You are on page 1of 1128

Hutgers llmuprattij

LIBRARY

BY BEQUEST
OF

JAMES NEILSON. 1844-1937


CLASS OF 1866 DOCTOR OF PHILANTHROPY
TRUSTEE AND BENEFACTOR OF RUTGERS UNIVERSITY

1886-1937

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2010 with funding from

Lyrasis

Members and Sloan Foundation

http://www.archive.org/details/historyofhunterdOOsnel

HISTORY

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET


COUNTIES,

NEW JERSEY,

Illustrations and Biographical Sketches

PROMINENT MEN AND PIONEERS.

COMPILED BY JAMES
ASSISTED BY FRANKLIN ELLIS

P.

SNELL.

AND A NUMEROUS CORPS OF WRITERS.

PHILADELPHIA

EVERTS

ct

PECK,

1881.

PRESS OF

J.

B.

LIPPINCOTT

It

CO.,

PHILADELPHIA

ftps.
C.M.

PREFACE
The
design

of

this

work

is

to

give the two counties

treated

an impartial,

faithful

chronicle of their past from the date of earliest settlement


as originally planned

down

to recent times.

Its scope,

and

laid

out,

seemed more than ample, yet so very much

that

was

valuable for record and for preservation was gathered in the rich historic field wherein

we
its

have delved

that,

notwithstanding arduous

labor

at

condensation,
his

it

has

far

outgrown

proposed dimensions.
passing day
structure
is

The author only


'to the treasures

regrets

that

labors

must now

cease, as

every

is

adding

developed by historical research.

But here the super-

reared upon which the future historians of these counties

may

build.

We

have

striven to gather the scattered threads of the past


to

and

to

weave them

into a complete fabric,

which the "Art preservative of arts"

shall give immortality.

Over one year of

patient, painstaking,

and conscientious labor has been devoted to the


staff

above design by the author and his numerous


tributions of

of assistants, supplemented

by the conyears of

many

of the ablest

citizen's

of these counties,
is

equal

to

nearly ten

constant effort of one person.

The
said

result

embodied

in this

volume; but the obstacles and

vexations
pages.

attendant

upon

its

preparation will

hardly be realized

by those who peruse

its

Lord Macaulay has


men.
shall

that perfection in historical composition was not attainable

by

fallible

If there be no errors of fact or date in the legion of items herein confeel

tained,

we

that the great English historian was at fault.


local

AVe have given many items of


beneath the "dignity of history."
interesting to those
to the

history which
is

may by some
to

be thought trivial or

But who
us'.'

competent

judge of what 'may be valuable or

who come

after

Much
many
lias

valuable information has undoubtedly been lost


historical writers.

world by the fastidious views of


in

Instead of polished sentences


to go, as far as practicable, back-

or well-turned periods, truth


to the

Us simplicity

been our aim,


to

original

sources

of

information, and

verify by corroborative testimony whenever


us.

possible, while correcting the errors of writers

who have preceded

From
to

colonial

and other documents

in the

State archives, from county and township records,

family manuscripts, printed publications, and innumerable private sources,

we have endeavored

prepare a history which should be accurate, instructive, and an honor to the counties represented.

AW'

will

not

here enumerate (as

is

customary with many authors) the volumes which have


lis!

been consulted in the preparation of this work, for several reasons: the
pages,

would

till

Beveral

would be read by very few, and would be

a needless

repetition, as a large proportion

of

them are given through the

text in parenthetical references, foot-notes, etc.

\Ye are under special obligation, however, to the Reverends Geo. 9. Moii. DJD.,
ington
:

Klein ;

Edward Tanjdre

'orwin, IU>., of Millstone

Abram

Messier, D.D., Somerville

P. A.

PREFACE.
Studdiford, D.D., Lambertville
;

John B. Thompson,
P.

Catskill,

N. Y.
;

C. S. Conkling, Stockton

Aaron
ton;

S.

Laning, Pennington

J.

W. Blattenberger, Reaville W. W. Blauvelt, D.D., LamingW.


and George H. Larison, Geo.

John C. Rankin, D.D., Basking Ridge; N. McConaughy, Somerville, and numerous other
;

clergymen

to Doctors

John Blane, Henry Race, Cornelius


etc.
;

R. Sullivan, Henry G. Wagoner,

to

John M. Hyde and Matt. H. "Van Derveer, the present


officials generally,

county clerks, and the several township clerks, and public


to the publishers of the

of both counties

Flemington Republican and Democrat; the Lambertville Beacon and


Unionist,

Record; the Clinton Democrat; the Somerville Gazette,

and Messenger,

etc.;

Hon. Hon.

Ashbel Welch and Martin Coryell, Esq., of Lambertville; Hon. John T. Bird, the
Alexander Wurts, Charles Bartles, Esq., the
seller,

late

late Col. J. C. Rafferty, J.


;

B. Hopewell, E. Vos-

Runkle Rea,
;

etc.,

of Flemington
S.

Judge Foster, of Clinton


;

Judge Joseph Thompson,

of Readington

Hon. F.
;

Holcombe, of Delaware

Wm.

B. Prall, of East

Amwell

W. R.
J. S.
;

Srope, of Frenchtown

Lewis H. Taylor, Esq., of High Bridge ; A. V. D. Honeyman, Esq.,


Esq.,

Hon. Alvah A. Clark, Hugh Gaston,

John C. Garretson, Esq., Ed. A. Veghte,


;

Haines, Henry P. Mason, and others, of Somerville

the

McDowell

family, of Bedminster

Hon.

Calvin Corle, of Branchburg; John F. Hageman, Esq., of Princeton; Jacob Weart, Esq., of
Jersey City
;

Hon. D. F. Beatty, of Washington, Warren Co.


111.
;

Wm.

Pierson, Jr.,

M.D., Orange,

N.

J.

Judge James N. Reading, Morris,


;

Ellis

A. Apgar, A.M., State Superintendent of

Public Instruction
Jersey, A. F.

Joseph H. Hough, Grand Secretary of the


others.

M. W. Grand Lodge

of

New

and A. M., and a multitude of

To

the publishers also

we would acknowledge

indebtedness, not only for valuable assistance,

but especially for the elegant dress with which the historical body has been clothed and embellished.

The
will be

result of our labor,

now

ended,

is

submitted to the oitizens of Hunterdon and Somerset


facts, traditions, reminiscences,

Counties, with the assurance that this

volume of

and memoirs
career,

by them prized and cherished

as the faithful record of their past

and honorable

and

as such be

handed down

to future generations.

JAMES
Philadelphia, March
JO,

P.

SNELL.

1881.

EEEATA.
The name
etc.,

of D. P.

Kenyon

is

spelled

Kinyon

in

some

instances, in connection with the Savings

Bank,

in Bridgcwater township history,


to

an error occasioned

by following printed copy, furnished with MSS.,

and supposed

be good authority.
line, for

On

page 779, 31st

"1737" read 1837.

CONTENTS.
HUNTEKDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES.
CHAPTER
DISCOVERY imi O'MI'Itmv OF
Knrly Navigators Hondrick
I.

CarrierThe Tories Penn and Chew under Surveillance

in

Hu

County Iaiiu
\

Council "f Safety,

otc

British evacuate Philadelphia

and pass through

New Xmiihiums.
1

riny oroes at Coryell's

Battle

..f

Jersey Monmouth, !<

New

Wash-

HudsonThe "Half-Moon"Tho

nitod

Now
M.v

Nothorlnnd Company
;uid

Colonization
II.

by the Dutch and D


9

Do Vriea Sir Edmund Ployden

CHAPTER
IMiiin Occupation
Thi

Hunterdon Troops behave gallantlyCantons Gen. Washington and Wife ai Somervllle Five Soldiers Hung ... Knox's Heodqnartoi PIi -Grand Ball aud Supper Bimcoe's Bold in 1779Burning of the Churob, Court-house, 11 Peter G. Voorhees killed The Ladies of Hunterdon and SomersoofthoWar- TheCurrency Patriotism andor War Burdens
an.
1

The
1

Original People.

Proces!
Hunterdon
Continental
I
.

iii
1

60

Ugonqnln Nation The Delaware*, 01 Lennl-LennpcThe "Tur11.." "Turkey," and " Wolf" trfbei roditlons aa to the Orl Delaware! U ids and RemainsIndian Title to Lands In Hunter11 don and SomersetIndian Paths, etc

CHAPTER
ami
Souei

VII.
-

in

the

Revolution

CHAPTER

III.

.1.

Bstnbllshmei
lllti.-.-i.-

EstablishmentThe
Muster-

Iteri iiilin.'

and

Niu Jersey under Daren ami English Rule.


Bwediih SettlementOceapatlon by the Dutch
lish in 181

raised, ai
1

Subjection to

th
j

Mni
li

Hllitia
1

The
tics,

(juntas of tho
I.

Tw
SI

-Roster of Bev-

i Governors'
to

Btc
Settlenion

Grant

to the

olutl inary SoliUers

th

who

served in the

Jork, and transfer


Qovi rnoi

Berkeloy and Corterel

Edward ByUinga
ilidnted
10

liaand Continental

Army
1

Quaker Emigration and


lown
to 1770

11

VPTER
11

VIII.

Slavery and 6

is

Hunterdon

CHAPTER
i:.i
i

\sd Somerset.

IV.
ii.

Institution" In tho Seventeenth Centura*

The Protriei art Got ernueni


.1.1

01

v.

tsr

.1
1

Coloulul

DaysIndian
Sluvei
ffegi

Slaves
;

Bedemptione
'
. 1

Servants In the
11.

oy under the Pro]

Thome

Kudyord
.

illl

Ion
II

with Ihc
II

Pi

ivim

ol

Mi

w York

Gov-

ery 'II. by Negro

null.

.1

him in Hunterdon

ornora Barclay

Dudloj

m,

tc

Opposltioi
'

Hi. hi in

1734

'.

Opposition to the Proprietary Qovorni

The Crish

Surrender
i\

Hanumtsston
'

Bev.

Dr. Blnloj

and the "American Colonisation


l"l

Drown, In 1702
ill
Mi

IPTEB

V.
is

ill

WTKK
1

IX.

i,iii\
('mi Hi. li
I

ami Somerset
O01
ion esi
fflrsl

Counties
1 .

the

Revolution.
The Comlunl

The

mltteajof
1

lem

and

aqul
.

Iii
. 1

The Mlnlslnk PathThe Old Burlington PathTho Road" and "Lower Bead"1
1

'

Dppei

Provincial Con

Che MiliI

Compai
Swift-Sure
1

tia

and "Minute-Hen"
1 1

The "Coromil
he Hunl

Safety"

Ammunition Tho dent Stats The I!..

Into
I

an Indepen-

aobetween Trenton and Hew Coach-Lino"The Trenl


1
I

Bi
I

on Mail-Coach
bines, etc.
tonst) notion,

1;

the

itnt

in
1..

'.any The
Battle
<.f

-.

..

Brunswick
'

1..

Plemlngton
1

Express
'

III.

The

Enemy's Advuueo
tin.

tin

....

-i.

n.

....

.1.

in

[plenoy,

Delaware
ton

The Fights
at
ai

Washington

ai Trenton and assanplnlf Pluckamin Captain

plotlon

to.

n
1.

Ot mThe Central ltallroadof

and

a \

Jorsej

South

Bran.

1:

illroad

-Hi
I

goes into Winter Quartei

Horrj

Delaware and Bound


rood and Canal

Company ".The

.-oy Bail-

Bel 106

CHAPTER
Hunterdon
Tho Marvelous
D
.

I.

\Nn

Somersbt

Counties

i\

the

Revolution

CHAPTER
Hunterdon
intj
i:>
11
I

X.
in

(CbntfnuecJ).
CI
n.
II

unties

the

War

o the

Dton nnd
iwe'
I

.f

tho ltriti-h

ill

and Hunterdon
Bklrmlsh
al

tlon In the
('... iii-u.
1

the Poople

People
the
i.

Weston, Somorset

D
1..

1,1
..f

Hunterdon and Somorset


the
Ki.-I. I
..f

British
).

iii.
- 1

clio

by the
in
."

Imai Icon
in the HI
\
1

New
I

Km;
iii..

Washington Rock" Atl


in

11'!

pi

onghold
\ni.'i
II..
[1

in.

march
l..n'
I

thi

Ion t" the

OHAPTER
Tniitn
I-

XI.

\\ llsllill
1

an.

Soul

Binndywtnc

nor calls

for Tin
.

Irrollnghuyson's Expedition toStal

take the Field-

CONTENTS.
ments of tbe Third Infantry
Losses
cellorsville

At the Battle of Gaines' Heavy Gen. Taylor Wounded Crampton's Gap Campaign of Chan31111

Battles of the Wilderness


CHAPTER

Its

Last Fight, at Cold Harbor

Early Settlement The Quakers make first Settlement, in 1676 First Church First Accurate Survey in Hunterdon, 1707Tax-roll of 1722Early Settlers in Various Portions of the
Proprietary Tracts

Regiment Mustered Out and DisbandedSketch of Brig.-Gen. George W. Taylor Roster of Officers and Men from Somerset County.... 119
XII.

County
lution

Early BridgesFirst Growth, etc

Road Early Mills During

the Revo-

182

CHAPTER

III.

Fifth and Sixth Infantry Regiments.


Hunterdon County furnishes a Company for each Regiment Officers of the Fifth and Sixth Infantry Leave " Camp Olden" Form a Part of

Organization and Civil History.

the Second

New

Jersey Brigade

Assigned

to

duty as the Third Bri-

gade, iu Hooker's Division Movements on the Potomac Battle of Williamsburg Fair Oaks Losses in the Peninsula Campaign En-

gaged at Bristow Station, Chantilly, etc. Unflinching Bravery at Gettysburg Superb Behavior at Spottsylvania Court-house Other engagements Muster Out Rosters of Co. A, Fifth Infantry, and Co.

Hunterdon setoff from Burlington Changes in its Territory First Officers Townships Colonial Elections Poll-List of 173S First Deed on Record Innkeeper's Prices in 1722Early Taverns LicensedExtracts from " Records of the Proceedings of the Justices and FreeholdWolf and Panther Bounties First Meeting of ers, beginning 1739" the Board at Flemington, etc 190

CHAPTER
First Courts

IV.

H, Sixth Infantry Regiments

124

Courts and County Buildings.

CHAPTER

XIII.

First

Fifteenth Infantry Regiment.


Three Compauies from Hunterdon and Somerset Leave for Washington Construct "Fort Kearney" Tbe Fifteenth at Fredericksburg Michael Mulvey, Co. G, the first Man killed Battle of Chancellorsville The " Wilderness" Capt. Yanderveer and Lieut. Hamilton wounded

and

Jail at

Trenton

Judges, Magistrates, and Grand Jury Court-house First Record of the " Cort of General Quarter

from "Minutes of the Hunterdon County Court" Notable Early Trials Orphans' Courts Trials for Murder The County Buildings 196
Sessions"

Extracts

Roster of Casualties in

CHAPTER
The Bench and Bar
of

V.

the vicinity of Spottsylvania Court-house

In the Charge at Cold Harbor With Sheridan's Army in the Shenandoah Yalley Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek Engagements Maj. Boeman killed List of Battles of the Fifteenth Rosters of Officers and 132 Enlisted Men of tbe Companies from these Counties

Hunterdon County.

CHAPTER XIV.
Thirtieth and Thirty-first Infantry Regiments.
Rendezvous at Flemington
Sept. 17, 1862

Both Regiments Mustered into Service Officers of Regiments, and of Hunterdon and Somerset Companies Movements in Virginia, with the Army of the Potomac Promotion of Lieut-Col. Chadek, Major Ten Eyck, Major Honeyman, etc. The Two Regiments at the Battle of ChancellorsvilU The Thirty-first Regiment, as Rear-Guard, hold the Enemy in Check Other Movements and Services of these Commands Rosters of the 142 Companies from Hunterdon and Somerset Counties

Hunterdon County noted for the Ability of her Judges and the Brilliancy of her Bar Early Colonial Judges Judges and Justices Samuel Johnston, Samuel Tucker, Daniel Coxe, Isaac Smith, Moore Furman, Jasper Smith, John Mehelm, John Dagworthy, Andrew Smith, Stacy G. Potts, John Carr, John S. Stires, Joseph Reading, etc. Eminent Jurists Early Lawyers Later Lawyers Biographical Notices of George C. Maxwell, William Maxwell, Joseph Bonnell, Thomas Potts Johnson, Samuel R. Stewart, Nathaniel Saxton, William H. Sloan, Alexander Wurts, Garret D. Wall, Richard Howell, Samuel Lilly, James N. Reading, Samuel Leake, George A. Allen, Richard S. Kuhl,

etc.,

202

CHAPTER

VI.

The Medical Profession of Hunterdon County.


Medicine and Doctors in the Early Days Tho District Medical Society of Hunterdon County Biographical Sketches of the Physicians of the

CHAPTER XV.
Thirty-fifth Infantry, and Other Regiments.
Officers of the Thirty-fifth

County, both dead and living


etc

History of Homoeopathy in Hunterdon,


210

Regiment, and of Company A Movements of the Regiment in Virginia and in the Southwest In the Georgia Campaign, with Sherman Capt, Angel killed Battle of Decatur In Front of Atlanta " March to the Sea" Close of its Campaigning, and Muster Out Roster of Co. A Hunterdon and Somerset Men in other Regiments: Co. F, Ninth Infantry; Co. E, Eleventh Infantry; Co. B,

CHAPTER
First

VII.

The Press of Hunterdon County.


State The First Paper in the County The Hunis now Hunterdon The Hunterdon Republican Clinton Newspapers The Lambertville Press

Newspaper

in the

terdon Gazette, the Pioneer Paper in what

Thirty-eighth Infantry

149

CHAPTER XVI.
Educational and Statistical.
The Early Dutch enjoin the Support
of a Schoolmaster, in

The Press

of

Frenchtown Other Papers

235

CHAPTER
1629 First
Prefatory

VIII.

Authors op Hunterdon County.


Remarks Sketches
of Forty-soven

Schoolmaster and School-house in New Jersey The Scotch-PresbyThe Quakers and Schools terians bring Schoolmasters with them

Authors of tho County,


238

arranged Alphabetically, with List of their Publications

Colonial LegislationTho Colleges School-Fund created in

1817

Subsequent

[lOgifllatiop, etc.

Free Schools Educational

Statistics of
etc..

CHAPTER

IX.

Hunterdon and Somerset Counties Statistics of Population,

163

Societies.
Sketch of the Hunterdon County Bible Society Hunterdon County Agricultural Society County Grange, Patrons of Husbandry Tho

Temperance Alliance
Association

Teachers'

Institutes County Sunday-School


245

CHAPTER

I.

CHAPTER

X.
of Hunterdon County.

Physical GteooiiApHr and Geology of Hunterdon County.


Mountains, Streams, and other Physical Features of tho County logical Formations, etc

Goo159

Some of the Prominent


Gen. Daniel
Col. Marie

Men

Morgan Gen. Philomon Dickinson Gen. William Maxwoll

Col. Charles
Job
ii

CHAPTER
Title derivedfrom the
larity in

II.

Land Titles and Settlement.


Crown-Deeds from IndiansHead-lands IrreguSurveys Treaty with Indians, 1703Dividends of Land-

Stewart Col. Philio Johnson Col. Joab Houghton Thompson Col. Isaac Vniith John Muhclm John Hart Stevens Robert Livingston Stevens Edwin A. Slovene Rev. Peter Studdl ford Rev. Casper Wack Kcv. John Van dor veerRev. George S. Mott, D.D. Henry Jo. Maxwoll Eli Bosenhury Potor

Cramer Charles W. Godown Jj'mea M. Ramsey

251

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Civil. List 01
List of National, State,
II

XI.
'im
i

II

IPTER
l;

VI.

rKRDO
Officers

Bex, h
rset

hi,

in

and Count;

County emli
I

TOWNSHIPS AND BOEODGHS OF HUNTERDON COUNTY.


Ille

of

ii,

L
Iluu-li
ii,'
I',

Sou thard, William


!

I.

'

Mann, Willium

205

M. GtlstdH, Ah.,1,

Bnritan

(Ini

Im

IngFleml

untj

Weal Amwell
iwoll

CHAPTER
301

VII.

[he

if

Frenchtown

10G

graphl

ii

11,, -v...

Willi, im

si,

UcKinack, Peter
-

I.

Irlo

ill

Holland
Franklin

421

liam
el,-

II.'

Herri!],

Abraham Tan Boron, the Van H.


I

Dei

sneka, Wil-

430 445
'
ii
1

.Mil

rn IPTEB
i

VIII.

Tewksbury
n

-171

Tiik Press of Soul rsrt


186
..

r
b
I

608
Past: Tht Sbmi

riii, I. hi

683
.

Borough of Clinton

Tht

.Soirrr,

Fb
606

CHAPTER

IX.
SoiIBRSBT I'm \TV.
nd
Living,

SOMEESET
i

GOTJITTT.
;

ry

UtD Alliums The Authoi

hi

alphabetically, with

Biographical

Data and

Listsof their

II

W'TKR
i

I.

Publication!

Oil

Tim:

PhYSIOAX

FjSA

RSBT Coi
I

mi.
<

ll

IPTER

X.

Location Extent Boun,l;m eatu res Geological FormaPhj leal n The Bed Sandstone, Bed Shale, Limestone, Trap, .mil other Books Minerals and Mines, etc
ii

[nstltnti
i.iv

County

Sundaykultural
030

Temperani

CHAPTER
T,

ir.

ini,
i

I'l

k,

il

13ES

I'-,

"in"

mini

v.

ni IPTER
Dutch
Set-

XI.

Prominence.
Barlj Settlement!
-,

I,.,,,

Purchases

The Scotch
i

Burly

John Boyce, Sen

Stirling,
'

tlers,

their Ways and Cust

Style

Building, et
a,
'

Capt John and Qen


T.

Potei

Strj cer, Al
\
.

who purchased Land

In Somerset Count]

Brown, Spence

II.

Cone;

DeWitt Talmago, John

CHAPTER
El
ei
i

IH.

ii len,
Judge Balph Voorheee, Hon, Bynier
11.

Hon. Pel Vegbte, Willium

11.

i,,v,

Org

utizai ion,
I

a
\
I

036
V
.

Original CountiesSomerset as a Township,!

a County
TJ
i,,,l

I'll I'll
1,1-

IPTEB
i

XII.
NTT.
:,Mil

County

ll

Horris Oount"

\,|li

l|

"
Presldei

Rep-

and franklin

Hiddlenx

Tewksbnrj Township u

ni
c,,i

\i-ii:i;
b
>

iv.
r

<-\-

rts

v," Coi

Bi

ii

disgs.

TOWNSHIPS AND VILLAGES OF SOMERSET


COUNTY.
-

,'

ii

rvlllo)

648

ll

EB

v.
i

734

i,,i

Roads ind Bri


ol

"

nti

IlilM

Eh

mention
of
s.

"

Ways"or Boa
OtherHlgl

up Rarltan"
,.,i

afontgomory
rj

Oountg

New Jen
I

Ttfrapl

Harris

6T8

Worth PlainSald

CONTENTS.

BIOGRAPHICAL.
PAGE PAGE
Joseph Williamson
388 388 389 3S9
390 391

Samuel Johnston Samuel Tucker Moore Furman Jasper Smith John Mehelm
Stacy G. Potts

203 203 203

Andrew Larason

204 204 204


205 205
205

Samuel Lilly David Van Fleet

Benjamin Larison Elisha Patterson Tomlinson Isaac S. Cramer Joshua Primmer Wesley Bellis

403 403

Abram

Van Fleet Benuet Van Syckel


V.

JohnKugler Matthew Family


Asa MacPhersou
Daniel Little

404
442
443

205 206
206 206 207
207

George C. Maxwell William Maxwell Lucius H. Stockton Thomas P. Johnson Charles Stewart
Nathaniel Saxton William 11. Sloan Alexander Win ts Garret D. Wall Richard Howell James N. Reading Samuel Leake
Peter
I.

Asa Case

443 444

Hiram Deats
Daniel F. Bcatty
Cornelius Stewart

454
455

207 207 208 208 209 209

Nathan Lance William W. Swayy.e Sylvester II. Smith

456
457

467

Howard

Servis

467
4US 468

210
211 211

Samuel Creveling, Sr John C. Wene Samuel Creveling, Jr

between 468,469
" "
468, 469

Clark

W.

S.

Creveling

John N. Voorhees George A.Allen John T. Bird Jacob Weart

211 212 212 212 213 213

Martin H. Creveling David F.Wene Joseph W. Willever William Tiusman

468, 469

469

409
170

Edmund
Edward

Perry
P. Colliding

W.

R. Little

between
"

470, 471

Peter Vredenburgh

Nathaniel

W. Voorhees

214 214
215 218

John
Theo.

C. Rafforty

J. Hoffman John Rockhill Juhn Manners

Moses Robins N. Schuyler Robert Craig Samuel W. Salter James N. Pidcock

470,471
facing

480

484
485

504
604
506 606
facing

219 219 220

JohnBowne
Oliver Barnet

Ogden Henry H. Schenck, Jr John Honoyman Georgo P. Rex John F. Schenck James H. Studdiford
Isaac

220
.'.

221 221
221

Watson John Kline David M. Kline Albert Shannon Lambert B. Kline Isaac Rowe.
B. A.

607
607 607

Frederic A. Potts

619 520
521

William Egbert

222

Edward

A. Rockhill

222 223 223 224 230 230 230 233


289
291

Charles Carhart

522 523

Edmund
Nicholas

Poller
J.

Josoph King

E. do Belleville

Joseph B. Probasco
Nathaniel B. Boileau

524
624
531

John Blanc

Andrew
John

B. Larison

Jacob Cregar

Lilly

David Neighbour
Robert Van Amburgh Jonathan Dawes

532 640
641

Georgo R. Sullivan Henry Raco Ashbel Welch

John

F. Grandiii,
Ki'itts

M.D

542
543

P.O. Studdiford
Martin Coryell

Josoph

292
293
.1

William Piiterson
Richard Stockton
Potor D.

580 680
681

Wm.

McCready
I

Alr-.;,l|,

II,

II

>U

294

Vroom

(Jen. II.

Larison

botweou 294-295
295 295
296

Richard McDowell
Cornelius Arnctt

Samuel L. Southard William L. Dayton

682 582 583

Andrew Kirkpatrick
William
Griffith

James 0. Weodon JohnSproat


Charles Bartles

584 684 584

297

Thomas

A. Uartwell

338
311

William Thomson

John C. Hopowoll RuiikleR.a


Peter
I.

311

Nevius
i,l,.,

342

John M, Mann Jacob Bergen Jacob R. Havdenbergb


George Mrll
(;, n.
,1,1

584
581
584

'I

i.l

between
"

348,349
348, 319

585 585
680

Jacob Reed
CorneliuH
.la

Frederick Frelinghuysen

W.

Larison

308
367 807

sS. Fisher

Abraham Ten Brooke Williamson


VillianS
t
li.

368

William

Prall

369

Frelinghuysen Theodore Frelinghuysen Theodore Frelinghuysen, Jr Frederick Frelinghuysen Thoo. Frelinghuysen, Jr


.loh n
I

586 580
687

587

CONTENTS.
paob between 738,780
"

Duiiiont Frollnghuyaen

Frederick T. Frclingliuyson

Ephraim II. ni;. Stelle

Stelle

James
Jas. 8.
Jii'i.

S.

Nevlus
ind

"
ij

Goo. H.

Brown

Green
Stockton
Stockton
in

Van Dorn

761

P.
i

niter

'-

Bob*

David W. King
Petei
/..

Smith
ii ii

Almli A. Clark
I

Joaepk

in

Hip

""'
i

Jno, v. ringeman
.Im..

nil,

765

V.

Voorhees
I'll'-

Isaiah
IlilK'li
.!

v
M.

-John II. Anderson Edward Vail Henry V. Voorheea

lai

(iiistuli

is,

.1.

It.-rgoli

John
A. v.

n. Bartlne
|i,

betwei

Honeyman QarritS. Cannon


Abrnna Zabrlekle John Boot?
Win. M. Mi Kitaack
Peter
I.

Tunis Vim
i

Camp
i

769

si
I

ii

A Kevins in nl
Nest

tto 77U
771

Ahram Van
ii.

Striker
."

Voorhees Quid
ll.

772

Abraham Van Baron


Lawrence \ Henry \ an
II.

772

Dervoei
of Sotnervillo..

Tunis
.in
s

Jlvi'it

Bu

li.-iveor,

11.

Vim Cleef
l.inuii

between
"

776, 777

Henry Van Derveer, of Pluckamin..

77",777
7''
I

my

ii.

Van Derveei
Si

Edward

T. Corwln

Garret Von Doren

luys

795
!

henck JncobT. II Sklllman A.T. II. Van Doren Win, 1'- H Klsaack Win. II. Merrill
Ferdinand 8
Peter Ten
.ii".
i:..

Quick David K. Aui.ii


'

"'
7;i7

I.

7 '-

i..
'<

John baac
Peter
!

\.u.

Doren
Voiing
V.
I..

799

v. P. Hull

789

V.8

hi ni

ory G

Wagoner
\

V.Kjrhoes

800 between HI, 801


" " "
800, 801

Ohaunce.i U. Hold

Zachens Bergou
i

Henry

I'.

an

Den

Peter 0.

Von Aradale
.ml

800,801
800,801

Daniel Portei

Abraham
i:.

Messier
..facing

s.

Doughty
ghty

-1

Andrew

I.

anStaats

Iloogland

Davenport Family

Abraham
i

1'.

802
fucing

Jn

B
\

men

804 812

laron

in in

lull, .i:

Moore

"

Seymoui 0. Ti lutm .In.'. T, Van Do vwn


David
Al'iiuii

Albert V.Oarrotaon

Dunn
.1,

Stephen Ganitaon

Powolson
i.l.-

James S.Garrntson
1..II

>'-<"

^<'

Mi Hi
1 1
i

Wlllliim
i

_
>i*
,

SSI

'ii.-

.n.k

Henry
.I..I.II

p. si

'

betwe
"

::

Peter A.

bees

>...,

William H. Gulick

830
631

Whitened
B oknw
\

ii

WlUlara
A.

Mi D

Abraham
II

.1

Suydam
f.,
.

V.

V.

I,.

Nevlos
ins,

W. McDowell ii ni-

/ni'll
1

John G
I
!

> bmp

HI /.HI.

II

ii

'"

llu

W
.

Si

homp

-I

'

W
i

nth
Touretto
n
I:
I '

850 850
f.i.

John Mi

.betwe. n

Henry Duryea
San
1

William a. Van Dorn Al. mil. mi Sniilli

Qlddea
i

Arclilbal

10

CONTENTS.

ILLUSTRATIOITS.
ZHlTXIKrTIEIBIDOIN"
Outline

COTXlsTTYPAGE
between
facing
8,

BETHLEHEM.
Portrait of Sylvester H. Smith

pAGE
facing

407 408

Hunterdon and Somerset Counties Washington's Headquarters at Rocky Hill Hunterdon County Court-House Portrait of John N. Voorhees
of

Map

Howard
" "

Servis

79 202

Samuel Creveling, Sr Samuel Creveling, Jr

between
" " "

468, 469

468,469 408,409 408,469


facing

facing
"

211 213

W.

S.

Creveling

E. P. Conkling
"

Martin H. Creveling
"

John Blane

224

John

Wene David F.Wene


C.

469 409

'.

LAMBERTVILLE.
Residence of A. H. Holcomhe
facing
"

265
282 2S9 291 292

View

of India-Rubber

Works

William Tinsman " Joseph W. Willever Residence of Joseph W. Willever


"
Portrait of
Portraits of

470

between
" "

470, 471

470, 471

Portrait of Ashbel Welch " P. 0. Studdiford " Martin Coryell

"

W.H.Drake
W.
R. Little

"
"

" "

470,471 470, 471


470, 471

Moses Robins and Wife

William McCready

"
"

293 294
294, 295

A.H.Holcombe
" "
"

TEWKSBURY.
Portraits of

George H. Larison
R. McDowell
C. Arnett

between

Nathan and Andrew Schuyler

facing

4S0

facing

295 295

Portrait of Robert Craig " Samuel W. Salter

"
"

4S4
485

James C. Weeden John Sproat

facing

296 297

READINGTON.
Portrait of John Kline " J. N.Pidcock " B.A.Watson
Portraits of Isaac Rowe, David M. Kline, L. B. Kline

facing
" " "

603 604 505


500 607

BAKITAH.
View
"
of Baptist Church, Flemington
in 1767

319

Plan of Flemington
"

326 329
facing "

1S12

Portrait of Albert

Shannon

"

Portrait of C. Bartles " John C. Hopewell


" "

338
341

UNION.
Portrait of F. A.Potts

Runkle Rea
Peter
I.

342
facing

facing

519

Nevius

342

"
" "
"

William Egbert

520
521
facing

Edward A. Rockhill
Charles Carhart

"WEST AMWELL.
Portrait of Cahel F. Fisher " Jacob Reed

522

Joseph King

523

between
"

34S, 349

J.B.Probasco

624

348,349

EAST AMWELL.
Portrait of Cornelius
"

HIGH BRIDGE.
facing

W.

LariBon

366 367
308

Portrait of Jacob Cregar " David Neighbour...

531

facing

632

James S.Fisher
A. T.Williamson

"

CLINTON.
Portrait of Robert Van Amburgh " Jonathan Dawes.....

Nathan Stout
William B. Prall

308
369

facing
"

540
541

"

DELAWARE.
Portrait of Joseph Williamson " Andrew Larason

John Grandin John F. Grandin


Joseph Fritts

642 542
643

388 388

"

"

Benjamin Larison

between
"

388, 389

Residence of Benjamin Larison


Portrait of E. P. Tomlinson " Isaac S. Cramer

388,389 380
facing

SOMEESET
Map
View
of

GOTJlsTTY.
facing

390
391

Land Patents North Half

of Somerset County

502

"

Joshua Primmer

County Court-House Portrait of Frederick T. Frelinghuyson


of Somerset

"
"

568 588 690

KINGWOOD.
Portrait of WcsloyBollis " John Kuglor

" facing

Joseph Thompson Alvah A. Clark


Join, Schorap
f" c '"K

Ml
>

403 404
"

W. H.

Merrill
facing

FRANKLIN.
Besidonce of John Willson
Portrait of Hiram Deata " Daniel Littlo

PoterTon Eyck

002 504 608

CM. Field
faciDg
132

"

"

Daniel Porter

"
"

441
443

BRIDGEWATER.
Viow
of First

"

Asa McPherson Asa Case

443
444

Reformed Church
facing
" "

070 070 680 681


089

Portrait of "

LEBANON.
Viow
"

" 450
"

of Old

Mount Lebanon Methodist Church


faring

the Old Eight-Square School-House

453

Abraham Messier Joshua Doughty E. S. Doughty James S. Davenport John R.Emory


Aaron V. Garretaon
S. C.

facing

092 093

Portrait of Daniel F. Bcatty " Cornelius Stewart

464
450 450 457

" "

Troutman

facing

094 695
096

"

Nathan Lanco William \V. Swayze

"
"

John Van Derveor


David

facing

Dunn

CONTENTS.
PAOK
Portrait of "

11

PAOE
Portrait of
I'.

Abram

J. Powelson George UcBrlde

097

N.

It.

t.inau

between

778, 777

"
698

" " "

William Uodgo

" "
"

Edward T. Corwln Abraham Van Maya


Peter 0. Quick

facing

794

Henry
D. P.

ii.

stunts

between
" "
-

fai

"
"

"

Konyon A. n. Brokaw JohnWhltenack Georgo Lano

David K. Auten

>

"

Jacob
Potei

I'ilis
I'.

79s
"

"

Quick
799 800
facing
n. Hall

099

" " "

John Van Doren


Isaac
l''i'i
1

BEDMINSTEE.
i

V*.

w. \..mig
I

BOO

W.
A.

A. Mi Dowoll

r,,

between 800, 801


"

W. MoDowell
.'.

"
'.

"

800,801 800,801 800,801 800,801


facing

" "

Peter.

Lane

"

" " a
1

" " " "

John Q. Si homp Cv7.Bi homp


Win.
Jolin
It.

730

"
" "

m
7:1

Soaglond
"I
rl

"

nth

801
801

McDuwoll
'i
tie

732

"

'

M
\v. a.

11111
"
"

A.

|i.
.

Staatz

between
I.,,

Van Dorn

FEANKLIN.
7.:t

Abraham Smith

Benjamin
"
"

It.

Bageman

facing
"

804
gil

BEENAHD.
Fortran "f Ephralm It. Stella " O.B. Stelle
I''

Peter A. Voorheei
1

8|2
1 1
1

between

'

738, 739

"

Peter S

.11

facing

-il

-ii
Portrait "f Albert
i

"' Stelle
I'.

" " " "

Jee.

Goitre

"

"

824 825

Ferdinand
David
Joa.

VanDorn
facing

7M
752

"

Jami
Potei

S.

Garretaon
fa

" "

Jacob Wyckoll

W.King
i

Wyi

kofl

"
" "

Peter Z.Smith

;
.

'*

" "

Annln Thoe. Holmes John n. indi


leaiah Smith
I

Joalah Schanck William H.Gulick


i

a-10

"
fa. In

Barcal iw
in
,1

>n

Aii "
1'

Suydam
in

882
raving
%

\.

I.N"
1

"

'I"" "
1

'

ail

in-

833 033
833

BBANCHBUBG.
P
nil

'

"i

Calvin Corli

racing
"
,

706
71:7
' . 1 .

MONTGOMEBY.
facing
hi.
I

"
"

"
" "

Henry V. Voorheea A.Fleming Van Cam] JameaTen Eyck


Tunis
Sii

"

837 838

John Van
iqq
1

/ali'lt
1.

'It

fa.

Netful
nt

770
"
771

Isaac Di "
"

David ".
'

.a

1.

<-...*.

a. Van Nest
(I.

" " "


I.aur.-i

nt

85o
faring

V. Quick

" "

P.

Q.

Schomp

fusing
"

772 7~^
773

850

Henry Duryeo

Tunis D. Myers

HILLSBOROUGH.
Map of
Early Purchases, S<
\
I

WAEBEN.
|a

irsel

County

r,
-

77,,

NOETH PLAINFIELD.
lacing

'

phH.VanCleel

between 770, 777

800

'<?
<-

S 8 U

R,'*Y

iT

*""(/,

^s

J^.1^

1-1

<\

-^

'\

city

or

PLAI NFI ELO

Sto>/i IhnnrlJL'-l

<b
7'..;,';;,';;v.
-

/Jt""-'"'

\>

W^MS^^
'

.>

*m.

/
r;;

O^NyT g/6 M'E

r^/

'

CO

HISTOKY
OF

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES,

NEW
cir A

JEESEY.
he company. She Moon/' This vessel was "i eight; tons' burden, and was equipped for the voyage bj a crew of twenty sailors, partly Dutch and The command was intrusted to Hudparti] English. BOn, and a Dutch " nndi r-chippcr." Or mate, waI

PTEE

I.

DISCOVERY AND OCCUPATION OF NETHERLANDS.


Early Nartgaton

NEW

Rendrlck
rleftSir

Now

Netherland
\

HudsonTtao "Half-Moon" The United Company ColoDlzatioD by tin- Dutch and Do


Eklmnnd Ployden.

M-'V and ]

second

in

and.
Ith

Tin-

"Half-Moon"

left

Am-

sterdam mi the
[t
ia

unnecessary, and wholly beyond the scope of


is

these local annals, to narrate the story, which


ial to
l>\

famil-

every reader of history, of the voyages made


of America
ol

the Bret and other early discoverers of the islands


coasts

day of April, 1609, ami on the Hudson doubled the ('ape of 6th left iln' Texel. .Norway on the 5th of May. but found the sea SO full was of ice that he obliged to change his course. Early in July, after cruising around farther north,

:hh1

Northmen, Columbus, time when tenry entered and explored the noble baj and river Hudson which form a pari of New Jersey's eastern boundary.
Vespucci, and
her

down

the

to the

Hudson arrived on the banks of Newfoundland, where he was becalmed long enough to catch mure cod than
his " small store

west into the Penobscot,

He next went of salt could cure." where he remained a week


a

Of that enterprising navigator


is

-I

Cudson
ol'

very little
England, a
;

cutting timber for


his

new

foremast.

