.


2

Logička funkcija:
( ) ( )
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 1 2 3
, , , y f x x x x x x x x x x = = + +
1. Određivanje savršene disjunktivne i savršene konjunktivne normalne
forme logičke funkcije

Savršena disjunktivna normalna forma (SDNF) logičke funkcije

( ) ( )
( )( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
, , ,
SDNF
y f x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
x
= = + + =
= + + + + + + + =
= + + + + + + + =
= + + +
+ + + +
+
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
+ + +
+ + +

2. Formiranje kombinacione tablice:

Decimalni
ekvivalent
Logički nezavisna promenljiva
Logička
funkcija
Mintermovi

i
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
i
y f =
i
s
0 0 0 0 0
0
1 f =
0 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
1 0 0 0 1
1
0 f =
1 1 2 3 4
p x x x x =
2 0 0 1 0
2
1 f =
2 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
3 0 0 1 1
3
1 f =
3 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
4 0 1 0 0
4
1 f =
4 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
5 0 1 0 1
5
0 f =
5 1 2 3 4
p x x x x =
6 0 1 1 0
6
1 f =
6 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
7 0 1 1 1
7
0 f =
7 1 2 3 4
p x x x x =
8 1 0 0 0
8
1 f =
8 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
9 1 0 0 1
9
0 f =
9 1 2 3 4
p x x x x =
10 1 0 1 0
10
1 f =
10 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
11 1 0 1 1
11
0 f =
11 1 2 3 4
p x x x x =
12 1 1 0 0
12
1 f =
12 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
13 1 1 0 1
13
0 f =
13 1 2 3 4
p x x x x =
14 1 1 1 0
14
1 f =
14 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 
15 1 1 1 1
15
1 f =
15 1 2 3 4
p x x x x = 


0 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 15
1 f f f f f f f f f f = = = = = = = = = =

3
0 1 2 3 4
2 1 2 3 4
3 1 2 3 4
4 1 2 3 4
6 1 2 3 4
8 1 2 3 4
10 1 2 3 4
12 1 2 3 4
14 1 2 3 4
15 1 2 3 4
p x x x x
p x x x x
p x x x x
p x x x x
p x x x x
p x x x x
p x x x x
p x x x x
p x x x x
p x x x x
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=


0 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 15
1
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
i
SDNF i
f
y p p p p p p p p p p p
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
=
= = + + + + + + + + +
= + + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
¿

( )
4
0, 2,3, 4, 6,8,10,12,14,15
SDNF
y =
¿


Savršena konjunktivna normalna forma (SKNF) logičke funkcije


Decimalni
ekvivalent
Logički nezavisna promenljiva
Logička
funkcija
Makstermovi

i
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
i
y f =
i
s
0 0 0 0 0
0
1 f =
0 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
1 0 0 0 1
1
0 f =
1 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + + 
2 0 0 1 0
2
1 f =
2 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
3 0 0 1 1
3
1 f =
3 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
4 0 1 0 0
4
1 f =
4 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
5 0 1 0 1
5
0 f =
5 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + + 
6 0 1 1 0
6
1 f =
6 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
7 0 1 1 1
7
0 f =
7 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + + 
8 1 0 0 0
8
1 f =
8 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
9 1 0 0 1
9
0 f =
9 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
10 1 0 1 0
10
1 f =
10 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
11 1 0 1 1
11
0 f =
11 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + + 
12 1 1 0 0
12
1 f =
12 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
13 1 1 0 1
13
0 f =
13 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + + 
14 1 1 1 0
14
1 f =
14 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +
15 1 1 1 1
15
1 f =
15 1 2 3 4
s x x x x = + + +



1 5 7 9 11 13
0 f f f f f f = = = = = =



4

1 1 2 3 4
5 1 2 3 4
7 1 2 3 4
9 1 2 3 4
11 1 2 3 4
13 1 2 3 4
S x x x x
S x x x x
S x x x x
s x x x x
s x x x x
S x x x x
= + + +
= + + +
= + + +
= + + +
= + + +
= + + +


( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 5 7 9 11 13
0
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
i
SKNF i
f
y s s s s s s s
x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x
=
= = · · · · ·
= + + + · + + + · + + + ·
· + + + · + + + · + + +
[

( )
4
1,5, 7,9,11,13
SKNF
y =
[

3. Određivanje minimalne forme logičke funkcije

Određivanje minimalne forme logičke funkcije algebarskim transformacijama


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 3 4
1 2 3 4
y x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x x x x
x x x x
= + + + +
+ + + + +
+ + + +
+ =
+ =
+ =
+
3 4
1 2 3 4 1 3 4
4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 3 4
3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 3 4
x x
x x x x x x x
x
x x x x x x x x x x x
x x
x x x x x x x x x x x
¹
¹
` ¦
=
) ¦
`
+ =
¹
¦
`
¦
+ =
)
)