He

then shaped

known, except that he was friend of John Smith, the 6


in his

a native of

course to the southward and entered the Chesa-

der

Virginia

that

youth he received

tion and in ami discoverer. In L607 tie- London Company intrusted him with the nand of an expedition comi-

thorough maritime educalater years became a distinguished mariner


a

He soon after anchored in Delaware Bay. Leaving the Delaware, he proceeded along the coast t" the northward, following the eastern Bhore of \ w Jer8ey, and finally anchored inside of Sandy
peake
Bay.
i

pt. 8,

1609.

missioned
this

io

discover a

shorter

bins

in tin

5th of September (as appears from his jour-'Hi his boat

During L607 and 1608 Hudson made two voj company in search of the "Norfhwesl Ps

nal

Hudson

ashore for the purpose of

after which, the

company discontinuing

further efforts

sounding the waters lying to the south, in the vicinity ofwhatisnowknownasthe"! [orse-ahoe." " Here the
boat's cr.w landed

in that di reel inn,

be turned bis attention towards Hol-

and penetrated Bome diatom

land.

iards
I

miiii, a rising
in

Che celebrated truce between the Dutch and Spanhad about this time been completed, and the maritime power, became ambitious of

in the present limits of Monmouth County," of this State. "They "ere very well received by the

thew

Is,

natives,

who
I

the journal calls


currants'

presented them very kindly with what green tobaCCO,' and also with dried
' '

Conquest

Bast India

Hudson applied to the Dutch Company. The directors of the Zealand


America.

probably whortleberries), which were represented a- having been found in great plenty and of
.cellent quality.

department opposed the Englishman's proposals, but ih, Amsterdam Chamber encouraged the enterprise, and furnished for this important voyage a yacht or "Vlie-boat" called "di Haive-Maan,"- "Half-

(in the 6th of September, Hudson -cut a boat manned with live hand- to explore what appeared to
be the mouth
oi'

a river, at the distance of

about four

10

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


patent for an exclusive trade on Hudson's River, had
built forts

leagues from the ship. This was, no doubt, the strait between Long and Staten Islands, generally called the Narrows.' Here, the writer of the journal observes, a good depth of water was found,' and within a large opening, and a narrow river to the west in which it is evident he refers to what is now called the Kills, or the channel between Bergen Neck and Staten Island. In exploring the bay and the adjacent waters the boat's crew spent the whole day. On their way in returning to the ship, towards night, they were attacked by the natives in two canoes. A skirmish ensued, in which John Colman was killed by an arrow, which struck him in the throat, and two more were wounded. The next day the remains of Colman were interred on a point of land not far from the ship, which from that circumstance received the name of Colman's Point, and which probably was the same
'
' ;

and established trading-posts

at

New Am-

sterdam (New York), Albany, and the mouth of the Rondout Kill. The latter was a small redoubt, on the site of what is now a part of the city of Kingston, N. Y. It was known as the Ronduit,' from whence comes the name of Rondout."f The fort near Albany was upon Castle Island, immediately below the present city, and the one at New York was erected on what is now the Battery. On the 11th of October, 1614, the " United Com'

pany" of merchants, above


special grant.

referred to, received their

This conferred upon Gerrit Jacob Witsen, former burgomaster of the city of Amsterdam, and his twelve associates, ship-owners and merchants of Amsterdam, the exclusive right to " visit

that

is

now

called

Sandy Hook."
sailed
his

Subsequently,

Hudson

and up the

river

which bears

through the Narrows name, exploring it

Returning, he came out of the river October 4th, and without anchoring in the bay
as far as Albany.*

proceeded directly
"

to

Europe.

He says in his journal

and navigate all the lands situate in America between New France and Virginia, the sea-coasts of which lie between the fortieth and forty-fifth degrees of latitude, which are now named New Netherlands, and to navigate, or cause to be navigated, the same for four voyages within the period of three years, to commence from the 1st day of January, 1615, or

We

farre.

The fourth was faire weather, and the wind at north-north-west. weighed and came out of the Riuer into which we had runne so Within a while after, we came out also of The great, mouth of the

runneth up to the north west, borrowing vpou the northern side of the same, thinking to haue decpe water; for wee had sounded a great way with our boat at our first going in, and found seuen, six, and five fathomes. So we came out that way, but we were decerned, for
great Jtiuer that

we had

but eight foot and an halfe water; and so to three, five, three, and two fathomes and an halfe. And then three, foure, fiue, sixe, seven, eight, nine, and ten fathomes. And by twelue of the clocke we were cleere of all the inlet. Then we took in our boat, and set our mayne sayle and sprit sayle, and our top sayles, and steered away east-south-east, and south-east by east, off into the mayne sea; and the land on the souther Bide of the bay or inlet did beare at noone west and by south foure leagues from vs. " The fifth was faire weather, and the wind variable between the north and the east. Wee held on our course south-east by east. At noone I observed and found our height to be 39 degrees 30 inin., our compasse
varied sixe degrees to the west.

Having thus obtained the exclusive right to trade in the new country, they assumed the name and title of "The United New Netherland Company." This company took possession of the Hudson River, then called by them " De Riviere van den Vorst Mauritius," and carried forward their enterprise with commendable zeal. The Hollanders were a trading
sooner."
people, and their bartering- or trading-posts were es-

tablished at points which were natural outlets for all

the trapping regions tributary to the Hudson.

This

led in a short time to the settlement of those points.

Determined upon the settlement of a colony, the


States-General in 1621 granted the country to the West India Company and in the year 1625, Peter Minuet arrived at " Fort Amsterdam" as the first Gov;

"We

continued our course toward England, without seeing any land by


all

ernor or

director.:):

the way,

the rest of this moneth of October.


Blilo

And on

the seuenth

day of Nouember,
1609."

Hoar, being Saturday, by the grace of God,

we

safely arrived in the

Range

of Dartmouth, in Devonshire, in the yeere

This discovery gave the Dutch at once an entrance American continent, where the best furs could be procured without interruption from the French or English, both of which nations claimed this territory. Nor were the Dutch slow in availing themselves of this golden opportunity. "In 1610 it appears that at least one ship was sent hither by the East India Company for the purpose of trading in
into the heart of the
furs,

The first emigrants under Minuet appear to have been from the river Waal, in Guelderland, and, under the name of " Waaloons," founded the first permanent settlement beyond the immediate protection of the cannon of Fort Amsterdam. They settled at Brooklyn, opposite New York, and were the first who professionally pursued agriculture.?
f Broadhead'B Hist, of
I

New

York,

vol.

i.

p. 7. p. CO.

JHist. and Antiq. of the Northern States (Barber),

At

this poriod the English

government seoms

to

ent concerning the continued occupation of the Dutch.

have been indifferThe only meas21,

ure adopted
1G34, to Sir

to effect their

removal was the issuing of a grant, June

which

it is

well

known continued

for a

number

of years to be the principal object of commercial attraction to this part of the


after

upon

Sir

Edmund Ployden for the land they occupied. It conferred Edmund the country between Capo May and Long Island

New World. Five years Hudson's voyage a company of merchants, who had procured from the States-General of Holland a
*

This track was erected into a free New Albion, and over it, with the title was mado governor, ho having, as it is stated, although the fact may well bo doubted," amply and copiously peopled the same with five hundred persons." Ho, however, visited

Sound, for forty leagues inland.

county-palatine by the naino of


of " Earl Palatine," l'loydon

the province, and resided therein sevon years, exercising his

office as

He

explored the river, according to his

own

account, a distance of

governor

but, although

ho may have assumed, on paper, bis rights as

fifty-three leagues

from

its

mouth.

lord of tho soil by granting to various individuals largo tracts of land,

INDIAN OCCUPATION. TIIK OKHilXAL PEOPLE.


Meanwhile, a number of I lanes or Norwegians, who accompanied the Dutch colonists to New Netherlands, had effected a settlement at Bergen, so called from a This was about the city of that name in Norway. the- West India Company disIn b>year 1618.
: '>

11

The language -p. .ken by both these was the Algonquin, but differed materially in dialect. The nation to which the white- gave the name of Delawares was known in the Indian tongue
by the English.
peopli
a~

the

I.enni

l.eiiap.'-.

or

simply the

Lenapfe; the

patched
articles

ship loaded

-\\

settlers, Mib.-istence,

and
by

of trade.

The

vessel
II.-

was commanded

Cornelius Jacobus Mey.

entered Delaware Bay,

same tongue called the Mi which name became corrupted by the more ignorant white men into Mingoes, which la-t term was adopted
to -nine

[roquois were in the

and gave

his

own Dame
('ape

to its

northern cape, which

it

extent by the Delaware- in


to

its

explored the bay and the river, and at length landed and built a fori upon the SiMarton natives (now Timber a stream called by
tains,

May.

He

application

their

Mengwe

neighbors,

contemptuous between

whom

and themselves feelings of hatred existed to no small degree.

detestation

and

Creek), which empties into the Delaware below lamden. The fortification was called "Fort Nassau," and
(

The .Mengwe

or [roquois inhabited the territory ex-

its

erection
ilish

may

be considered as the

first

attempt to

tending from the shores of Lake Erie to those of Champlain and the Hudson River, and from the headwaters of the Delaware, Susquehanna, and Allegany Rivers northward i.. Lake Intario, and they even occupied a large scope of country north of the St. Law<

a settlement on

the

eastern shore of the

Delaware.*
lavid Pietersen >e Vries, In the winter of 1630-31 in command of a vessel, arrived in the Delaware, but
,

rence, thus holding not only the

whole of the State of

found that Fort Nassau had fallen into the hands


of the
Indians.

New
they

York, but

a part

of Canada, which vast territory

He

erected

fort,

colonized his

figuratively styled their

"long council-house,"

ami returned to Holland. During his ali-! ace a feud arose with one of the native tribe, which terminated in the massacre of all the colonists. De Vries returned si. on after with a new company, and. while he mourned tic loss ,>f his former comlie was panions, In- narrowly escaped a similar fate,

new

settlers,

within which the place of kindling the grand eouncilcuse,

Grewas Inondaga, not far from the- present cityofSyraand at that place, upon occasion, representatives
I

saved by the kindness of an Indian woman,

who

in-

formed

hi in that treachery was intended, but, "<lisheartened by repealed disasters, the Dutch soon after

met together in solemn deThese tribes consisted of the Mohawks, Senccas, Cayugas, inondagas, ami Oneidas, an offensive and defensive who collectively for confederation, which has usually been known in Engof
all

the

Mengwe

tribes

liberative council.

lish

annals nv thai of the five Nations. X


the country
nearest

abandoned the country, and for some years not a single European was left upon the shores of the Delaware.''

The Mohawks occupied Hudson River, and held


guardians of the
eastern

the

the post

"I

honor as the
the

entrance of

"long

house." The Senecas, who were the most numerous, in mctie, and warlike of the five tribes, defended the
.

II

PT

1:1:

I.

INDIAN OCCUPATION.-THE ORIGINAL


PEOPLE.
Tho Algonquin NationThe Delaware*,
tle,"

portal of the "house," while the Cayugas were the guardians of the southern border of the the frontier of the Susquehanna Iroquois domain,

western

and Delaware
..fill..

valleys.

The
(

raeida tribe was located

or Lennl-LenapeThe "Tur-

along the shores of Lake

lutario,

and the
kept
lire

Inondagas,

"Turkey,"
nree

unil "

Wolf

tiils Trii.lltions ns to tho Origin

Hounds and RemainsIndian Title Ut don and Somerset Indian ratlin, etc.
Deli

Lands

occupying
the

a large territory in

In

Hunter-

the central portion of

present

State

of

New

York,

watch and

W
as

ward over the council-place and


ii

of the banded

in the
of

firsl

white explorers penetrated into the

valleys

the

found these, with


of

Delaware and Hudson Rivers they all the country lying between them,
i

Mengwe. The league of the Irmplois nations had been formed

at a

date which no Indian chronology could satisthe

ell as the entire area now iprised in the state. \c York and Pennsylvania, peopled by aboriginal tribes of the Algonquin stock, and embraced in

against

two nations, or groups of nations, called bj Europeans the Iroquois and the Delawares, the former ri ni b having been so named by thl and the latter
I

purpose of mutual defense LenapS ami other tribes contiguous to them; and by means of this confederation, which faith and in perfect mutual acthe) kept up ill g cord, they were not only enabled SUCCessfullj to repel all encroachments upon their own territory, but after
factorily establish for the
1

a
It
la

time

to

invade thai of other nations, and

to

carrv

doubted thai

nia authority

was oor eelabllshed OTr the few


the lime.

In-

the terror of their

arms southward
after the

to the

'a;

habitants that then dwelt within


those wl
n

ranting
At a
lator period

ie have
to

come over with him.


VI Won"

There waa,ho
D

"

New

late

at

II

eoon

-.f

the eighteenth
,um1

under lAe
i

century-

and

in thin "Hi
ill,

irdli

Collection of State Papon," ml.

I.

p. 160.]

driven away trom their hunting-grounds

in

the luroHuas, migrated

ii.

How Jer,
ol

1844, p. 11.
\. J.

northward
fell.
Ii. .:

and a
".

nMemay, which

f Barber's Hist, Ooll

12

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


" History of the

and Tennessee Rivers, westward beyond Lake Michigan, and eastward to the shores of the Connecticut. The Delawares the Indian people with which this

Manners and Customs of the Indian


They say

Nations," says of the Delaware nation,


"

history has principally to deal

occupied

They

will not

admit that the whites are superior beings.

domain

that the hair of their heads, their features, and the various colors of
their eyes evince that they are not, like themselves, Lenni Lenape,
original people,

extending along the sea-shore from the Chesapeake to


the country bordering

an

the coast

it

to the foot

Back from reached beyond the Susquehanna valley of the Allegheny Mountains, and on the

Long

Island Sound.

a race of men that


;

has existed unchanged from the be-

ginning of time

but that they are a mixed race, aud therefore a troublebe, the Great Spirit,
it

some one.

Wherever they may

edness of their disposition, found

necessary to give

knowing the wickthem a Great

north it joined the southern frontier of their domineering neighbors, the hated and dreaded Mengwe or Iroquois. This domain, of course, included not only the counties of Somerset and Hunterdon, but all of
the State of

Book, and taught them


serve

how

to read it that they

what He wished them

to do

and what

to

might know and obabstain from. But they

New

such book to let them know the will engraved on their own hearts;. they have had sufficient discernment given to them to distinguish good from evil, and by following that guido they are sure not to err."
the Indians
of their

have uo need of any


:

Maker

they find

it

Jersey.

The principal tribes composing the Lenni LenapS or Delaware nation were those of the Unamis or Turtle,
the Unalachtgo or Turkey, and the Minsi or Wolf. The latter, which was by far the most powerful and
warlike of
all these tribes, occupied the most northerly portion of the country of the Lenape and kept guard

Concerning the origin of the LenapS, numerous and essentially differing traditions were current among

One of these traditions is mentioned by Loskiel in his " History of the Mission of
the various tribes.

the United Brethren


dians," as follows
"

among

the North American In-

along the Iroquois border, from whence their domain extended southward to the Musconetcong* Mountains, about the northern boundary of the present county of Hunterdon. The Unamis and Unalachtgo branches of the Lenape or Delaware nation (comprising the
tribes of Assanpinks, Matas,

Among

the Delawares, those of the Minsi or "Wolf tribe say that in

the beginning they dwelt in the earth under a lake, and were fortunately extricated from this unpleasant abode by the discovery which one
of their men made of a hole, through which he ascended to the surface; on which, as lie was walking, he found a deer, which he carried back with him into his subterraneous habitation that the deer was eaten, and he aud his companions found the meat so good that they unanimously determined to leave their dark abode aud remove to a place where they could enjoy the light of heaven aud have such excellent game in abundance. " The two other tribes, the Unamis or Tortoise, and the Unalachtgos
;

Shackamaxons, Chichequaas, Raritans, Nanticokes, Tuteloes, and many others) inhabited the country between that of the Minsi and the sea-coast, embracing the present counties of Hunterdon and Somerset and all that part of
the State of
boundaries.

or

Turkey jf have much similar notions, but which seems peculiar to the Minsi tribe."

reject the story of the lake,

New
The

Jersey south of their northern

There was another leading tradition current among


the nations of the Lenape, which was to the effect
that, ages before, their ancestors

tribes

who occupied and roamed

over these counties, then, were those of the Turtle and Turkey branches of the Lenni Lenape nations, but the possessions and boundaries of each cannot be
clearly defined.

had

lived in a far-off

country to the west, beyond great rivers and mountains, and that, in the belief that there existed, away

of the Delaware nation, Lenni Lenape, signifies, in their tongue, " the original peoa title which they had adopted under the ple,"

The Indian name

claim that they were descended from the most ancient of all Indian ancestry. This claim was admitted by the Wyandots, Miamis, and more than twenty other
aboriginal nations,
title

towards the rising sun, a red man's paradise, a land of deer and beaver and salmon, they had left their western home and traveled eastward for many moons, until they stood on the western shore of the Namisi Sipu (Mississippi), and there they met a numerous nation, migrating like themselves. They were a stran-

who accorded

to the

Lenape the
in his
into

of grandfathers, or a people whose ancestry ante-

dated their own.


* "

The Rev. John Heckewelder,

The Wolf, commonly called the Minsi, which we have corrupted

3onsoyS, had chosen to live back of the other two tribes, and formed a

kind of bulwark fur their protection, watching the motions of the Mengweand beingal hand toaffordaid in case of a rupture with them. The Minsi were considered the oiosl warlike and active branch of the Lenape. They extended their settlements from the Mini-ink, a place named after them, where they bad their council-seat and lire, quite up to the Hudson

ger tribe, of whose very existence the Lenape had been ignorant. They were none other than the Mengwe; and this was the first meeting of those two peoples, who afterwards became rivals and enemies, and continued such for centuries. Both were now travelers and bound on the same errand. But they found a lion in their path, for beyond the great river lay (he domain of a nation called Allegewi, who were not

only strong in numbers and brave, but more skilled

on the

and south far beyond tin; Susquehanna, Their northern boundaries were supposed originally to be the heads of the great livers Susquehanna and Delaware, and their southern thai ridge of bills known in New Jersey by the name of Muskanucuin, and Within this in Pennsylvania by those of Lehigh, Conowago, etc boundary were their principal settlements and even as late as the year 1742 Hoy bad a (own with a peach-orchard on the tract of laud whore
east,

and

to Ho- west

than themselves in the art of war, who had reared great defenses of earth inclosing their villages and
strongholds.

In the true spirit of military strategy, they permitted a part of the emigrants to cross the river, ami then, having divided their antagonists, fell upon them with great fury to annihilate them. But

built, another on the Lehigh, and others beyond the Blue Bidge, besides many family settlements horo WMory, Manners, and OvsUmi of Hie Indian Nuand there scattered."timlKlvlitJ "ikc inlinlnh;! I'numijlmnia" Ly Hf.r. Jahn Ih ,/.,,,, 1,1,

BTozoretb, in Pennsylvania,

has since been

when
t The

flic

Lenape saw

this they at

once formed an

al-

tribes to

of Somerset arid

which belonged the bands which inhabited the counties Hunterdon.

[NDIAN OCCUPATION.THE ORIGINAL PEOPLE.


and defensive, with the Mengwe. body crossed the river and attacked the Alh iih such desperate eni rgj thai they defeated mill afterwards drove them into the interior, where the] fought from stronghold to stronghold, til] finally, aftei a long and bloody war, the AHegewi were not only humiliated, but exterminated, and their country was occupied by the victors. After this both cations
liance,
II

13

offensive

whole subject of Indian origin may he dismissed aa


profitless.

iin

'tin-

Indians,
in a

from

tin-

earliest

times, considered

themselves
mals, as
i-

manner connected with


tin- fact

certain ani-

evident from various eustoins preserved


that,

among them, and from


aiel

both collectively

individually, they assumed

tin-

names of such

ranged eastward, the Mengwe taking the northern a nc the Lenape still keeping the southern route,
I

animal-.

Loskiel says,
i

'i

besnppoeed thai those animals1 namos which they


I

until, after long journeyings, the

former reached the


i

Mohicanittuck (Hudson River and the latter rested ii >n the banks of the la-nap.'- Wihittuck, the beautiful river now known as the Delaware, and here they iiminl that Indian elysium of which they had
>
|

II

tn

tho

iii..-.i

denominations, Uie
Plio

or, as they aro

commonly called,
i

the

7"...-v,'.

tribe,

among

the

Lcnape, claim
elation, Uio great

dreamed before they


hi'

left

their old

homes

in

the land
i.i

fabled monsl
,

tcoording

their tradition

the setting sun.

on

li

is

back,-f

mil

amphlbion

ithon land ami in the water, which ueittier


.

These, ami other similar Indian traditions

may

or
gives its

have some degree of foundation in fact. There are to-day many enthusiastic searchers through the realms of aboriginal lore who accepl them as authentic, ami who believe that the combined Lenapfi ami Mengwe did destroy a great ami comparatively civilized people, ami that the unfortunate Allegewi who wen- thus extinguished were uo thers than
nut

may

name
I.

to the second tribe,are thai


ui Mi. in.

hi

which always

As

to it"-

li '/,

after

which

tin-

third trilio

i-

inn

he

Is

a rambler by nature, ninning


1

toanother
as
it

WBS
it

I;.

bis

in.

-mi-

1.

the Indiana

i;--t

out

<-i

the Intorlor

-i

the earth,

they believe,
iln-

who by

tho appointment
l'n-i

Spirit killed

deer which
i

tin-

ttonsey found win.

discoveri

'I

artli,

and dark nil-

and which allured thorn to como out of tbeh damp Vox thai reason the woll i- i" be honored and his
them.
It

the

valley.
less
refi

mysterious Mound-Builders of tie- Mississippi This, however, is hut one of tin' many profit-

"These
iiii- j-iini
..i-niiii-...t

is

true,

they

all

use as nati
li

In

ler at

and

conjectures which
:e

have been indulged pie, ami is in to thai unknown


|

in

with

view Mi.
Turtit

I'viin.-ii- wit-

right i"

noway
di

The

ilium

pertinent

t<>

this history.

All Indian tribes were fond

dnra lOithei wiUi a coal or with paint, along the war-path, the wholo animal, carird;

rylng
nt
in.-

agon with
i-i

th*

and

if he leavi
ii

murk

of narrating the long journeys ami great


their forefathers,
i

ma. I.- a atroke on In- enemy,


/..r/.-y
ii

will be ilio

and mries, s of them claiming descent from the Manitou himself. Missionaries and travelers imong them \\ lu> were, or professed to be, familiar with their language and customs have spoken with appan sincerity of Indian chronology running back tu a period before the Ihristian era, and aome of the olil enthusiasts claimed thai these aborigines were
of tracing their ancestry back
great

lbs paint

turkey, and

tl'<-

tribe

sometimes a v

band, in which the animal also can


wiili iln- mn//i.- forward.

w.ilf w bei
I

They, however,do nol generally uw the word ii tribe, bul call themselves f -ini. --u. which
lb

'.

thai

animal having a round

It

does m.t appear that the Indians inhabiting the


..t'

<

interior portion-In

New

Jeraej were very numerous.

an old publication entitled


\.n. L648,
in

"A
it

Description of New
i-

descendants of the

hist tribes

of Israel.
so

But

all

the

clouded and involved in improbability and so interwoven with superstition, and the speculations of antiquarian writers have a] si uniformly heen so ha-ile-- ami ehi ri.nl. that the
traditions of the Indians
In a small, quaint, and now very rarovoluroo entltlod*'
hi
.-I

wen

Albion," ami dated


the native people

thi- section

found stated that were governed by

about

twenty kings; bul

the

Insignificance of the

ilir 1'im\ ln< o anil

'

'ounl

v.

node Publtck
i
i

mi now,
lit

b.\

Qabriol

II

a-.

Ion, 1008,"

and

ii.

I.,

ii

Knights and aldormon .-t the Worth] Uoinboi ol thi WostJ


3
i

Citj
I

M
:

to tin- real of tho


I

tho following,
il

this

"

Tho

Ural

lull
-.1

wore
ol I

tin-

Indtans, being

aupp d

to be part

lh<
'

in their
tl

md
Reverence

thing In their Pi

id

Worship;

foi

power of those " kings" may he inferred by tin- accompanying statement that there were " twelve hundred [Indians; under the two Karitan kings on the north side, next to Hudson's River, and those cat town t.. the ocean about little Egg-bay and Sandy Bamesmall kings of gatte; and about the South Cape two forty men apiece, ami a third, reduced to fourteen in. -n. at i;..\ m. ml." Prom which it appears evident that the SO-Called " kings" Were no more than ordif these scarcely had a nary chiefs, and that sou following. Whitehead, in hi- " East Jersey under
the Proprietary Governments," concludes, from the above-quoted statement, "that there were probably

Villi

tb
it

IFrull
in

they

oflbr,
n

with their Corn and limitFalse

the whole year, to

whom

must please, el many misfortunes will befall thom, and grant Injurlos will iUiem. Whon they bury their Dead, thoy put Into tho Qround wlUi them nslls and tome Mouoj it tokens ol Iholr l.ovo am! Affection), with otti thoy sliall have Oc< islou ful tbem In Uio other World."
tlioy
!

Ami they

belli

tortoise br-c-ama

Luakea.

14

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


with the whites, and care was taken that no trespasses should be committed on their rights, and that they should be justly dealt with." This means,
simply, that the

not more than two thousand [Indians] within the province while it was under the domination of the Dutch." And in a publication* bearing date fifty years later (1698) the statement is made that "the Dutch and Swedes inform us that they [the Indians]
are greatly decreased in

Mengwe

would, so far as lay in their

power, see that none others than themselves should

numbers

to

what they were

when they came

first

into this country.

And

the In-

be permitted to despoil the Lenape. They exacted from them an annual tribute, an acknowledgment of
their state of vassalage,

and on this condition they were permitted to occupy their former huntingThere is found, however, in the ancient workf be- grounds. Bands of the Five Nations, however, were fore extracted from, an extravagant account of the interspersed among the Delawares|| probably more (imaginary) state of "the Raritan king," J whose seat as a sort of police, and for the purpose of keeping a is represented to have been at a place called by the watchful eye upon them, than for any other purpose. English Mount Ployden, "twenty miles from Sandhay The Delawares regarded their conquerors with feelSea, and ninety from the ocean, next to Amara hill, ings of inextinguishable hatred (though these were the retired paradise of the children of the Ethiopian held in abeyance by fear), and they also pretended to emperor, a wonder, for it is a square rock, two miles' a feeling of superiority on account of their more ancompass, one hundred and fifty feet high a wall-like cient lineage and their further removal from original precipice, a strait entrance, easily made invincible, barbarism, which latter claim was perhaps well where he keeps two hundred for his guards, and under grounded. On the part of the Iroquois, they mainis a flat valley, all plain to plant and sow." But there tained a feeling of haughty superiority towards their is no place known answering the above description, vassals, whom they spoke of as no longer men and though the Rev. G. C. Schenck, in a paper read be- warriors, but as women. There is no recorded instance fore the New Jersey Historical Society, suggests that in which unmeasured insult and stinging contempt what is known as the Round Valley (north of Round were more wantonly and publicly heaped on a cowed of Mountain, in the township Clinton, in Hunterdon and humiliated people than on the occasion of a County) corresponds in general with Plantagenet's treaty held in Philadelphia in 1742, when Connossatopographical description^ of the kingly seat. To con- tego, an old Iroquois chief, having been requested by cede this, however, requires a considerable stretch of the Governor to attend (really for the purpose of imagination and it is hard to resist the conviction forcing the Delawares to yield up the rich lands of that it was in the author's imagination, and there the Minisink), arose in the council, where whites and alone, that the impregnable " mount," the " retired Delawares and Iroquois were convened, and in the paradise of the children of the Ethiopian emperor," name of all the deputies of his confederacy said to and the royal guard of two hundred men had their the Governor that the Delawares had been an unruly existence. people and were altogether in the wrong, and that Before the European explorers had penetrated to they should be removed from their lands and then, the territories of the Lenape" the power and prowess turning superciliously towards the abashed Delawares, of the Iroquois had reduced the former nation to the said to them, " You deserve to be taken by the hair condition of vassals. The attitude of the Iroquois, of your heads and shaken until you recover your however, was not wholly that of conquerors over the senses and become sober. We have seen a deed, Delawares, for they mingled, to some extent, the signed by nine of your chiefs over fifty years ago, for character of protectors with that of masters. It has this very land. But how came you to take it upon been said of them that " the humiliation of tributary yourselves to sell lands at all ? We conquered you ; nations was to them [the Iroquois] tempered with a women of you You know you are women we made paternal regard for their interests in all negotiations and can no more sell lands than women. Nor is it fit that you should have power to sell lands, since you would abuse it. You have had clothes, meat, and * Gabriel Thomas' " Historical Description of the Province and Coundrink, by the goods paid you for it, and now you try of West New Jersey in America." want it again, like children, as you are. What makes f Plantagenet's Description of Now Albion. " The Indians of New Jersey were divided among about twenty petty % you sell lands in the dark? Did you ever tell us kings, of whom the king of the Raritans was the greatest." Riker, p. 37. you had sold this land ? Did we ever receive any g "The seat of the Raritan kings was upon an inland mountain (probpart, even to the value of a pipe-shank, from you for ably the Neshiinic Mountain, which answers approximately to tho description)." Rev. E. T. CwvAiCi Mxtoricul Dwvourne, 18G6, p. 9. This is acting in the dark, very differently from it ? The Rev. Abraham Messier, D.D., in his " Centennial History of Somthe conduct which our Six Nations observe in the erset County," says: "If wore inclined favor Biich
die to every one

dians themselves say that two of

them

Christian that comes in here."

wo

to

romance, wo

should claim that no placo so well answers the description [of tho "seat
of the Raritan king"] as the bluff in tho gorge of of the
little

Chimney Rock, north


two rivulets

bridge, on tho west

and east

sides of which tho

flow and meet a few yards southward in tho main gorgo.

Rut wo

are

not disposed to practice on the credulity of our readers, as tho Indiana


evidently did on

Beauchamp Plantagenet, Esq."

policy was pursued by the Five Nations towards the Shawho had boen expelled from the far Southwest by stronger and a portion ofwhom, traveling eastward as far as the country adjoining the Delawares, had been permitted to erect their lodges there, but were, like the Lenape, held in a state of subjection by the Iroquois.
||

The same

waneso,
tribes,

LNDIAN OCCUPATION. THE ORIGINAL PEOPLE


But we find you are none of our blood; yon act a dishonest part in this as in other matters. Your ears are ever open to slanderous reports
sales of land.

15

The second
Calabash

point was thin expressed:

filled
oil

with

Oil

"We hang a and medicine upon your arm.

about your brethren. yov


to

For

all

these reasons we charge


givt

remove instantly/
it.

Wis

do not

you liberty

to

you shall cleanse the ears of other namay attend to good ami not to bad words; and with the medicine you shall heal those
the
tions, that

With

they

You are women! Take the advice of You may ri'tuni a wise man, ami rcmnrr iiuhntllij ! to the other side of the river, where you came from, bul we do not know whether, considering how you have demeaned yourselves, you will be permitted to live there, or whether you have not already swallowed
think about

walking in foolish ways, that they may return and incline their hearts to peace." The third point, by which the Delawares were exhorted to make agriculture their future employment and means
to their senses

down your You maj go either to Wyoming or Shamokin, and then we shall have you under our eye and can gee how you behave. Don't deliberate, bul go, wampum." He then forbade and lake this bell
that land
this side.
throats, as well as the land .m
I"

of subsistence, was thus worded: "We deliver into a plan! of Indian coin and a hoc." Each of these points was confirmed by delivering a belt of

your hand-

them ever again to interfere in anj matters between White man and Indian, or ever, under any pretext, to pretend to sell lands; and as they (the [roquois), he said, had some business of importance to transact with the Englishmen, he commanded them to immediately leave the council, like children and women, as they
were.

Wampum, and these belts were can-fully laid away, ami their meaning frequently repeated. "The [roquois, on the contrary, assert that they conquered the Delawares, and that the latter were forced to adopt the defenseless state and appellation
oi a

ent
I

woman to avoid total ruin. Whether these differaccount- be true or false, certain it is that the Delaware nation has ever since been looked to for the preservation of peace and intrusted with the charge
belt

of the great
cording
to

of peace and chain of friendship,


to preserve inviolate.

which they must take care


the mi Idle of the chain
ci

Ac-

Heciewelder, however, attempts to rescue the '.rood name of the humbled Delawares by giving some of
their explanations, intended to

the figurative explanation of the Indians,


tri:

ndshir.
rest

is

placed upon

"

women,"

as applied

to

show that the epithet them by the Iroquois, was

the shoulder of the Delawares, the

of the Indian

nations bidding
other."

one end

and the Europeans the

originally a term of distinction rather than reproach,

and "that the making women of the Delawares was


boI
; .

"

act of

compulsion, but the

result of their
it

own
was

h is evident that the clumsy and transparent tale of the Delawares in reference to their investiture as

free will

and consent."
I

He

gives the story, as

women was
realize that
that if their

implicitly believed bj

Heckewelder and
did

narrated hv the

>elawares, substantially in this

way

other Indian missionaries,

who apparently

not

The Delawares were always too powerful for the [roquois, so that the latter were at lengtb convinced that if wars between them should continue, their own Thej accordextirpation would become inevitable. ingly sent b message to the Delawares, representing that if continual wars were to be carried on between the nations, this would eventual!) work the ruin of
the whole Indian race
ii
;

which no reader can fail to perceive, championship and explanation were to


all
it

have any influence at


their

Indian friends,
it

on the world's estimate of could hardly be a favorable


to

one, for

would onl\ tend


and
that

show

that they had suf-

fered themselves to be most ridiculously


bj

imposed upon

thai in order to prevent

this

they were willing tO acknowledge themselves a nation of imbecile- rather


the
[roquois,

was necessar; that one nation should lay down their arms ami be called the woman, or mediator, with

than admit
grace on
leu.

a defeat

which

in

power to command the peace between the other nations

them, ami was no courage or warlike -kill.


(

itself brought no disimpeachment of their

who might

be disposed to persist in hostilities


finally

against each other, and

the part

recommending that of the woman should be assumed by the


all

dent

of the

William Henry Harrison, afterward- PresiUnited States, in his " Notes on the

Aborigines," said, in reference to the old missionary's

Delawares, as the most powerful of

the nations.

account of the Delawares' humiliation,


" tint oTen
If

The Delawares, upon


quois, consented
to the

receiving

this

message, and
Hi
U'

not perceiving the treacherous intention- of the [ro-

kev

tdci

bad
to the

tdn

believe thai the Delaware*,


i

proposition.

The

[roquois

Uiem by

their enomloe,

whon thej knbmlttod wore inflnon

degradation pro-

but by the

then appointed

a council and feast, and invited the

Delawares
given, they

to

it,

when,

in

pursuance of the authority


the world hai erei mm
>.t<
I

capital points.

land

they
:

made a solemn speech, containing three The first was thai the Delawares be were) declared women, in the following
you
iii
(i

a.

Thle

i-

notoften

thi

j-.

Thai are rareli oowarde, bat

-nil

more

rarely are they deflctI

llacernmont to dotoct any attempt


i

unite iili the worthy

Gorman

In

words

down

woman's long habit, reaching and adorn you with ear-rings," meaning that they should no more take up arms.
" \\ e diesto

It

was not

a lack

Of bravery or military enterprise

your

feet,

le

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


site

on the part of the Delawares which caused their overthrow; it was a mightier agent than courage or energy it was the gunpowder and lead of the Iroquois, which they had procured from the trading Dutch on the Hudson almost immediately after the discovery of that river, which had wrought the downFor them the conflict was a fall of the LenapB. hopeless one, waged against immeasurable odds, re:

the village of Raritan, and they had a

'

burial-

place'

on the second river-bank,

at the gate of R.

H.

the lonely river flowed on for centuries between its willowfringed banks from summer to winter, while the rich
G-arretson.f

We may

imagine, then,

how

grass on

its

animals except a few deer

meadows wasted because there were no who fed upon it, and how

sistance to the irresistible.

Under

a reversal of con-

the wild fruits afforded feasts for the squirrel and the forest bird or perished untouched because there was

ditions the Delawares must have been the victors and the Iroquois the vanquished, and no loss of honor could attach to a defeat under such circumstances. It

no living creature to enjoy the bountiful repast. It might almost without romance be called a 'retired paradise,' but without its Ethiopian emperor' to rule
'

Lenape should vainly have expended so much labor and ingenuity upon a tale which, for their own sake, had better never have been told, and in which even the sincere indorsement of Heckewelder and other missionaries has wholly
is

a pity that the tribes of the

over

it.

...
it

Its primitive inhabitants, even,

had de-

almost entirely and gone towards the seashore, attracted by the abundant food, and only the beasts claimed it as their home." The following, having reference to the Indian bands
serted

failed to

produce a general

belief.

which were formerly located in Hunterdon County,


from a series of papers entitled " Traditions of our Ancestors," published in the Hunterdon Sejmblican
is

the old Iroquois chief Connossatego, at the treaty council in Philadelphia, before referred to, commanded the Delawares instantly to leave the
council-house, where their presence would no longer be tolerated, and to prepare to vacate their hunting-

When

about ten years since


" There are extant
ity of

many

proofs of Indian tribes dwelling in the vicin-

grounds on the Delaware and its tributaries, the outraged and insulted red men were completely crestfallen and crushed, but they had no alternative and must obey. They at once left the presence of the Iroquois, returned to the homes which were now to be their homes no longer, and soon afterwards migrated to the country bordering the Susquehanna,

Round Valley and Cokesbury. William Alpaugh, now (1870) somewhat advanced in years, living in the east end of the valley, says that when he was a boy he frequently spoke of [with ?] an aged man who bad lived in that section before the Indians bad quitted it. He often went, in company with other boys, to fish in the streams near by, and, while they used hooks, the Indians shot them with spears and arrows. When they came to divide the fish the Indians were always very precise
about
it,

taking care that each one should have his exact share.

Mr. Al-

and beyond that

river.

paugh says that he has seen, near Cokesbury, numerous Indian graves ranged in rows and surrounded by stones piled upright around each mound. ... On the farm where Abraham Hunt now lives, near Cokesbury, there were standing, fifty years ago, near a stream, a number of huts built of sticks, and from four to six feet high, very dilapidated and
;

This forced exodus of the Delawares, however, was chiefly from the Minisink and other sections of country to the north and northwest of the counties of Somerset and Hunterdon, and had very little effect

tradition does not give the time


fact is

when they

did not stand thero.

This

some evidence that the

tribes of this section

made
r

their

home

here.
" The arrow spear-heads found in the Round Valley w ero once very numerous, and some fine specimens are Btill occasionally picked up. Mr. Alpaugh says that in passing over the mountain southeast of the

on the Indian population of the territory now comprised in these counties for, however great may have been the state, and however numerous the subjects, of the traditionary " Raritan king" in earlier years, there were at the time in question (a.d. 1742) but very few
;

valley he discovered, several years ago, a pile of stones in the forest arranged in such a manner as left no doubt in bis mind that they had

been placed there, when the trees were small saplings, to mark an These were the customary monuments in this Indian burial-place.
section.
. .

Indians living within the territory of these counties, and those few were embraced in small roving bands,
few,
if

"There

is

a tradition

among

the descendants of James Alexander that

places of habitation.

any, of which had permanent villages or " The Indians living on the

while he was surveying over the most rugged part of Kushetnnk Mountain ho found a large heap of stones piled together with somo regularity, which, being removed, revealed a rudely-arched vault containing the

Raritan," says the Rev. Dr. Messier,* "were only a remnant of the large and numerous tribe once located
there.
clirii

It is said they left and went to live at Metubecause the freshets in the river spoiled the corn which they were in the habit of burying in pits on Another inducement was the fish, the lowlands.
oysters,

remains of seven warriors, with their arms, ornaments, and utensils around thorn. There were beads of bono and copper, wrist- and armbands of the Bame metal, and a number of pipes, besides leather leggins and other articles of Indian dress. Tho general appcaranco was that thoy wore all warriors of the same tribe, and to each ono was affixed the symbolic characters showing the order u which they had succeeded each other. Thore was nothing iu common in these relics with those of the
i

and clams so

easily obtained

of Raritan Bay.
in

The immense heaps of


its

on the shores shells found

then existing tribe to show that thoy wore tho same people. The trees soemod to have grown there since this vault was built, and the probability is that it was tho resting-place of soven generations of kings who

had roamed up and down hero long beforo tho white people came.

Beveral localities on

shores attest the rich harits

vest

which they gathered out of

waters.

few

hnls were found on the south side of the river, oppo-

Thero was also an Indian burial-ground at tho mouth of One-Mile Run, above Raritan Landing. In an ancient survey a lino striking the river at that place is described as " commencing at tho bank of the Rar-|

itan, in

There was
Oentenninl History of Somerset County, by
pp. 33, 34.

Abraham

Messier, D.D.,

tho mouth

an Indian burying-ground." nil Indian Settlement on the east bank of the Millstone, at Slimy hatchets, pestles, and other imple"I' Six-Mile Kun.
in early years.

monte were found there

INDIAN OCCUPATION.THE ORIGINAL PEOPLE.


Mr. Alexander and his party carefully replaced the stones, fearing lest ' Id his Invasion of ttita anclenl sepulchre, would iti,,. Indian dl
him.
i

nd

t>.

the north were greatly alarmed

;it

this

The
o

spol

may
i

ovored upon
a

that

banna, through Berks and Northampl


log-parties penetrated within thirty

wild inn! rugged, unfrequented sumi

why
ol

there
Philadelphia.

should no! b round thei


thou nnde
.

mound
Vb>

<!

the race thai bos passed away, liko thosi

ill

above

this

town

foi

flftj

mill

Is
!

most!]
. .
.

...i

tin

We

and ruined.
lo
ii

The people

hai
all

The

but few prisonon, murdering almost


1

that

fell

into their

Of the
aeci

latter portion of this extracl


\<>

seems hardly

IhiiuIh,

of

he Inhal

Its

ary

remark

thai

the " probability" referred

ag
towns, prepared
i->

i"]

their

uwn

to

by

this writer

thai the

seven skeletons repr

resist

the foe.

Governoi

one, and thai

"seven generations <'i' kings" the same doubt


tin-

is

do! a very strong


felt

of Sussex County, collected four


31

maybe

as to

the
b irder.
1

tte. td

hundred men During the winter of 1766 and


thj

Likelihood of the existence here of Bepulchrt

Indians hung around

taining

" bones of
if

passed away," even


the very doubtful
der's

thousands of the ran- that lias we admit the authenticity "i"


Mr.
Ui can-

tradition concerning

discover)

and

subsequent

re-covering of the

in\ sterious

arched vault,

The [ndian occupation of Bunterdon County and tin- country to the northward of it is mentioned by
the Rev. George S. Mott, D.D., in a very excellent and common-sense account, found in the " First Cen'iii

mountain and at favorable points on the Although the in ^ee were oast bank D iuti. ,,ii. q| the fear which ;i!i fell that pwas sufficient might he broken bj the war-wl ib ft their homee.t A loud call horn In- a constant b dm n made u] a the A embly for a done, and the force was placed under the command of Col. Do ll.irt.; "As jin additional measure of protect mode with
i
i

Islatura appointed
I

;i

committee, who

in.

the

it,.ii

mi

ol

Lbls SI ite ol

rosswicks

in the

wlntei of 1766.
to

Their

of

[unterdon

<

lounty," as follows
living to
ii>"
\>

grievances wore heard patiently and then reported


:
:

the Legislature,

hem.

"i

thi

"They

[the Hlnlsl 01
tribes,

Wolf tribe,

and Turkey

which Inhabited

this lower
Ii

northward of the Turtle >rtl m <>' the st;tt t-j were


i

.1

nol been paid

fc
"t"

from them.

Tho only portion

Hunterdon which came


I

avers warlike race,aa thoimann


tin
i

Choli

ni

boundary
ii,.'

within

thi

mty-flve hundred acres, clali

apper
.

bj and extending along the


to u bill

f
"-

Hum
fl

Raritan.

Thui

tli

and the m taineers came toi etli >r In tbi a ty, Many famithese chose t" live by themsolvi ibodi In thoii and taking a Dome from thoii m Bn hoi thi h id a hief,who, however, woe in u measure subordiu lilef.* A ramlly wils
i|

Batten's, them o Id
lo

lies of

in a straight line
''il

he begina

at

the Bale,'

..

beta een BJ

the comniissioners
priate Blxteon

power

u> appro.ill

the Ne lianli

ml
n
at
i

Indians.

Thi

hundred pouni
his offei

these

other

sol -

abrook

<

ailed the Uinist.


had) a
I

claims, one-half of which was to be devoted to paying the Indians re*


sldiug to tin
c
.

One woh near

tin-

Branch

Three Bridges. There they half mfb i soutl


1

burying-

was a eph

d,

and

duded Oct
tlon

26, 1768,

and thus ended


in

;u difficulties

with the Indians

creek on Jacob

That
a
lai

liei

fai ra.

their vl

then.
Thai

V'''

another we
a

ar

Mount

Al
tin

Station,

tho A
h
I

founded

Philadelphia in

1766, called
-

'

The Friendly

wai quite

totl

lomenl of

at

Re

n.

with the Indians by psr

AmweU

valley was populated with them,

as already stated,
>i

in 1703

ih._-

Luothei cause which contributed to this bappy result

uTeiuhammoo > large tracl land in Bunterdon lying "-t of the South Branch, and thoy also glit the title to all inns who wore supposed to have an} rigli ni t.> have a contontod, and lived In their i lllages on tin'
1
1
1

was thai
lo

king of the Delawares and a chief of


Influence,

was a

Christian.

Hel

me

iich In 1748,
at

and was
the in-

1'

baptized by the Don

n 1767 to June, 1768, the

a<

ting
i

Qovernor
xerted in

most (rioudly terms with tho whites.


countrj h
a
toi
I

Bui the
w
di

game diminished, as the


constrained
t
i

while

ni.'M of those negotiations wi re


1

aid
In Hans,

led,

thai

tin

Indian
net essarii

behalf of libera] mi asures


axperieni
ness and
M<i<i<-ir-,

Inan

sh

as

trade In order

i>>

procure the

of

III

Tb

os
l>
i

Ho
--

ret s wilder-

ed for butter, mill

subsoquonl
I--

residence In this frontier region would well


i

moat Thej i acquired fondn foi Intoxicating and when under thotr Infiuoncc would quarrel and flgbl in a
.<

qualify
whli
ii

him

know
iii^

terrible

adoi

life

1-. while the piety theli wrongs and their would load him t-> that charity which

-, il

thai

ili.-

Legislature in 1767 laid


I

:i

penalty upon persons

oiling strong drink to


.ill

>

as to In-

them, and

dot laring

ln.ii.in sales

and pawns
!
i i

foi

drink void.

Tho

defeat

Brad lock
I

in the

summer
foi
;

There were traditions among the descendants of the Mini-ink people thai the tribe from which thai place
derives
its

tin

Ion]

ind led

t..

disastn

quences.

A hatred
tho
i

of

tho whites had


i

name made

frequenl expeditions

down

the

adlans, n
tin
i

then
i

and mora
ol

111

I]

Is

iindoi

ly-inci
Infll stod

ing encroachmonls

tb

Tho

n rongs hlub were

up
i.

und the

Indians already loaguod with them


i
I

lu hoi initios, lo
tl

persuade

tb

remain

nominally at poaco with

and onsl
Delawares were drawn Into
joined
Hi- in,

in
I
I

Ii1

a\
i

Shawbauds of Indians
Ridge under this
tho Blue

and came back with white men's scalps hanging :ii their belts. The5 Btole down on the Pennsj Ivania Bide, and crossed over to iliis State little below the Hopewell bills then, returning on tlii- aide of the river, they would lie in ambush along iln- yet wild and rugged shores and pick off any unfortunate travriver
:>
;

impulse

many going from tho Pines to Numbers who had roamed around
day, wonl
ofl

the country,

much

lik.-

tho

to

to

Join tlieln

returned

t Tradition myi that people hid themselves In mines al Union.


;

tin

Gordoi
.

122

and

LS4.

Hoi koweldor's

Indian

Nations

Mom

bap wiil.

.....

USS

Dr. Studdiford.

18

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


who might be
passing along the river-path.

eler

An

old Indian sachem used to relate that the steep hills

along the Delaware had been the scene of more than one ambush and murder.
It was only the Indians from the upper country, however, who committed these acts of violence and bloodshed. Those whose domain embraced what are now the counties of Hunterdon and Somerset were uniformly peaceable and friendly in their intercourse with the settlers, by whom they were treated with justice and consideration. Their numbers in this

Washington, and he served with credit during the Revolutionary struggle. At the time when his red countrymen placed this business in his hands he was seventy-six years of age, yet he proceeded in the matter with all the energy of youth, and laid before the Legislature a petition in his favor signed by a
large

number
:

of respectable citizens of

New

Jersey,

together with a memorial, written by his


as follows
"

own hand,

My Brethren
lit

am

old and

representative of
therefore

my

people.

You

are

region steadily decreased as the years passed, but

it

representatives of your people.

weak and poor, and therefore a fit young and strong and rich, and But let mo beg you for a
to

was the natural decadence of their race, and not the steel of the white man, that swept them away. But a very small remnant of the tribe was left here at the opening of the Revolution, and of these a few served in the army under Washington. In a very few years after the close of the war they had entirely disappeared.

moment

to lay aside the recollections of

ness, that

your minds may be prepared

your strength and of our weakexamine with candor the subit

ject of our claims.

"Our
records

traditiou informs us and I believe corresponds with your that the right of fishing in all the rivers and bays south of the

Karitan, and of hunting in all uuinclosed lands, was never relinquished,


but, on the contrary,

Crosswicks in 1758.
with.

was expressly reserved in our last treaty, held at Having myself been one of the parties to the sale,

I believe, in 1801, I
"We now
They were once

know

that these rights were not sold or parted

offer to sell these privileges to the State of

New

Jersey.

The

right of the Delawares to the ownership of the

of great value to us,

and we apprehend that neither time


all affected

lands south of the Raritan was recognized by the English, and large purchases were made from them

nor distance nor the non-use of our rights has at

them, but

that the courts here would consider our claims valid were

we

to exercise

them ourselves

or delegate

them

to others.

It

is

not,

however, our wish

from time to time as the needs of the settlers required, so that most of their lands had been sold prior to the treaty of 1758, at which the whole of their remaining titles were extinguished, except that there was reserved to them the right to fish in
all

thus to excite litigation.

We

consider the State Legislature the proper


its

purchaser, and throw ourselves upon

benevolence and magnanimity,


to the

trusting that feelings of justice and liberality will induce you to give ua

what you deem a compensation.


this State in particular) as

And, as we have ever looked up

leading characters of the United States (and to the leading characters of

the rivers and

bays south of the Raritan, and to hunt on all uninclosed lands. A tract of three thousand acres of land was also purchased at Edge Pillock, in Burlington County, and on this the few remaining Delawares of

our fathers, protectors, and friends, we now look up to you as such, aud humbly beg that you will look upon us with that eye of pity, as we have reason to think our poor untutored forefathers looked
sive but uncultivated dominions,

upon yours when they first arrived upon our then extenaud sold them their lands, in many
in comparison, as 'light as
air.'

instances for

trifles,

New
and
1802,

Jersey (about sixty in number) were collected


settled.

"From your humble petitioner, "Bartholomew S. Calvin,


" In
be}/iil/

They remained there until the year when they removed to New Stockbridge, near
in the State of New York, where they " grandsons," the Stockbridge tribe.

o/ hin/f

If <uul his

red brethren"

Oneida Lake,
joined their
settled

In the Legislature the subject was referred


;

to a

Several years afterwards they again removed, and

committee, which, after patient hearing, reported favorably whereupon the Legislature granted to the

on a large tract of land on Fox River, Wis., which tract had been purchased for their use from
the

Menominee

Indians.

There, in conjunction with

the Stockbridges, they engaged in agricultural pursuits,

and formed a settlement which was named

There, in the year 1832, there remained about forty of the Delawares, among whom was still kept alive the tradition that they were the owners of fishing and hunting privileges in New Jersey. They resolved to lay their claims before the Legislature of this State, and request that a moderate sum (two thousand dollars) might be paid them for its
Statesburg.

Delawares the sum of two thousand dollars, the full amount asked for, in consideration of this relinquishment of their last rights and claims in the State of New Jersey. Upon this result Mr. Calvin addressed to the Legislature a letter of thanks, which was read before the two houses in joint session, and was received with repeated rounds of most enthusiastic applause. The letter was as follows
"Trenton, March
12, 1832.

" Bartholomew S. Calvin takes this method to return his thanks to both houses of the State Legislature, and especially to their committees, for their very respectful attention to and candid examination of tho Indian

chums which ho was delegated

to present.

them in presenting the matter before the Legislature was one of their own nation, whom they called Shawuskukhkung (meaning "wilted grass"), but who was known among the white people as Bartholomew S. Calvin. He was born in 1756, and was educated at
relinquishment.
selected to act for
I'rinrc-.l.oii
(

The person

"The

final act of official intercourse

between tho State of

New

Jersey

and the Delaware Indians, who once owned nearly tho whole of its territory, has now been consummated, and in a manner which must redound to the honor of this growing State, aud, in all probability, to tho prolonoccasion I feol

gation of tho oxistonco of a wasted yet grateful people. Upon this parting it to be an incumbent duty to bear the feeble tribute of
praise to tho high-toned justice which, in this instance, and, so far as

my
I

am
"

acquainted,

in

all

former times,

ha.s

actuated tho councils of this

'ollegc, at

the expense of the Scotch misof the Revolu-

sionary society.

At the breaking out

wealth in dealing with the aboriginal inhabitants. Not a drop of our blood have you spilled in battle not an acre of our land have you taken but by our consent. These facts Hpeak for themcoinn
1

tion lie left his studies to join the patriot

army under

selves

and need no comment.

They place tho character of Now Jersey

NEW JERSEY UNDER DUTCH AND ENGLISB


In bold relief mid bright example to thoeoStnt.-- within wh
limits
territorial

RULE.

19

soon follow,,

our brothren

atlll

remain.
I

NothlD

uiiillupon

borfrom tho Upa of "There may bo b


v
;

Lei

wlw

uimli! iU.hihmo an Indian benediction; but

.,

return to
tin,

my
>,r

people, and oiakoknoit

oltofmy
which
iii

mission,

ear

the grenl
i<

Boverolgn
'.'.ill.
.

ol

tho nnlvi no,


iii.
i

ia still
hi
i

open toourei

y, will 1"' I"

li,il,-l
11

in

.it.

tho gouoroua sons of

Now

Jersey.

by other companies, and, in 1642, John over as Governor Ee established himself upon the of the colony. island novi known sis Tinicum, which was given to him in fee by the Queen of Sweden. Eere hi a fort, planted an orchard, and built ;i church and
i

1'rintz, a military officer, wsis sent

While
tin

this Indi:in cbiin

i :

-.

umlrr consideration

cause of the Delawares was voluntarily supported by a distinguished son of Somersel lounty, the Hon. Samuel L. Southard, who, al the close of a mosl pow'

several dwellings, Including a tine house for himself, which was called " Printz Eall." At the same time

with the (inventor came also John


si

<

'stiiipaiiiu-

folm,
|

clerg]
in

erful
in

and eloquent appeal,

iiisule

before the

em

and
neer,

man, and the future historian of the colony; the aame company was Lindstrom, an engiafterwards published
its
si

ittee,

of tho petitioners, said, " 11 is :i proud fad in the history of New Jersey thai everj fool of her soil ha:) been ohtsiineil from the Iinlism< by fair and
I'.Lvcir

who

map

of the Dela-

ware and
In the

adjacent pari-.'

government of

New Sweden,

as that portion

voluntary purchase and transfer, State of the Union, not even the land

-a fact

that no other

which bears the

name

of Peun, can boast of."

was then called, Printz wsis followed by his Bon, John Papegoia, who soon returned to Europe and left the government to John Claudius R In 1655 the Dutch sailed from Manhattan with seven
of the State
ship- and six hundred men, under the

command

of

"Many

years

previous

to the settlement

of the

Eon. Ralph Voorheea, "the Indians bad a path running through In State, extending from the Falls of the Delaware,
Baritan by the white-," says the late
first

Governor Peter Stuyvesant, and fell unawares on the Swedish settlement-. Fort alter fort fell into their hands, the officers and principal people were made prisoners and carried to New Amsterdam, while the
Dutch retained possess!
'I'lir
I;,

at Trenton, to the
tan,

fording-place across the Bari-

near

New

Brunswick.
It

From thence

the country.**
bonus,,. ,f Sl,k liollil boing tbo

it

run to
Oil
" ,i. inn', 11,1m,

described in many of the old Its course wa- alonj; the deeds as the Indian rath.' struck ravines as nearly highest grounds, and it

Elizabethtown.
'

is

x-

mlil,

.1

place of his rosldenco." Clay's AtimtU o/ltt> s. ,, <\\,. ihnl rbihti;;. net's "Now Albion"), In 1048,

com-

Opposite to each other

its

possible, by

which

it

W8S

made
to

They thus easily carried to avoid ste.-p hills.* market their furs and other salable articles."! Other Indian paths were one from Lambertville,

plaining of the settlements of the Swedes and Dutch within New Albion, ,.i the adherence of the English settlers to them rather than t" the
i

authority "f the oorl-palatlno. Plantagonet published a pamphlet in ind a Dim of the Province of New Albi D
re,
i,
ii

for

through Mt. Airy, Bingos, and Beaville, to Newark, which later became the " Old York Road," and another, which "came in from the north through the valley al Clarksville, the gateway for sill the tribes

landfroclj
.1

Adronturors with small stock to got two forono,and good lemen, and all Servants, Labourers, and Artt Plentifully," etc. Ii la dedicated "To the rlghl honourable
,.

nnd mighty Lord Edmund, by Dlvln,


Qover
and
il.
'. .ni'i
'

Provldonce,

ord Proprietor, Barlt

!aptain*Gonorallof the
Lttrim: and to
n,

l'li.vin,

New Albion;

i"

the Right Honourable the Lord Vlcount Ifbases of On


rd Baron ol
all

LordS

othorstheVioounta, Barons,

who threaded
forks of the

their

way down
fr

the great vallej of the

Baronets, Knights, 0, ntle

Wallkill, or crossed over

Pennsylvania

sit

the
1"!

the liopoful

Veu AVHnn; In
i,\

Merchants, Advonturors and Planters, of all, 44 undertakers and subbrin


sold Province."
ol
i

Delaware."}

This Indian highwaj

ound

Indonture
i

t.,

ible

trained

n
the.

several] riiim.it

in tin

The author of
In

down
east

to the

wigwams on
at

the Assanpink, crossing the

pamphlot was "Boauchamp Plantogonot,

Belvll,

New

Albion,

and west path

Ringos.J
ibtalnod
.'

manor of

Belvll, containing ten thou-

under the province seaL WTKIsaoaoTs EaU

in.

ll

A I'Tl'.i;

[II.

nmi

mi>

built

Two

next who came there wore Uio Dale*; which n agoo, though tlioymado but little Improvement, only B upon an Island (called since by the Siolisa) oi
v.'. ii.
i

NEW JERSEY UNDER DUTCH AND ENGLISH


RULE.
nation by the DutchSol Swedish Bottlom, nl Huh in nasi Governors Carteret, tndroe, etc Qranl to th Do Ed ard BylUnge and Carti rol Ifork, Quaker Emigration and BottlemontTho two Jeraoya consolidated
|,

ad; and
Countreyto

it

remained
ii

so,

till

about tho year 1678, in which


of
i

the

BdMuH

BttUmg, In
,,.|
I.

Duke wh
ii

iva

the

en

tun

B,

ilnw

ll

tn ITTIS.

Town, and called and Lnafow v-.u- after a Bhlp Irom Condon, and another from BmU in wenl higher up Into the r with People, who ml built there s Town, and called it BarUaolots, whit b is now the chief* Tim into is lentaet though Salam the am est Town in thai Oountroy,
mil
pretty
I

i,

Qovert

thai
|

Countr) of

two Swedish ships arrived in the Delaware, bringing a number of settlers. Thej were
In the year L687
This accounts for Hi"
1 id mil

mi,

promoted that Town


lety,

Burlington] chiefly, in setting


I

1,1-

whonow man
I

many bonds and on


subeo,
ntlj

ifterwarda
th u verj t.n
I

kopt there ; and, by that means


'

It

u
It.

upon

It,

and which
of

became

many

stately

Brick

11,

-uses In

twoon the counties

Somoraol and Uiddloaox.

into four parts or


ii,..'

fHVorhoes, ln"Onr Homo."


j

r.n.ni....

ibr Tenth pari


a ii

The

First

A store

Century ol Hunterdon County, p. 10. was kopl al RIngos, to which m the oorlj da] the Indiana
i

nection the anthor names


sniniii.

four divisions as "'Burlington,


titta ol

an

Nflorted from

lorabli

Thlsexl

dnt old volume bearing the lengthy

20

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


subjection of the

The

Dutch
is

in the

New

Nether-

lands to English rule in 1664


familiar to every intelligent
is

a matter of history so

American reader that it not necessary to dwell upon it. Immediately after the surrender of New Amsterdam (New York) by

Governor Stuyvesant, Charles, King of England, granted the territory to his brother, the Duke of York, who in turn conveyed that portion of it now known as New Jersey to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. This latter conveyance is said to be the first instrument in which the bounds of New Jersey
Berkeley and Carteret formed a constitution for the colony, and appointed Philip Carteret, a son of Sir George, as its governor. He
are regularly defined.

came in 1665, fixed the seat of government at Elizabethtown, purchased land of the Indians, and offered so favorable terms to the settlers in New England as inducements to emigrate to Jersey that many came
hither and located, principally at Elizabethtown and

between East and West Jersey was made by Carteret and the trustees of Byllinge, July 1, 1676. The line of partition was agreed on " from the east side of Little Egg Harbor, straight north, through the country, to the utmost branch of Delaware River." This line was extended from Little Egg Harbor as far as the South Branch of the Raritan, at a point just east of the old York road. It was run by Keith, the surveyor-general of East Jersey, but was deemed by the West Jersey proprietors to be too far west, thereby encroaching on their lands, and they objected to its continuance. On the 5th of September, 1668, Governors Coxe and Barclay, representing the respective interests, entered into an agreement, to terminate the dispute. It was that this line, so far as run, should be the bound, and that in its extension it should take the following course From the point where it touched the South Branch, " along the back of the adjoining plantations, until it touches the north branch of the
:

Newark.*
York, but by the treaty of the following year the territory of both
that province and
lish,

Raritan, at the falls of the Allamitung,f thence run-

In 1673 the Dutch retook

New

New

Jersey reverted to the Eng-

ning up that stream northward to its rise near Succasunny." From that point a short straight line was to be run to touch the nearest part of the Passaic River.
line would pass about five miles north of Morristown. The line was to be continued by the course of the Passaic as far as the Paquanick, and up that branch to forty-one degrees north latitude, and from that point in " a straight line due east to the

who continued in undisturbed possession until the war which secured the independence of the United
States of America.

Such a

Doubts having arisen

as to the

validity of the title of the

Duke

of York, a

new patent

was issued in 1674, and


as Governor.

Edmund Andros was sent over

who had returned to England in 1672, returned in 1675, and was welcomed by the people, who had been uneasy and disaffected
Philip Carteret,

partition-point on

Hudson River between East Jersey


This line gave to the northern part
counties of

and
of

New

York."

West Jersey the present

Warren and

under the arbitrary rule of Andros. Lord Berkeley, dissatisfied with the pecuniary outlook of his colonization scheme, disposed of his interest to John Fenwicke, in trust for Edward Byllinge, both members of the Society of Friends. He received
of one thousand pounds for the tract of land then called "New West Jersey," embracing about one-half of the State as now constituted. The division

Sussex, and portions of Morris, Passaic, and Bergen.

The Coxe-Barclay agreement was not


fect,

carried into ef-

although the division-line constituted the eastern boundary of Hunterdon County until Morris County

was

erected, in 1738.
so

the

sum

Edward Byllinge became

embarrassed in his

financial ventures that in 1676

he was compelled to assign his interests to William Penn, Gawen Lowrie, and Nicholas Lucas, all Quakers, "to be used for
Prior to this, however,
shares,

"Am Historical and Geographical Account of tho Province and Country of Pensilvania and of West-New-Jorsoy iu America. The Richness of tho Soil, the Sweetness of the Situation, the Wholesomness of the Air,
the Navigahlo Rivers, and others, the prodigious Encrease of Corn, the flourishing Condition of tho City of Philadelphia, with the stately Buildings,
Beastx, Fishes,

the benefit of his creditors."

he had sold a number of


sold

and the

trustees

many

shares to different purchasers,

who

there-

and other Improvements there. Tho strange Creatures, as Birds, and Fowls, with tho sevoral sorts of Minerals, Purging

Waters, and Stones, lately discovered.

guage, Beligion, Laws,

and
'.'i

English, with tin-

Tho Natives, Aborogines,theiv Lanand Customs; The first Planters, tho Dutch, Sweeds, number of its Inhabitants; As also a Touch upon
his second

George Keith's
i i

New

Religion, in

as.

Willi a

Map

of both Countries.

Change since ho left the By Gabriel Thomas, who


for,

resided there about Fifteen Years.

London, Printed

and Sold by

.1.

Baldwin, nt tho Oxon Arms iu Warwick-Lane, 1698." It is dedicated to " Friend William lenn,"irad in his preface Mr. Thomas says, ". Tho' . this Country has made little Noise in Story, or taken up but small room
.

in Maps, yet thus


withsl
nies

much with

ling tho DilhVultics

great Justice may ho said of it, that notand Inconveniences the First English Colo-

mel with before they wore well settled there, yet tho mighty Improvements, Additions, and Advantages that have been made lately there,
are well worth

Communicating

to the Publick,

and

lam

sensible they

will be well receivod."


I.'

by became proprietaries in common with them. Fenwicke soon after made a similar assignment. As these trustees were Quakers, the purchasers were mostly members of that body. Two companies were formed, one iu Yorkshire, the other in London, both intent on colonization in America, and in the same year some four hundred persons came over, most of them persons of considerable means. Daniel Coxe was connected with the London Company, and one of the largest shareholders subsequently he became the owner of extensive tracts of land in old Hunterdon County. At that time persecution in England was driving the Quakers to America as to a haven of religious tol;

tJei oy Records; Whitehead's East Joraey

under tho Proprietary


f

Governments.

Now

tho Tjuminglon Falls.

THE PROPRIETARY GOVERNMENT OF EAST JERSEY.


Emigration commenced and on the With of Jane in thai year the Bhip " Kent" arrived from London with two hundred and thirty passengers. This was tin ship " t" tin Western parts." Next arrived the " Willander, with sixty ling Mind," John Newcomb .. nty more. Several settlements were started, and Weal Jersey became, as early a- thi Burlington was founded, and bequite populous. came tin principal town. There the land-office for tin- whole province of West Jersey was located, and there all deeds were recorded. In 1681, Samuel Jennings, having received mission from Byllinge as deputy-governor, came to W. -i Jersey, called an assembly, and with them agreed upon a constitution and form of government. From this time on assemblies were held each year, courts were established in several places, and "jusJenlice was administered in due course 'it' law.'' nings' successors in tin- executive department were Tl las Olive, John Skeine, William Welsh, DanThe last-named iel Coxe, ami Andrew Hamilton. continued a- Governor until the proprietary charter was surrendered to tin- Irown. tirreil many disIn the years 1701 ami 17iil' there sensions and disturbances in both the easl and west provinces, but the proprietors, finally wearied of contending with one another, and with the people, drew up an instrument whereby they surrendered their right of government to the crown, which was accepted by Queen Anne, April 17. 17'ii>. This was the endofproprirfarygovernme.nl in New Jersey thenceforward, until I77n. was under royal rule. The queei nsolidated both Jerseys into one province, and commissioned Lord Cornbury as Governor of both New 5 ort and New Jersey. In this capacity he acted from 170:i until 1708, when, giving heed t<>
eratiorj

21

and

social equality.
1
1

the grievous complaints made against


ple,

him by the peo-

in tin' spring of

IT 7.

the queen revoked his commission.


by John, Lord Lovi
I

He was
death
I

sue-

w hich

occurred

May 5, 1709) threw the government into the hands of Lieutenant-! rovernor [ngoldsby. Governor
Hunter's administration

commenced

in

1710;

in

17J'

aed

in favor

of William Burnet.
17::i

Afterwards
;

officiated John Montgomery, 17-7 to

William

17-':1 to 17-'!n: John Anderson, also in 17:M; John Hamilton, 17:ai to 1788. In the summer of the last-named year a commission arrived to Lewis Morris as Governor of New Jersey, separate from New Turk; he served until his death, in 74*;. He was

Cosby,

followed successively by President Hamilton, I7t'i;

John Beading,
Reading,
1757;

17 hi:

Jonathan Belcher, 1747: John


Bernard,

Francis

1758;
1
;

Tin. mas

7 and William Hardy, Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin, in 1763, the last royal Governor, he being deposed, arrested, and sent a prisoner t.. Connecticut in 1776.

Boone,

L760;

Josiah

".

II

PTEE

V.

THE PROPRIETARY GOVERNMENT OP EAST


JERSEY.
East Jersey under

1702 Robort Barclay and Thomas RudyardCollision with the Province ..f New Y.irk Govtlic

Proprietors, 1GS0 to

ernors Barclay, Dudley, Huinili.ui,

etc.

Opposition
In
i

Opposition

t..

t.i

thi-

Proprietary

GovernmentThe

Crisis

Governor Basse Surrender

tin-

preceding chapter have been given in outline

ii

he events occurring in the province under Govi larteret ami the tyrannical Amir..- up t.> tin- time of

the division of
division.

New Jersey int.. an east ami a west Wethen traced more particularly the forIn
this

tunes

nt'

the latter.

chapter

it

is

intended
of

briefly to portray the


So Smith's
"

varying events

in the history

NV

J.T-.v,"

|<|i

East Jersey
doci

tons," pp. 608 for so and many othei

of th<

th tho no-

The

prop]

i'

Jorsey
onn-t.in,

on

tin-

under the proprietary government. 16th .if (let. .her. 1680, the Duke of York

Edward
Oi
10I

Auiill,

all his pretensions to East Jersey in favor Of the grandson ami heir of Sir George Carteret,

relinquished

mas Lone, Paul


[ltchell,

Joseph Broo
tor,

itts,

soon after which Andros returned to England,


lied
in

sir

John Johnj

iu'1

Baw.loo, Jo

tan lay, Davl

ill,

William
Di

Dockwm.
nl

Thr
i

twentj -four a bo

in

it .i thai
in
'i

sixty-foui
.i

y.

and by his will, dated Dec. 5, 1678, left hi- widow, Lady Elizabeth, executrix of his estate and guardian ..t' his grandson ami heir, a ~..n of sir Philip, and devised to Edward, Earl of Sandwich, John, Earl ..t' Bath, Hon. Bernard Qren1680,
<
I

thoro ..tin'

whole
cnpled bytho

ville,

right of the Peons and two or three small plantations


i

In the pursuit "f lands


i

imou

should "abate our ardor and wealth, and make us thlnl i" the bli islngs which il artb i"

brother t.> the Karl of Bath, Sir Thomas Knight, Sir Robert Atkyns, Knight .>t' the Hath. an. Edward Atkyns. one of the liar.. ns ..f the Exchequer,
I

and

tlnir heirs,

among

other lands,

all his
..t'

property in

i-.y, in trust

t'nr

the benefit

hi- creditors.

say
ll.i/

6y tae Atrojieaas
r

.*

and

The-.- trustees, failing to find a purchaser by private

Indian

/.'n.

.' i-'/ ./M,

application, offered
ting

it

at

public sale

t.i

the

This llttlo work, containing man) Interostin and thio in ill.. Philadelphia Ubra of by ili" writer,
i

mon

bidder, William

whom

Penn with eleven associates, most of were Quakers, and some already interested in
t Hill in
.
i.

Willi

.1.

WhU&wd,

p. 220.

22

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.

[THE DUKE OF YORK

JAMES

II.]

1>
[SIE

GEORGE CARTERET.]

[SIR

JOHN BERKLEY,

PROP'lt.]

CP.
'-j~oy
[SIR

EDMUND

ANDROS.]

[EDWARD HYDE, LORD VISCOUNT CORNBURY.]

-A,

Tyi
[EDWARD BYLLINGE, PROPRIETOR.]
[GOV.

ROBERT BARCLAY.]

j\oJt-Jbcu CtsiA^
CODRINGTON, PROPRIETOR.]
[LORD NEILL CAMPBELL.]

//

j{j?$jflf*d^
[ROBERT VAUQUELLIN, PROPRIETOR/

THE PROPRIETARY GOVEENMENT OF EAST JERSEY.


West Jeraey, becoming the purchasers for three thousand four hundred pounds.* Their deeds of lease Mini release were dated the 1st and l'<1 of February, L681 82, and subsequently each of them Bold one-half of bis respective right to a new associate, making in
In the following year twenty-four proprietaries.1 the Duke of York confirmed this sale bj issuing a new
all

i:\

of the pro\ ince."

Among

these were acts remodeling

the criminal and penal codes, etc.,

and

"

An

Act

di-

viding the proi ince into fourcounties, and appointing The county of Bergen ina high-sheriff for each."
elinled all

grant to the proprietors, their


tin: fnl

lowing" Tiler: .hum--, Karl of

names there appearing in Villi, John IriiuiI

the settlements between the Hudson and Backensack Rivers, and extended to the northern bounds of the province; Essex, all the country north of the dividing-line between Woodbridge and Elizabethtown and wesl of the Backensack Middlesex, all
;

mond, Robert Barclay, David Barclay, Roberl Gordon, Arent Bonmans, William I'enn, Hubert West, Thomas Rudyard, Samuel Groom, Thomas Hart, Richard Mew, Ambrose Itiya, John l/eywnod, Ilni/h Hartshome, Clement Pliimstead, Thomas Cooper, Gawen Lawrie, Edward Byllinge, James Brain, William GibBon,

from the

Lbridge

quake Barbor on tinand northwest to the province bounds; and Mon-

on the north to Ghcesesoutheast, and hack Bouthwest


line

mouth

aprised the residue.

point

of variance
n,

between the deputy-governor and Gr

the

sur-

Thomas

Barker, Robert
in
italics

Warne, those
original

Turner, and Thomas being eleven of the twelve


Wilcox,
,

veyor-general, led to Barclay's sujicrsedure by Gawen l.auri., a London merchant and a proprietary, who

purchasers;

Thomas
his

the
27,

twelfth,

having parted with

iut.-n-i

l'eb.

1G82, to

was already deeply interested ill West Jersey. Although most of the proprietaries resided in Great Britain, -till emigration and transfers of proprietary
rights soon brought to East Jersey

David Barclay.}
I

many

persons

who

i:i

are

ligions,

was a and characters

strait,:--

rankling
in these

prnl

:ns,

re-

proprietaries,

among
,

tliem

being, as an

English
(especially

writer observes, "high-

prerogative

men

those

from

Scotland

dissenters, papists,

and Quakers."| The first twelve purchasers, however, were mostly, if nut nil, Quakers,

were directly interested in the soil, resident property-holders, -vi ho Aug. 1, 1684, established a "Hoard of Proprietors," composed of "all the proprietaries that might he from time to time in the proi inre." and was designed "to act with the deputy-governor in the temporary approval of laws passed by the Assembly,
the settlement of
all

and, as some of their associates were of the >ame religious faith, tiny had a controlling influence in the

disputes with the planter-,"


to

etc.

body, which lad


Qrie,
a

may explain why liobcrt I'.arelay, of Quaker and a personal friend of William Penn, was aelected to be Governor of the province.
was
;

prominent control within the province "of those concerns which were connected with the proprietary titles to the governGreat pains was taken by the proment and -oil."'
This board
continued

have

worthy choice, as he was a man of learning, Such and of exemplary character. was the esteem and coiilideiiee in which he was held by his fellow-proprietaries that thej subsequently commissioned him a- Governor for life; nor was he
It
i

i.i

religious zeal,

to avoid a collision with the York, whose Governor, Dongan, refrained from any open act of hostility until 1085, when William llyre was appointed collector of the

prietary

government

province of

New

customs.

was For allowed to exercise his authority bj deputy. Rudyard, an eminent this office he selected Thomas lawyer of London and one of the proprietaries. Sunn after his arrival Rudyard selected as his counselors Col. Lewis Munis, Oapt. John Berry, Capt. John ralnnr, Capt. William Sandlord, Lawrence
required
to
visit

the

province in person,

but

The Duke of York was now


('baric[I.,

(1685),

by the death of

raised to the throne as

James

II.,

and,

notwithstanding he had thrice conveyed and confirmed to others all tin- right-, power-, and pri\ ileges he had iii New Jerse] he resolved to extend hi- royal
.

prerogative over

it

in

order to increase his revenues.

The

proprietaries in

England wen-

not

silent

under

Andress, and Benjamin

Price, before

whom

he was

this arbitrary action of the sovereign.

In a petition

sworn into

office "
<

The previous

(Dec. 20, 1682) as deputy-governor. loncessions " were confirmed, and the

to the king in council they specified some ol the encroachments Of Dongan, in relation tO the seizure of

Assembly called by Rudyard, which held three ses" passed j ear L688 at Elizabethtown, Beveral acta of importance tending to the well-being
sions during the
Orahn
learn,

vessels trading to

New

Jersey, as calculated to " over-

II.,

Ooploaof the

and

release to tlio twelve are in

f the most hopeful colonic- in America." throw oi In a remonstrance subsequently presented to the king thej reminded him that they had DO) received the pro\ ince as a gratuity, but had expended for it twelve

t.m, presented bj descendants of

Clement Plnmstoad,

Ui<

under the Proprietors, it UiO-103. G the additional twelvo,tti c >bai among them Sir G Dm U |uont pnrThomas Oox, and William Dockwra, whe wore all al cliiwcra. rurner, and Thorns Boberl Turnei b
f Bast Jeraey X
Iblti.,

their title
t

p. 118.

thousand pound- that under his own confirmation of and assurance of protection they had sent hit Inr -c\ era hundred- of people from Scotland, but as yet had receive. no return- and that, notwithstanding all these guarantees, tlu-ir right- had been violated
; I

Thomas
J
|

iVainw,
|

01

typographical!

by the Governor of
ol
lii

New

York.

They

signified their

Wynne !
1

liiiii-li

Emplr
Dl Hon
lifu

Soo Alllbono's

"

and writings.

f Kail

Ji-r-.-.r

under the Proprietor!,

p. 141.

24

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW


New

JERSEY".

willingness to submit to an imposition of the same

York, and among other prayers requested that a customs officer might be appointed at Perth Aniboy.* The last request was the only one granted, as it promised additional revenue and did not conflict with the designs he then
customs that were levied in

people "scrupled to obey both," although the reason is not given. Perth Amboy, the new capital,, had grown to be an important village, and from thence the new settlers

Col. Joseph Dudley, as Governor, but the

spread westward, entering upon the unbroken

interior

and establishing themselves on the banks of


the erection of a
set off
;

had
the

in view.

the Raritan, soon becoming sufficiently numerous to

On

the 6th of April, 1686, the Assembly

met

for

first

time at the

new

seat of

government, Perth

Aniboy.
bell, in

the same year.

Lawrie was succeeded by Lord Neill CampHis council was composed of

Gawen

Lawrie, Maj. John Berry, of Bergen, Isaac

Barbadoes, Capt. Andrew HamilRichard Townley, of Elizabethtown, Samuel Winder, of Cheesequakes, David Mudie and John Johnston, of Amboy, and Thomas Codrington, of Raritan. In 1687, Lord Campbell returned to Scotland, leaving Andrew Hamilton as his substitute.

Kingsland, of

New

new county hence Somfrom Middlesex in 1688, with a somewhat larger territory than it has at present. In September, 1692, Andrew Hamilton, who had been appointed Governor, arrived in Jersey, "and was received in a manner that removed every impedicall for

erset

was

ton, of Aniboy,

ment

to the re-establishment of the proprietary gov-

ernment.":!:

He
On

appointed John Barclay rceeiver-

and surveyor-general, and Thomas Gordon resident


secretary.

the 14th of the

month he

selected as

his

council Capt. Isaac Kingsland, Capt.

Andrew

Under the

operations of the writ of quo warranto,

is-

sued in 1686 against the proprietors by the order of King James, the king's pliant tool, Andros, commissioned as Governor over all New England, proceeded to extend his sway not only over that country, but over New Jersey, and, finding the king immovable in
this determination, " the proprietaries of

East Jersey

considered

it

advisable to abandon the hopeless con-

test for their

previously-conceded privileges, and by

Bowne, John Inians, of Raritan River, David Mudie,? James Dundas, John Royce, of Roycefield, Samuel Dennis, John Bishop, and Lewis Morris. September 28th a General Assembly convened at Perth Amboy, at which the laws passed subsequent to 1682 were, with a few exceptions, re-enacted and others amended. An act was also passed authorizing a special tax of four hundred pounds to lighten the burden of New York in the war between England and France, the

facilitating the king's design obtain his guarantee to


soil. They consequently made a formal surrender of their patent on this condition in April, 1688." The quo warranto process was

respect their right to the

stayed so far as affected East Jersey


prietaries of

and, as the pro-

West Jersey also entered into the arrangement, a new commission was directed to Andros,
annexing both provinces to his government, together with New York, Governor Dongan being thus superseded,

much exposed to expediThis action must have been from Canada. of duty, sense as East Jersey had no prompted by a danger to apprehend from the French, and certainly at this time had no unusual regard for the interests of New York. In 1696 similar projects for the relief of New York found little favor.
frontier settlements being

tions

||

From

1692 to 1696 a more quiet condition of affairs

with Francis

prevailed than

had existed

for years,

but dissensions

This made but little if of East Jersey, as Andros wisely continued


officers in their places.

Nicholson as his lieutenant. any change in the government


all their

In August, 1689, Hamilton


people of East Jersey were

left for

Europe, and the

left to

the guardianship of

their county and town officers from that time until " These, however, possessed ample powers to 1692.

were not yet at an end. Considerable agitation prevailed concerning the payment of quit-rents, but no adjustment of the matter was arrived at. The first judicial decision respecting land-titles was obtained in 1695, the judgment being in favor of the party claiming under the proprietary grants. This was rendered of non-effect by the reversal of the king in
council on account of a technical informality in the
proceedings.

meet

all

common

emergencies, and without any pres-

sure from abroad, or attempted exercise of any disputed prerogative within the province by the agents

of the proprietaries, the authority of these local magistrates

of

lie

community preserved."!

appears to have been respected and the peace Bancroft asserts that

In 1697 the proprietaries in England appointed Jeremiah Basse to succeed Governor Hamilton, and much dissatisfaction was felt and expressed in both Jerseys when it was found he had not received the
royal approbation, but only the support of the proprietors. For that reason he postponed calling the

during this period East Jersey had no government whatever; but this is disputed by Whitehead ami others, whose opinions are supported by a reference to
t\w,

various charters and local regulations.

After the deatli of Governor Barclay, in 1690, the


proprietaries appointed

John Latham, ami,

in 1691,

Assembly together, but rather sought to make friends from among the opponents of that body. It was not until Feb. 21, 1699, that he convened the Assembly. Basse's first court was held in May, 1698, the record of which bears this entry
:

% Ibid., p. 188.