5



Određivanje minimalne forme logičke funkcije tabelarnom metodom

Decimalni
ekvivalent
Mintermovi
Binarni prikaz
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
0
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 0 0 0
2
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 0 1 0
3
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 0 1 1
4
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 1 0 0
6
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 1 1 0
8
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 0 0 0
10
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 0 1 0
12
1 2 3 4
x x x x

1 1 0 0
14
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 1 1 0
15
1 2 3 4
x x x x

1 1 1 1


Iteraciona tablica I
Broj
simbola 1
Decimalni
ekvivalent
Binarni prikaz
Sažimanje
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
0 0 0 0 0 0 +
1
2
4
8
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
+
+
+
2 3 0 0 1 1 +

6
10
12
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
+
+
+
3 14 1 1 1 0 +
4 15 1 1 1 1 +


( ) 2
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 0 1 0

( ) 0
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 0 0 0
( ) 3
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 0 1 1

( ) 2
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 0 1 0
2, 3
1 2 3
x x x
0 0 1 –


0, 2
1 2 4
x x x 0 0 – 0 

( ) 0
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 0 0 0

( ) 0
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 0 0 0
( ) 4
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 1 0 0

( ) 8
1 2 3 4
x x x x 1 0 0 0
0, 4
1 3 4
x x x 0 – 0 0 

0, 8
2 3 4
x x x – 0 0 0 





6
( ) 2
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 0 1 0

( ) 2
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 0 1 0
( ) 6
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 1 1 0

( ) 10
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 0 1 0
2, 6
1 3 4
x x x
0 – 1 0


2, 10
2 3 4
x x x – 0 1 0 

( ) 8
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 0 0 0

( ) 8
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 0 0 0
( ) 12
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 1 0 0

( ) 10
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 0 1 0
8, 12
1 3 4
x x x
1 – 0 0 

8, 10
1 2 4
x x x 1 0 – 0 

( ) 4
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 1 0 0
( ) 4
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 1 0 0
( ) 6
1 2 3 4
x x x x 0 1 1 0
( ) 12
1 2 3 4
x x x x 1 1 0 0
4, 6
1 2 4
x x x
0 1 – 0 

4, 12
2 3 4
x x x – 1 0 0 

( ) 6
1 2 3 4
x x x x
0 1 1 0

( ) 10
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 0 1 0
( ) 14
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 1 1 0

( ) 14
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 1 1 0
6, 14
2 3 4
x x x
– 1 1 0  10, 14
1 3 4
x x x
1 – 1 0 

( ) 12
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 1 0 0

( ) 14
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 1 1 0
( ) 14
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 1 1 0

( ) 15
1 2 3 4
x x x x
1 1 1 1
12, 14
1 2 4
x x x
1 1 – 0 

14, 15
1 2 3
x x x 1 1 1 – 


Iteraciona tablica II
Decimalni
ekvivalent
Implikante
Binarni prikaz
Sažimanje
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
0, 2
1 2 4
x x x 0 0 – 0 +
0, 4
1 3 4
x x x 0 – 0 0 +
0, 8
2 3 4
x x x – 0 0 0 +
2, 3
1 2 3
x x x
0 0 1 – b
2, 6
1 3 4
x x x
0 – 1 0 +
2, 10
2 3 4
x x x – 0 1 0
+
4, 6
1 2 4
x x x
0 1 – 0 +
4, 12
2 3 4
x x x – 1 0 0 +
8, 10
1 2 4
x x x
1 0 – 0 +
8, 12
1 3 4
x x x
1 – 0 0 +
6, 14
2 3 4
x x x
– 1 1 0 +
10, 14
1 3 4
x x x
1 – 1 0 +
12, 14
1 2 4
x x x 1 1 – 0 +
14, 15
1 2 3
x x x 1 1 1 – c