* Emit Jersey

under the Proprietaries,

pp. 141-146.

jj

t Ibid.,

p. 184.

||

Whitehead

Richard Hartshorne succeeded Mudiein 10%. Hunt Jersoy under tho Proprietaries,
:

p. 191.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


" Lewis Morris, Esq.,
rhoiitiii

IN

THE REVOLUTION.

come

in

open Court and demanded by what au-

they kept Court.


il .V

He denied
i.

One and aU.

Tho Court doclare,| hi > King- Antli..rili-. being asked, Win, wasdissuUislicd besides himself, he said The court commanding y said Morris to be taken In uub-

of pacification,]: his authority was at first generally submitted to; but this was not to Last long, for there

was

t'.'iv, C, Blchard Townley, Andrew Hampton, botb of EUiabethtown, & threo or four more, cried one and all, ami y* sold Lewie Morris sold he would fliln sco who durst lay hold on him ami when a onstahle l.y order ol y Court luid bold on him, ho, Inyfacoof y Court, resisted."'
i
'

still a numerous party who held a deep-rooted aversion to the proprietary government, no matter by whom represented. The majority of the Assembly

Soon after 1699} followed the pa-sage of a bill by the Assembly excluding from thai body "any pro1

prietor or representative of one."

This was the outto a bill

come of the opposition of George Willocksf


before the Assembly, which was passed,

and a writ

issued

l,y

ti

U Governor
;

lor the election

of a

member

were of this class, and when Hamilton dissolved the Assembly, -May 31st, the day after it first convened, "the validity of his commission was for the firsl time openly called in question. Tumultuous and seditious meetings were subsequently held, the justices appointed by him were assaulted while sitting in open court by bodies of armed men, the sheriffs were attacked and wounded when in the discharge of their

of Assembly in bis stead.


interests

Thus were

the proprietary

endangered.

The

unjust action and harass-

ing proceedings of New York in relation to the trade of the province formed another source of trouble.

and every exertion made to seduce those peaceably disposed from their allegiance to he government;
duties,
i

-o that this period

became known

in after-years as

Governor Bellamont, of

New

'the Revolution.' "\


says,

Of

this critical

time Whitehead
of the province which

York, tried

to obstruct

the foreign trade of East Jersey, and even forbade the


printing in New York of proclamations which Governor Basse was anxious to distribute, making known the establishment of the ports of Perth Amboy and

"A

crisis

bod eridentlj orriTed in tho

affairs

Burlington.
tion, based

Bellamont also published a proclama-

upon an order he had obtained from the Crown, denying the right of the proprietors of Hast and West Jersey to the privilege of ports. Governor
Basse resisted with much spirit, lie put a cargo on board the ship " Hester," lying at Perth Amboy, and
it was about to sail, when Bellamont sent down an armed lure,-, seized the vessel and brought her to the and. as Basse refused to have her cleared from City .New York, ahe was condemned in the Court of Admiralty. These difficulties continued until 1700,
;

As a body in Knglaml, -..me iu and so divided In Interests, that unanimity in council could scarcely be expected; and yet the inhabitants wero pursuing such a system of measures as re, pi it, a tin- utmost wi-.l.-m to project, with equal firmness anil union to administer, such remedies
the proprietor!! were not prepared to encounter successfully.

they hod become su numerous, so scattered,

s,,in,>

Scotland, and

somein America,

,ts

,-oubl ilium, lead

t,,

the re-establishment of pea, o and regularity:


to

without these necessary qualities


result
,

control thelx opponents, but ouo

1,1

be auti, ipatnj."

Full soon

came the
l">,
]
'

end.

The surrender of the

government by the proprietaries was perfected on


paper April

Anne

selected

7 U and. on the 1'oth of July, Queen Edward Hyde, Lord Yiscount Corn> .

bury, as Governor of the to-be-united provinces.

when

Basse's

claim

for

damages came before the


to
ot

Court of King's Bench, resulting in an award Basse and the thorough establishment of the right
I

CHAPTER
Tho
Conflict

V.

!asl

Jei

-'

>

to

the privileges of a port.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES IN THE REVOLUTION.


Commences

Governor Basse met with opposition from the people at first, he found ii greatly increased as months
[f

Coventor
lal

Franklin's Opposition Tho

Com-

mttteo of Correspondence and tnqnlryMeetings in Hunterdon and

pas-,, I. in, Iced, there were serious apprehensions of an insurrection under the leadership of Willocks and Nor wen' matters improved by the action of Morris.

H,o MiliCongress Towns! tia ami "Minute-Hen" The "Committee ol Safety"Scarcity ,r ^ordered Arms and Ammunition The Hunt
>

to

starch

Tho

Colony of

N.w

the citizens of Perth


io

Amboy in

returning Lewis Morris

dent suit.

Tho

Jersey branafbrmod Into on Indepen,,f

fflylog-OainpBetreat
Fight- at Trenton
at at

the

American ArmyThe
Crossing

Assembly declared vacant by the dismissal of Willocks. U though both were cited to appear before the court at its October term,which they and although both the citation refused to obey, Council and Assembly became involved in this vexatious issue, it does not appear that they were tried, for even month brought greater anarchy, until Basse's rnmenl was openly defied. Aug. 19, 1699, Governor lam ill on was reinstated, notwithstanding Basse's
the scat in
the

tware

The

and

Princeton
i

Washington

I'lnekamifl Captain

Assanplnk Battle of Leslie Tho Army

Winter Quartan

Morristown.

PROM THE BEGINNING OF THE BTRUQGLB TO THE


BATTI.K OF PRINCETON.

The

stories of the

part

taken by the counties of

efforts

to

prevent

il

but he did not

arrive in the

Hunterdon and Somerset in the war of the R< volution, and of what tin- people of these counties did and Buffered and sacrificed in the great struggle for
independence, do not necessarily, nor indeed properly, include a detailed account of all the
national

province until

had sailed
Kant
J,

for

December, prior to which time Basse England. Hamilton's course beingone


i',>r

long and

Uile
i

contempt the coortl


I

him

tiity

bl Ij conflict between the colonies and the mother-country, but only of such of its military and

md
t
II*'

ordered him

" to

mmltl

to

ti]

fonia! Document!.

woe agent for tho proprloton ana ais,, a mom! or ol \ ncmbly

t,,

collet

q,ultrents

and arrearages,
\

t.

tries.

under the Proprietaries,

p.

_'!-,

2G
civil events as

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


the shores of America, a general " Committee of Cor-

occurred within or in the near vicinity of the territory of the two counties, and of such parts of the Revolutionary drama as, being enacted else-

where, were yet participated in by and Somerset as prominent actors.

men

of

Hunterdon

The causes which drove the American colonies into the conflict which finally resulted in their separation from Great Britain have been too frequently enumerated and too fully set forth in general history to need a recital here. These causes first began to operate between the years 1760 and 1765, when measures were proposed in the British Parliament looking to the taxation of the American subjects of the English ting to raise a revenue for the support of the home government. The general feeling of discontent

respondence and Inquiry" had been constituted here, having for its object consultation with the most prominent men in the New Jersey counties, and correspondence with similar committees in other colonies. The particulars of the formation of this committee, its composition, and the duties with which it was charged are shown by the following extract from the Minutes
of the
"

House of Assembly of New


8,

Jersey, dated
1774,

New
and

Brunswick, Tuesday, February

viz.

The House resumed the consideration

of the several Letters

Resolutions of the other Houses of Assembly on the subject-matter of

aud the House resolved itself into a Committee of the whole House upon Mattel's aforesaid and after 6ome time spent therein, Mr. Speaker resumed the Chair, and Mr. Crane, Chairman of the Committee (by order of the
the

common
;

Rights and Liberties of the Colonies

awakened among the of these measures was


passage of the odious

colonists

intensified

by the inauguration by the subsequent

House), reported the Resolutions of the Committee, as follows, viz. " 1. Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee that the House
should heartily accept of the Invitation} to a mutual Correspondence and
1

"Stamp

Act," the imposition

ntercourse with our Sister-Colonies


"2. Resolved, That

to

which the House agreed Nemine

and other similar schemes of taxation so that, when intelligence was received of the " of the Boston Port Bill," on the 31st of passage March, 1774, there arose an almost universal murmur of indignant remonstrance against a policy which was stigmatized as unendurable tyranny. The measure last named had been directed especially against the chief port of New England, but all the other colonies were in sympathy with that of Massachusetts Bay and made her cause their own, as well they might, for it was clear to the understanding of all intelligent persons that if such acts of oppression were submitted to in Boston, they would ere long be enforced in all the colonies, from New Hampshire to Georgia. This conviction produced among the people a feeling, not of indignation alone, but of alarm at the dangerous invasion of their rights and, although as yet there had been awakened no general sentiment of disloyalty to King George, there were not a few among the more clear-sighted of the colonists who even then foresaw that they might, and probably would, be finally driven to the dread alternative of armed resistance. " Nothing could have been devised* by the wit of man more effective for the speedy education and enlightenment of the people of the colonies than
of a duty on
;

tea,

Gontradicenie.
it is

the opinion of this committee that a Standing

Committee of Correspondence and Inquiry be appointed, to consist of the following persons, to wit: James Kinsey, Stephen Crane, Hendrick Fisher, Samuel Tucker,| John Wetherill, Robert Friend Price, John Hinchman, John Mehelm|| and Edward Taylor, Esquires, or any five of them, whose business it shall be to obtain the most early aud autbentick intelligence of all Acts and Resolutions of the Parliament of Great Britain, or the Proceedings of Administration that may have any Relation to, or may affect the Liberties and Privileges of His Majesty's Subjects in the British Colonies in America, and to keep up and maintain a
Correspondence aud Communication with our Sister-Colonies respecting
these important considerations; and that they do occasionally lay their

Proceedings before the House


tradicente.

to

which the House agreed Nemine Con-

the opinion of this Committee that the said Committee of Correspondence do write Letters to the several Speakers of the Assemblies on the Continent of America, inclosing these Resolu"3. Resolved, That
it is

and requesting them to lay the same before their respective Assemblies; and that they do return the Thanks of the House to the Burgesses of Virginia for their early Attention to the Liberties of America;
tions,

to

which the House agreed Nemine

Contradicente."

(son of Dr. Benjamin Franklin, but, unlike his father, a man of strong royalist proclivities), was opposed to the formation of such a committee, and in a letter written by him to the Earl of Dartmouth, on the 31st of May,

The Governor, William Franklin

1774, expressed his opinion as follows

these obnoxious measures.

The colony

of

New

Jer-

"The Virginia Assembly some time ago appointed a Committee of Correspondence, to correspond with all the other Assemblies on the Continent, which example has been followed by evory other House of Representatives. I was in hopes that the Assembly of this Province would
not have gone into the measuro for though they met on the 10th of November, yet they avoided taking the matter into consideration, though frequently urged by some of the members, until the 8th of February,
;

sey broke out in a simultaneous blaze of indignation

from Sussex to Cape May, and immediate measures were taken to organize the various counties into a combination of the friends of liberty which should secure promptitude and unity of action throughout
the province."

and then
bly of

I believe they would not have gone into it hut that the AssemNew York had just bofore resolved to appoint such a committee, aud they did not chooso to appear singular."

however, v.l:i ih first led the frisnds of liberty tins province to combine, lor mutual safety, for it is found that more than seven weeks before the passage of that act, and
It
Bill,

was not the passage of the Port

On the 1st of June, the day next following the date of Governor Franklin's letter, a meeting (probably the first one) of the Committee of Correspondence and Inquiry was held at New Brunswick, and a brief
t

three monthsf before the


*
'J'ln-

announcement bad reached


in
ii

The

" invitation" referred to

lim'Mcsscs of

H"
its

lony of Virginia

language of Kfr.Charles D. Deshler


Historical Olubal

paper read by him bofore

appoini from

members

was a proposition made by the House of I" the Assembly of Now Jersey to Standing Committee of Correspondence for

the

New Brunswick

its fifth

anniversary, Doc. 1C, 1875.

Ho: objects referred to abovo.


I
[|

f The news of the passage of tho Port Act was received in Boston on the 10th of May.

Of Somersot County. Of Hunterdon County.

Jir.NTEKDON AiM) SOMERSET COUNTIES


mention of
tin'
it

IN

THE REVOLUTION.
He

27

is

found*"in a letter written


the c
nittee,

l>y

one of
2,

pemuible duty of thin Colony, under the enjoyment of


in
i\ il.'^..-

i.nr r-.n-iitntlonal

:ui'l

iininnnitii-1, io

Majesty's Dominions,

members of

under date of Julj


is

1774, from which the following


"
I

extracted,

viz.:
our Com-

always
defend

to to

bear ralthful and true allegiance t" His Majesty, and him to (In- utmost .if our |.wci' .i^'iiiet nil attempt* upon his person,

returned yesterday from

New Brunswick, whore


lotters,
In

crown,
"
2,

iiml 'liyiiity.
II

six of

mittee

met

Wo answerod

the Boston

informing them that we

Thai

i-

tho

look on

New

Jersey as eventually

the same predli omonl with Boston,


1

give and granl whal

i.ii. \\ . and that wo will do everything which iim\ ! l-'-imt .ill> a-i huvf si^m-il u request to the Governor to call th>- ihiii-ral ANsemhlyt to utlmi a HI Bxcollency may think proper before the flrstof mi Angus! next Our Oommlttee is well disposed iu tho cause of American
'

resentatives; and thai the only lawful K prosentatlTi


1

undoubted hereditary ol-Iii "f on English Is absolutely hi- own, either by himself oi his Rep- "i the freemen of
-

freedom."

bis of thoOoneral this Colony are the porsons the) elect Assembly thoreof. "8. That any Art ( Parliament for tho apprehending ami carrvlngof persons into anothoi Colon) oi toGreat Britain to bo tried for any crime alleged to be committed within this Colony, or subjecting them to bo

in' the nine members of this first Committee of Correspondence fur tin- colony of New Jersey, three

tried

by Commissi
:inage,
i-

Court constituted
si

by Act of Parlla

nt

or otherwise, within this Colony, In a


this
ti.--

nary way wlthoul a Jury of

were furnished by Hunterdon and Somerset, namely, Samuel Tucker and John Sfehelm of the former, and Hendrick Fisher of the latter county.

\ii

unconstitutional and subversive "f tho rights and llhor-

of the froe suhjei i- ol this Colony. "4. That it in mir Indispensable duty, which
all

wo owe

to

our King, our

country, oursolves, and onr posterity, by


.

lawful ways and mi

hi-

power,

t"
1

maintain, defend, and preserve mir loyalty, rights, and


to transmit them inviolate to the latest generations; and Axed, determined, and nnaltorablo resolution faithfully to d

The meeung of the committee


was immediately
in nearly all of the

:tt

New Brunswick
of the people
that
it

I'olloweil liy ^athcrinfrs.

in

.air

coun ties iii New Jersey. Theobjed of these meetings (which were convened at the incut ami influential citizens of the sevcall lit' pr
eral counties eral
|

duty.
it

"...

That

it

hi

"nr unanimous opinion that


liberties

would conduce

to tho

of America should tho Colonies enter into a joint agreement not to purchnso or use any article* of British m
restoration ol
tin-

was

to perfect, as far as possible,

a gen-

tore,

nor any coi


oi

titles
'

rostrlctlone

D ia)

dl Imported from tho East mi by a general Congress of Delegates


I 1

organization of citizens

opposed

to

encroach-

from
'..

all th.'

Col
Is

ments on the rights of the colonies by the home government, and especially to provide for the selection of persons to represent

That as the town of Boston


ti

now suffering In the common cause


ting that subscriptions

of American
soribod to
.

lorn,

it

i-

the opinion of this

them

be hereaftei opened

in

every town in this county, and the


th'- relief of

money

sub-

in

a genera]

Con-

In

applied towards

the suffering poor in sold

town

gress of Deputies from the BeveraJ colonies, proposed by the Burgesses of Virginia, to he held for the pur-

until
pi

they

ma) be

rcllevod by being restored t" their just

and

eilcgee.
i

pose of forming

plan of union, and,

in

general, to

"7. That this county "ill appoint a Committee to mi

devise measures for the public welfare.

The
by

first

of this series of local meetings was held

and Inhabitants of Lower Freehold, in the county of Monmouth, in New Jersej on Monday, the 6th day of June, 1774, after due notice given of the time, place, and occasion of this meetThe in x meeting was in Essex County, held ing." -t-hou-e in Newark, on Saturday June 11th. at thee This was followed by meetings held in Bergen Count; on the 26th, and in Morris County on he 27th of the same month. Ii is known thai the people of Somerset County were convened in the san anner, at about the same lime, and for the same purposes, l>ut
.

" the Freeholders

thh Colon) al such time and place as may he ogroodon in irdei to elect and appolut Delegates to represent this ColII) a Iony at the general Congress, whose resolutions we will m si -' horo to and abide by. And we -1" hereb) unanimously request the folnppoint lowing gentlemon to accepl oftlial trust, am

ofthesevi

Ii

Ittee

i"i

iii--

purposo aforesaid,

vla^

Be

Tucker,

John

filohelm,

Broarly,

John Hart, Isaac Smith, Cliarli Abraham Hunt, ami John Emloy.
will

ilm Griggs,

" As we apprehend New Brunswick Is nol bersofthe lower countIos,nnd that all tin' counties
snfflclont

thomomhardly lmvo
-i-t of .Inly,

time to appoint their


day, the

Comn
"t

with

Bubmlsslon we would propose Princeton a- most central to be the place,


1 1

Hi of August the lime,

meeting

of the several

Committees.

"Thomas Simmon,
" OomwiinVa Clerk."

neither

lite

exact date nor any minute- of the pro1

Similar meetings
held
1771.
iii

for the eh. .ice

of committees were

ceedings of the
ord
of the

iting have been found. TherecHunterdon Count} meeting has been preserved, and is as follows

the other counties, and mi Thursday, duly 21,

"a

general meeting of the Committees of the

several counties in the Province of

New

Jersey" was
its

convened
"i
lie

al

New Brunswick, and continued


the following Saturday.

M 's-

Fro lioldors
i

and

Inhabitants

ol

Hunterdon C

lunty,

In

tho

Bions

John Ian', o .mi Samuel luoker,


wlthoul adlssoi

limvoll, in
I

ild

cutinty,

on Friday, tho 8th July, 1774,

-i.. In

tho choir,
viz.:

"1.
Haji

Wo
<

do
:n

.111,G and
tho Third to be the lawful
"I"

i.

at
.

Seventy-two members were in attendance. Stephen Cran I'. of Essex, was called to the chair, and J. mail: Sergeant, of Somerset County, was chosen clerk. The record] of the proceedings of the convention is as
until
I'mI

Bi italn

all

othor hie Domini

the India-

lows
i

"The
*
Pitta
i

Minutes

ol the Provincial

Congress and
ir

inncilol Bafety,

177.".

mis and

the British

P
I'.v

-76, p.

fundamental
inn.- 18, 1774,
t

Iii

flnalott
ihvtc.l

Burling!

plication nolle

by

sol

Franklin to tho Earl of Dartmouth ho said, "I hare likewise had an optho membei - ol Iho n >w
i

ccivc

it

their in U
to

against
legal

them, and

mr with

all

in

august noxt,

with which I havo nol

nol

shall
.in

no!

ply, as tlioro Is

no public

bust-

Minie

-s

anl Council

wlili h

make

iui h n

mo

p. 25.

28

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


ence and- Inquiry was also appointed, consisting of William Peartree Smith, John Chetwood, Isaac Ogden, Joseph Borden, Robert Field, Isaac Pierson, Isaac Smith,* Samuel Tucker,* Abraham Hunt,* and Hendrick Fisher.f It is noticeable, in the proceedings of this Convention, that, although they evinced

and necessary measures for obtaining their speedy repeal. Therefore we unanimously agree in the following sentiments and resolutions:
"1st.

We

think

it

necessary to declare that the inhabitants of this

Province (and we are confident the people of America in general) are, and ever have been, firm and unshaken in their loyalty to His Majesty King George the Third fast friends to the Revolution settlement; and that they detest all thoughts of an independence of the Crown of Great Britain. Accordingly we do, in the most sincere and solemn manner, recognize and acknowledge His Majesty King George the Third to be our lawful and rightful Sovereign, to whom, under his royal protection in our fundamental rights and privileges, we owe, and will render, all due faith and allegiance. " 2d. "We think ourselves warranted, from the principles of our excel;

an unmistakable

spirit

of opposition and resistance to

the oppressive measures of the British Parliament

lent Constitution, to affirm that the claim of the British Parliament (in

and ministry, they were profuse in expressions of unmeasured loyalty to the king, and resolutions of similar import had been passed in all the preliminary
meetings in the several counties of this province. The Congress of Delegates from the several provinces assembled at Carpenters' Hall, in the city of Philadelphia, on the 4th of September in the same year, and organized on the following day, with Peyton

which we neither are nor can be represented) to make laws which, shall be binding on the King's American subjects 'in all cases whatsoever,' and particularly for imposing taxes for the purpose of raising a revenue in America, is unconstitutional and oppressive, and which we think ourselves bound, in duty to ourselves and our posterity, by all constitutional means in our power to oppose. "3d. We think the several late Acts of Parliament for shutting up
the port of Boston, invading the Charter rights of the Province of

Randolph, of Virginia, as President.


business transacted during the
session

Among

the

Massachusetts Bay,
for trial
to

and subjecting supposed offenders


Great Britain,
effect,

to

be

sent

somewhat protracted

other colonies, or to

the sending

over

an armed

force to carry the

same into

and thereby reducing many

which followed was the adoption of resolutions

thousands of innocent and loyal inhabitants to poverty and distress, are not only subversive of the undoubted rights of His Majesty's American subjects, but also repugnant to the common principles of humanity and

prohibiting the importation, purchase, or use of goods

from Great Britain, Ireland, or any of the British dependencies after Dec.
in the
1,

and so truly alarming to the other colonies (many of which are equally exposed to Ministerial vengeance), render it the indispensable duty of all heartily to unite in the most proper measures to procure redress for their oppressed countrymen, now suffering in the common cause; and for the re-establishment of the constitutional rights of America on a solid and permanent foundation. "4th. To effect this important purpose, we conceive the most eligible* method is to appoint a General Congress of Commissioners of tho respective Colonies, who shall be empowered mutually to pledge, each to the reBt, the publick honour and faith of their constituent Colonies, firmly and inviolably to adhere to the determinations of the said Conjustice.
so violent in themselves,

These proceedings,

1774,

(unless the grievances of the

and also directing that American colonies should

mean time be redressed) all exportations hence Great Britain, Ireland, and the British West Indies should cease on and after Sept. 10, 1775. An association in accordance with the requirements of these
to

resolutions was then formed,

and was signed by

all

the

members

present.

Article XI. of this Association

(adopted Oct. 20, 1774) provided:


"

gress.

That a committee be chosen in every county,


it

city,

and town, by those

That we do earnestly recommend a general non-importation and non-consumption agreement to be entered into at such time, and regulated in such manner, as to the Congress shall seem most
,(

5th. Resolved,

who

are qualified to vote for Representatives in tho Legislature, whose


shall bo attentively to observe the conduct of all persons
;

business

touching this Association

advisable.

satisfaction of a majority of
it

and when it shall be made to appear to the any such committee that any person within

"6th. Resolved, That

appeara

to us to

be a duty incumbent on the


relief to the

the limits of their appointment has violated this Association, that such

good people of

this Province to afford

some immediate

many

majority do forthwith cause the truth of the case to be published, ... to


the end that
lickly

suffering inhabitants of the

town

of Boston.

foot

" Therefore the several county committees do now engage to set on and promote collections without delay, either by subscriptions or

known and
;

Liberty

all such foes to tho rights of British America may be pubuniversally contemned as the enemies of American and thenceforth we respectively will break off all dealing's with

otherwise, throughout their respective Counties; and that they will

him

or her."

factions that

remit tho moneys arising from the said subscriptions, or any other benemay be voluntarily made by the inhabitants, either to Bos-

On

the 11th of January, 1775, the

New

Jersey

ton, or into the

hands of James Neilson, John Dennis, William Oake, Abraham Hunt, Samuel Tucker, Dr. Isaac Smith, Grant Gibbon, Thomas Sinnicks, and John Carey, whom we do hereby appoint a Committee for forwarding the same to Boston, in such way and manner as they shall be advised will best answer tho benevolent purpose designed. "7th. Resolved, That tho grateful acknowledgments of this body are due to the noble and worthy patrons of constitutional liberty in the British Senate for their laudable efforts to avert tho storm they behold impending over a much injured Colony, and in support of the just rights
of tho King's subjects iu America.

members of the Continental Congress reported its proceedings to the Assembly of their province, which
body unanimously signified its approval of the said proceedings,!, and resolved that the same delegates
should represent

New

Jersey in the next Congress, in

"8th. Resolved, That James Kinsoy, William

Livingston,

John Do

Hart, Stephen Crano, and Richard Smith, Esquires, or such of them as


shall attend, be the Delegates to represent this Province in the General

which they should propose and vote for every reasonable and constitutional measure for a settlement of the differences between the colonies and Great Britain, and should again report the proceedings of the Congress to the Assembly of the province.

Continental Congress to be held at tho City of Philadelphia on or about

A great majority
province of

tho
ties

first

of September next, to meet, consult, and advise with tho Depuall

New

of the people in all parts of the Jersey approved the objects of the

lawful measures as

from the other Colonics, and to determine upon may bo judged most expedient
to adopt, In

such prudent and

Association adopted by the Continental 'Congress, and


*

mediately and unitedly


" Signed by order,

for the Colonies imorder to obtain relief for an oppressed

people and the redress of our general grievances.


"

Of Hunterdon County.

f Of Sohiorsot County.

Jonathan D. Sergeant,
" OlerJe."

A new general

as wore Quakers excepting only to such parts as seemed to wear an appearance or might have a tendency to force, as inconsistent with their religious principles." Gordon's History of New J
Jersey, p. 167.

"Such members

Standing Committee of Correspond-

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


meetings numerously attended were held
ent counties,
in the differ-

IN

THE REVOLUTION.

29

his publications, so strongly expressed in thest resolu-

and

in

many

of the townships, tor the

purpose of organizing to carry its measures into effect. Some of the means proposed to lie adopted to accomplish the objects desired are
"

was enunciated still more forcibly in the proceedmany of the county meeting-. hy which he was denounced as "a vile Ministerial hireling, employed
tions,

ings of

shown by the following

extracts from the minutes of several of these meet-

General Meeting of the Inhahitants of the Township of Woodbridge, in the 'utility of Middlesex in New Jersey," held on Saturday, Jan. 7, 177"'. after approving and adopting the Association entered into and recommended liy the 'ongre-s, and after choosing
ings
:

and calumniate all their good" as an enemy to his country and a person to be hated, shunned, and discountenanced hy all friends of American liberty. The records of the meetings held at this time, and
to

disunite

the colonies

measures entered into

for the public

in reference to this matter, hy the people

and comit

a Committee of Observation of twenty-one members,


u ItMolvtd, UHimimmuilii, That
that the said
it

mittee of Somerset have not been found, hut


tain that this county Stood second to

i-

cer-

i-

the desire of tho people

now met
firm.\s-o-

none

in the
its

ness and fidelity, and in


i

Committee do execute the trust reposed in them with even respe.l follow tin. .liri-.Ti-.ris .1" tieit

province of

New

Jersey

in

the patriotism of

in-

iaii. .M,

an niueli an If

wu u

law of

tliis

Province
duty."

and they he upon

oath for the conscientious discharge of

tlt.-ir

At a meeting
County, Feb.
(

held in Hanover township, Morris

ami earnestness with which they adopted and enforced the measures recommended hy the Continental Congress in its Articles In Hunterdon County comm of Association.
habitants or in
the alacrity

1775, it was, by the Committee of which Matthias Burnet was chairman, resolved unanimously, as follow-:
15,

Were promptly
meeting
"At
ilnntei-.i.iti

ele '-en

and organized, and the report


first

observation, Of

of the joint action of these committees at their


is

as follow..f

"

1st.

Tlmt they

wilt discourage all unlawful, tumultuous,

and
all

disor-

a meeting

the several

derly meetings of the people within theit Districts, and upon


o.ais exert themselves to tire
J. rev. -lit

occo-

and Province of
ITT.'.:

New Jersey, held

anv

inleii

Ihred to

utmost of their power, and oppose and the person ..r pi. .p. v of anv one.
1

day of January,

Present, sixty members.

Tov nship Committees in the County of al John Bingo's, the 18fb John Hurt, Esq., hairi

"2d. That they will take notice of

all

Bone

Having, Cock-Fighting,
to

"Tho C

nun.'.-,

taking

Inl

nsldoratlon the Proceedings of the

and overy kind of Gaining whatsoever, and cause tho offenders


1. -

be

lute Congress, highly

approve

there..!',

prosecuted according to law; and discourage every species Of extravaamu-eiie'iil u ml ..* ei ,i- .,. ,,!.!. gant nit., tain in. 'Hi- a
i 1

[.

nrtiele of the Association of the

ill.

el.

'
1 1

do recommend, and ami steady conduct


I',

will abide by,

and th and thank the Delegates

for their firm

"Tin Oommlttee then taking


day of March next,

Into their consideration the

method of

"3d. Tlmt this Committee will,

lifter

the

llrst

legates for this Province to attend at Philadelphia the 10th

esteem
.

It

a violation "f

ti"'

seventh

axtii !.

of tho said Association if


ii

any

day of
t..

May
Hi.

next, or sooner if necessary, In Continental Congress, agreed

on

oi

persons slum 1.1 kill any Sheep until

i-

four years old, or sell

adopt

measui
at

pun

to any porsou wliom ho or the] may have cause to susthem or cany them to market; and, further, thai they will esteem It a breach of said article if any Inhabitant of this Township should sell any Sheep of any kind whatsoever to any pereon dwelling out of this County, or to any person who they may hav. will carry' them out of this County, without have tii-st obtained of this

any

suc-fa

Sheep

Province
less

tin- -1st
t

of .Inly last,

ity Committees of this by the several C and do recommend that the several County

pect will kill

Committees

some other
in tin-

ti

Trenton on Wednesday, the 28th >.f March next, unand place should be agreed on by a majority ..I" tho

Counties

Province, to choose Delegates for the purpose aforesaid;

...

Oommlttee. "4th. That we d


cu!tivii!i..ii,

and we do hereby appoint Samuel Tinker, John Hehelm, John Hart, Daniel Hunt, Jasper Smith, Charles Coxe, Iliehurd Stevens, Samuel Johna-s and Thomas Stout, a County Comires, Messrs. Tl
.1

in.
I

-ml

I.,

the

inliat.il

ml-

.f

Ibis

Township the

mittee tor the purpose aforesaid,


apjioliited a t'oinniii

who, or any

tin

them, ore also


of the whole

of Flax an.
"ill

Hemp,
of.

to the greatest extent

that their lands

irity

an.l

circumstances

admit

Oommlttee
I

to have
iui

power

to call
i

That from several Pamphlet- arid 1'iiMi. iti.ns print... l.v .tanns Blvlngton, of New- York, Printer, we est. ..-in him as an Incendiary, em'.">lh.

h times
.i

me

placi

Committees of the several townships as they may judge necessary.


the
1

This
'

in

mm.

Hun.

ni,

of the

next Oontt-

will not, for ourselves, hav.re.


i

ployed by a wicked Ministry to disunite and divide us; and therefore we ti..n ordeallngS with him. and do any .or
i

ingTeSB be published, or a

new Committee chosen.


'S\iii
i
i

.n:\MSr.

the se

in.

towards him to every person

..f

this

Towntin the
177.'. a

ship; and
ri.-r

we will

dlsoountena

any Post-Rider, StagesDriver, or Oar-

Pamphlets "i Papers Into this County, "i.iii. That if any manufai turer of any article made for homo consnmptlon, or any Vondor of Qoods or Merchandises, shall take advantage ol tl... in v.-. ni. In c itry by selling at an iiim-iial price, such
.1
. .

uh.. shall bring his

morning of Wednesday, the 19tb of April,

1 . i . i

to hi
i

mntrj

. I

it

t..

the Inhabitants
..!

day

..i this Township March next no East Indian


1

member

thai aftel

'7ih, Thai

v,

vfll
I

in all cases

whatsoovor, and
:

at

all

is.ni.,
I.-

useonr

DtmOSl
.

eiitleiiv.
..|

to

comply wltl
Oontlnontal
t

ti.

of tho Aseo-

detachment of British regular troops that had ut out from Boston to the town of Concord met and fired upon a body of armed bul unorganized anil undisciplined fanners and mechanics who had collected al Lexington Common. The volley of the regulars told with an effect fatal to some of the provincials, and this was the first hi -lied in the war
1

mil.

ll...

rai

of the Revolution. Lexington. had ceased


to

It

has been called the battle of


rifles

These resolutions, being nearly identical in their import with those pai'.l by meetings of freeholders ami committees in nearlj all the other counties, are
reproduced lure
ised
at

Before the crack of the yeomen'-

length as showing the reinarkalde

Bound along the road from Lexington to Boston, the Committee of Safety of the town of \\ 'atertow n had sent out expn riders to carry the

earnestness tth which the people indorsed and prom-

news south and

west.

The dispatch destined

tor

New

"to comply with and enforce evetv article of the

Minute-

,,f

the Provincial Congress and

(association."

The condemnation

of Rivington ami

30

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


egates from the several counties of the province as-

York and Philadelphia passed on through Worcester, Norwich, New London, Lyme, Saybrook, Guildford, Brandford, New Haven, and Fairfield (being successively forwarded by relays by the committees of these places), and reached the chamber of the New York committee at 4 o'clock p.m. on Sunday, the 23d of April. From New York'x the dispatch was forwarded with all haste to New Brunswick and Princeton, from
"

sembled on Tuesday, the 23d of May, at Trenton, where, on the following day, they organized as "The Provincial Congress of New Jersey" by electing Hendrick Fisher president, Jonathan D. Sergeant secretary, and William Paterson and Frederick Frelinghuysen assistant secretaries. Samuel Tucker was
afterwards elected vice-president.
It

thus appears

which places the momentous tidings spread like wildfire up the valley of the Raritan and across the Sourland hills into Somerset and Hunterdon Counties,
while the messengers with the committee's dispatch sped on to Trenton and Philadelphia. Upon the receipt of the alarming news from Lexington the Committee of Correspondence for the province was summoned by its chairman, Hendrick Fisher, of Somerset County, to convene for deliberation and to take such action as might seem necessary. The committee accordingly met, and the following
is

that all the principal officers of this

first

Provincial

Congress were residents of Somerset County, excepting the vice-president,

who was

of Hunterdon.

The number
seven.

of delegates in attendance was eighty-

the recordf of

its

proceedings on that occasion,

viz.
" At a meeting of the New Jersey Provincial Committee of Correspondence (appointed by the Provincial Congress) at the City of New Brunswick, on Tuesday, the second day of May, Anno Domini 1775, agreeable to summons of Hendrick Fisher, Esq., Chairman. "Present, Heudrick Fisher, Samuel Tucker, Joseph Borden, Joseph

Those representing Hunterdon County were Samuel Tucker, John Mehelm, John Hart, John Stout, Jasper Smith, Thomas Lowry, Charles Stewart, Daniel Hunt, Ralph Hart, Jacob Jennings, Richard Stevens, John Stevens, Jr., Thomas Stout, Thomas Jones, and John Basset. The delegates attending from Somerset were Hendrick Fisher, John Roy, Peter Schenck, Abraham Van Nest, Enos Kelsey, Jonathan D. Sergeant, Frederick Frelinghuysen, and William Paterson. Another delegate who had been
electedj for Somerset, Nathaniel Airs (or Ayers), did

Johu Chetwood, Lewis Ogden, Isaac Ogden, AbraHunt, and Elias Boudinot, Esquires. The Committee, having seriously taken into consideration as well the present alarming and very extraordinary conduct of the British Ministry,
Itiggs, I^aac Pearson,

ham
"

Four of the deputies from Hunterdon viz., Messrs. Tucker and Mehelm of the former county, and Fisher and Roy of the latter were also members of the Colonial Assembly of
not attend.

and Somerset

New

Jersey for 1775.


in

for carrying into execution sundry Acts of Parliament for the express

The Provincial Congress remained


%

session at

purpose of raising a revenue in America, and other unconsti tutional measures therein mentioned
;

and

also the several acts of hostility that they

The record

of the meeting at

which the Somerset County delegates

have actually commenced for this purpose by the Regular Forces under General Gage against our brethren of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay in New England, and not knowing how soon this Province may be in a state of confusion and disorder if there are not some effectual measures speedily taken to prevent the same; this Committee are unanimously of opinion, and do hereby advise and direct, that the Chairman do immediately call a Provincial Congress to meet at Trenton on Tuesday, the twenty-third day of this instant, in order to consider and determine such matters as may then and there come before them and the several Counties are hereby desired to nominate and appoint their respective Deputies for the same, as speedily as may be, with full and ample powers for such purposes as may be thought necessary for the peculiar exigencies of this
;

were elected is as follows "Pursuant to notice given by the Chairman of the Committee of Correspondence for the County of Somerset in New Jersey, the Freeholders of the County met at the Court-House the 11th day of May, 1775, Hendrick Fisher, Esq., chosen chairman, Frederick Fridinghuyson clerk.
"
1.

Resolved,

That tho several

steps taken by tho British Ministry to

enslave the American Colonies, and especially the late alarming hostili-

commenced by tho Troops under General Gage, against the inhabitants of Massachusetts Bay loudly call on the people of this Province to determine what part they will act in this situation of affairs; and that we therefore readily consent to elect Deputies for a Provincial Congress
ties

Province.

"The Committee do also direct their Chairman to forward true copies of the abuve minute to the several County Committees of this Province without delay. " Hendrick Fisher,
" Clutirman."

In accordance with
*At Now York

this call of the committee, del-

meet at Trenton, on Tuesday, the 23d iust., agreeable to the advice and direction of tho Provincial Committee of Correspondence. "2. Resolved, That the number of Deputies shall bo nine, and that they shall be chosen by ballot. Adjourned for an hour. " Four o'clock the people re-assembled. " Hondrick Fisher, John Roy, Esquires, Mr. Frederick Frelinghuysen, Mr. Enos Kolsey, Peter Schenck, Jonathan D. Sorgeant, Nathaniel Airs, William Paterson, and Abraham Van Nest, Esquires, aro appointed Deputies for this County, who, or any five of them, aro hereby empowered
to
*'

the dispatch was thus indorsed by the committee:

" Rec J the within Account by express, and forwarded by express to Now Brunswick, with Directions to skip at Elizabeth Town and acquaint tho committee there with the following Particulars. By order of the Committee, Isaac

meet tho Deputies from the other Counties in Provincial Congress at Trenton, on Tuesday, tho 23d instant, and to agree to all such measures as shall bo judged necessary for tho preservation of our constitutional
to
j-ights

and

privileges.
(lie

Low, Chairman.
its

reque ted to forward this to Phila,"


tin-

The committee at New Brunswick aro The other indorsements made on

"Resolved, That

Deputies for this County bo instnicted, and they


for tho Militia of this
to

are hereby instructed, to join with the deputies from tho other Counties
in

dispatch in

passago through

New

Jorsey wore as follows: "


1

New

forming such plan


;

Briiiihuiek, A p. 24, 1775,2 o'clock in tho morning, roc the above oxpres, and forwarded to Princeton, Win. Oako, Jan. Noilson, Az. Dunhams, Com"j "Princeton, Monday, A pi 24, G o'clock, and forw* to Trenton, Tim. Wiggings, J.jii. Baldwin, Cum. mem lmr M ": "Trenton, Monday, Apl 24, 9 o'clock In the morning, rcc' the above per express, and forwarded the 80 to tho Committee of Philadelphia, Sam. Tucker, Isaac Smith,

seem proper
of

and wo heartily agree

Province as to them shall arm and support such a number

men

as thoy shall order to bo raised in this County.

" Remlved,

That

this

Comity

will

pay tho expenses of their Deputies


Daniel Blackford be
of Bridgewater.

who

shall attend the Congress.

"Resolved, That Messrs. Tobias

Van Nonlen, and


for tho

added
"

to tho

Committee of Observation
"

Township

C"IM'."

By

Order.

t Minutes of tho Provincial Congress and Committee of Safoty, 177570, p. 108.

Frederick Feelinghitysen,
" Olerk."

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


Trenton eleven days. The must important business of the session was consummated on the day of adjouri
'"t

IN

THE aEVOLUTION.
l

31

consist of GO

Minuto-Mon, who are to beat up for volunteers to raise said Company, to wcok, and to bo men, who aro to bo e\ready at a minute's warning to uiar.li ill defense of tho liberty of OUT
i

in

the adoption of
this'

"a

plan for regulating


for the

country,
".;.].

the Militia of

Colony" and the passage of "an

Thai tho
in

men

so voluntarily enlisting in

-aid
..f

Company
:.
.

shall

ordinance

for raising a

sum of money

purpose

recelvo one shilling ami sixpence for every


ploy, k
I

put

a day they are


Hi.
.

emi

that is to say, for the purpose therein mentioned," of organizing and arming the militia troops and pre-

being .\.i.|-..l by any

"l"

Hon

"Hi'

<, ami

portion.

"4th. Tim
i,
|

paring them

for active service


first

when

necessary.

The
bill

.j.i

In defense of their connelvi six shillings, the 1st Lieut, live shillings, tho ihi Captain tort the Inferloi officers, three shillings, l.i. mi. four shillings, and each ..i
ln.es
lid

Company shall march

preamble and
"Tho

three sections of the militia

all

Proc. per .lay; Willi provisions mid ainuiilliitioli,

and

to those

who

then passed eiv as follows


Congress, taking into consideration tho cruel and arbitrary

aro ahlo,

Anns;

all

the above
in the

money

to he raised

by tax on tho inhabi-

tants of said Town-hip.

same manner the Provincial Taxes aro


..f

measures adopted and pursued by the Ihitish Parliament ami pre-ent


ministry for
tin*

".'.th.

In pursuance

..f

the Bret anil..

tho above agreement, tho


their officers,

purpose of subjugating

lli--

'

in

lollies to

the

Companies bore assembled choose the following gentlemen


viz.:

ami being upi-reli. -ii-iv,. that all pacific mi fur tho rodresaof uur grievame- will pi. .v.' iu.-tl.-. tual, do tliiuk it highly
most abject
irj
i i

sorvltud,-,

"f.r
I

the
i.

Wlhiorough Company. John Ton Eyck, (apt.;


lit.
;

Peter D.

ilmt the Inhabitants of this Province be Forthwith properly

.la.

ohilS

Quirk,

'Jd

Lieut.

[disciplined for dofendlngthecs

-\

rican freedom.

And

" For Vu
1st I.ieut.;

ftfQZsfbiu

Company*.

Hendrick Probasco, Copt.; John Smock,


Boellf Peter-

I, It Is requisite that farther considering that, to answer this deslrabl hi. i. persons be Intrusted with the command of the Militia oh can bo
(

Gasparns Van Mostrand, 2d Lleul

For

ii"

Bhanni

I.

bmpmy.

William Ver Bryck, Copt.


l-i.-ut.

tided in

by tho people, rind aro truly aealous in support

"I

our Just
people of

son, 1st I.ieut.;


li

Cornelius Peterson, 2d

right*
tlii."

and
ii ii

privileges, do

recommend ami
strictl}

advise thai tho


f.d

k'<""l

Provlnco henceforward
nl

nl*'ni' the

lowing rules and regu-

make further order therein: tie- case may require, ho Immodiatepj formed In each Township or Corporation, and, to this end, that a- may be, ai quaint a e ,i,n s in tin- Province a,., at themselves with the number of male Inhabitants in their respective dlstii.' age nt -i\t to litty, who are capable ! bearing anus; - near as may f and thereupon form them into eonipui
lation-,

Hie Congn
'

ihall

1st Thai

in"'

mpanles, as

Forthe Company of Grenadier*. Cornelius L..tt, Oapt; John Bonnet, I.ieut.; Cornelius Van Dorveer, 2d I.ieut.; Garret Garrison, 3d Lieut. "8th. The above officers procooded, accordlne; to the authority given tb. in in the second artiole, to th.- choice ..t" officers for the Company of
Minut. -Men, when
i

th.-

following

men were nnanlmously


John Kevins;

chosen:

s"bi

apt.,

Cornelius

I.ott; for 1st Lieut.,

for 2d [dent.,

Garret

R. Garrison.
"7th. 'fhe officers of tho Militia and the Oommlttoe of Observation aro
desired to meet together ami appoint a

ii

Committee

t.>

prot Ide the

above
of Ob-

eighty
ble

men each; whloh companies


i

so formed shall, each by itself, as-

ol

n, by plurality of voices, four persons

among them-

selves,

nl'

sufficient substance

ami capacity
ap|H.int

for

it-

officers,

namely, one
'

Company with Aim- and ammunition. " May in, 177.'.. The Offli
sorvatlon, having mot,
I

captain, two lieutenants, and an ensign,

"2d,
nj..,
til

lli.

tin.
l.i

ollicors
1...

-.1

.In. s.
,

ii

f..i

tln'ii

tii|

por-ons

-erL'.'aiit-,

nip..ial-,

ami

.liiim
I

"3d. Thatoasoonaa thecompanii number of companies a* Bhall by them assemble and


major, and an adjutant
'I'lie
cl

ifonn

rsofsueha
t..

nnanlmously ohose Hondrlck Van aliddlcsworth, Ton Eyes and Dirci Low, to provide ammunition for said Comfor those that'are not able to buy for themselves, and tho alius ami pany, y on th.. credit aforesaid gentlcmt d are desired t.. tale- 640 Proc in
i

of tho Town-hip. to
Hints; and
tii.ii
if

buy 140 pounds powder,

120

pounds

lead,

and 210

be judgod proper
i

foi

the said
it

so

."

I,

one lieutenant-colonel, a

Company should

!'

ailed

march

in defense of

for

each regiment.11

country,

nol provided for, then

th..

aforesaid Bendrlck

dleeworth, Conrad Ten Eyck, and Dlrck

Low

are to find

Van Uldprovisions on
t

remaining

live

sections were devoted

t"

the

tl

re. lit ot

th.. t..w n-iiip

a-

above

-aid.

"

It is

further agreed that the abovo agreement -hall besubji

minor

details of the

phut
i-

.if

militia
"
:

organization.

alterations ana additions a- the Provincial


"

Cons

-hall

think proper.

The

closing paragraph

a- follows

The

longress,

By ordei

ol

tho oasembb/.

taking

into consideration

the

spirited exertions of

"John IIutist DUMOMT, Chairman,


la
ii

u p.

Vuoom, ottrk." ('apt.

and Somerset in the raising of minute-men, do approve of, and thank lli. n fur, their zeal in the r cause, and will
the '"unties of Morris, Sussex,
i

We
Vr
is

give a
t's

li-t

uf
cat

the

members of
after
it
i

P.

D.
ii

company,

ml led

he above action;
all

take the same into further consideration at their next

evidently nol complete, but

contains

already been raised in the counties named,

meeting"; showing that bodies of minute-men had A minutemen organization was also formed in Hunterdon at

coverable:
tenant,

Jacobus
i.

Amerman, Albert

now roAmerman,
(lieu-

John Amerman, Thomas Auten, John Brokaw


killed
.

Abraham Brokaw,

Peter

lirokaw

about the same time.

(corporal

The following
i

resolutions of a

meeting
in

in

llill--

putali.
-linw,

ugh township show the form


in

which action was

George Brokaw, Jacobus Bergen (corJacob Cook, Jacob W. Cook, Jacobus CorBergun Coevert (fifer), Thomas Coevert (corI'eier

taken
'lli,
\

Somerset County, ate interesting as being the only memoranda


enrolling the militia in
period of the action of the
in

Ditmas,

Dumont, Thomas
liutigh,

Nicholas Dubois, Dwere, Jacobus Dubois, Minne


I

referring i" this early

people

defense of their liberties.


-"ii id

The

original was

sergeant), William Griggs, Augustus llartsllarmun A. Iloagland, Luoas luaj land, l'eter
1

found accidentally among


Btand
'At
i

papers on a book-

in
i-

New
hip

York.
til... p.

Soagland, Dirck Buff, Abram Low, Peter Leyster, Peter Hugh McAllum, lien. hick Post aergeant
.

lm ipal freeholders, and ""i.

on

Perlee,
of Militia,
..f

the

Town
1

Bill thorough,

County
I

Jersey, bold this 3d of May,

177:.. at

agr
"1
i

a- l..ll..-, viz.

That the Companl


That
tli" officers
-..

Militia this .lay assembled

Inrodochooso

Peter Spader, Albert Stothoff, Benjamin Taylor - \Villett Taylor, Abraham Taylor, Abraham V
.

Thomas Skillman, Joakim Quick Abram Stryker, Jonathan Quici sergeant

officers for their respective


.'.I.

Companies.
devised -hall
i

bi

* Battle of

Germantown, Oct

I.

177'.

32

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Van Arsdale,
Garrett

dalen (sergeant), John


dale,

Van Ars-

John Van Dyck, AVilliam Van Dyck, Andrew

Middlesworth (sergeant), Tunis Van MiddlesVan Nuyse, Coert Van Waggoner, Jacobus Voorhees, Rynier Veghte [lieutenant, Second Battalion captain ditto), Peter Voorhees, Peter Vroom, Jacob Winter (corporal), Peter Winter, Coert Van Voorhees.
worth, Jacohus
;

Van

viz., Messrs. Fisher, Tucker, Hunt, Frelinghuysen, Schenck, and the two Harts. Immediately after the appointment of the Committee of Correspondence the Congress adjourned, June 3, 1775.
set,

It is a rather

Provincial Congress of
of

remarkable fact in the history of this New Jersey that, although one

its first acts was to declare that its members had " assembled with the profoundest veneration for the

"At a meeting of the Committee of the Township of Hillsborough it was unanimously agreed that the boundaries of the Company called Millstone Company are as follows, viz: Beginning at the mouth of Millstone River, thence along the said river to the houBe of Geretie Cornetry, then along her westward bound to and still continuing westwardly to the house of Court Van Vorehase, then westwardly to a small brook, and thence down the said brook to the Amwell Road, then westwardly along the said road till it comes to the 2 rod road that leads to Millstone road, continuing along said road, thence along Millstone Koad to Raritan Bridge, thence along the Raritan River to the place of beginning. "Peter D. Vroom."
held at the house of Garret Garretson, the 3d day of July, 1775,

person and family of His Sacred Majesty George III.,


firmly professing all due allegiance to his rightful

authority and government,"* the close of


sion

its first ses-

was marked by the adoption of the most vigorous measures in preparation for armed resistance to that
sovereign's authority.

Two weeks from

the day on which the Congress of


its

New

Jersey closed

session at Trenton, a force of


to Charlestown,

British regulars

moved from Boston

The "ordinance,"
session,

also passed

on the

last

day of the

and having

for its object the raising of funds,

and marched in splendid order and perfect confidence up the acclivity of Bunker Hill to attack the slight
defenses of the patriot force that stood waiting for

principally for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the militia
bill,

recited

and declared that


which the usual resources

them

" Whereas, It has become absolutely necessary, in the present dangerous

and extraordinary
in

state of public affairs, in

of government appear to be insufficient for the safety of the people, and

which the good people

of this Province have therefore thought proper

to choose Deputies in this present Congress, that a

the use of the Province :

We
r

fund bo provided for the said Deputies being persuaded that every

inhabitant

is

willing and desirous to contribute his proportion of

money

Twice were the back in disorder down the slope, but as often did they re-form and return to the assault. Their third charge was successful the provincial forces, undismayed, but with empty muskets and cartridge-boxes, were at last forced from their position, and the soldiers of the king carried and held the
in silence

upon the summit.

scarlet lines hurled

for so important a purpose, do, pursuant to the

to us by Ten Thousand Pounds, Proclamation Money, be immediately apportioned and raised for the use aforesaid; the same to be apportioned laid out and disposed of in such

powers intrusted

blood-soaked
Hill

crest.

This event

the people, resolve and direct that the

sum

of

the battle of Bunker


in history as

is

as well

known and conspicuous


or Waterloo,

that of

Marathon
its

and

it

was more imits

manner

as hereinafter

is

directed."

portant in
this

results

than either.

Just before

occurrence Gen. George Washington had been ap-

The amounts

to

be raised under

ordinance by

the several counties of the province were apportioned to them as follows Bergen, 664 8s. Od. Burlington,
:

pointed! by the Continental Congress! commanderin-chief of the forces of the United Colonies, and immediately afterwards he assumed command of the

1071

13s. 4d.
6s.
;

land, 385

Cape May, 166 18s. Od. CumberSd. Essex, 742 18s. Od. Gloucester,
; ;
; ;

army

763 872

2s. Sd. 6s. Sd.


;

Hunterdon, 1363

16s. Sd.
2s. Sd.
;

Middlesex,
2s. Od.

Monmouth, 1069
12s. Od.
;

Morris, 723

8s. Od.

Salem, 679
5s. 4d.

Somerset, 904

Cambridge and disposed his thin lines town of Boston. In less than a week after the memorable battle Charlestown, the startling news had been received Philadelphia, and was known in every township
at

to

encircle the British forces in the

in in

of

Sussex, 593

New

Other sections of the ordinance pointed out the manner of assessing and collecting the tax, and provided that when the amount collected in a county should be received by the county collector, he should pay the same over to the county committee, " to be disposed of by them in such manner as they in their discretion shall think most proper" to meet expenses arising from the exigencies of the times. After the adoption of these measures for the public safety it was by the Congress
" Ordered, That Mr. Fishor, Mr. Tucker, Mr. Daniel Hunt, Mr. FreUnghuyBen,Mr. I. Pearson, Mr. Dunham, Mr. Schureman, Mr. John Hart, Mr. Borden, Mr. Dearo, Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Bclionclt, Mr. Ralph Hart, and Mr. Heard, or any three of them, in conjunction with the President or Vice-President, bo a Committee of Correspondence, with power to convene this Congress."

In this alarming state of affairs the general Committee of Correspondence of the Province, exercising the powers intrusted to them, called a second session of the Provincial Congress, which body accordingly convened at Trenton on the 5th of August following. Eighty-three members were in Those of Somerset County were the attendance. same as at the previous session, except that Nathaniel Eyers,| who had been elected with the other delegates at the county-meeting of the 11th of May, was now present, in place of John Roy, who had attended the The Hunterdon County deputies were first session.
Jersey.

Minutes of the Provincial Congress and Council of Safety, 1776-76,

p. 171.

Of the fourteen members composing this committee, seven were of the counties of Hunterdon and Somer-

f Juno 15, 1775. } The Continental Congress had convoned in Philadelphia on the 10th
of

May, 1776. Elsewhere found

spelled Aii-s

and Ayors.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


the same as at the

IN

TIIK

ItKVoUTloX.

33

May

session, except thai

Abraham
in

Bonnel] ami Joseph Beavers were present Jacob Jennings and John Uasset.

place of

into regiments and battalions, and the number of each of these organization- to lo- appointed to the

several counties; established the order of their prece-

The Congress

at this session adopted a

number of

dence
I,,

prescribed the

manner

in
:

which they were

to

measures for promoting the public safety, the principal of which were a resolution to provide for the collection of the ten thousand pounds tax ordered at the

May and dune


first

session,

and a resolution "for further


first

armed, and governed provided for the collection of fines from "all effective men between the ages of sixteen and fifty who shall refuse to enroll themselves and bear arms," or who, being enrolled,
raised,

regulating the Militia, etc.," the

named being the

business that was attended to after the opening of the session. It appears that many obstacles had

should absent themselves from the muster, ami directed how such fines should be applied. The troops directed to be raised ami organized were to be equal
to

been encountered in the collection of the tax, and


that in a great

about twenty-six regiments, apportioned


follows:

to the dif-

number of

instances

payment had
therefore

ferent counties as

The
;

militia of

Bergen

been avoided or refused. (Aug. 5, 1775) resolved:*

The Congress

County

to

iposc one regiment

of Essex, two regi-

"1. That tho several pornous npjiointeil in ptirsunncc of

tlie

ordinance

of this Congress in their lost session tocolloct tho quotas of the several

Townships,
i

(io

pay the
tenth

in

y hy them

colic, ted

t,,

th<'

County Collector

A lie-

liav of

their respective districts shell


th<-y

September next; and if any persons within hare refused payment, that in such case
list

do make and deliver iu u


shall

of numc.-.

,<f

the delinquents to their

several Committees, together with their receipts


]

oy which they

havo paid

to the aforesaid

and vouchers County Coll-',


1
1
1

for the
i

>r

"2. R&olvcd, That the several Committees do

furiii-1,

Provincial

Congress at thoir next


their disoi.
ts us

scssl-.n

with the names of all such persona within


to sign the Aaspelatlon roc,

shall

hare refused

unmonded
le*

in (he hist Congress, or olio of u similar nature,

and of
in this

nil

such

shall

lone refused
':..

to

pay their respective appointments.

to

That Ho- respective Committees the Provincial Congress at their next s.


Resoleed',
-

Colony do return

'

ments or four battalions; of Middlesex, two n in. ut-; of Monmouth, three regiments; of Morris and Sussex, each two regiments and one battalion; of Burlington, two regiments and a company of rangers of Gloucester, three battalions; of Salem, one regiment; of Cumberland, two battalions of Cape May, one battalion; of Somerset, two regiments; and of And it was provided Hunterdon, four regiments. "that the precedency of rank in the militia shall take place in the following order: 1. Essex; 2. Salem; 3. Gloucester; 4. Morris; ". Sussex; li. Cape May; 7. Monmouth; 8. Somerset; 'J. Bergen; 10.
;

Cumberland;
-..I,..

11.

Middlesex;

12.

Hunterdon;

13.

Associations signed in their districts, agreeahh- to the former order of


II"
I

in,;,

|,,. ;, .|||.

V,

III,

II,,.

I,,, I,

ll

I,.,,,.-

-I

,,,..!

til,.

same.
"4. JBesosn
/,
'th.it
i

ll,.

Assessors and Collectors appointed to apportion


j
,1,

Burlington; and that, when there may In- more than one regiment or battalion in a county, the precedency shall be determined by the county committee, according to their former seniority.''

me

collect lie' sai.i

live

such reward for theli

Is

trouble therein as the Assessors and Collectors aro hy law entitled l"
for assessing

and collecting the provincial taxes. "o. llt*o\vc*l, That in case any part of the sum of ten thousand Pounds, bj the said ordinance directed to be raised, shall from ti
I,,

Besides providing for the organization and arming


of the militia, as above mentioned, the Congress re-

solved
"That
ret

of piihllc affairs he found

!
!,

,,

>

lb]

th<

purpose* thereby
I

i 1

tended;

in

snch case Die surplns

paid by the seTeral Conntj


(',,]!,< |,,i-

ornmlt-

for

the purposo of effectually carrying Into execution the


t

pes
C
ii.

into Ihc

hands of the I'ounly


pui.ii.

upp,, luted bj
th

act of As-

immendatl

the Continental

Congress respecting the appoint.


sffl

s,nii,ly, to iitlas

by them applied towards discharging


taxes of the Province.
to

ment

of minuie-iuen, four thousand able-bodied


i

Uvfl

men

bs enoffi-

m
io ly

Ho.

enrolled in tho several counties in this

Province, under

"0. Bssohwi, That the several Committees


I
i

wb

the disposal of the

cers to DO appointed
Safety,

and commissi
phi,,,

hy this Congress or Committee of

a., ,.n ni p.

ill,.

ii i. it,, last seas! Intrusted, do Provincial Congress tor their several disbursements, aud which they may have been applied
i
'

was, hy

in.. in

who

shall hold themselves in "'li-t.itit te.e lit.,

any
t

where their assistance may be required

for

this "i any

neighboring colony.11
I

In adopting

"the plan
I

for

further regulating the

These

Militia, clc.," the


i i

'ongress
overs]
i

of four months,

the
oei

Township ComSmttei
i',,

ry] County or (where there i* doC rail the names ol nit the Militia Offl-

lobe

" relieved, unless

minute-men" ere to nlisted for a term at the end of which time they were upon actual service." They

were given precedence of rank over the

common
<

mi-

nwlthlntholi respective Districts to the Provincial Congre ss,


n,

or to the

nun
..I

Safety, to bo
i

by them
i

iml

litia of the province, and whenever called into actual service Were " to receive the like pay as the '"lltillcn-

ii.

a.

ih..

outinental

" Hetoh-fil,

2.

Thai

all ,11,
ol

tal

...
the! Li "
I

r.

or appointed, pursuant to an ordlnani


Ion, be

provision-;
during
thi
li

Army, and be furnished with Camp-equipage and and also be provided for, if wounded and
in

Isust

appointed
.-

bj

thi

mj

ress or,

disabled
cers

the service of their country."

C
/,'.."/,,,/,

in
:i.

'i,

i>

Thai where the Inhabitants

n smbodlod Inl

Townships havo Company, Battallon,oi Regiment, beforo the


-f

dlflorenl

were

to be
in

mittees, or

""Hi day of

.1, that they last, It Is not Ih" intention should he dissolved, provid"-! they "..vein thrmSOlVOS SOOOrding tO the mi. and 'if tii "- ol Hi" same."
,

...

Their offinominated by the several county comCounties ha\ ing no general committee
I

by

tin'

tow nship committees jointly, " with assurance

shall

Ten resolutions succeeding these above quoted

di-

rected the organization of the militia of the province


Fids Minutes Provlnclal.Congress and Council
ol Safety,
I

companies are completed, they Conhe organisagress or the ommittee ol *-:iit-. tion of the "minute-men" was directed to bi in companies of sixty-four men each, including officers, these companies to In- formed into ten battalions
receive eominis-ion- from the Provincial
i 1

thai as soon as their

34
for the

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.

whole province, and the apportionment to the viz Bergen County to furnish one battalion of four companies Essex County, one battalion of six companies Middlesex County, one battalion of six companies Monmouth County, one.battalion of six companies Somerset County, one battalion of five companies MorSussex ris County, one battalion of six companies County, one battalion of five companies Hunterdon County, one battalion of eight companies Burlington County, one battalion of five companies Gloucester and Salem Counties, one battalion of seven companies, four to be furnished by Gloucester and one by Salem Cumberland County to furnish three companies, and Cape May County one company, all to act as " independent companies of light infantry and rangers." Whatever arms and accoutrements were obtained by the county and township committees were directed to be issued to the minute-men in preference to the militia until the former were armed and equipped, the remainder to be used for arming the militia. It was
several counties to be as given below,

became necessary for the committee to power in any very important public business in the less than seven weeks which intervened between its formation and the reassembling of the Provincial Congress. During that interval the
ever, that it

exercise this

sessions of the committee were held at Princeton.

At its August session the Congress of New Jersey had provided for a new election of deputies from the counties of the province by the adoption of the following preamble and resolution
" Wliereas, It is highly expedient, at a time

when

this

Province

is

and when it has become absolutely necessary to increase the burthen of taxes already laid upon the good people of this colony for tho just defense of their invaluable rights and privileges, that the inhabitants thereof should have frequent opportunities of renewing their choice and approbation of the Representatives in Provincial Congress. It is therefore Resolved, That
likely to be involved in all the horrors of a civil war,

the inhabitants in each county qualified to vote for Representatives in

General Assembly do meet together at the places hereinafter mentioned on Thursday, the twenty-first day of September next, and then and there, by plurality of voices, elect and appoint any number not exceeding five substantial freeholders as Deputies, with full power to represent such County in Provincial Congress to be held at Trenton, in the County of Hunterdon, on Tuesday, the third day of October next."

" Resolved, That this Congress do recommend to the several County Committees in this Colony that they immediately employ gunsmiths to make such a number of arms as they shall judge to be necessary and wanting in their respective Counties and that in the manufacture of said arms particular attention be paid to the directions of the Continental
;

The places designated for holding this election in Somerset and Hunterdon Counties were, respectively, " the Court-House in Hillsborough" and " the house of John Ringo in Amwell." The meetings were acin the election of

Congress."

It

was

also

by the Congress

cordingly so held at the time specified, and resulted Hendrick Fisher, Cornelius Van

"Ordered, That the several County Committees do appoint one Surgeon

Regiment and Battalion belonging to their respective Counties; and certify the name of such Surgeon to the next Congress, or to the Committee of Safety, in order to bis being properly commissioned."
to each

Muliner, and Ruloffe Van Dyke for Somerset, and Samuel Tucker, John Mehelm, John Hart, Charles Stewart, and Augustine Stevenson for Hunterdon.

County.

The above mentioned, with the appointment of


Philemon Dickinson
as brigadier-general,

were

all

the

important military measures adopted at this session. The Congress adjourned on Thursday, August 17th, after a session of seventeen days, its last act prior to adjournment having been the appointment of Hendrick Fisher, Samuel Tucker, Isaac Pearson, John Hart, Jonathan D. Sergeant, Azariah Dunham, Peter

The Provincial Congress of New Jersey, composed of the deputies then recently elected, as mentioned above, convened at Trenton on Tuesday, the 3d of
October, 1775.

No

organization was effected on that

day, as but few of the

members were present ;f but on

Provincial Congress, save that of legislation. They conducted all the correspondence and conferences with the Continental Congress and Provincial Congresses of the other colonies; they

gave orders for the arrest


charged witli
dis;

Schenck, Enos Kelsey, Joseph -Borden, Frederick Frelinghuysen, and John Schureman as a Committee of Safety to control public affairs during the recess.

of suspicious or disaffected persons

thoy tried and acquitted or con-

demned

to

imprisonment or detention

men who were

affection or acting in concert with, or giving information to, tho

onomy

Of

these eleven members, seven were of the counties

of Hunterdon and Somerset.

they kept expresses in constant readiness to forward intelligence with nil speed; thoy appropriated public moneys, commissioned officers in the militia or in tho corps of minute-men, held prisoners of war, settled controversies

Committee of Safety of the proa body which came to be greatly feared by those inimical to the cause of AmerDuring the times when the Congress was not in ica. si'ssiwii this committee wielded extraordinary and almost unlimited power.* It does not appear, bowThis was the
first

botween

officers, civil

vince of

New

Jersey,

ralty, confiscated tho property of those

and military, acted as a Court of Admiwho aided and abottod the public

general security of tho Province and for its defense, and, in fine, they were the executive branch of tho government, as the representatives of the power and authority of tho Provincial Con-

enemy, took order

for tho

gress during

its

recess.

All

which thoy exorcisod (with an


till

ability

and

integrity that has never been impeached)

thoy woro superseded, in

October, 1770, by tho

first

Legislature under tho

now

State Constitution

* 31

r.

Charles

I>.

Deshler, in his excellent paper read before tho


its fifth

Now

Brunswick Historical Club at tee of Safety: " In ofloct it constituted a practical dictatorship, residing
riot in

anniversary, says of this Commit-

of

Indeed, but in a majority vote of eleven or more persons, who were appointed by the Provincial Congress from time to time. Its invariably chosen by the deputies to tho Provincial Conmembers were

one man

2, 1770), which invested tho Governor and a Council of twenty members with certain powers for a limited time under the litlo The Governor and Council of Safoty.' returned to serve in t "Tuesday, October a, 1775. Several Doputios this Congress for tho respective Counties of this Colony assembled at

(adopted July

'

Trenton, pursuant
"

to tho

appointment of the
i,

bite Provincial Congress,

Wodnosday, Octohor

gress from

among

their

own number, and woro men upon whom thoy


They
assumed by tho

several other

members

attending,
. .

1775.Tho Congress again assembled, and, procoedud to the eloctlun of a


."

could roly for courage, prudence, firmness, activity, and sagacity.


exercised, as a committee, all the powers intrusted to or

President and Vice-President. mid Council of Safety, 1775-70,

Minutes of the Provincial Congress

p. 108.

[irXTKKDON
tlie
o!'

\M'

so.mki:si;t

cointiks

in

tin;

INVOLUTION.

:;:,

following day the body organized by the election Samuel Tucker, of Hunterdon, as president, and

Henry Fisher, of Somerset County, as rice-president. "John Mohelm, Esipiire [oi' Hunterdon at tlie re!,

pay their quotas." The resolution levying this tax had been passed at the May -c ion. and the -abject had received further attention tit the se-sion held in

quest of

<

longress, consented to act as Secretary until

a Secretary be chosen."
solved,
erset
.in
|,

On

the

-"'th

it

was

"

!!>;-

That William
9th,

I'aterson, Esquire [also of

Som-

be appointed Secretary t" this Congress;" but,

"Mr. Dunham having informed this Mr. l'ntcr-on. who had acquainted him that his business and circumstances
the

Congress that he had seen

would by no means admit of his


tary, the
(

officiating as Secre-

Vingress proceeded to the choice of a Secre-

August; notwithstanding which a large amount still remained uncollected,payment being refused, for which reason this ordinance was passed, authorizing more stringent measures against delinquents and directing the chairman or deputy chairman of any county committee to order the properly authorized pi rsons " to make distress on the goods and chattels" of such delinquents, and to "make sale thereof tit public vendue, giving five days' notice thereof by advertisement in auch town or county.''

tary,

when John Carey,


Stewart,
live

Esq. [of Salem], was unani('lark

But the most


this session

mously chosen Secretary, and Abraham


Charles
Esquires,
Assistant

and

important of tin- measures taken at wen- those which related to the mustering
oi

Secretaries."

toe

equipping

the military forces

tnd to rsisirg

Thus, of the

principal officers of the Congress

the fund- necessary for that purpose.


I

(composed of deputies from the thirteen counties of New Jersey), three were men of Hunterdon and Somerset.
ties

Oneof these passed October 28th) was " All Ordinance for reguMilitia of

lating the
citing in
its

New
that

Jersey," which, after re"


117..

Forty-sevei

imbers from the Beveral counof these

preamble
(

reas,

The ordinances

were present during the session.

The Congress, composed


the

members

cently elected and fre-h from

among

so rethe people, wa-

Congress for regulating the Militia of this 'olouy have been found insufficient to answer the good purposes intended, and it appearing
of the late
Provincial
to he essentially

first thoroughly representative body which had convened in New Jersey under the Revolutionary

necessary that

some further regula-

order of things.
fore cited,

Says Mr. Deshler, in the address be-

adopted tit this time of imminent danger," proceeded to adopt and dinet such "further regulations" as were deemed nec.-s;i r\ to accomplish the
tions
|

"Itspowera wero peculiar andundefl L; there was do Limitaupon it* powers by any Instrument then oxlstlng t-. which Its momor the pleofthe Province acknowledged fealty. Ihoy could mi J <llit Imprison, exile, confls. ati lay taxes, mil monej ea m power over life oud death, call out the militia, and lovywar. Tlie tiuealou was a busy, earnest, and laborious one. Xhe minutes ol tin reveal the revolutionary ite the Province, the unrest and
. . .

object for

which the previous ordinances had been

tion

found insufficient,
of
all

ben

viz..

the enrollment in the militia

able-bodied male inhabitants of the province


fifty

between the ages of sixteen and

years (except

those whose religious principles forbade

them

to

bear
in

railed
'

among the

pie,

rad the Industrious preparation that


vwia n th

arms), their muster, equipment, and


military tactics under the

instruction

fti woro making Gr the war that tboy perceived

soon to
of
tii.-

command

of proper

officers.

m)i

towards them.
a

The mini
ol

demoeratio princlplo

equality am< n
"i

the people,

ounting

man
ity

man
Into

tii

that

w ned property

whother he did do
ol

the Congress on a multitude


irly

ubject

It

>m evory

and

It was not materially different from the earlier ordinances passed for the same purpose, except that its requirements were more clearly defined, thorough, and

every township;

home

mltteos,m
>
th

Ipal corporations,

and Individuals
lion,

Ml
a

thoso petitiona
p

ind tho notion that

takon upon

ls

d) ipassl

ite,
i

[so,
...-.

Independent, and dignified.

Bosidos the consideration of u

in.
Its

whiohfOS a purely populai body, deriving its power,and oven ,from ih.' will of the pie, It Id not, and .li.i d i\ Ing and sorutl gard, the Con ad li
-'\i>t-'
i

very

peremptory, and that evasion or non-compliance was punished by severer penalties and forfeitures, and One of these to be rigidly and relentlessly enforced. the provisions of the ordinance was to the effect
that every 111:111 enrolled in the militia " shall with all convenient speed furnish himseff with a good musket

and committees that hadbeonfon


townships and counties;
In

in tho various

corresi
01

ling

nitli

the

intinental Con-

or firelock and bayonet, sword or tomahawk, a steel

totho raising, equlpmont,


[ng of troops, and w ith tho
ol
'

aul

atton, footing, pay

ut,and
Prov-

.n{ ro

and

othei

olonloa,

and the county and tow oshlp c to the genoral welfare


for

touch-box
Ittces of tho
;
,

ramrod, priming-wire and brush fitted thereto, a carto contain twenty-three rounds of cartwelve
tlints,

ofthi
that

Bnanci

would be required
etc.,
....>i

the mllltla,

In examining Into f tlie province and estimating the expenditures the arming, equipment, and malnt foi carrying on tic government; In preparing
i

and

knapsack, agreeable

to

the direction of the Continental Congress, under the

ordinal
ir

m
nls

sfbrtho regulation of tho militia, fbi ralslngadditl tin- former taxes and lovylng now a, for muring money
i

by

ti

bill
i

ol

crodlt,and
tj

t"i

th

tentlon we ol Im In examining and deciding upon complaints that wore showered upon them den iln aympnthlzora with Qroal Britain, and In considering publli and
1

two shillings for the want of a musket or and of .me -hilling for the want of the other above-enumerated articles"; als.i"ihat everj person directed to he enrolled :l- aho\e shall, tit his place of abode, be provided with one pound of powder and three pounds of l.ulht- of proper size to his musket or
forfeiture of
firelock,

prlvato

gi

'
.
i

firelock."

Among

the business

transacted

b)

this

'

The following

extracts

from

the minute- of the

was the passage, on the 24th ol October, of " An Ordinance for compelling the paj ment of the ten thousand pound lax from -uch persons as have refused to

Congress are given here as having reference to military matters at that time in Hunterdon and Somerset
Counties

36
October 4th.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


" Mr. President laid before the Congress aletter from the
"And
it

te

further firsolred and Dircr/ed, That the said Cob

Earl of Stirling, inclosing copies of some letters lately written by His

supply the troops of this Colony,


ling per day per
vided,

when

called into action in this or

any

Lordship on the subject of his having received a commission of Colonel


of a Regiment of Militia [of Somerset County], together with the return of his Regiment."

of the neighbouring Colonies, with one month's subsistence, at one shil-

man, or provisions

to that

amount
;

if

necessary; Pro-

October 11th.

"A petition

from the Committee of Amwell, praying

that the Third Regiment of the Militia of Hunterdon County


tinue, but that the commissions of the field-officers be vacated,

may

con-

That the expense of such subsistence duth nut exceed the sum of one thousand four hundred Pounds in value and one month's pay for the troops of this Colony, when called into actual service; Prodded,

the Captains and subalterns


"

may
ot

be allowed to

and that choose field-officers, was

read and ordered a second reading.

petition

from a number

inhabitants of the lower part of

Am-

Regiment in the county of Hunterdon may be united to the First Regiment, commanded by Colonel Smith, was read and ordered a second reading.
well, praying that the Third

from the inhabitants of the upper part of Amwell, prayany alteration be made in the Third Regiment of the Militia may be united to the Fourth Regiment and not to the First Regiment, was read and ordered a second reading. " A petition from Caplain Imlay and Captain Gray, praying that the field-officers of the Third Regiment of Militia of Hunterdon may be continued, was read and ordered a second reading." October 18th. "Resolved unanimously, That the appointment of fieldofficers for the Third Regiment of Militia for the county of Hunterdon be confirmed and that the several regiments continue as directed by
ing that
if

"A petition

of Hunterdon, the petitioners

That the Continental Congress do not make provision for the same and provided also that the pay of such troops doth not exceed the sum of four thousand Pounds in value. " And it is further Resolved and Directed, That the Treasurers of this Colony be, and they are hereby, required and enjoined to pay to the said Commissioners, or to the major part of them, or to their order, all such sum or sums of money as they may find necessary to expend for the purposes aforesaid; and the receipt or receipts from the said Commissioners, or a major part of them, shall be sufficient vouchers and discharges to the said Treasurers, or either of them, their executors and administrators, for all moneys by them paid pursuant to this ordinance. " And zrhereas, It is absolutely necessary to provide a fund for defraying the above expense, it is therefore Resolved and Directed, That bills of credit to the amount of thirty thousand! Pounds, Proclamation money, be immediately prepared, printed, and made as follows, to wit Five thousand seven hundred bills, each of the value of three Pounds; six
; :

thousand

bills,

each of the value of one Pound ten Shillings; four thou-

the late Congress."

October 23d. "Mr. Fisher, from the committee appointed to examine what matters were referred over to this Congress by the late Provincial Congress or Committee of Safety, reported and some petitions from
; .

and
bills,

bills,

each of the value of fifteen Shillings; and three thousand


;

each of the value of six shillings

which

bills shall

be in the form

following, to wit:

the county of Somerset respecting Colonel McDonald's appointment to the

command

of the Battalion of

minute-men in that county.


of Militia in

."

by an Ordinance of the Provincial Congress, shall pass curpayments within the Colony of New Jersey for Proclamation 1775,' and shall be impressed with Money: Dated the day of
"'This
bill,

rent in

all

October 28th. "Ordered, That a commission do issue to John Taylor,


Esq., as Second

Major of the Fourth Regiment

Hunterdon

such devices as the inspectors of the press hereinafter appointed shall direct; and when printed shall be delivered to Hendrick Fisher and
to John Hart and John Carey, Esquires, of the Western Division, four of the signers thereof, in equal moieties; one moiety to be signed by the Treasurer and Bigners of the Eastern Division, and the other moiety by the Treasurer ." and signers of the Western Division.

County."

Azariah Dunham, Esquires, of the Eastern Division, and

The
tion,

purchase, for the province, of arms,

ammuni-

camp-equipage, artillery, and other military and the furnishing of funds for such purchase by the issuance of bills of credit, were provided for by an ordinance passed October 28th,* of "which the preamble and most important sections were as follows
necessities,
" WJterea*, It appears essentially necessary at this time of increasing

The succeeding

parts of the ordinance provided for

the numbering, signing, countersigning, counting, and inspection of the bills, with various other details, all

which were

laid out

and directed with great minute-

ness as a safeguard against the possibility of irregularity or fraud.

danger that the inhabitants of this Colony should be furnished with ammunition and other military stores, and that this Colony should be put into some proper posture of defense: "It is therefore "Resolved and Directed, That Messrs. Samuel Tucker, Abraham Hunt, Joseph Ellis, and Alexander Chambers be, and they are
hereby, appointed Commissioners for the "Western Division
be,

And it was further provided by the ordinance that "for the better credit and effectual

sinking of the said bills of credit there shall be assessed, levied, and raised on the several inhabitants
of this colony, their goods and chattels, lands and

and that Hendrick Fisher, Azariah Dunham, Abraham Clark, and Samuel Potter and they are hereby, appointed Commissioners for the Eastern Division of this Colony which said Commissioners, or the major part of them, are hereby authorized and directed to receive of the Treasurers of
; ;

tenements, the

sum

of ten thousand pounds annually

this Colony, for the time being, appointed

them,

all

such

sum

find necessary to

by or sums of money as they shall from time to time expend for the use of this Colony, pursuant to the res-

this Congress, or either of

olutions hereinafter mentioned. " And it in further Resolved and Directed, That the said commissioners be,

one thousand seven hundred and hundred and eightyfive, and one thousand seven hundred and eightyand the apportionment of this annual tax six" was made identical in the amounts assigned to each
in every of the years

eighty-four, one thousand seven

for,

and they are hereby, authorized and directed to contract with artificers or otherwise purchase, three thousand stand of arms at any price not exceeding Throe Pounds Seven Shillings each stand; and also to purchuso ton tons of gunpowder, twenty tons of lead, ono thousand cartouch-boxes, at any price not exceeding nine shillings each a quantity of flints, brushes, priming-wire, and cartridge paper, not exceeding ono hundred Pounds in value; two chests of medicine, not exceeding throe hundred Pounds in value four hundred tents, with camp-equipago, etc., not exceeding one thousand eight hundred and seventy Pounds in value two thousand blankets, not exceeding fifteen hundred Pounds in value; a number of axes, spades, and other intrenching tools, not exceeding three hundred Pounds in value; and a train of artillery, not exceeding five hundred Pounds In value.f
; ; ;

sums to which the Commissioners were limited; and thereupon, on the 10th of February, 177G, the Congress gave them unlimited authority to purchase, by the following action " Whereas, By an ordinance of this Congress, passed at Trenton the 28th day of October last, the Commissioners therein named and appointed to purchase firearms and military
:

wore particularly restricted in the price to be paid for said firearms, whereby the manufactory thereof hath boon greatly impeded ; for the romody whereof it is resolved unanimously that tho said Commisstores

sioners have full

power immediately to proceed in contracting for firearms upon tho best terms in their power, without any limitation or rethis Congress will in convenient time pass an ordiand that striction nance for that purpose." Minutes Provincial Congress and Council of Safety ,
;

1775-7C, pp. 358, 359.


|

Tho amount was

raised to fifty thousand

pounds by an ordinance

* Minutes of the Provincial Congress and Council of Safety, 1775-76,


p. 24 ft.

passed Feb. 28, 1776.

Proclamation money was reckoned at seven shillings six pence to

f It was found that the articles

named could not bo purchased

for the

the dollar.

HUNTKKlmX AND
of
tl

So.M

KKSKT nHNTIKS IX TIIK REVOLUTION.


following resolution,
r

37

Ounties

ith

that of the tin

thousand pound

which was ordered tube imme-

tax, before mentioned, levied at the session of the

diately published in the form of an advertisement,


viz.

preceding May. The sum of one thousand pounds was voted "to encourage tin' I'i'i'i'tioii of saltpetre-works in this

" H'Arreu*,

"In PbOVUTCIAL OONOBXSS III I.I' AT TiikstoN "Tin; 'JOth Hay Or OOTOBIB, 1776. The Honorable Continental Congress have recommended to
Immediately raised in this Colony, at
.u
i-

eolony"

and

it

was directed thai

this

Bum "be ap-

this Congress tbnt thero be


(hc
'

tin-

ex-

propriated to the payment of a bounty of one shilling per pound over and above the market price for any

bntinent, i\'" Bottalloi

each, ami each

company

t..