7






0, 2
1 2 4
x x x
0 0 – 0 0, 4
1 3 4
x x x
0 – 0 0
8, 10
1 2 4
x x x
1 0 – 0

2, 6
1 3 4
x x x
0 – 1 0
0, 2, 8, 10
2 4
x x
– 0 – 0 

0, 4, 2, 6
1 4
x x 0 – – 0 


0, 4
1 3 4
x x x
0 – 0 0

8,10
1 3 4
x x x
1 0 – 0
8, 12
1 3 4
x x x
1 – 0 0

12, 14
1 2 4
x x x
1 1 – 0
0, 4, 8, 12
3 4
x x – – 0 0 

8,10, 12,14
1 4
x x
1 – – 0 


4, 12
2 3 4
x x x
– 1 0 0

2, 10
2 3 4
x x x – 0 1 0
6, 14
2 3 4
x x x
– 1 1 0

6, 14
2 3 4
x x x
– 1 1 0
4,12, 6,14
2 4
x x
– 1 – 0 

2,10, 6,14
3 4
x x – – 1 0 

8, 12
1 3 4
x x x
1 – 0 0

0, 8
2 3 4
x x x
– 0 0 0
10, 14
1 3 4
x x x
1 – 1 0

2, 10
2 3 4
x x x – 0 1 0
8,12, 10,14
1 4
x x
1 – – 0 

0, 8, 2, 10
2 4
x x
– 0 – 0 


0, 2
1 2 4
x x x
0 0 – 0

0, 8
2 3 4
x x x
– 0 0 0
4, 6
1 2 4
x x x
0 1 – 0

4, 12
2 3 4
x x x – 1 0 0
0, 2, 4, 6
1 4
x x
0 – – 0 

0, 8, 4, 12
3 4
x x
– – 0 0 

2, 6
1 3 4
x x x
0 – 1 0

4, 6
1 2 4
x x x
0 1 – 0
10, 14
1 3 4
x x x
1 – 1 0

12, 14
1 2 4
x x x
1 1 – 0
2,6, 14,10
3 4
x x
– – 1 0 

4,6, 12,14
2 4
x x
– 1 – 0 




8

Iteraciona tablica III
Decimalni
ekvivalent
Implikante
Binarni prikaz
Sažimanje
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
0, 2, 4, 6
1 4
x x
0 – – 0
+
+
0, 4, 2, 6
1 4
x x
0 – – 0
0, 2, 8, 10
2 4
x x
– 0 – 0
+
+
0, 8, 2, 10
2 4
x x
– 0 – 0
0, 4, 8, 12
3 4
x x – – 0 0 +
0, 8, 4, 12
3 4
x x
– – 0 0 +
2,6, 10,14
3 4
x x
– – 1 0 +
2,10, 6,14
3 4
x x – – 1 0 +
4,6, 12,14
2 4
x x
– 1 – 0 +
4,12, 6,14
2 4
x x
– 1 – 0 +
8,12, 10,14
1 4
x x
1 – – 0 +
8,10, 12,14
1 4
x x
1 – – 0 +

0, 2, 4, 6
1 4
x x
0 – – 0

0, 2, 8, 10
2 4
x x
– 0 – 0
8,10, 12,14
1 4
x x
1 – – 0

4,6, 12,14
2 4
x x
– 1 – 0
0, 2, 4, 6,
8,10,
12,14
4
x
– – – 0 

0, 2, 8, 10,
4,6, 12,14
4
x – – – 0 

0, 4, 8, 12
3 4
x x – – 0 0


2,6, 10,14
3 4
x x
– – 1 0


0, 4, 8,
12, 2,6,
10,14
4
x
– – – 0 





Iteraciona tablica IV
Decimalni
ekvivalent
Implikante
Binarni prikaz
Sažimanje
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
0, 2, 4, 6, 8,10, 12,14
4
x
– – – 0
0, 2, 8, 10, 4,6, 12,14
4
x

– – – 0 a
0, 4, 8, 12, 2,6, 10,14
4
x

– – – 0



9



( )
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 1 2 3
, , , y f x x x x a b c x x x x x x x = = + + = + +


Određivanje minimalne forme logičke funkcije grafičkom metodom Vejč-Karno







( )
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 1 2 3
, , , y f x x x x a b c x x x x x x x = = + + = + +



1
x

2
x


0
1
4
1
12
1
8
1


1

5

13

9



3
1
7

15
1
11



2
1
6
1
14
1
10
1

3
x
4
x


4 1 2 3 1 2 3
y x x x x x x x = + +




Tablica pokrivanja
E
s
e
n
c
.

i
m
p
l
.

Proste
implikante
Decimalni
ekvivalent
Mintermovi
0 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 15

*
4
a x =
0,2,4,6,8,
10,12,14
© + © © © © © +
*
1 2 3
b x x x = 2,3 + ©
*
1 3 4
c x x x = 14,15 + ©
Pokrivanje \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \
Proste
implikante
Decimalni
ekvivalent
4
a x =
0,2,4,6,8,10,12,
14
1 2 3
b x x x = 2,3
1 3 4
c x x x = 14,15

10
Provera rešenja minimizacije logičke funkcije Petrikovom metodom



( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
{ }
, ,
P a a b b b a a a a a c c
P a a b a
P a b b b
P a c c c
P a b b a a a a c a b c
P a b c
S a b c
= · + · · · · · + ·
= · + =
= + · =
= + · =
= · · · · · · · = · ·
= · ·
=


( )
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 1 2 3
, , , y f x x x x a b c x x x x x x x = = + + = + +


Tablica pokrivanja
E
s
e
n
c
.

i
m
p
l
.

Proste
implikante
Decimalni
ekvivalent
Mintermovi
0 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 15

*
4
a x =
0,2,4,6,8,
10,12,14
© + © © © © © +
*
1 2 3
b x x x = 2,3 + ©
*
1 3 4
c x x x = 14,15 + ©
Pokrivanje a a+b b b a a a a a+c c

11

4. Logički dijagram

( )
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 1 2 3
, , , y f x x x x a b c x x x x x x x = = + + = + +






12
5. Principijelna pneumatska šema po CETOP standardu