..f

hixtv-Wght privates, and


1"

oftieereil

with one Captain, one


year,

J.ieiiti'iiiiut,

quantity not exceeding twenty thousand weight of

one Ensign, four Sergeants, and four


enlisted for

Corporals, on the fbUowing oondltLons: Thai the privates


ii

good merchantable saltpetre which shall be made and manufactured in this colony on or before the first day of January, 1777; Provided, Thai the Continental
(

'ongrcss shall not offer

flic

like

premium
<

for saltpetre

manufactured in any of the United Monies." The question of the enlistment and organization of two battalions of soldiers in New Jersey for the lontinental service was among the business brought be<

fore the

longress at this session.

It

originated
letter

iii

the

month, liable to be djaany time on allowing ono month's pay extraordinary that, each of the privates be allowed, instead of a bounty, a felt hat, yarn stockings, and a pair of sln.es, the men to tind their owu arms; that each captain and uth.T emu mission. -.1 ..Ulcer while in the recruiting service of this Continent, or on their march to join the army, shall be allowed two dollars an.l two-thirds of a dollar per week fur their subsist* nlistauall,eachof them, whilst in qus euce and that the men wl I... all.. wed one dollar por week, and one dollar ami one-third of a dollar when ..n their inarch to join the nriiiy, for tlio same purpose [here follows the prescribed form of cnlMin.-iiij. "This Congress, desirous to carry into execution the abovo resolution
it

the rate of

iiv.-

dolhtrs per calendar

chorged

at

from the president of the lontinental longress to the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, being as follows:
receipt,
I

on the 18th of October, of a


<

of the Continental Congress,

.1..

resolve thai wnrrnnts bo issued

t..

proper

using the said two Battalions, consisting of


eight companies each, and each
iM

company

of sixty-eight privates,

and

Captain,

Lieutenant, one Ensign, four Sergeants,


sergeants, corporals,

" Philadelphia, Oct 12,1775.

and four Corporals, on the terms aforesaid; which


and privates
t>>

"Gknti.kmen,
ii
i

Somo

Into Intelligence,* fold

before Congress, seeing

be enlistedehull be able-bodied freemen.


.-hall

And

it is

further

absolutely necessary, tor the protection of oar liberties


lives, to ralso soverul
tin' tin l..se.l
i

and

that,

when any company

be enlisted, the persons having

the safety of our


oil

new
-

battalions,

re

litivo

cuuie into

..lutii.iLi,

and therefore the which I n rilere-1 to

warrants fur raising the same shall causo a muster to be bad ii. the presence of either Ellas Dayton, asariah Dunham, Joseph

Bills,

or

transmit to yon.
yoni
i

The Congress have the firmest confidence that from Kperlenced zeal in this great canse,you will exert your utmost
to

carry the suiu resolutions Into execution with


to furnish

nil possible

John Uehelm, Esquires, who are hereby appointed muster masters to review the said companies. And it is hereby recommended to tho Inhabitant oi thii olony to be aiding and assisting, as far as their
. .
.
I

expedition.
"
ii.
>

extends, in raising the aforesaid levies.

."

Tbo Congress havo ogreod


i-xi'

the

men

with a hunting-shirt,
-i

link'

the value

..I"

miic .h.llar

and o

third ol

dollar,

and a

<

the 28th of October the Provincial Congress


a

blanket, provided these can bo procured, but these mi' not to be uiado
pari of
iii" tei

ms

of enlistment. " I

passed
(

resolution

recommending to the Continental

am, gentle
"
^

o,
-i

"in

obedient

humble servant, " John Hancock,


" President."
tlio

'*

By

orclor of Congress,

forward you forty-eight commissions for


In the

oaptains

and subaltern officers


Mr.Mlir.us 01 tio

New Jersey
01

Battalions.
''.

"To THE

C0NVXHTIO14
(

N
(

JXRSZY."

and commissioning of the following-named tield-ofliccrs for the two battalions to be raised in New Jersey, viz.: For tin- Eastern BatStirling colonel \\ illi im Winds talion the lail lieutenant-colonel, and William De Hart major; for the W'e-tern Battalion, William .Maxwell colonel,

longress the appointment

The

resolutions of the

'oiitineiital

'ongrcss referred

to in Mr.

Hancock's letter wen- passed by thai body on the 9th and 12th of October, recommending to the Con-

lieutenant-colonel, and David Bay These appointments were soon after made, and commissions issued by direction of the ContiIsrael

Shxieve

major.

gress of
at the

New

Jersey thai
tile

it

should " im
I

liatelj
b:i
I
!

raise,
-

nental

longress.

expense of

eon

lie

11

tWO

;i

Hi -.

Bistingof eight companies," of

men for the service, and


to

Provincial Congress adjourned on the 28th ol October, "to meet at New Brunswick on the firal
In.

Tbe

Specifying the
listed

manner

in

which they wen-

he en-

-day in April

next, unless sooner

and

officered ami the pay and allowances they

the

President, Vice-President, or the

would

receive.
to

Safety."

The gentlemen appointed


were Samuel
'1'ucker,

to

convened by Committee of form this com-

reply was at once sent (October LSth

the Con-

mittee, to act for the public welfare in the recess of


thi-

tinental Congress, expressing the desire of the

Con-

gress of

New

Jersey to promote the con


desired. Inn

n interests

of the colonies as tar as lay in their power, and to


raise the troops
;,s

Hendrick Fisher, John Hart, Abraham Clark, Lewis Ogden, Joseph Holmes, John Mehelni. Isaac Pearson, John Pope,
(

longress,

objecting to the

man-

ner in which the lield-otlieers for the proposed battalions were


to

be

appointed,
further

This disagreement
the

Azariah Dunham, John Dennis, Augustine Stevenson, Ruloff Van Dyke, six of these thirteen members wen- from Hunterdon and Somerset Counties.
Tin'
ton,

resulted

iii

some
(

correspondence, and

Committee held
a

a five days' session at

Prince1776,
a!

matter was afterwards satisfactorily arranged; but in the mean lime the longress of New .lei-. \ passed the
* Dnfuvoi

from the 9th

to the
..f

loth of January.

which

number

Tories and disaffected persons

from

th.'

Canadian sxpodiUon

t MJnut.

Sahuyler and Hontgomery.

38

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


accoutrements are deposited [are requested
?]

were severely dealt with, and provision was made for the erection of beacons and the keeping of expressriders in constant readiness to convey intelligence in case of alarm from invasion or other causes, but no important action is found having special reference to Hunterdon or Somerset Counties. They saw fit, however, to call an extra session of the Provincial Congress, as appears by the following extract from their minutes, dated January 12th, viz.

to deliver the

same

to the

officer of said battalion, or his order; of whom they are required to take vouchers, with the valuation of said arms, etc., there under written; and that this Congress will either immediately pay for

commanding

said arms, agreeable to appointment, or replace

them

as soon as possible,

whichever the said Committees or public bodies shall think most proper. "This Congress do, in the most strong and explicit manner, recommend to every private person who has arms fit for immediate use to dispose of the same for the purpose above mentioned."

And the Congress, on the same day, ordered to be sent " to the commanding officers and chairmen of
the several county committees in the province" a
cular-letter in these
"Gentlemen,
well's battalion

" This Committee received several resolutions and determinations of


the Continental Congress reelecting raising one

cir-

new

battalion in this

Province, erecting and establishing a Court of Admiralty, advising the forming some useful regulations respecting the Continental forces raised
in this Colony
;

words
repulse at Quebec} requires every exertion of

The late
is

which

requisitions, together with

many

other important

the friends of American freedom, in consequence whereof Colonel

Max-

concerns, render the speedy meeting of the Congress of this province

ordered to march forthwith, and the Continental Confor this expedition.

This Committee have therefore appointed the meeting of said Congress to be at New Brunswick on "Wednesday, the
absolutely necessary.
thirty-first

gress have applied to our body urging the greatest dispatch in procuring

arms and necessaries


aforesaid application,

Therefore, in pursuance of the


dili-

day of this instant, January."

we

request you, gentlemen, to use the utmost

The Congress accordingly met at the time and place designated, and commenced business on the 1st of
February.

gence and activity in collecting all the public arms belonging to your county, being your proportion of the Provincial arms unsold. Dispatch in this case is quite necessary, as, no doubt, the arms are distributed in
the hands of the associators,
it

will be necessary that every officer do his

The recruitment
gress at its

of the two battalions which Conprevious session had ordered to be raised


successfully

part.

The value

of the arms will be paid in

replaced, and the expenses of collecting and forwarding

money, or the number be them punc-

tually discharged.
cessity of the

had proceeded

and with rapidity. Lord Stirling, having been commissioned colonel of the First or Eastern battalion, had taken with him to it several of the officers and a considerable number of the men of the Somerset County regiment of militia, which he had previously commanded, and he found
very
little

in

with regret; but the nemeasure must apologise. You will have the arms collected your county valued by good men and sent to Burlington or Trenton, under the care of such officer of Colonel Maxwell's battalion as may be
to this trouble

We put you

the bearer hereof."

difficulty in filling the

ranks of his

new
was

command.
of

Col. Maxwell's (Western) battalion

That some of the arms for the New Jersey battalions were supplied by New York appears from the record of the proceedings of the Continental Congress, which body on the 2d of January, 1776,
" Resolved,
. . .

recruited with nearly equal facility. In the last

week

That the hundred stand of arms supplied by the

November
six

(1775) Stirling established his headfill

quarters at Elizabethtown to

his battalion to the

maximum,
the

companies of
Lieut.-Col.

it

been ordered

to garrison the fort in the

having previously Highlands on


after

New York for the New Jersey Battalion be paid for by the Convention of New Jersey and that, in order to enable the said Convention to make such payment, as well as to furnish such of the men belonging to the said Battalions as are yet unprovided with arms, the further
Colony of
;

of one thousand dollars be advanced to the said Convention, and that the price of the arms be deducted out of the wages of the privates

Bum

Hudson
Col.

River.

Winds was soon

belonging to said Battalions."

stationed, with a part of the battalion, at Perth

Am-

Maxwell's battalion was ordered to the vicinity of the Hudson River, and both the Eastern and Western battalions having been filled, or nearly so, were mustered into the Continental service in December.* It does not appear, however, that they were fully armed and equipped when so mustered, as is shown (at least in regard to the Western battalion) by the following action taken by the Provincial Congressf at New Brunswick, on the third day of its session, Feb. 2, 1776, viz.
boy.

That a great scarcity of ammunition as well as of arms existed among the men of the two battalions appears by the following extract from the minutes of the Congress, dated February 1st, viz.

"Lieut.-Col.

Winds informed

this

Congress that ho was stationed at

Perth

Amboy
it

forces raised in this Colony,

and thought

with a part of tho Eastern battalion of tiie Continental and that he was destitute of ammunition, not improbable he might soon have occasion for a supply.

ty of Somerset had a And this Congress being informed that the Ci quantity of powder in storo, and tho County of Middlesex a quantity of Mr. President request That Ordered, whereof: lead,in consideration

the Chairman of the Committee of Somerset to furnish Colonel

Winds

"Whereas, The Continental Congress have ordered Colonel Maxwell's


battalion to

march to Canada as noon as the men can be furnished with arms and other articles absolutely essential and whereas, arms are extremely scarce, and imbed impossible to bo procured in time for the equipment of said battalion without making application to the several Oountiei in this Province: Resolved, That the Committees, or other public bodies, in whose hands any of the New Jersey Provincial anus and
;

with four quarter casks of powder; and that he also request the Chairman of the Committee of tho County of Middlesox to furnish Colonel

Winds

Willi 150

ids of lead

ami that the

said

powder and lead

shall

bo replaced in some convenient lime."

The Committees promptly acceded


as appears

to this request,

from the minutes, dated February 10th,

viz.
* These two battalions were the
ally took the Bold.
its

first troops of New Jorsey which actuLord Stirling was of Somerset County, and one of

"On a requisition from Lord Stirling, tho Committee of Elizabethtown have furnished him with six thousand cartridges, Somerset county four
defenses of that, town, in the morn\ The unsuccessful assault on the ing of Dec. 31, 1776, by tho American forces under Montgomery and Arin which the ftrst-named gallant was severely wounded.

to

leading citizens, while Gen. Maxwell bore nearly the same relation Hunterdon County, although he resided a short distance outside her

boundaries.
|

Hinutosol Hie Provincial Congress ami Council of Safety, 1775-76,

iel.

I,

officer lost his life

and tho

latter

pp. 341, 842.

IIUXTKIUMiX
qnartoi

AND SOMERSET COUNTIES

IX

THE REVOLUTION.

30

Ibrldge a considerable quantity, mi. casks of powder, W hundred and fifty wolglit of lead. Ourmllltla Brnnswics those who have granted the above supIlly uuppUed with ammunition plies are therefore verj desirous that they be immediat
>
;

an obstacle to the
that time.

The ever-present difficulty scarcity of arms was new battalion, as it had been in the
and of
all

cases of the others,

troops being raised at

This extract
Provincial
(

is

from a communication Bent by the


tin-

'ongrcss on

date

named

to the Conti-

letter sent

ncntal Congress asking lor " ten tons of

gunpowder
lie

This i- made apparent by the tenor of a by the New Jersey Congiv-s to the Continental Congress, dated February 10th, from which is
:

and twenty Ions of

lead, or as

much as may
to

spared,"
re-

quoted the following


"Gknti.f.mrn,

out of a large quantity reported cently arrived at Philadelphia.


granted
to

have then
request

Sensible of tho Importance that the battalions raised in


we
I

The

was

this Provlnco should bo us speedily as possible furnished with anna,

collected for the supply of the Fast


in fbrssrvlce thai could

the extent of half a ton of powder, and


<

btalned in thi- Province.


for

out of this the quantity borrowed of Somerset

'otinty,

no rcaonrco ofpnrridlng arms


manufactories, or importation.

and Becond Battalions all the arms We have therefore the Third Battalion but from .air own
in

Brunswick, Woodbridge, and Elizabeth was replaced. In consequence of the unfavorable result of the military operations in 'anada, and tin- strong proba(

Howaoon they can be manufactured


at

uncertain; and we
abroad,
lint,

havi

prospect of receiving

them from

being Informed that two thousand stand nave lal imported, and that they are within your disposal, we shohM be glad that
part of

bility (indicated in

letters

IV

Gen. Washington to

them may be ordered


whether

Congress) that Gen.

Howe
at

intended to evacuate bis

uncomfortable position

Boston and move his forces

raising in

for tin- use of the Third Battalion, uui, bnmodiate publlo service call- for them. We beg leave to it would not be advisable to clothe tin- battalions now uniform, deducting the axpence attending it out of the men's
."

thence by sea to New York, as also the knowledge that Sir Henry Clinton had embarked from England
on
a

wages.

The

pressing need of blankets for the troops

is

also

secret

expedition, whose probable destination


a greater degree

was NViv York,


in

of activity wa- in-

shown by this entry on the congressional minutes dated March 1st


:

fused into military measures in general, and especially


i

hose ha\ ing reference to the defense of the middle

colonies.
In

The

Continental Congress having resolved


it

January, 177U. that


to

was necessary

to raise a

num-

"This Congress, sensible of tl stroma scarcity of blanket- now num-iei it to all the inhabitants of wanted for Continental forces, '1" tills colony who may have any good blankets that they can possibly spare to the commissary on reasonable terms for the use to dispose of the sa
t

of said

fo]

ber of additional battalions, assigned the raising of

one of these

the

province of
(

New

Jersey, and
it

<

in

the 13th of February, Congress resolved " that


of artillery, consisting of twelve pie.

recommended

to the

Provincial

'ongrcss that

should

train

lake immediate steps to that end.


the 5th of February, the last-named
a

Accordingly, on
t

longress passed

resolution tO raises battalion, in additioii to the

two
offiLtS

immediately purchased for tin- use of this Colony"; and on the I'd of .March an ordinance was passed directing that two complete artillery companies be immediately raised
to
for the

previously raised, to be enlisted, organized, and


ccreil
in

defense of the colony,


in

"one

the sa

manner

except thai each of

be stationed
(

in
.

the Eastern and one


.

the Western
I

eight

companies should be composed of seventy-eight

instead of sixty-eight privates), and, like the others,


to be

a-

Division thereof, to be disposed of in this he 'ongrcss, Committee of Safety, Tirigadier-I


.
i

i'

n-

em ployed

ill

lie

'out nental service,


i

'

pan}
be

eral of the

Dm
;

m
i

to

w hi h th, v

officers for

the battalion were appointed by the Conto


I

shall direct

gress of New Jersey, but the field-officers were


I

appointed and commissioned by the Ion ti nental 'ongrcss. The Provincial Congress also resolved, February 13th,
bo

each pany to Captain. Captain-Lieutenant, first and Second Lictitenants; and t.. ron-i-l of a Fire-worker, four Sertour
-.

belong be commanded by a
\

cti\ sly

geants,

Corporals,
ot'

one

Bombardier, and

fifty

all

whom

arc to be able-bodied

free-

"Thai Ool, Dunbar, who lives In tho roi -nun led to the II I, tl.l
t"

toi n

Dlvl

men, and
Col.

lo

be enlisted for one year. Unless BOOner

discharged."
!.- rey,

wall qualified

be appointed
f"i

'

commissary with
i

who
as

for these

Uvm
mIii.ii

The commissioned officers appointed companies were Frederick Frelinghuvseii


Daniel
Neil

in
in-

Woe! Jersey,

the Third Batt

li

a,

now

raising,

and inch

raised In (but Colon]

thi

captain.

captain-lieutenant,

Thomas

Col.

Low rev was


performed

Chirk
a

resident

of Flemington,

Hunto

terdon Co., and, receiving the appointment of commissary,

most

valuable services

and John Heard second lieutenant ot' the Eastern Company, and Samuel Hugg captain. Thomas Newark captain-lieutenant. John
first

lieutenant,

the

American cause during the war.

Westcott

first

lieutenant,

and Joseph Dayton

The
talion

rapid progress
is

made

lieutenant of the Western


the Third Batlet-

Company.
i

-V

company of

in raising

indicated by the follow ing extract from a

riflemen was also ordered to be raised, to be joined to Col. Maxwell's Set Continental battalion. And
1

by President Tucker to the Continental on the 2 tth of February, "lily nineteen clays after the passage of the n solution ordering the batter written
(

'.ingress

tiller]

company

talion to be raised,
that

-viz.

"
:

am

likewise to request

pamod Aug. SI,


thorn bain
1

1776, ordering the

commissions may be sent for the officers of the Third Battalion, as some of the companies are already lull and others in a fair way."

him and men by him


i

enlisted fori

tillcry,

\vi>

upon his resignation."

-Hot.

7Vvr. C<mg^

40
it

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


this Congress

was ordered (February 3d) that, as Lord Stirling, previously colonel of the First Regiment of militia in the county of Somerset, had been appointed to a com-

for

have not arms to spare, those they have being necessary arming the battalions in the Continental service Therefore, Resolved,
:

that the march of said battalion of militia be countermanded."

mand
be
nel,

in the Continental army,

"Stephen Hunt,

Esq.,

One week

after the

marching orders

to the

New

colonel,

Abraham Ten Eyck,

Esq., lieutenant-colo-

James Linn, Esq., first major, and Derrick Meddagh, Esq., second major of the said regiment, and that their commissions be made out accordingly." In view of the probability, as before mentioned,
that Gen.

Jersey minute-men were thus countermanded, the several organizations of minute-men in the colony

were disbanded by action of the Provincial Congress, which on the 29th of February passed an ordinance in which it was directed
"That
this
all

cupy

about to move his army to ocYork, and the expected arrival, by sea, of a force under Sir Henry Clinton, a considerable number of Continental and provincial troops had been ordered to that city, and among these the battalion

Howe was

the minute-men heretofore embodied in the several parts of


;unl

Colony be immediately dissolved,

incorporated with the militia,


reside,

New

in the several
as

companies in the district in which they respectively ." though such minute-men had never been raised.
. .

The principal

reasons for this action, as enumerated

in the preamble to the ordinance, were that large

of Lord Stirling, who received orders to that effect about the 1st of February, and moved his command

from Elizabethtown to New York on the 5th and 6th of that month.* On the 15th of February the Congress of New Jersey received a communication from the president of the Continental Congress, dated February 12th, asking this province to send a force of minute-men to New York. Its tenor was as follows
:

numbers of the members of minute-men organizations had enlisted in the Continental service, thereby greatly reducing the companies and battalions, and so placing them in a condition in which they could not " answer the design of their institution," and that "our defense, under God, chiefly depends upon a Thus the "minute-men" well-regulated militia."

" Gentlemen,

The

arrival of troops at

New

York, the importance of

that place to the welfare of America, and the necessity of throwing up a number of works to prevent our enemies from landing and taking post
there, render
it

necessary that a

number

of troops should immediately

join Maj.-Gen. Lee; I

am

therefore desired to apply to you, and request

you would, with all possible expedition, Bend detachments of your minute-men equal to a battalion, under proper officers, and well armed and accoutred, to New York, there to be under command of Gen. Lee. Your approved zeal in the cause of your country gives me the strongest assurance that you will with alacrity embrace this opportunity of giving aid to your neighbors, and that your people will cheerfully engage in a service by which they will not only render a very essential service to
their country, but also have an opportunity of acquiring military skill

New Jersey ceased to exist, never having had an opportunity to perform any of the peculiar services for which they were formed. The Congress of New Jersey adjourned on the 2d of March, 1776, having previously! passed an ordinance, in which it was " Resolved and directed, That there be a new choice of Deputies to serve in Provincial Congress, for every County of this Colony, on the fourth Monday in May yearly, and every year," thus establishing regular annual elections of deputies inorganizations of
stead of the special elections called, as they

had

pre-

and knowledge in the construction of field-works and the method of fortifying and entrenching camps, by which they will be the better able, when occasion calls, to defend their rights and liberties."

viously been, at the pleasure of Congress.

Upon

the receipt of which the Provincial Congress

resolved unanimously,
" That the above requisition be complied with, and that detachments
of minute-men, properly accoutred, equal to a battalion in the Continental service,

and Philemon Dickinson, John Allen, Samuel Tucker, John Hart, and John Mehelm for Hunterdon, and Frederick Frelinghuysen, William Paterson, John Witherspoon, Jacob R. Hardenbergh, and James Linn for Somerset County. These,
elections were held at the time specified,

The

resulted in the choice of

be immediately made, and marched to

command
majors."

of Charles Stewart, Esq., colonel,

tenant-colonel, Frederick Frelinghuysen

New York, under the Mark Thompson, Esq., lieuand Thomas llenderson, Esqrs.,

with

fifty-five

deputies from the other counties, assem-

bled in Provincial Congress at Burlington, and organized on the 11th of that month by electing Samuel Tucker, of Hunterdon, president, and William Paterson, of Somerset County, secretary.

But again the scarcity of arms presented a serious difficulty, and this time it proved an insuperable obstacle to the desired

movement

of the troops, as

is

ex-

At

this session a great

plained by the following extract from the minutes of the Continental Congress, dated February 22d, viz.

transacted, a large proportion of

in the measures taken for

amount of business was which was included raising, organizing, and


measures will
not

informed Congress that the regiment of militia ordered by the Convention of that Colony to march to the defense of Now York, in consequenco of the resolve of Congress of
the 12th of this month, were not sufficiently armed, and that they could not bo furnished with arms unless the Congress supplied them, and as

"A delegate from New Jersey having

forwarding
will be

troops.

These

be

noticed in detail here, but the most important of

them

* In a letter addressed by Lord Stirling to the president of Congress,

dated

Now

York, Feb.

10, 1770,

he says, regiment
to this placo.

"Sin,

On the

14th instant I informed you of having received Gen.

Lee's orders to march with

my

I accordingly

marched the next morning with four companies from Elizftbethtown, and arrived here the next day, as soon as the ice permitted us to cross Hudson's Elver. The other four companies followed the next day." CoUcctums of the New Jmey UMciricul Society, vol. ii. p, 120.

mentioned incidentally in succeeding pages, in connection with the military events of which the year 1776 was so fruitful. But the most notable action taken at this session was that which transformed New Jersey from a colony into an independent State by the adoption of a State constitution on the 2d of July. And it is worthy of note that when the vote was taken upon the immediate adoption and confirrnat February 28th.

FIUNTKKDON AND SOMKRSET COUNTIES


tinii of this constitution, John Mehelm, who voted for, and William Pateison, who voted against, thai proposition, were the only members of the Hunterdon and Somerset delegations who answered the roll-call of

IN

THE REVOLUTION.
a violent

II

enemy to hi- country and a and he was then placed in custody of Lieut.-Col. Bowes Bead to await orders from the
was adjudge.]
pi

dangerous

rson,

deputies.

Continental Congress, 'in the 25th of Juni were received to -end him, under guard, to iJovernor

On

the 17th of July the

<

'(ingress

i-.-it

ti

the

><<-

Trumbull, of

<

lonnecticut,

who was

requested,

in

cose

taxation

of Independence by the

adoption of

this

of Franklin's refusal to sign a parole, to treat

him as
to

resolution,
'
II
/,.
, ,

viz.
II

a prisoner, agreeably to the resolutions of Congress


rable Continental Congress liavo declfl

.....

The

applying

to

such ca-es.
in

lie

was accordingly sent

.1.-1 -.- \

in

and Independent States: We, the Depatiee "f New Provincial Congroiw assombled, <\" resolve and deolare thai we
lonlei Free

Connecticut, placed

custody of Governor

Trum-

will support the

freedom and Independence

ol

the said States with our

Uverand

fortunes,

and with the whole forco of


it

Now
liy

Jei

oy."
-;

bull, and never returned to thi- State. This was the mid of the civil authority of King George in New

And on

the following ihiy

was

the

bnd\

Jersey.

"JiMoliW, Thut thls^House from henceforth, Instead of the style and .I. ist.y, do adopt and assume eiir ..! dr* ei.,\ in. mi >m ji -s -i s. the Btylo und title of the Convention <>f tin- st;it.- .r New Jersey ."
i
<

The
vested

-.'.

constitution adopted on the 2d of July, 1776, lie- government of the State in a Governor,*
(

the same day (July 18th] an ordinance was passed defining the eriiue of treason against the State
hi'

On

New

Jersey, and

making

it

punishable "in like

manner
is,

as by the ancient laws of this State,"

that
,

and teneral Assembly, the memand Assembly to be eho-eii for the first time on the second Tuesday in the following August, and afterwards, annually, on the second Tuesday in October. The member- elected in 1776,
Legislative
louncil,
<

bers of the Council

The
its

by the infliction of the penalty of death. old eiilnnial Legislature of New Jersey had held
sessions

in

conformity

to

these provisions, met in October of

that year, and organized as the

and (nominally) exercised its functions in 177.") until the 6th of December in that year, when Governor Franklin prorogued the Hon-., and this proved tube its dissolution. The Governor, who was notoriously inimical to the American cause, issued
his |iriiclamatiim in the following .May, calling a ses-

New
gress

first Legislature of Jersey under the state constitution, succeeding

to the

powers and functions of the Provincial Con(

and the

'onvent ion of the State of

New
as a

Jersey,

and continuing to exercise those powers


nent body.

perma-

sion on

June 20th, but this was met by prompt action on the part of the Provincial Congress, which, on the 14th of June,
" Ilexolvnd, Thut in
Willi. mi
lie. <>|iiiii-.n
..I

Jersey had been actively engaged from the time when the warlike news from Lexington sped across her hill- and -I ream-, was not until the winter and spring of it
in military preparations

Although

New

tlii>

r-tii-n-. HiJei
tin,

l'i

..

-ii

..

Franklin, late Governor of

New
of

1776

date on the

the

time when Washington scut his warning

thirtieth

day of May
i

last, in
<.i

the

name

King
t->

ol

Great

Britain,

appointing a
tieth
'ii.\

ting

the General Assembly

bo

li<-i.l

on

tin-

twen-

-I

this Instant

June, ought not to be oboyi i."

This action had the de8ired


Legislature never reassembled.
the
I

effect;

the colonial
llith

On

the

of

June

long
in
il

" Bttohnl, That


an. I violation

pinion

.>f

this

Oongran the
-

laid

William

Franklin, Bsqulro, by Buch proclamation, has actedln direct oontempt tl Ive ol the Continental Con of thi i f this Congress the gold William Hay last Thai in u plnl
-i

Km nk
ol
tl

in,

Esquire, in- disc ivorod


I

him

ell

to

be ><
t..

di

mj

to the libertlei

ii.

oni

that

mi

ur

..n^lit

bo inn

liately

taken

Ibr

souring

tin-

person of the said

llliani

Franklin, Hsquiro."

On

the same day orders were issued to Col. Na-

Heard, of the Firsl Battalion of Middlesex on the lovemor, to offer him a parole, by which he was to agree to remain quietly at Princeton, '.on lent, wn, or on hi- farm at Kaueoelis (whichever he might elect), ami, in ea-e of hi- refusal to
thaniel
militia, to wait
( I i

in Boston was probably vement of his forces to Newph- of this province began to York that the realize the immediate danger of actual invasion, and of lapse that the a few weeks might whiten their Volleys and highlands with the tents of a hostile army. It ha- already been mentioned that when tie- designs of Cen. Howe become apparent the battalion of New Jersey Continental troops under Lord Stirling was moved from Elizabethtown to New York, and that a regiment of minute-men under Col. Charles Stewart WOB ordered to march "with all possible expedition" to tin- Bame place, but was prevented

that the

British

commander
i

contemplating the

from doing -o by lack of the necessary arm-, In the l-i of March, 1776, the Continental Congress commissioned Lord Stirling a brigadier-general, and immediately afterward- lie a--uined command ol' all
i

Sign

llii-

parole, to arrest

him.

On
i"

the

17th, Col.

the troops

at

New

York, Gen. Lee having been


(

or-

Heard and Maj. Deare proceeded on He- Governor, offered him the

Lmboy, waited parole, and, upon

dered

to

other duty.

In

the 20th of Mareli the force


hi-

under

Stirling's

omandi comprised
In Joint ballot.

own New

his refusal to sign it, surrounded hi- house with a guard of sixty men to hold liim prisoner until further The orders Orders were received from Congress. came to remove the Governor to Burlington, and he was accordingly taken there. Upon examination he

attltulion provided that ally

theOovoruoi should be elected annu-

by the Council and assemblj


evening "f

t in tin-

tin- 20tfa tin-

oommand was

sasui
-

Philadelphia

later,

who bad thou just an, however, he v


.

i>U,and

Stirling.

42

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


avoid bloodshed and the destruction of the place,
tacitly consented
;

well), five

Jersey battalion (about five hundred men, sick and hundred minute-men from Dutchess and

and

so,

Westchester Cos., N. Y., about two hundred New Jersey militia,* and two Connecticut regiments, under Cols. Ward and Waterbury, numbering in the aggregate about one thousand men, whose term of service was then within a few days of its expiration. All
of this force, except the necessary guards, was at that

March

17th, the British troops

on the morning of Sunday, marched to the wharves

and, embarking, took their final departure.

The

fleet

time employed in the erection of defensive works in and around New York and on Long Island, " assisted by about one thousand of the inhabitants of the city, who turned out on this occasion with great alacrity, the inhabitants and negroes taking their tour of duty regularly." The force was immediately afterwards augmented by two other regiments from Connecticut,

under

Cols.

Dyar and Williams.

dropped down the bay to Nantasket Roads, where it lay at anchor for ten days, and then put to sea. Although it was announced that the British fleet, with Howe's army on board, was bound for Halifax, there to await reinforcements from England, Gen. Washington suspected that its real destination was New York, and, leaving a sufficient force to occupy Boston, he put his army in motion for the former city, and arrived there in person on the 14th of April. He at once commenced active preparations for repelling tlie expected enemy by strengthening the defensive works already erected by Lee and Lord Stirling, by
constructing additional fortifications at several points,

For eight months following the time when Gen. Washington assumed command! of the American forces his army lay in fortified camps encircling the British post in Boston, which place he was fully determined to occupy, though he preferred to do so by
forcing the

by a thorough reorganization of
ing reinforcements.

his forces,

and by

laying before Congress the urgent necessity of provid-

On
solved

the 3d of June the Continental Congress re-

"That a

flying

camp be immediately

estab-

enemy

to

evacuate rather than to risk the


first

chances of battle.
felt

At

the British

commander

secure and confident of his ability to continue

his occupation of the city, but, in the winter of 177576,

intention on the part of tbe

Washington discovered strong indications of an enemy to withdraw, and

he so notified the Continental Congress. none of his vigilance, however, but pushed
preparations with energy.

He

relaxed

his military

The

final

movement which

compelled the evacuation was the occupation and fortifying of Dorchester Heights during the night of the 4th and 5th of March. The morning of the 5th revealed to the astonished eyes of Gen. Howe a formidable line of earthworks upon the crest, with cannon mounted on the ramparts commanding his position and from that moment he resolved on an immediate evacuation of the city. He prepared for a real or feigned attack, however, by ordering Earl Percy with a corps of two thousand four hundred men to cross in transports to Dorchester Point and make a night assault on the rebel works.

and that it consist of ." to be made, up of militia ten thousand men, furnished by Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware and on the same day " Resolved, That thirteen thousand eight hundred militia be employed to reinforce the army at New York," of which number the quota assigned to New Jersey was three thousand three hundred men. On the 14th of June the Congress of New Jersey passed an ordinance directing that this number of men, in forty companies, to compose five battalions, all to form one brigade, to be " immediately got in readiness and marched to New York under the command of a brigadier-general," the battalions to be raised by voluntary enlistment, to continue in service till the 1st of December following,
lished in the middle colonies,
. .

The quotas assigned to unless sooner discharged. each of the counties, and the field-officers appointed
to the

command

of the several battalions, were as fol-

lows

Washington was

fully pre-

pared to receive him, but there arose a furious gale of wind, which rendered it impracticable for the British troops to cross. The storm continued with unabated violence through all the next day, and the attack was
finally

abandoned.

On
it

the 7th,

Howe

called a council of war, at

which

was' decided to evacuate the place without delay. He had threatened to burn the town if his army was

One battalion to be made up of three companies from each of the counties of Bergen and Essex, and Philip two companies from Burlington. Officers Van Cortland, Colonel David Brearly, LieutenantColonel Richard Dey, Major. One battalion of four companies from each of the counties of Middlesex and Monmouth. Officers Nathaniel Heard, Colonel David Forman, LieutenantColonel Thomas Henderson, Major. One battalion of four companies each from Morris
:

molested
(largely

in its departure,

and the

terrified inhabitants

composed of

loyalists)

ploring

him

to spare

it.

waited on him, imThe result was a promise on


to leave the

Ephraim Martin, Colonel and Sussex. Officers John Munson, Lieutenant-Colonel; Cornelius Lud:

low, Major.

the part of the British

commander

town

One

battalion

composed of two companies from


:

unmolested
in quiet.

Washington would allow him to depart The American general, not unwilling to
it
tlic

* Collections of

Now

Jersey Historical Society, vol.

11.

pp. 161, 162.

each of the counties of Burlington, Cumberland, Silas Newcomb, Officers Gloucester, and Salem. Colonel; Bowes Reed, Lieutenant-Colonel;
,

f At Cambridge, July

12, 1776.

Major.

JirXTKKDON AM) SOMERSET COUNTIES


One
battalion composed of three companies from
five

IN

THE REVOLUTION.

43

particularly in the eastern portion of the State, and


this

companies from Hunterdon County. Officers: Stephen Hunt, Colonel; Philip Johnston, Dr. Lieutenant-Colonel; Joseph Phillips, Major. Hue Baldwin was appointed surgeon of this C
Somersel and
battalion.
ral and Joseph Reed was appointed bi la the brigade formed of these five battalions, but for some cause which does not appear he did not assume the command, and on the 21s1 of June the ess " Ordt red, Thai the President write to General Livingston and inform him that it is the desin

the baj and all the adjacent waters

alarm was greatly increased and intensified when became black with

the almost innumerable ships of the British fleet. The nan- inconsidTory element, too, whii h was by
i

erable in numbers,

became

at

once rampant, and was

especially aggressive in the counties of

Monmouth
Torj

assigned

and Hunterdon.
in

With reference

to the

the former county, the Provincial Congress, on the

26th of June, ordered that Col. Charles Mead, with

would take the command of the York." He declined to acoepl it, however, and on the 25th of the same month Col. Nathaniel Heard, of Middlesex, was appointed brigadier-general and placed in command of the brigade, which, under bim, was soon after marched
of
i

longress that he

militia dcMint'iI I'T

New

two companies of Burlington militia, proceed to capture them, taking also for the purpose all the militia if Monmouth County if found necessary. Ami. with regard to Hunterdon, the Convention, on the same
day, took action as follows:
us. from authentlck InformatJ that certain disafthe nntj of Eunterdon have confederated (>>r the purpose of opposing the imrasurca of the Continental and Provincial and hare even proceeded to actB of open and daring violence;
I
I

to reinforce the

army

at

New

York.
I

Bui on the 24th


to the

of July

a letter

addressed by

ten.

Washington

Convention of New Jersey was read before thai body, informing them "that the brigade under General Heard was far from being complete, and urging tin- necessity of raising and forwarding the new h-\ ies destined to reinforce the army at New York" whereupon it was bj the Convention "Ordered, That a
;

have pi lered and robbed the house of Captain J b; navi wounded, and otherwise abused the friendi and now publicklj declare that they will take up arms and engage in behalf of the King "f Great Britain, the avowod and Implacable enemy of tlio United Colonies In order to put an effe tual stop to a combiner It Is r Ived ananl tile and dang usly, That Lieuten;

ant-Colonel Ten Kick and Major Berry


>i

ink-' t" their

tlio

militia, properly officered


*

and annod,ol

don and

delay to the Bald County of Hunterdon, In

aid such a number Hunterand proceed without order t.. apprehend such inI

sary,

to General Washington informing companies were on their way to join the brigade; and thai this Convention will use its utmost

letter

be written

ad disaffected persons as this

II

direct."

thai several

Under the above resolution,


the
'

Col.

Ten 1'yk received

the following instructions, signed by the president of


longress
InnAHAU Tin Kick, You are hei apprehend John Vaught, Joseph Thomas Swindle, George Cyphers, Jr., Peter John Day, Wiiii.uu Bunt, 'i Jonathan Hunt, John Hunt, John Seal, Jr., Herman afiUham, Christopher Vaught, James MacCord, George CiL-ii.i; Thomas Busklrk, Frederick loo/. Peter Abgar, Daniel
I ,
.

efforts to furnish its quota,

and to give His

ccellency

such other aid as the weal of the United States

may

require and the condition of this State will admit."

When
t.i

the British

commander, Gen. Howe, evacu-

ated Boston, in March, 1776, he sailed with bis forces

Hunt, G

ge

Dpdlke,]

Ji'lni

Horpence, Philip

Forker, Christopher

Halifax, as had been announced, with the inten-

tion
IV

of awaiting there the arrival of reinforcements

Taylor, all of
-

rtholomew Thatcher, Samuel Slater, Edward Taylor, and John to bring whom yon aretokeep undei d
i

(Congress, or CV
ii,

<

-s
i*

to de-

England.

But, as

these did

not arrive at or
i

who

hereby

near the time when thej


i

were expected, he became


si
I

them

In close andaai

Onomeul

until this Gon-

by the delay, and on the 10th of June

therein."

sail

from thai port with the troops of his command,


for

red, 'II,:, t
i

the c

M^rossin-

bound

Sandy Hook, where a pari of the force arrived on the 25th of the same month, and were Boon followed by others, including the commanding general, who disembarked his army on Staten Island to await the arrival of the squadron from En under command of his brother, Admiral Lord Howe,

the above lotter, and requesting a supply of powder.*1


lin^n
i

Au-l in the proc

..i

the arrival

General Howe at Sandy Hook: aho have enlisted men properly armed, under
>>i

the late ordlnani

for ralsii]
i

within

inn
i.

Uately with such numbers as they have colIgnlng


*

without delaj

adue

pro-

who
that

offlcers to
officers,
iii

the men, that thej maj

ivingotber
nder. -Ml nfllcera,

entered the bay with pari of bis Heel on the 12th


:

of Julj

bul

it

was not until the middle


lowi

oi

paymaati

tin' lasl

of the n inforcements arrived.


I
i I

lions; unit nil

Hi-

'ire most
preservation od
lives,

The appearance of

earneatij

3taten Island

thru country, their


it

M
tl

rtii

-.

and

pi

caused greal consternation throughoul New Jersey,1

was under this order


. i

in hasto

u by the
Mlnul
r

tho Provincial

bat Phllli J

['ii

riai-

bmttaUon
t In the under data
:,i
'

J
ill

1776,
i.

ts

Found the followl


II

Tayl

ol

of this day, Infoi

wing
'

that nineteen
fax,

nion was that of

and not Uio meirof-war undor


In

10

t-'WU-

ddtatral

Howe] Uoe

at

the

It

ok,

and forty-Arc

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


solved to further increase the Flying
this purpose desired the State of

In pursuance of these instructions, Col. Ten Eyck proceeded to apprehend the persons named, and their cases were afterwards acted on according to the judgment of the Convention. Persons of Tory proclivities were also numerous in Somerset County, but it
does not appear that they became, at this time, so defiant and dangerous as those of Monmouth and

Camp, and

for

New Jersey

" to aug-

Hunterdon.

The

troops of the

"Flying Camp," composed of

quota with three battalions of militia, in adby Congress, and send them with all possible dispatch to join the flying camp." Upon being notified of this action, the Convention of New Jersey informed Congress that two thousand men had already been ordered detached from the militia of the State for the purpose menits

ment

dition to those formerly desired

Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, and under command of Gen. Hugh Mercer, were stationed at Perth Amboy, and at points north of that

men from

tioned

but beyond this

it

took no further action at

that time.

The

feeling of alarm, however, rapidly increased,

place, opposite the west shore of Staten Island.

The

nominal strength of this corps was ten thousand men, but it had never actually reached that figure, and now it had been materially reduced by detachments, amounting to two thousand men, sent to Gen. Washington, at

and on the 7th of August the Convention received notice of a resolve of Congress "recommending to
the State of
diately to

New

Jersey to order their militia imme-

march and join Gen. Mercer."

This had

the effect to cause the Convention to pass (August


11th) an ordinance reciting that "the Convention, viewing with serious concern the present alarming situation of this and their sister-States, that on a pru-

New York

so that at this critical time,

when

this portion of the

New

Jersey frontier was

peculiarly liable to invasion by the army of Howe, the guarding-force became wholly insufficient. In view of this imminent danger, the Continental Congress passed a resolution requesting a levy of

dent use of the present


their liberty

moment depend
it

their lives,

and happiness, think

their indispensa-

ble duty to put the militia on such a footing that their

two thousand of the militia of New Jersey, to supply the places of an equal number of men sent from the Flying Camp to Gen. Washington. This resolution was read on the 17th of July in the Provincial Congress, and on the following day an ordinance was passed by the Convention,* to the effect that " whereas the situation of New York, the vicinity of New Jersey to the enemy, and, above all, the arrival of Lord Howe, who, it is probable, will speedily make some decisive movement, render it absolutely necessary that the most immediate and effectual steps be taken to guard against the incursions of the British troops, and to strengthen the army of the United States: Resolved, therefore, unanimously, that two thousand of the militia of this State be immediately detached to supply the place of the like number taken from the flying camp in New Jersey and ordered to New York." The force was to be composed of four battalions, an aggregate of thirty companies of sixty-four men each, besides officers, the whole to compose a brigade, under command of a brigadier-general, and to be in the Continental service. To the counties of Hunterdon, Somerset, and Sussex was assigned the raising of one battalion, of which Mark Thompson was appointed colonel, Abraham Bonnell lieutenant-colonel, Enos Kelsey major, and Dr. Jacob Jennings surgeon. Any of the men of this brigade while in service were permitted to enlist in the brigade under command of Gen. Heard, and on doing so were entitled, each man, to receive a bounty of three pounds, voted by the Continental Congress. Again, on the 22d of July, the Continental Congress, in view of the imminent danger of invasion, re*

whole force may be most advantageously exerted and to call out the one-half into immediate service, to be relieved by the other monthly," and ordering that all able-bodied men in the State between the ages of sixteen and fifty, without exception, be immediately enrolled in companies and formed into two divisions, and " that the first division be immediately equipped with arms and every necessary accoutrement that can be obtained, and four days' provision, and march with
;

all

dispatch to join the flying

camp

in this State."

This division consisted of thirteen battalions, made up of men drawn from the militia organizations of the
several counties of the State, those containing

Hun-

terdon and Somerset County men being one battalion formed from the two regiments, and one battalion

commanded respectively by Cols. Mark Thompson, Ephraim Martin, and John Cleves Symmes, in Hunterdon and Sussex
talions of Cols.
;

another battalion from the batStephen Hunt and Abraham Quick, in Somerset another battalion from the battalions of Cols. Isaac Smith and David Chambers, in Hunterdon; and a fourth battalion from the battalions of Cols. Joseph Beavers and John Mehelm, in Hunterdon. The best arms in the possession of all the militia of the State were taken to arm this First Division; and they were to be turned over to the Second Division when it should relieve the First, at the end of one month from the time when the latter was reported for duty with the Flying Camp. The ordinance closed by a most stirring appeal to
;

the people of

New
They

Jersey by the members of the


said,
an
active,

Convention.
"In

this interesting situation, viewing, on tho one hand,

The name

of that body having been changed on that Jay from

"

The

inveterate, and implacable

enemy, increasing

fast in strength, daily re-

Provincial Congress of

New

Jersey" to

"The Convention

of tho State of

Now

Jersey," us before mentioned.

ceiving large reinforcements, and industriously preparing to strike some docisivo blow j on the other, a considerable part of tho inhabitants su-

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


umbering on the brink of ruin,and
Ions, the

IX

THE REVOLUTION.

16

red with of

Convention think
ol
I

II

In

.i-nt

upon them

to

warn

their constituent

pondlna.

danger.

Ou you, our

friends and

brethren,!! depends, thli day, to dotormlne whether you,) iui your children, and millions of your descendants yel unborn ihall wear

command, who were surrounded and made prisoners. Gens. Until wire alfiO among tho-e taken Sullivan and W by the enemy. The loss of the Americans was heavy,
the capture of Lord Stirling with his entire

the galling, the Ignominious yokeol >lavery,or nobly Inheril


the Inestimable bloselnf.
ol frei

lom.

The

alb
to

yool

Can you

hesitate In your choice?

Canyon doubl which


moment
will
di

pro-

far?... Happily, we
confident satisfaction

know wo can

anticipate your virtuous choice.


that uol a
feel

With
will

one being admitted by Gen. Washington to exc thousand, and estimated by Gen. Howe to be more eleven than three time- that number, including about
I

we are assured
bei

Important decision; that youcannol

hesitation,
to

whether you

tamely and degeneratoly

the Irretrievable wretched-

hundred prisoners. Among the killed was Col. Philip Johnston, of Hunterdon County, commanding the
. :

ness of slavery, or by yoni in-tan t and animated exertions enjoy the fair heaven-born freedom, and transmit It unimpaired to your Inheritai
I

i;>

giment.
this

After
t

disastrous
in a
I

engagement the American


d
p<

pottai n*

nces rem lined


until

rtiti

sib >n

confronting the

This

l:in<ru:i<ft'

1-

>

:i

clearly

tlir

intensit
;

of

tin'

enemy

the night of the 28th,

when they were

alarm which then pervaded the public mind and the facts above noticed Bhow what preparations had been

withdrawn and transported in safety across the East River to New York, taking With them nearly all their
military stores, and
all

made

bj

the people of
at
tin;

New

Jersej to meel the imthe-

their artillery, excepl a few


'file

pending danger
of

time when

neighboring

of the heavier

pieces.

puhlie -lore-

V,

hillsides of States
I

Ma ml
it-

were dotted with the camps


fleet.

[owe'a army, and

shores encircled by the black

hulls ami menacing batteries of the British

Dobb's Ferry, on the Hudson, while the main part of the army, some ten or twelve thousand men. was inarched to Bang's Bridge and there en-

moved

to

It

proved
to

to

be the design of the British

man-

camped. men wa-

der not
siege

and occupy

invade the territory of New Jersey, bul to the western end of Long Island ; and
lasl

between four and live thousand keep up a aho\l Of dl E aSO, hut inn with the intention of holding it against any

force of

left

in the city to

he mad.' no delay, after the arrival of the


reinforcements,
in

of bis

determined attack of the enemy in force. On the 12th of September, Gen. Washington, by the advice
of a council of war, decided on tiie abandonment of commanding the Flying the city, and Gen. ,,n the New Jersey side, was ordered to move ftm

putting this design into execution.

Hi- army, consisting of British regulars and German mercenaries, amounted to about twenty-five thousand
ten thousand of them he crossed from Staten Island on the 22d of August and effected a landing between the settlements of New Utrecht and Gravesend. The American forces in and about twenty-seven New York numbered, nominally, al thousand men, and. though they had offered no opposition to the landing of the enemy's columns, it was clear that a conflict between the two armies was in-

Mir.

nun, and with about

up the river to a point opposite Fort Washington. On the 15th of September, while the city was still partially occupied by the American troop-. Gen. Howe commenced crossing the Bast Riverwith his army under cover of a heavy tin- from the men-Ot>
war.

Some

of Washington's troops

who occupied
landing
tied

a
in

Citified

position

near the place

oi'

evitable and could not long be delayed.

Five days were spent

in

preparation on both sides.

On

the 25th of August, Gen.


in
n,

Putnam

eeded Gen.
forces at

Sullivan
Brooklj

the

command

of the American

advance of the British and the canand in their panic threw into confusion two brigades which were marching to their 'l'hc result was a disorderly and disgraceful support, Nb resistance was made. retreat to the main body.
terror before the

nonade of

their ships,

which had been reinforced by aia regiments. On the same day the German general De Heister landed two brigades of Hessians on the island, and on the 26th took position at Flatbush, which Lord Cornwallis had occupied with Ins division
fore.

except

temporary stand
all

and

slight

skirmish

at
a

Bloomingdale, and

the heavy artillery, with

three days besi

and provisions, Hen. Howe occupied into the hands of the enemy. force, and moved small the city with a comparatively
large part of the military -torefell

Thus the American and

British forces

Ion

the main part oi hihis


line-, stretching

army northward and


from
Bit

established

the evening of the 26th, confronting each other, and

dngdale across the

within striking distance.

island to the East River.

morning of the 27th of August, the British columns, under llinton, Percy, and Grant, were put in motion in the direction of the American lines, and it was not long alter daylight when their advance became warmly engaged with the troops under Gen. Sullivan and then followed the general engagement known in history as the battle of Long Island, which raged until past noon of the day and resulti din the defeal of ten. Washington's army and
Before dawn,
in

the

Wter the dehat on Long I-laud and the retreat to Bridge tin' American army wa- reduced to a
state of most discouraging demoralization.

In refer-

ence
a.

to it- condition, lien.


i

Idle--..

to
1

Congress

in

Washington, in a letter September, 1776, used this


meat on
; "r.
'

language
"Qui

iUIiiiiUuii Is liulj

illsh Inn,

Ths

<

the Z7th ultimo be filled their minds nii appi


..f

Thi mllll
i
i

calling forth
i

thi

brave and
I

* Nearly one-Uilrd (
reason
!

this
i

number, however, were mail

r..r

duty, by

,.,.!,.

ioro|

dismayed, intra

sickness and ethi

turn.

Great numbers of them haveg

n*rIneom.

Instances almost

46
by whole regiments, in
This circumstance of

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


many by
half ones and by companies, at a time.
itself,

well-appointed enemy, superior in

independent of others, when fronted by a number to our whole collected force,

about three thousand men,t with orders to join Washington in New Jersey if the enemy should show indications of

would be and

sufficiently disagreeable, but

when

it is

added that their exam-

moving

in that direction.

ple has infected another part of the army, that their


refusal of almost every

want of

discipline

kind of restraint and government have rendered a like conduct but too common in the whole, and have produced

an entire disregard of that order and subordination necessary for the well-doing of an army, and which had been before inculcated as well as the nature of our military establishment would admit, our condition is Btill more alarming; and with the deepest concern I am obliged to confess my want of confidence in the generality of the troops.
1'

Fort Washington had been reinforced by detachments from Gen. Mercer's Flying Camp, augmenting its defending force from twelve hundred to about three thousand men. It was almost completely surrounded by the enemy, who had determined on its capture. On the 15th of November, Howe sent a summons
to Col.

Magaw, the commander

at the fort, to surrenif refused.

And he added
be placed in

in effect that all these facts but con-

der, threatening to give

no quarter

The

firmed his previous opinion that no dependence could

any troops other than those enlisted for a long term, and that in his belief the American cause was in great danger of being lost if its defense was intrusted to any but a permanent army.
militia, or in

summons, however, was disregarded, and on the 16th heavy masses of British and Hessian troops moved to the assault of the work, which after several hours of fighting was surrendered, with two thousand sis hundred!

men

as prisoners of war.

adopted measures for the immediate raising and organization of such a permanent army, to consist of eighty-eight battalions of seven hundred and fifty men each, to be furnished by the several States. Four of these battalions were assigned to New Jersey as her quota.
this representation Congress

Upon

From

the time

across the East River from

when Gen. Howe moved his forces Long Island to New York,

the two opposing armies remained on the east side of

the

about two months, during which time amount of skirmishing (frequently resulting favorably for the Americans) and a series of minor engagements, sometimes called the
for

Hudson

there occurred a great

White Plains,* resulting from an attempt, on the part of the British commander, to flank the American position. This attempt finally proved successful, and the American army was thus placed in great peril, having its line of retreat cut off; so that, in the event of a general engagement, it must probably have been destroyed. In this state of affairs a council of war was held (November 6th), at which it was decided that the army should be moved across the Hudson into New Jersey, those of the forces which were raised on the west side of that river to cross first, and afterwards the others, with more or less rapidity, as necessity might require. A small force, however, was to be left at Fort Washington to hold that work, which, in conjunction with Fort Lee, on the opposite side of the river, was expected to be able to prevent the free passage of the British ships up and down the This view of the case was urged upon the river. council by Gen. Greene, but was disapproved of and warmly opposed by Gen. Lee, who had then just returned to this army from a successful campaign in the South. But unfortunately his advice was overruled in the council, and a force was left to hold the fort. The crossing of the Hudson River by the greater part of the army was effected on the 12th and 13th of November, Washington himself crossing on the latter day. Gen. Lee was left on the east side with
battle of
* Oct. 2G-29, 1770.

Washington, on crossing the river into Jersey, had established his headquarters at Hackensack, five miles in the rear of Fort Lee, and at the same place were the headquarters of Gen. Greene, who was in command of the troops which had crossed in that vicinity. On the 18th of November, two days after the fall of Fort Washington, the first actual invasion of the State of New Jersey by British troops was commenced by Lord Cornwallis, whose division, six thousand strong, crossed the river to Closter Landing, and, marching thence down the river, proceeded to the attack of Fort Lee, the garrison of which evacuated the work in hasted and retreated to the main body of the American army, at Hackensack, leaving their baggage and the military stores at the fort in the hands of the enemy. The army which Gen. Washington then had with him in New Jersey amounted to no more than three thousand effective men, exclusive of the Flying Camp, which was stationed in the neighborhood of Bergen, and still under command of Gen. Mercer. The troops of this last-mentioned corps had only been enlisted for a term to close on the 1st of December, which was then but a few days distant and not only was there very little probability that any considerable number would remain after that time, hut a great many of them had already left and returned to their homes. Nearly the same was true of the forces with which Washington had crossed the Hudson, which was daily growing less as the general feeling of despondency The commander-in-chief sent orders to increased. Gen. Lee, who was still east of the Hudson, to cross
;

t The term of service of a largo part of Lee's

men was

then about ex-

piring, and, as they could not be induced to re-enlist, this force

was

soon.

afterwards greatly reduced by their return to their homos. report, included about two thou* I This number, given by Howe in his
five or six hundred militia and stragglers. Washington stated the number captured to he two thousand, in which ho probably only included the Continental troops. \ Gen. Washington had decided, immediately upon the fall of Fort Washington, to evacuate Fort Leo and remove its stores to the interior

sand regular troops and

Jersey, but the promptness of Cornwallis' movements prevented consequently, the storos and material were Ah lost, the evacuation had already been decided on, of cour.,6 no defense wan intended, and none was made.
of

New

the execution of the plan

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


that river into

IN

THE REVOLUTION.
A stop of Beveral days

IT

New Jersey and hold

his

command

in

the same evening.


ai

Was made
his col-

readiness to give assistance in case the runny should as it was now nearly certain I"- wouldadvance to

this place.
\i

New Brunswick Cornwallis had halted


in

the interior of the State.

Gen. Schuj ler to move hia ill. e under command of


<

Orders were also sent to among whom were troops

I;,
(

including a ten. Maxwi 11, [unterdon and So number of men Be lounties from Lake Jhamplain to New Jersej to the
ji
I

<

obedience to an order from Gen. How,- to proceed no farther than that point until he Bhould be reinforced by other commands of the British army. Washington, aware ofthi-, left held nd him in Pi toii, when he moved thence to Trenton, a force con-

umns

a'nl
a,,,
I

of Washington; hut tlie-e -ii.tmi- wen- .1 it must be long before they could arrive
I

sisting of the
al

the

point of danger.
l.i
i

Jen.

Washington wrote

to

Governor

-i

.hi

of

New

Jersey, setting forth his pressing

rem .a nt- of two brigades, in all. twelve hundred men, in order to make a show of defense, hoping therebj to delay the advance of the British general, and to give renewed confidence to the people
i

need of reinforcements, and asking that every endeavor might be used to send men to him in the leas) possible time ; but there was very little probability
that any

,,f

new troops could then be raised. isly posted on The American army was advantag the right bank of the Hackensack River, but, as its effective strength was scarcely more than one-half
that Of Cornwallis' corps alone (to saj

This detached force was the surrounding country. under command of Lord Stirling, who. taken prisoner mentioned, - fore land, as bj the enemj at Long had been exchanged and returned to his command in the American army a short time before it crossed the
;

Hudson River

into

New

Jersey.

nothing of the
to

other divisions of the British army .any attempt

hold the less; and


I

line
bo,

of the Hackensack was evident!) usewhen Cornwallis moved up from Fort


i

[mmediatelj after entering this State, Gen. Washarmy, ington, in view of the rapid diminution of his had dispatched Gen. Mifflin to Pennsylvania to urge the hurrying forward of troops, ami he had been so
far successful that fifteen

to
|

confront him, Gen. Washington

lediatelj

from

Philadelphia, besides a
arrival

hundredmen had been Bent German battalion orThese troops joined


at
i

and set his columns in motion for Newark. which he reached on the 22d of November, and rethere until the 28th of the same month, when, ma on the approach of Cornwallis' advance-guard, the patriot forces left the town and continued their to New Brunswick, where Washington had hoped to make a stand. Fn this he was sorely disappointed, li.r, with an active and energetic enemy pressing on
retire.
i

dered thence by Congress.

;,

n.

Washington on

his

Trenton, and. upon

being thus strengthened, the commander-in-chief ordered a large part of his force to march hack on the
i

Princeton, to further deceive the British by

his

rear.il
to

would require
to

all

his

forces, to

the

last

,,f a general advance to meet them. column reached Princeton, however, he received word that Lord Cornwallis, having been strongly reinforced from Howe's army, was already

thi

appearance

Before the

dispute their advance with anything like a hope of Success, and even then the odds

man,

enable him

on the

troops rapidly

move from New Brunswick and inarching by several road- with the evident

his
in-

against
not

him would be discouraging.


agre
tar, tor

But

he could

retain even the brought with him thus

force

which

he had

tention of gaining the rear of the American army, and thus securing it- destruction. This intelligence
a1 once on a retreat to and across the Delaware River, and accordingly he turned the faces of his men once more towards that

the terms of sen ice of g

caused Washington to decide

several ofthi

mmands from Maryland ami Xew

them the brigades Jersey;, had expired, and


an

neither arguments nor threats could prevent the

men

stream.

composing them from disbanding themselves and reWithout them it was imies. turning to their nemy's advance and so, on practicable to oppose tl Sunday the i-t of lecember, Hie daj on which the remnant of the army their enlistments expired, left New Brunswick, and, passing through the southiintt. by wa> of Six-Mils east part :i Bcmersel Run, and crossing the Millstone River at Rocky Bill, made its way to Trine, ion, the advance arrh
1

The main bodj


idly

of Cornwallis' troops inarched rap-

ami confidently from New Brunswick to Princeton, and on their approach Lord Stirling, knowing that an attempt at defense With his weak force woiihl be useless, evacuated the town and marched rapidly
towards Trenton, with the pursuing column of British

<

Bing,

ii

and Hessians close in hi- rear. so mar. -a\ - L08his "Field-Book of the Revolution," that iii the music of the pursued and the pursuers

* Col.
tnl

Maxwoll
In tho pi

lindl

eral In

thoOooUnen-

army

+ Tin. ivini-.\iv mi., mllltie

-.i

Hi- Flying

plred on the let of Deoomber, lied


i

Camp, wl engaged to remein In terrlo

Ull the

tot
it

Janun
ii

notwithstanding which, thoy daaerted In


n

end

WOUld be heard b) each other;" but this i- doubtless drawn from the imagination, as there is little probability that the tattered, slim -less, and di-pirited army its Bight along the highways of ,.f Washington, in Somerset and Hunterdon Counties, moved to the sound of any music other than that of the how ling of
the wind- of December.

ilmi

band
|

Ihe ihoree "f n,"


the
fti

Delaware
i
:

to
i

Intercept

IUtoi "" m-ir Mail]


>!

way

to

Uioti hoi

.l

in

the army.

thorn, however,
:

eroded tho

the American
the
last

guard

and

etl

man

the 8th of that month ved aero the Delaware, of Lord Stirling's rear-guard reaching
<

>n

army wa-

48

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


taken to safe places, and carefully guarded. Some of these boats were afterwards used in recrossing the army for its movement on Trenton, and it is not improbable that Washington even then contemplated putting them to this use, but the immediate object in securing them was to compel Cornwallis to remain on the eastern side of the river until he could build new
boats or until the ice should have

just as the head of the Hessian


ton.

the Pennsylvania shore in safety at about midnight, column entered Tren-

The main body of the

British force halted a

few miles before reaching the town. The American army which crossed the Delaware into Pennsylvania numbered about two thousand two hundred men, but two or three days later this force was further reduced by the departure of about five hundred whose terms of service had then expired. But even then "Washington did not despair. Gen. Gates at the North, and Gen. Heath at Peekskill, had been ordered to join him with their troops with all possible dispatch, and expresses were sent out through Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland urging the militia to march to him without delay and it was believed that by these means a sufficient force might be collected to enable him to resume offensive operaProbably he had already tions at no distant day. conceived the plan which he afterwards executed so
;

become of sufficient
it.

thickness for his troops to pass over on

The
side

Washington on the Pennsylvania of the Delaware was one of safety for his troops,
position of
least for a time.

at

He made

his dispositions at

successfully at Trenton.

once by posting Gens. Lord Stirling, De Fermoy, Stephens, and Mercer, with their brigades, at different points along the river from Yardley's to Coryell's Ferry (Lambertville), with the remaining troops of the Flying Camp, under Gen. Irvine, to guard (as well as their feeble strength would permit) the west bank of the river from Yardley's to the point opposite Bordentown. The Pennsylvania militia, under Col.
Cadwallader, was posted along the Neshaminy, and
the Third Philadelphia Battalion, under Col. Nixon,

When
stream
all

the crossing was made, Washington, fearing

that Cornwallis might attempt the passage of the


to attack

him, took the precaution to secure

the boats upon the Jersey side and have

them

taken to the opposite shore. He had previously ordered all boats, bateaux, and river-craft of every kind on the Delaware and Lehigh* rivers to be seized,
*" This service was assigned toCapt. Daniel Bray, afterwards Gen. Bray, New Jersey militia, Capt. Jacob Gearhart, and Capt. Thomas

Gen. Putnam was sent to assume command at Philadelphia, and to take immediate measures for fortifying the approaches to the city. Defensive works were rapidly thrown up at the most exposed points on the river from Coryell's Special orders were given to to McConkey's Ferry.
occupied a position at Durck's Ferry.
the several brigade

commanders holding

this section

of the
Jones,

Delaware and Lehigh and brought them down to Coryell's Ferry. The boats were hid behind Malta Island, just below what is known as 'The Mills,' on the Pennsylvania side. The island was densely wooded, so that the boats could not be seen by a reconnoitering-party of the enemy as it looked down from the Jersey heights. These boats were thus secured for the famous crossing of Christmas night. Capt. Bray was a nativo of Kingwood, and was familiar with every boat and crossing along the river; Capt. Gearhart was from Flemington. To procure these boats, to conceal their plan from the Tories who were lurking about, and who would betray them at the first opportunity, to cut out these fiat-boats in the darkness of the cold winter nights, to float them down amid the rocks and through the rapids, to keep them from being crushed or swamped, was a task most difficult and hazardous. But it was successfully accomplished. Cornwallis was informed of this enterprise and sont a detachment to seize the boats, but they could not find them, or were afraid to venture across the river in the face of those frowning batteries. "Probably while engaged in this search the British learned that a lot of guns were stored in Flemington. A part of Cornwallis' army was then encamped just below Pennington. Five hundred cavalry wore detailed to seize these arms. At that time, near the Presbyterian church was a long low frame building. For many years afterwards it was a store famous throughout that, part of the county. It afforded a market for wheat to a wide section. The store was kopt in connection with a mill, on the site of John Rockafellow's mill. In this building a quantity of muskets had been stored by the Continentals. The cavalry reached the village early In the morning, and found in the street a man with a
collected all the boats on the upper waters of the
cart, whom they pressed into their service. The chests, with the gutiB in them, were taken out of the building and put into the cart, and then the whole troop hastened away. But when they reached Tattorsall's Lane, where the tile-kiln now is, they became alarmed, and con-

who

of the shore to exercise sleepless vigilance in guarding every practicable crossing-place, and to be pre-

pared to support one another promptly in case of emergency; and finally, in case the worst should come and the army be forced back from the Delaware, the several commands were ordered to retreat
to a general rendezvous at

The

British

army

in

New

Germantown. Jersey was posted in de-

tachments along a very extended line. The largest force was at New Brunswick, which was their principal depot of military stores. A strong detachment was stationed at Princeton another, consisting of one thousand five hundred Hessians and a troop of cavalry, at Trenton a body of troops of about equal strength was at Bordentown, under Count Donop and smaller detachments occupied Black Horse, Mount Holly, and several other posts, extending
;

below Burlington.

The

chief

command
York.

sey was held by Lord Cornwallis, Gen.

in New JerHowe remain-

ing at his headquarters in

New

When
the
tlio

the main body of the American


into

army crossed

packed

Hudson River

New

Jersey after the battle at

cluded

it

them away,
the fence. " In tin-

would bo hotter to destroy the muskets than attempt to carry so they broke the guns by striking thorn upon the ["'sis of

''apt, John Schench had collected a band of men them in a piece of woods between Copper Hill and Larason's. horsemen Died through this they were tired upon. Capt. Geary, the commander of the British, ordered his troops to halt and face

moan time

and

secreted

As the

The

spot whonco tho firing procoodod, whon ho was almost immediately His tnon wheeled and flod. Afraid that they might meet more opposition if thoy returned tho stuno road they came, the British turned and went towards Now Brunswick, ('apt. Geary's body waB buried in tho woods. This dipt. Schenok afterwards colonel was a bravo officer. With Col. Charles Stewart ho rallied tho minutemen in 1776, and was activo during tho whole conflict, in various ways."

shot through the head.

Firri Goniury

offfunterdmi County, by Qeorge 8. Molt, D.D.

BUNTK11D0N AND
White

H< ).M

KIISKT

('<

>r.\TI KS

IN

TIIK UF.Vi ILUTION.


to me and said, 'Do, sir, anol the hou* atthlsm
i

49
we what
aten-

Plains, Gen. Charles Lee had been left near the latter place with his division of aboul three tl

after a

momentarj pause he turned

me
;,,

of the guard.'

Thaw
[

himself in a bad; which

sandmen. Gen. Washington, on reaching hie


place
a1

,,

,,

i,

...Hi,
Ii

caught up the
in

Eackensack, wrote
li
i

at

once

to to

Gen. Lee
the west

re-

th.

table, thrust the

ttoi

In-

bad been writing


,

which lay on my pocket, and passed


pistol
I

questing

in to

move

his

command

house, whore
.

ba

aide
, . i

1,111

the

men

of the liver

ami join him without delay.


this request,

Lee having

stepped

--in

-.t

th-- -i"-.r

and saw the


I

taken do notice of
effect

when
<>l ><-<
l

was transmitted to was found that he ii


in

an order to the same him from headquarters; and


still

mi. receiving a very uncivil salutation,

returned into tho


motives of this en-

"Too

[nexperlei

inn

Ilately to penetrate the

lingered, the ordei

was repeated
t-i

the
sec
I

st

Hi-

to

this

In peremptory terms. orilcr, lmt with apparent


division
so
in

tered th-- rencontre accidental, and, from th-- terriflo ad over the country of the violence and barbarity of thi it t-. be a wanton marauding-party, and determined nol t.. die I believed could notbe with-. nt accordingly sought a position where pany.
I 1
,

reluctance, he
Jersey,
but

moved

his

and crossed

into

iv in, i.
tl..-

than one person at a time, and with a pistol in each


the sword.
did

march was weeks were consumed by him


his

dilatory that

three
to

hand awaited
remain
in

expect
t,.

bringing his force

might appear, ami then appeal


-

From that place his division moved Morristown.* slowly "ii towards the Bouthwest, and in the evening of the 12th of December the troops bivouacked at

ttuation, bul
I

was apprised of the Incursion by

Y.

-ii.

.N

Bernardsville),

Somerset
his

Co.

The
at

claimed,

minutes, I wiU set fire to the house,' which after a sho peated with a Bolemn oath; ami within two minutes 1 beardll pro^general shout is th.- general; he has surrendered V ' Here
tin1..

ensued,

general, however, did not


that place, but

make

headquarters

passed the night, with only a small


half miles distant from the

hurried off in triumph, barecollar open,

trumpet a unded the reassembling .!' tin- troop, ami tin- nnready at the door, was nntod on mj bona, which si Uppers and blanket coat, his
1

guard,

at

the public-house of Mrs. White, at Basking

and bis shirt

verj

much

soiled

fiom several daya

Ridge, some two and a main body of his force and there, in the morning of the I3th,t he was made prisoner by a detachment of The manner British cavalry under Col. Harcourt.
;

in

which the capture of the general was effected thus told in Wilkinson's " Memoirs"
:

is

Lee was taken by his captors to Middlebrook (Bound Brook), ami thence to New Brunswick, whence In- was delivered to Lord Cornwallis, who There he was si-nt him to Gen. Howe at New York. denied tin' privileges of a prisoner of war, lmt was treated aa a deserter from tin- British service ami
confinement mi board tin' frigate "CentuThis eharire against him was liarlinr. afterwards abandoned, ami In- was treated a- a prisplaced
in

"Qen,

wasted

ill.,

morning
c hi

In

alter

ittanfl

with cerl

Ii

corps wh.i were of his


I

land, particularly
h

the Connecticut

Llght-

riun," in

tin'

(ranted forago. on
j

hod,
replied,

his provisions

to

which the general


I lI

his pay, and a fourth 'Your wants are numer-

<it'

ous, but yon bare not mentl be Indulged, for yon are no
.

the last; jou want to go homo, and shall


hi

war.

lit'

was

i-xi'lian-xt-il

lor

the

British

general Prescotl
It is for orders a]

in

May,
tin-

1778.

large full-bottomed perukes and wore treated very Irreverently.

Btated that

British colonel, Harcourt,

was

The

>

nil

..i

ii.

tini...

and

lie .li.l

nol

lit

down
ol

to breokfasl
.

len

m-Winiin;
table
1

<;..n. Uat.-s' l-tt

apprised of the location ami unprotected condition of M. Let '- headquarters by an elder in tin- Presbyte.,
i

and was looking oul


In

an end window,
I

down
A

u lane, about
in
I

one

rian

Church

at

.Miiiilham, a Mr. Mueklewraith.

who

h. ! yards

length, whli h led

tin

b >u

when I
lull
1
i,

disooTered a party of British turn


m
sir,
e

lb
ip|

avonuolu
....

9tai

it.

.1

at this unexpected

.1
tin-

while traveling on foot on private business passed .Mrs. White's inn, learned that the general was there
with lmt a -mall cavalry guard, ami. proceeding on
his way, soon after

Here,

are the British cavalry.'


lie

'Where?1 aakod

genoral,who
alar

bail signed the letter


Opotultl
lltl'M

Inslnnl
1

nut

tin'

cavalry of Harcourt, to

anil

l'IIC'illl|>lova-il tin- l.ni

and

sl

collected, ind
i-

hh

'Where

the

guard

Damn

tin.

guard

marked inWhydon'l

whom
forced

lm Imparted the information, and

who then
as a guide

---it

the]

him

t.i

accompany the detachment


i

in the place.
* " It

That part of the story, however, w hieh

evldont,
at thai time, thai
....
it

not,

and
ol

tin. di

tenor

-if
i

was nol

so

mm
i

It

a spirit

terml

ha- reference to the tpulsion used is not fully authenticated, ami appears, tn say tin- least, doubtful. But it i- certain that Elder Mucklevi raith was not tin' only one who acted as informer ami guide tn the British horsemen, for on page 126 of the "Minutes of
th.' Council of Safety found this record:
.i.nm

which governed
1 *

Ills a.

lions -

pendent

>.f

indoi In-chlel

which w. ail. redound to his porsona] glory. Ho was ambit] hi In vain, to Induoe 1. was impetuous and bravo, it., ha. endoavi Gen. Heath, who was loft In command at Pookaklll, to hi him have* with whleh Hoath md men to operate. wo n detachment >.i oi his Instructions, and it was well that ha did. refused i" varj with lunction him; yot,as hi in Washtn Ion continue
I I

1.

nt'

New

Jersey, 1777,"

i-

its

dla-

Ian- as Hi.,
war..,
ii

nth

..i

Docombor,
t-.

tv\..

days

aftoi tlio

and
hinted at

hi-. a hi-

axamlnaUon
i-

lettorwritten

W
vomonta
last
t

[aland

mtcmplated
ti
i

onoofwhl
Washtn
I

i.

rafarrtd

toajunetin-

it,

& after continuing thora about two


horsemen (broad him kill him
i,

months

roturni

forces.
lil
t.i

This was the


i

lottoi

during
i.

wards, while pursuing his slon ami


is

British Light

to go

with them

f.-r

th

it

in.
;

progn
.a. in

wm
i

tho Delaware, Lee was laki n


|

prl

Ing

t--

i.. ...I.

ins

Qistot

place with
Di

th.. i

Oompton,
Id
ti

Gen
mil.

I,,

wasmad

tho 12th

Messier,

"Centennial Hie-

i.\

in- owi

torj ol

Somorset County," p

136, montloiia It aa

having occurred on the

found guilty
Islaml. an.

..r

going roluntarUj Into the Bnemlea' in-.- upon

St. ,I.-n

50
turned
to tliis State

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


;

gives no better reason for this his conduct than the

gratifying his curiosity.

"Benjamin Worth, brought in as the two foregoing, and appearing in the same predicament as the others: The Board considered their case, & agreed to give Each of the three liberty of Entering on board the vessels of
lives,

Delaware below Trenton; but that part which had reference to the surprise of Trenton was regarded as of the most importance, and this was to be under the
personal supervision of the commander-in-chief. The time fixed on for its execution was the night of the 25th and morning of the 26th of December, because, knowing the convivial habits of the German soldiers and the universal custom among them of celebrating Christmas with bacchanalian revelry, he believed that in the unheralded visit which he proposed to make in
the early morning of the 26th he would find the guards
less vigilant than usual, and both officers and soldiers in poor fighting condition, as a result of the previous

War

of the United States of America, or take a trial for their

agreeably to Law."

The charge
quarters of

of the British horsemen on the head-

at White's tavern was made with the sabre only, as they dared not use firearms, fearing to alarm the American troops at Vealtown and on the

Lee

Pluckamin road. The men of the guard, being surprised at a distance from their arms, scattered and fled, but two of them, who, when overtaken by the troopers, refused to surrender, were killed, and their bodies were found to be so horribly gashed and hacked
by the British sabres that they could not be removed and were therefore interred on the spot where they fell. Gen. Wilkinson, who was with Gen. Lee at the time of the capture, as above noticed, concealed himself in the house until after Harcourt's departure, and then, mounting one of the
to the burial-ground,

night's debauch.

The plan was an


it

excellent one,

and

horses in the stable, rode with all speed to carry the news of the affair to Gen. Sullivan but, as the capturing force were already many miles on its way
;

lines, pursuit was useless. The division, or rather the remnant of what had been a division, was now under command of Gen. Sullivan, as next in rank to Gen. Lee. Its march (which was now continued with more rapidity) was from Vealtown, by way of Pluckamin, to Clinton,*Hunterdon Co., and thence to the Delaware River opposite the mouth of the Lehigh, where it crossed

towards their

It was up the Lehigh, then down through Northampton and Bucks Counties to Washington's army, which it joined on the 21st of December. Four regiments of Gen. Gates' troops, who had marched from New York State through the northern part of New Jersey, joined the main army the same

the first-named stream into Pennsylvania.

marched

several miles

day.f

Having been reinforced by the forces of Gens. Sullivan and Gates and by a considerable number of troops from other quarters, Washington immediately
prepared to execute the plan which he had for some time had in contemplation, viz., to recross the Delaware by night and march rapidly to Trenton, in the

was carried out seems remarkable, particularly when it is remembered that the Hunterdon shore of the Delaware at that time was infested by a great number of Tories, all closely watching the movements of the patriots on the other side, and eager to carry in all haste any information they might obtain to the nearest British post. The means for transporting the troops across the Delaware were furnished by the boats which had previously been collected on that river and the Lehigh. Among those collected for the purpose were sixteen Durham J boats and four scows, sent down by Gen. Ewiug to McConkey's Ferry, which was to be the place of crossing. There, on the evening of the 25th of December, as soon as the early nightfall of winter had settled down upon hill and river, the troops destined for the expedition were mustered in silence and inspected by Washington and his generals. The commander-in-chief had expected to land his army on the Jersey side with but little delay and to reach Trenton by midnight, but the river was so filled with masses of floating ice, and the weather was so thick by reason of a storm of snow and sleet which had just commenced, that it hardly seemed practicable to cross at all and when it was decided to move forward regardless of these obstacles, the transportation was found to be so slow and difficult that it was not until nearly four o'clock in the morning that the last of the troops and cannon were landed in safety on the eastern
;

the secrecy with which

shore.

[|

The expeditionary corps, consisting of two thousand four hundred men, with ten pieces of artillery, was marched in a body by way of the " Bear Tav

hope of surprising, and possibly of capturing, the force of about fifteen hundred Hessians which then occupied ili.-il post iii winter quarters. His plan also contemplated simultaneous attacks by other detach men ts of his army on the several British posts along the
It won recollected by eld people many years afterwards that while ibis march through Clinton forty of Sullivan's soldiers were furnished wlib breakfast by Mrs. Hope, wife of Capt. Adam Hope, who was himaelf a soldier of Hie Revolution and commanded a company of Hunterdon
militia at the battle of

So called because this particular kind of boat was

first

constructed

to transport iron

delphia.

They wore very

on the Dolawaro from the Durham furnaces to Philalarge, flat-bottomed, and rounded at how and

atom, instead of boing square at the ends like scows. g Now known as " Washington's Crossing" on tho Now Jersey side and laylorsville on tho Pennsylvania side of tho river.
||

" General

on

in bis cloak while his troops

Washington (who hud sat in silenco on a beehive wrapped were crossing), as they were about to march,

enjoined upon them

and

said to

Monmouth.

of Trenton.
Jersey," dutcs the arrival of both

all profound silence during their march to Trenton, them, 'I hope you will all light like men.'"JZaum's History Uriah Slack, William Green, and David Canning were

t Oordon,
LI,,- j

in

bis " History of

New

among

those

who

rendered must efftoiout servico in ferrying tho troops

corps

December anb.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


four and five miles was halted, and the nun took some refreshment.! The force was thru divided into lumns, one, under Gen. Sullivan, taking the river road, and the other, under Gen. Greene, with Gens. Mercer, Stevi as, and Lord Stirling, and accompanied by h^ commander-in-chief, ring to and down the Scotch road to its junction with thi Pennington road, and thence down the latter to Trenton. The columns marched very rapidly and in perfect silence under the direction of a number of guides Anion- those who were familiar with the r is. who :irti'<l as guides on tlmt nuiivh are mentioned! li.' names of (iol. Joseph Phillips, pi I'll lip Phil-

IN

THE REVOLUTION.

51

ern,"* to Birmingham (between

from Trenton

|,

liere

it

and

forward with great impetuosity, drove iii tin' outposts, in a few minute- had possession of all the B

artillery.

v,

The brave Col. Etahl, the Hessian commander, surprised, ami not \,t recovered from the
t

effects of hi-

Ihristmas potations, rushed frantically

out of hi- quarters and

mounted
al
-t

his horse to form his

men
a

for defense, hut

he

immedis
it-

mortal

wound

and. a- further resistance then applace

peared hopeless, the

with

troops (except

Buch as had escaped ami Bed towards Princeton and Bordentown) and military stores surrendt red to the

American commander.

':i

An account of tho Trenton fight with propriety he termed a battle,


slight resistance

for
in

it

could not
in-

view of the

and Ailjt. Elias Phillips, of Maidenhead Joseph Edon Burroughs, Stephen Burroughs, Ephraim Woolsey, and Henry Simmons, of Hopewell; and Mott, Amos Scudder, and William Capt. John was also desired by Gen. It Green, of Trenton. Washington to find twelve men familiar with the country, who would ride in advance of thi tumns, unarmed and dressed in fanners' clothes, to gain such
lips,
;

made

>

tin

enemj and the very


1

[nslei

significant loss sustained by tieafter published

Americans) wa- soon


lie

by order of tin- lontinental having heen transmitted to that bodj bj


<

New
it

Jersej

louncil of Safety with the explanation that


in

was furnished by "an officer of distinction army." Following is the account referred to:
"
1
1 1

the

intelligence as

thej

mighl
to

of the

position

of the
u It

I'.

.mill

U7, IT70.

enemy's outposts, and


ous Tories who

prevent any of the numerinfested the vicinity from carrying

was

detorntin

o that
i

our army should poi

threo different plnci


i

tack

h\..
iral

hundred men and twenty brae


v\

news of the advance into Trenton. For thi> hazardous service only three volunteers could be found, and they were John Guild and John .Muirlnid of [open ell, and Livid l.anniiej of Tivnton.
1
I

oi

tshlngton al their head,

ai

Sullivan and

clock in

tin- in.

en their march by

Crent
so slippery that
ii

The

night

s ss

sleety

and

cold,

and the roads


from
1

was daybreak whei


"ii

The march
and ordered
at

of the two columns was so well planned


ihat

1.

ia in.

But, happily, tho enenuj wet


their guard, at ball u milo

both reached the enemy's outposts


t

design, lent

-"ii"

advanced parties were


i

ithetown,wh
the so
i1
1

Trenton
in

at al

si

exactly the same time, Sullivan


I

iiitu

mi I.

Tho guard gav


and
oi
i

indGon.Greoi ir advanced pari


i

divisions

came

coming
(r

from the wesl and Washington and


A.t a

Ireene

in

we drove them, but


our
tin.
<

the north.

few minutes before eight o'clock^

several othors in s short time,

'11111111-

poshing

'!" n

on

-ni

left,

the Hessian the sight,

encampments came into view, and. at Washington, riding to the head of the troops
I.

Into tlio town.


is,

Tho

.1

Bahl,

ied

a
1

ii

iii.ii
\

under musketry and


an
1

and pointing with his sword towards Trenton, -I "There, soldiers, you see the enemies of your country, and now all have to a-k i- that you remember what you are about to fighl for. March!" f/hej moved
I

-i\ field-pi

evet

quartoi

m
n
Is,

their

cam
1.
t

They

retired towards

a field behind

up the

from Trenton, and formed


ghl on s small
lit

ihmh
t 1

bodies,
1

expei

'''I

would have

ai

tion

the

ps

which I who had

:,t

tl.nl

ln-'iiiit. 11I

.nil..- ill
in j

lull vi.

.f

..1

tin.

wood, with Hi-

ii.

Gen.

him
off,

iii.t "in.

party had gr
,.

* " The road whl run* northeast, and riv.T road at the
tli'-i

.1

arms and surfollowed their example, ex< epl a


led their
1.

audaqnart
;

part

whioh had got


. .

in tho haxy w.

A party

Itcro

Bear Tavern, eight mllai from Trenton tn allien from Trenton.


ii
i
I

the

Bear Tavern, on the river


nilles,

threo and a half

in..

I.,

vie with

each other; and bj their activo and

and

fr

Bti

mlnghani

to

Dlnninghom acron

to tho Scotch rood


t
i

whore

It

bends to tho en
t
s
, l

mllo; from this point Its |un< tlon with two and a qnartei mllo indl om thonco to Troul
1

"Colonel Bahl,

oomlk
Alloy,
Ii

tli" Bosnian commander, whose headquarters were nt Warren and Hunk Streets, opposite Still's was mortallj wounded durln

in v

halted al Uie
ol
i
i

horse while ondi

Mi

"'i''
i .

ai

nio
"

gham

mill ate
>

pie

and .trunk n glass of


tai

When, supported by
t.i-

Al<

nil

Hi
..I

mi a also portool TbUL

rue

lilug luto

-w.ii.

t..
.-

Gen
it,,
.

v,

in
I

ni.

success "f

tl."

da>

'.

I"'

was
ntions which
tin

[hid.

nt,

"The

well dlsp

Iquartars,
//
.-....1

upper division arrived


o'clock
pooi
;

al

tl>>-

em mj
t

where he died." -Atom's


round
1 lie

inn! in
i

three minutes after


division had
for
al

en- lower

lii- -in. 1

11.

1. 1

kiii..i

Bahl

to

have

timi

got op.

ubgHare
I

tTrollnghuj
f.iit

small opposition! though,

the]

obers, the]

Hi,-

quantity
ilmi it

keeping up a constant
terml
I

rotroatlng-fli
t

saw thou main bodj formed, but

their motions thoj

V preeontij Memedando-

'..,t

nlghl Impeded the


bi
ti>. iii

its

so

nmrh
and

was three o'clock

rsur,

nwfour

how

to int."

before the troops t.-.k up

in

52

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


only two privates killed, and two others
frozen to death."!

I was immediately sent off with the prisoners to MeConkey's Ferry, and have got about seven hundred and fifty safe in town aud a few miles from here on this side of the ferry, viz., one lieutenant-colonel, two majors, four captains, seven lieutenants, and eight ensigns. We left Col. Rahl, the comraaudant, wounded, on his parole, and soveral other officers and wottnded men, at Treuton. "We lost but two of our men that I can hear of, a few wounded, and one brave officer, Capt. Washington, who assisted in securing their artillery, wounded in both hands."*

who were

This statement, that men of the American army were frozen to death in the expedition to Trenton, has several times been made by other writers, but it cannot be regarded otherwise than as
of doubtful authenticity, for these reasons
:

First, that

From
fight,

a narrative detailing events of the Trenton


in
is

the account of the expedition above quoted from the Pennsylvania Journal mentions that "the com-

and published

1781 in the Pennsylvania


extracted
:

Journal, the following


"About eight

manding

o'clock in the

picket-yuard of the enemy.

morning an attack was made on the At half-past eight o'clock the town was
it

nearly surrounded, and


left for

all

the avenues to

Gen. Ewingf to occupy.

An accident here

were seized except the one liked to have deprived

the Americau army of the object of their enterprise.


officer of

The commanding

one of the divisions sent word to Gen. Washington, just before they reached the town, that his ammunition had been wet by a shower of rain that had fallen that morning, and desired to know what he must
do.|

Washington sent him word

to ''advance with fixed bayonets.'

This

laconic answer inspired the division with the firmness and courage of
their leader.

"The whole body now moved forward in sight of the enemy. An awful silence reigned in every platoon. Each soldier stepped as if he carried the liberty of his country upon his single musket. The moment
was a critical one. The attack was begun with artillery, under command of Col. Knox, The infantry supported the artillery with firmness. The enemy were thrown into confusion at every quarter. One regiment
attempted
to

the main body.

form in an orchard, but was soon forced to fall back upon A company of them entered a stone house, which they
Capt.

defended with a field-piece judiciously ported in tho entry.

Wash-

ington advanced to dislodge them witli a field-piece, but, finding his

men

exposed
into
tile

to

a close and steady

fire,

ho suddenly leaped from them, rushed

house, seized the officer

claimed him as a prisoner.

who had command of the gun, and His men followed him, and the whole comhis

pany wero made


where

prisoners.

entering the house


in favor of the

The captain received a ball iu In the meanwhile, victory declared American arms."

hand

in

itself every-

The captures made by the Americans at Trenton comprised six brass field-pieces, one thousand stand of arms, four colors, and nine hundred and nine prisoners^!' which latter twenty-three were commissioned officers. In reference to the losses in action of the British and American forces respectively, Gen. Washington said in his report,
"I do not know exactly how many they had killed, but I fancy not above twenty or thirty, as they never niado any regular stand. " Our loss is very trifling indeed, only two officers aud one or two privates wounded."

Lossing, in his " Field-Book of the Revolution,"


says
(p.

229),

"

The

victory of the Americans at

Trenton was complete.

They

lost in the

engagement
afterwardB a

* This officer was Capt. William A. Washington.

He was

colonel of cavalry, aud as such performed distinguished, services in the

Carolina campaigns against Cornwallis and Lord Itawdon.

Another
of the

American

officer

wounded
Lieut.

at

Trenton

though

not mentioned in the

above account United States.

was

James Monroo, afterwards President

t Gen. lowing had boon ordered to cross his troops from tho Pennsylvania side nearly opposite Trenton and attack from the south, in conjunc-

tion willi

west.

him

li'uin

the movement of Greene and Sullivan from the north and The great quantities of ice running in tho Delaware prevented crossing as ordered. The same obstacle prevented Uadwallador

officer of one of the divisions sent word to Gen. Washington, just before they reached the town, that his ammunition had been wet by a shower of rain that had fallen that morning ;" and second, because in the narrative already given, as published by order of Congress and written by " an officer of distinction in the army" who was an eye-witness to the scenes enacted at Trenton on that occasion, allusion is made to " a part [of the Hessian force] which had got off, in The account the hazy weather, towards Princeton." first noticed was written and published within five years of the time of the Trenton fight, when all the particulars were fresh in the minds of those who took part in the expedition, and it is therefore but reasonable to suppose that no such mistake could have been made as that of mentioning a shower of rain falling on a morning sufficiently cold to freeze men to death. The passage quoted from the account authorized by Congress sustains the other, and seems to prove that on the morning of the 26th of December, 1776, the weather at Trenton, though doubtless damp and chilling, was not of such stinging Arctic cold as has frequently been stated. The plan of Washington in recrossing the Delaware had contemplated the probability that, in the event of success at Trenton, he might be able to maintain his position in New Jersey but, on account of the inability of Ewing and Cadwallader to cross the river, as was expected, there were still left at Bordentown, Mount Holly, and other points below Trenton and within striking distance several British detachments which were collectively far stronger than the American force which could be mustered to hold them at bay. Under these circumstances, Washington thought it his only prudent course to return with his army to the west side of the river and this he did without delay, remaining in Trenton only a few hours to allow In his men sufficient time for rest and refreshment. the afternoon of the 26th the columns were again put in motion and marched back by the route over which they had come in the morning, and, recrossing at McConkey's Ferry with their prisoners and captured material, were all safely quartered before midnight iu the camp which they had left in the evening of the
;

preceding day.
But, though he had found
his strong position
it

from crossing at Bristol as expected. J The dispatch was from Gen. Sullivan.

Itaum, in his "History of

expedient to retire to
after

Trenton," mentions that the soldiers of Sullivan's division found their priming wet, and proi ds " Oapt. Mott, notwithstanding he had taken
:

on the Pennsylvania shore


Now
Jorsey," p. 227,

the precaution to wrap his handkerchief around the lock of

liis

gun,
I

found tho priming was wot.


fight

'Well,' said General Sullivan,

'wo must

Gordon, in his " History of

makes the same

them with the bayonet.'"

statement.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


ictory at Trenton, Washington bad by no means abandoned his plan of repossessing West Jersey, and he at once commenced preparations for a expedition to thai end. <>n the 29th of December only three days after the Trenton exploithe wrote i'nmi his headquarters ai Newtown, Pa., to Congress, saying,

IN

THE REVOLUTION.

53

the

the rebellion w a- virtually crushed and the war nearly

Upon receipt of the amazing news from Trenton he at once relinquished his voyage, returned to New Jersey, and put his troops in motion towards
over.

Trenton. The British post at Bordentown, previously lonop, had been held by a strong force under 'mini
< I

"

:iin jnr.t

Mt( in ^

"itt to

with the troops thai were with n tl >^^.-.l over on the 27th, and walbuler
.

attempt a second pawagf oyoi th< Dal ffl aw irnlng of the 26th. Gon.CadIs at Bordontown with about one

thoosand eight hundred men. Goo. Ulfflln will be to-day at Bordont one thousand -i\ hundred more. ... In view of the town with :ii
B

hi

prope ed i" be pursued,

tiiink

it

fair

up|.rtunity

is

i.ii.toI of
ol

diiviiiK tin-

enomy

ontlrely from Jerwoy, or ut least to the extn mitj

the prot Ince."

In anticipation of the projected rosumptioii of opera-

tions in

New

Jersey, orderstill

bad been sent to Gen.

Heath, who was

at PeeksMll-on-the-Hudson, i"

leave only a small detaeliment ofhistroi ipsal that place,

abandoned on the liTth of December, and the troops which had been stationed there retreated to Prim w here they joined the force of len. Leslie and threw When Cornwallis adup defensive earthworks. vanced from New Brunswick, the force at Princeton, 1, excepting three regiments under Col. Mawh joined the main column, which moved towards Trenton and arrived there at about four o'clock in the afternoon of Thursday, the 2d of January, 1777. The two hostile armies which then and then fronted each other were each about live thousand strong, but om-half the force of Washington* was
<

and

to

move

al

Jersey, and

once with his main hmly, cross into New march towards the British cantonment,
without intending
aii at-

to divert their attention, but

made up of undisciplined militia, while thai of his adversary included many of the finest troop- of the Before the advance of Cornwallis, British army.
south side of Assanpink ('reek, whenafterwards joined by
< <

Gen: William .Maxwell, who in the retreat through this State had been left at Morristown with a considerable force (in which was included a large proportion of the soldiers of Hunterdon and Somerset Counties), was ordered to advance his troops towards New Brunswick as it' threatening an attack and harass
tack.
all

Washington's forces retired across the bridge to the it was soon

reneral Ireene's division, which had been sent out to reconnoitre and skirmish with the enemy, hoping to so delay his movements that no engagement would be brought on until morning. But

the contiguous posts of the

ninny

as

much

a- pos-

the British regulars promptly drove Greene's detach-

sible;

and

finally, (lens.

'adwallader and Milllin.at

ment
tli.n

into

Bordentown and Crosswicks, wen- directed to hold their forces (then amounting 1 ore than three thousand live hundred men in constant readiness tu reinforce the main hmly under Washington when it should make its appearance at Trenton. These dispositions having been made, and all preparations completed, Washington moved his army aCTOSS he lelaware into New Jersey on the 80th of leeember and ma rehed to Trenton. At this point, he was under aerioua embari

with very

Trenton and across the Assanpink, and little delay moved in two columns,

one down Green Street towards the bridge, and the other down Main Street towards the point where the
lower bridge now stands, intending to force a passage over the bridge and across the ford; but they were repulsed by the vigorous tire of Washington'- artillery,

which, being posted on the high southern bank

of the stream,
to cross,

was so

effective that the assailants failed

fa large part of the rassment, for the terms of servii Eastern militia expired on the 1st of January, and it was \erv doubtful whether they could be persuaded
to

and were compelled to retire, but with what lo-s i> not known. t After the failure of this attempt Of the British to CrOSS, the Americans kept up their artillery-lire till dark, and the British withdrew to the
higher ground
Princeton
in the outskirts of the

remain.

The arguments

of the
in

commander-in-

town, along the


established
his

chief,
to
i

however, were Successful


tinue for an

prevailing mi them

road,

where Cornwallis

additional term of six week.-, in


tlladei

view

of the brightening prospects of the Ajnerican

and

Ullflln,

with their

r.

from Bordentown, had


liU'il a*

cause and the promise of a bounty of ten dollars per man. There w a- no money in the military che-l to
,

htngton on the night of the let of January.


" 1'iilUi- ol A--iui|iilik" bal t Tinmil.
i,
I

a fearful

in

pay these promised bounties, but Washington

at

nine
battle al

Unit
ill

Id British which Ui" itroam was rUlod with ti.l- Is a groat, exaggeration, and that there was really no
I

sent a messenger to Robert Morris, al Philadelphia, asking him to supply the mean- if possible and that
:

(bal merely

brisk can

ade From
as

ilie

American

artillery

nth bank, praTenttng


prottj clearly
-.11, in

financier promptly responded b) sending thousand dollars in cash, born. wed from a rich Quaker on Morris' individual note and the pledge of his honor to repay it. \t the time of the Hessian disaster at Trenton the
patriotic
fifty

nemy in U ahown bj anauthorit) as nigh


I

grossing the .-ueann, is

the report which

ade

to

Qon. Washington hlmOongreea, dated Plui kamin, Jan.


.">,

1777, in which, rofl


to

my expeotal

s,

the enemy began to advanoeui


!

us;andal
.i-. at

skirmishing tiui head of theh


whflsl their rear was a*
,:.

four o'clock,
i"

fai

back as afaldenboad.

They attempted
but, finding
I

Greek, which rana through treat


En this situation
ItIi
i-

British forces in

New

Jersey were under

command

of
sldo
in.;

died and kindled their Bi

Gen. Grant, whose headquarters were at New BrunsLord Cornwallis was at New York, making wick. preparations to -ail for England, in the belief that

of the creek.
the
.iii'ii.v

wo ramainod
made

until dark,
I

and n a

l.

did us

bal UtUo damage."


chief, in In- "Mi
i

This

all

the mention

lb

Assanpink."

54

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


The march of the American forces had been slow during the two or three hours immediately following their departure from their camp on the Assanpink, because on that part of their route they had been compelled (in order to avoid the outposts of the enemy's left flank) to traverse a new road, from which the logs
and stumps had not been cleared. But the last part of their march had been made very rapidly over the hard-frozen highway so that when the sun rose they were already nearing Princeton. And never was a sunrise more auspicious than that which sent its rosy rays through the frosty air on the morning of the 3d of January, 1777. To Cornwallis at Trenton* it revealed the mortifying fact that the " fox" had escaped from his trap, and the unpleasant truth was soon after emphasized by the dull sound of distant artillery coming from the northward. To the eyes of Washington and his officers that sunrise was welcome, for it showed them the position of the foes they had come to seek and it lighted them on their way to one of the most important victories achieved in the war for
; ;

headquarters and directed dispositions to be made for a renewal of the battle in the morning, when, he said,

he would " catch that old fox," Washington, whom he imagined he had now so securely entrapped beyond the Assanpink. But his boast failed most signally of
execution.

The situation of Washington was now perilous in the extreme, for nothing could be more certain than that Cornwallis would renew the battle in the morning, and it was almost equally certain that in
such an event the victory would be with the
disci-

plined soldiers of Britain. If such should be the result, the American army could hardly escape the alternative of surrender or annihilation, for a retreat across

enemy would be Immediately after dark a council of war was called, at which were, assembled the commanderin-chief and Generals Greene, Sullivan, Knox, Merthe Delaware in presence of such an
impossible.
cer, St. Clair,
flin,

Dickinson, Stevens, Cadwallader, Mif-

Stark, Wilkinson,
officers
;

and

others.

Some of the more down the


river

impetuous
left

advised a stand for a battle in their


others favored a retreat

present position

independence.
alry

bank of the Delaware and a crossing of the


;

at Philadelphia under protection of the guns of Gen.

The British troops in Princeton were a body of cavand the Seventeenth, Fortieth, and Fifty-fifth
all

Putnam but the plan which was adopted was that of a rapid night-movement around the enemy's flank to his rear, and a sudden attack on the British force at Princeton, which consisted of only three regiments of cavalry and three squadrons of dragoons. The execution of this plan was singularly favored by Providence, for, even while the council of war was engaged in its deliberations, the weather, which had been warm during the day, turned suddenly cold so
;

Infantry Regiments of the line,


Lieut.-Col.

under command of

Mawhood. He had during the night received orders to march at daylight with the greater part

of his command for Trenton, to give his assistance in the battle which Cornwallis intended to open along the shores of the Assanpink on the morning of the
3d, and in obedience to that order he had put the Seventeenth and Fifty-fifth Regiments, with a part of the cavalry, in motion, and, accompanying them in person, moved out on the old Trenton road. The

that in a few hours the


ficiently
facilitate the

muddy

roads were frozen suf-

hard to bear up the artillery and greatly to marching of the troops. The movement to Princeton being decided on, its immediate execution was ordered. The camp-fires of the American army along the shore of the Assanpink were kept brightly burning, and were replenished with fresh fuel about midnight and soon afterwards, leaving the sentinels on their posts, to delude the enemy, the forces were all put in motion, and marched rapidly but silently away in the darkness, with Elias Phillips, Ezekiel Anderson, and Patrick Lamb as The baggage-train of the army was sent guides. away quietly on the road to Burlington. The route taken led, by way of Sandtown, across Miry Run, and, farther up, across the Assanpink, around the left flank then, veering to the left, along of the British army the " Quaker road" to and across Stony Brook, where the main column left the highway and took a by-road passing through lowlands directly to Princeton while Gen. Mercer, with about three hundred and fifty men and two pieces of artillery under Capt. Neal, con; ;

commanding officer, with the Seventeenth Regiment and nearly all his cavalry, was fully a mile in advance of the rear division of the column, and had
already crossed the Stony Brook bridge at Worth's Mill when he discovered Mercer's force moving

bank of the stream towards he promptly countermarched his men, moved them on the double-quick back to the bridge, recrossed it, and hastened on to secure a commanding position on high ground to the right of the road. Gen. Mercer, as his detachment emerged from
rapidly along the opposite

the mill.

Upon

this

a piece of woods near the Quaker meeting-house, discovered the British, and, divining their object, doublequicked his troops towards the same eminence, determined to occupy it in advance of the enemy if posHaving reached the house and orchard of sible.
* " Great

was

his [Cornwallis'] astonishment


still

ami alarm

at dawn to find

the patriot camp-fires

nor cannon thoro.

All

was

burning, but nut a man, nor hoof, nor tent, silont and dreary on the south 6ide of the

Assanpink, and no
cans bad
faintly
(led until

man

of the British

the din of battle in the direction of Princeton

army knew whither the Americame

tinued along the Quaker


1m

mail, with orders to proceed

Worth's Mill and take possession of the bridge by which the old road from Princeton to Trenton crossed Stony Brook.

upon the keen morning air at sunrise. Cornwallis heard the booming of cannon, and, although mid-winter, ho thought it was the Erskino decided otherrumbling id' distant thunder. The quick cur Washington has outijenorakd wise, and he exclaimed, To arms, general
..I'
'
1

us

Lotus

lly to

Princeton I" 1

Lossing,

vol.

ii.

p. 234.

BUNTEHDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


enemy's line adThe Americana pushed un to the slight cover of a rail-fence which was between the opposing forces, and there they de\\'illi:ini

IX

TIIK
Mh

IlKYGUTIOX.
ii
:

Clarke, he perceived

1 1

this time, llit"l

h. r.r

this

day

near-It nil

vancing

up

tl

pposite

id

slope.

Hand's

nil-

nun

"..in tn turn the

they were win.!;

ii.

"i

over the
t

livered
firing

their vollej with

precision

and deadlj

effect,

confllt

ton,

afterwards at will.
fire

The

Tho action, from the Anrt more than twenty minutes. Washingon the battle-ground, took Hitchcock by the bond, and iKifure liis
fields

and fon
'li.l

with Horcer,

not last

British

proinptlyre-

"i-viccs."

turned the

and charged with the bayonet.

Mer-

cer's riflemen

had no bayonets on their pieces, and,

being unable to withstand the furious onset of the


British, fled in precipitation

with the Seventeenth British ineni and hi- cavalry, iled from the battle-field
Col.
I,

Mawh

I:

i-

t>.

the

and disorder, abandon-

same road over which tiny


ing, and, crossing the

ing their two field-pieces and closer] pursued bj


hood's grenadiers; but

Maw-

when

thej
I

reached the easl


-,, tlu-y

brow

i.f

the sh)pe near Clarke's

were met

by the Continentals and militia under Washington, w ho had lef) the bj -road on which he was marching, at a near the >lden farm, and hurried up to the 'J'he fugitive Americans were Bupport of Mercer.
> > j
i

hail marched in the mornStony Brook bridge at Worth's Mill, moved rapidly un toward- Maidenhead, where they knew Gen. Leslie had passed the night with his division, the rear-guard "f Cornwallis' army. Leslie,

ii t

<

adc in tin- direction '!' however, hearing the can Princeton, was already on the march towards Simiy Brook, and in his advance met the runted troops of

here rallied and reformed on a new line, and a section

Mawhood, which
ton
tion

latter

had

been

pursued only a

of one of Washington's batteries, commanded by< lapt. William Moulder, red a storm of canister into the
i

short distance by the American-, because

Washing-

kmw
in

hi'

the proximity of

<

fen. Leslie in the direc-

faci

of the pursuers.
this

At
line

point,

Mawhood, discovering
Washington and

for

the

firsl

the presence of

his force,

ceased

the pursuit, brought up bis artillery-pieces, and opened on Moulder's section, which he immediately afterwards charged in a desperate hut unsuccessful attempt to capture the guns. The scene of the conflict at this moment, when the lines of the opposing confronted each other and the men of each
awaiteil

which they retreated. Mawh I's artillerypiece- were hii mi the field, and fell into the hand- ..f the American-: but, a- they could not take them away fur waul of horses, they afterwards returned to the possession Of the enemy. At the c|..-, ,.l' the ad iuii near Clarke's house Gen.

Washington sent a detachment, under Maj. Celley, of the Pennsylvania militia, tn destroy the bridge over Stony Brook, for the purpose of delaj ing the advance
of <
li'ii.

the

command
ft*

to

fire,

is

thus described by

Leslie with the reserve division of Cornwallis;

Inn before they

Bancroft
"Gen. Washington,
rodo into the very
BritJ
I

had accomplished the work the enemy

came
lite

desire to ai

atehls

troo|
Ices

>ui "t

iluu^-i',

and whon within

Ulan thirty
i

ih. !!!

il-

un Millett's Mill and opened a fire on the working-party from their artillery, which finally drove them from the bridge, though not until ii had
in sight
i" .ii

rcos that seeming to they must stand Drm or leave blm if the enemj alono. The two sldea gave a volley ai the mine ino at, whon, as the urn away, It was thought a mtracli that Washington was untou b
fire,
1
j

both paxtlw were about to

rendered impassable

for tin- British artillery

and
the

trains.

The commanding
knocked

officer
off

of the detachment,
bridge
into

Maj. Celley, was


hi-

the

stream, but, succeeding


IaCuati.-,''' a
this pari hi
Id
i

n,-.

1 1.

,.i

tin

Life

and
'

i
i

blngton,"

In' battle >>i Prim oton, and the Incident of tlie c alol tv panic bi hoi mentioned thus: " Xhe nido d< Kuunp Ool. ] .'i "i iii'' columu the "i i' itiirnlng to tho spot where he had Hei
I
i I .

in crawling out, was making way Inward- Princeton, when he fell into the hand- ul' the enemy. The British commander. '..rndug up tn the bridge, found it imp wallis, on
(
i

for

hi-

i. .in

but so great was his anxiety for the


at New Brunswick Washington's destina-

leftthee
in
i

mander-in-chlef, he
aide discovei

ws
i I

indupon looking
be tine, which bad

safety of hi- magazines of Bupplj


t

ill'

d hlmonil

which he
ford
lie

fully believed to he

been thrown mi" dlsordei by arapld


ii"-

tof

thi
"t

fortui

the fight,

rein

up
i

his horse with


ot ibli

in

remain
nut

It*
'

ii was, he ordered hitroops stream, which liny did. and then, with their clothing frozen stiff, pushed on a- fast a- thi \

tion

that, hiiierh cold a-

1,1

* i>. --Will

you
line
,

ii

made
i i i

In vain.

up you The discomfited


j

lie in
'

pursuit of the American-.

inl

and

form Into
,

In the battle with


force, the

II

ball

ru

Mawh

di

the hit wing of his

in.

Fifty-fifth

Regiment, was

em

off

from the
ii

lii.

"I

both

ill" I"'.'

Ii

right,
lint

and was driven into the town, where

took
it

position in a ravine
over
his
mill

mar

the col]

'

wa-

nun
then

Unit
ii

ho mighl n"t see him


:

dl "t
vii

attacked bj
tor)
I

the

New England regiments

of Siark,

-hunt
i

ii

was

tii"

Bhoul
'

1"

aldi

-di

p von-

I'

'.

Patterson, and

Reed, and afteradespei

11111'.-,

i. ,i

lii

oyt

Oh,

flying,
olive,

whllo dimly auiid Uio glim] unharmed, tnd


Ool.
In
]

the ohlof,
i"

the

tn.

Iling n

.in

the finest

tho A
n hi-

n>. H""

'

aide and

fi
i

i.riog

oi the chlof,

exclaiming, 'Thank

del' whilo

Mil.'"

56

HUNTEKDON AND SOMEKSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


which hung on the wall. But litwas made by the British within the buildings, and finally James Moore, of PrinceMajesty George
tle

was utterly routed and sent flying in disorder along the road towards Kingston. A part of the Fortieth Regiment (which had been left in Princeton when Mawhood marched out in the morning, and which consequently participated very little in the
sistance

II.

show of

resistance

ton, a captain of militia, with the assistance of a

few

others as bold as himself, burst open a door of Nassau

day's fighting) joined in the retreat

and swelled the

throng of fugitives. A detachment of the American force pursued them, but they soon left the main road,
and, striking off to the
left,

fled in a northerly direc-

tion along the by-ways

fields and woods of Somerset County.* As to the route of their The Hon. flight, different accounts have been given. Ralph Voorhees, in one of a series of historical papers

and through the

Hall and demanded a surrender of the forces within. The demand was at once complied with, and the entire body, including a number of sick, gave themselves up as prisoners of war. This was the last of the British forces in Princeton, and Washington, having now entirely cleared the town of his enemies, immediately evacuated the place, and with his army moved rapidly away towards the northeast on the New Bruns-

recently published, said,


"

The Fortieth and

Fifty-fifth retreated hastily to

Kingston, and from

thence pursued a route that brought them to Middlebush, where they encamped for a week in a field a few yards west of where the present church 6tands, and a little to the east of the field where Gen. De Heister laid

wick road. The advance division of Cornwallis, which had hurried up from Maidenhead towards the scene of action and dashed through the icy waters of Stony Brook, as
before mentioned, moved forward in the greatest haste from that point to Princeton. Guarding the southwestern approach to the town was a bastioned earthwork which had been thrown up a week or two earlier by their own forces, and upon its rampart a thirty-two-pounder gun had been mounted by Count Donop. Now, as the head of Leslie's division came on at a quick-step, it was greeted by a thundering report from the great gun, which had been fired by two
or three

with his division in June of the same year."

In another account,! published some ten years

Washington took the main road towards New Brunswick, these [the fugitives of the Fortieth and Fifty-fifth Regiments], frightened and flying, made towards the heights southwest of Rocky Hill, crossed Beden's Brook, and
rushed on
till

since, it is stated that, " while

they crowded on the

little

point formed

by the junction of that brook with the Millstone River, just in front of what is now known as the old Vanderveer
[1870]

American

soldiers

who

still

lingered near

it.

The rush

of the ponderous shot above the heads of the

homestead.
living at

Abraham Vanderveer,

now

Rocky Hill, says that when the family saw them coming they were on a run. When they came into the forks they halted, finding the ice broken. They then procured rails, laid them on the The Vanderveers had a large ice, and passed over.
pot of mush, just taken from the
breakfast.
fire,

column to halt, and the commander, who now believed that Washington had
British caused the advancing

determined

to

defend the place, sent out parties of

cavalry to reconnoitre, the infantry in the mean time advancing slowly and with great caution preparatory
to

intended for

The

British

on coming up said they had

an assault of the work. By these movements Cornone precious hour, and when his men at last moved up to the fortification they found it enwallis lost

had nothing but hot


scooping the

bullets for breakfast, and, hastily

march.
to

their hands, pursued their These accounts doubtless have reference to


it is

mush out with

and soon after the cavalry-parties reported that there was not a rebel soldier in Princeton. Upon this the British general, chagrined at the detirely deserted,

different parties^ of the retreating British, as

not

be supposed that they kept together in one body during the panic of their headlong flight. In the college buildings at Princeton there remained a part of the Fortieth Regiment, which had occupied Washington, supposing that these it as barracks. men would stand and defend their position, ordered up a section of artillery, which opened on the buildings.
first shot fired passed into the PrayerHall and through the head of a portrait of His

lay resulting from his useless caution, ordered his columns to move on with all speed on the New Bruns-

wick road.

Arriving at Kingston, three miles from

Princeton, he found that the Americans had broken


paired,

but this was soon reand the army, having crossed the stream, was again hurried on in the hope of overtaking the Amer-

down

the bridge at that place

icans in time to prevent

the

destruction

of the

The

Washington had no cavalry with him, and of course the pursuit of a crowd of fugitives by infantry was fruitless. Many of them, however, were captured, and the pursuing-parties kept up the chase so long that they had not all rejoined the main body two duys later. t From the pen of Jacob Magill, of the Newark Journal. reporting to Congress under date of Pluokamin, Jan. X Washington, in 6, 1777, mentions that Homo of the British prisoners taken in the pureuil after the battle at Princeton were taken across the Delaware River; and also that at that time two days after the battlo the pursuing-parties bad nut all returned to the main army. These fads would hcciu to iudicate thai some of the British fugitives fled towards the southwest and entered Hunterdon County.
*
terrified

Cornwallis Brunswick. arrived at that place during the succeeding night, and was rejoiced to find his stores untouched but he found no American army, for " the fox" had again
military
stores at
;

New

eluded him, and was at that time safe


of Somerset.

among

the hills

Washington, on leaving Princeton, moved his force with the greatest possible speed to Kingston, crossing the Millstone River and destroying the bridge behind him. Having proceeded thus far he was not a little perplexed in deciding on his subsequent movements. The heavy column of Cornwallis was following so

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


closely in hie rear thai
I,,.

IN

THE REVOLUTION.
,

57

it

waa only

al

great peril that


to

cou id pursue his original plan* of marching The destruction of the British Brunswick. been a ines and stores at that place would have and lorious ending of the winti c campaign,

the headquarters of the commander-in-chief were made at the Van Doren house, half a mile south of the old Millstone church, and tin- weary soldi
the arm) bivouacked in the neighboring
fields.
.

woods and

of would, beyond doubt, have driven the last vestige but, on British military power out of Nev; Jersey;

superior forces the other hand, a collision with the possible to of Cornwalliswhich it seemed hardlj
d Bvoid ifthemarch to New Brunswick was continm and not could hardly result otherwise than in defeat, Ann rimprobably in the rout and destruction of the

.if that wintt c night a -mall body [rj the 1m L and of that noted of Washington's militia, under coi lapt. John Stryker, of Millstone, pei E
r 1

1.

quite a brilliant exploit


wallis' baggage-train

in

capturing

a pari

of

<

k>mroad.

on

the

New Brunswick
al

Tin- British general, terrified


hi- Btorea at

the prospeel of losing

New
in

ican army.

At this juncture the commander-in-chief


war,

ton was

still

Brunswick, thinking thai Washinghis front and moving mi thai post,

adopted his usual course,called a council of which was held by himself and his generals in the " some gentlemen advised that saddle, and, although council rehe should file offtothe southward,"1 the
plan, sulted in the decision to abandon the original and march strike off from the New Brunswick road, and thence the army by way of the Millstone ralley, the northacross the Raritan, to the hilly country in
west.

had pressed on from Kingston in such headlong haste and these, as in break down a number of his wagons; being disabled, were turned out of the road and left, with a few others, in charge of a quartermaster and

guarded by

ptu into execution.

The plan adopted by the council of war was at once The army filed off from the main

detachment of soldiers. The American to, having learned of the situation of these wagons, resolved to capture- them, and boldly proceeded to put their plan into execution, though men, their party numbered not more than twenty while the British detachment guarding the dis
a

militiamen referred

highway,} and, turning sharply to the left, marched over a narrow and unfrequented road to Rocky Hill,

wner e
,i,,

as rapidly as

u reerosst d the Mill-tour River and movedon, diwas practicable in the exhausted
i

was of more than ten times their own strength. Cautiously approaching the spot in the thick darkness, they ranged themselves among the trees in a semi-circle, partially surrounding the bivouac of the British wagon-guard, and at a preconcerted signal
train
set

ofthe men,
I

to Millstone.

"The

guides were di-

to

take

the

road

leading to the northward

through Hillsborough, but hefore thej reached Somworn out erset Court-house many of the infantry, and with fatigue, tasting, and want of rest, laj down 3d) (Januarj That night fell asleep by theway."f

up a loud shout and poured in a volley upon the astonished soldiers, who, believing themselves to be eiH-ireled lit, an attacking force superior in numbers
towards New Brunswick, to their own. tied in a panic escaping with a tew wagons which happen,' d to have (heir teams attached, but leaving the greater number
ere jubilant at in the hands of the A ineriean-. win. P, the success of their project, and still more so when it was found that the Wagons were principally laden

"My

original plan," said

aablogton in hla lottor to Congrcsa duted


roat for

1-luckamln, January 6th,


the haraeaed state
ol

oui troop*
i,

two

nlgtati

and a da]

"wa* to have pu (many of them having bad no and the danger of losing the advanl
i

ih,

Induced me, by the adi


but, In

myoffl-

woolen clothing.

with the article which their army especially needed, The captors with their prize lime, d

cith, to relinquish the attempt


drotl
fro-Ii
;.
I
I

mj Judgment,

riz 01 eight

bun-

up

ind

march, would have deeiroyi troop*, on in I< magaalnea, taken ( we have si mtalnlng seventy thouaand pound*, and put an end
the beet Intelligence

war.

I
,,,,-iv

uomy.ftom
to

[have boenabletogi
tbta that

much alarmed at
D0

tho apprehend
b

the] marohi

Branawlowlth

Bruniwlc), Millstone on the different routee to

and got

on through Somerset 'ounty, Somerset Court-house, and overtook the main body a day or two later. lib of January, Washii [n the morning of the with his army and prisoners, left their encampment of the previous night, and, continuing the march
as rapidly as possible
<

crossed the Mill-tone

at

there before day."


+
,

blanhaU.
T1 .
,

Catollux,who
locality,

viallod this

region In 1781,

bUowiug
Mill
I

nUonol Hio
Jtei
i'ii..

and

ol

V
Kl

eton: "It

bore

northward, crossed the Raritan River al Van VeghPassing up bj the site of the present ten's Bridge. village of Somerville, he ncamped the same evening kamin. wlure a halt of two day- was made for
i

Washington halted aftor the affair al from midnight uuUI two o'clock In Bio
Bghtlni
,1
i

Mr
al

the

encampmenl

loot

,.,. howi

r.thal
b

rd

headroad,hul

the Oornwallla was followlni Ih* U with taking np aomo plank* of


troo]

and refreshment of the army. While at this the commander-in-chief wrote to the president of the Continental Congress narrating the evi in- of the campaign which had then just closed. This letter, as being an official, and of course an aureel
i

tinned hi* march quleU;


I*

it

Blddlohi k." Ibla

t,how*vor,
,i

,,.

tii. \

would

jo, to tie-

wear] and hungrj


i*

tti- as they

qoI itrlotij
i,

irrc

waaonthia march, or po**lhly on


(h,
.

a similar
I
I

hurried on theli
(
.
I
,

the

army

peewit,

\.n.

I
|

,i,

clothed, unahod, and In wanti

en patronage, Washington himself sleeping In the north


.

in the

Bold directly ^.utli of tbo present

'

i,,i.n,

time

distributed and outUng the food Into convenient portion*,

ns

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Assanpink and the and a statement of the losses and
is

thentic, account of the affair at

battle of Princeton,

captures at the latter place,

given below,

viz.
5,

" Plxtckamin, January

1777.

do them the justice, however, to add that they have undergone more I expected militia, especially citizens, would have done in this inclement season. I am just moving towards Morristown, where I shall endeavor to put them under the best cover I can hitherto we have been without any, and many of our poor soldiers barefatigue and hardship than
foot,

" Sir, I have the honor to inform you that since the date of my last from Trenton I have removed with the army under my command to this

and

ill-clad in

other respects.
" I have the honor to be,
etc.,

Delaware, on account of the ice, and gave the enemy an opportunity of drawing in their several cantonments and assembling their whole force at Princeton. Their large picquets advanced towards Trenton, their great preparations, and some intelligence I had received, added to their knowledge that the 1st of January brought on a dissolution of the best

place.

The

difficulty of crossing the


it

" G.

W."

made our passage over

tedious,

Gen.

Hugh

Mercer, whose death

is

mentioned in
officer

the letter of Washington, was the

commanding
first

of the American detachment which

joined battle the morn-

me the strongest reasons to couclude that an attack upon us was meditating. " Our situation was most critical, and our force small. To remove immediately was again destroying every dawn of hope which had begun to
part of our army, gave
revive in the breasts of the Jersey militia, and to bring those troops
first crossed the Delaware, and were lying at Crosswix's under Gen. Cadwallader, and those under Gen. Mifflin at Bordentown (amounting in the whole to about three thousand six hundred), to Trenton, was

with the British troops under

Mawhood on

ing of the 3d of January near Princeton, and


in that first short but disastrous conflict that

which had

it was he received his mortal wounds. In the volley which the British Seventeenth Regiment poured into the Amer-

ican line

when

it

held the position along the rail-fence

an exposed place. One or the other, however, was unavoidable the latter was preferred, and they were ordered to join us at Trenton, which they did, by a night-march, on the 1st instant. [Here follows an account of the so-called "battle of Assanpink," before quoted.] " Havi ug by this time [that is, on the evening of January 2d, after the British had made the attempt to cross the bridge and ford of the Assanto bring
to
;

them

eilently

pink] discovered that the enemy was greatly superior in number, and that their design was to surround us, I ordered all our baggage to be removed to Burlington soon after dark and at twelve o'clock,
;

after renewing our fires and leaving guards at the bridge in Trenton and other passes on the same stream above, marched by a round-about road
to Princeton, where I knew they could not have much force left, and might have stores. One thing I was certain of, that it would avoid the appearance of a retreat (which it was, of course, or to run the hazard of the whole army being cut off) whilst we might, by a fortunate stroke,
;

on the height west of Clarke's house on that memorable morning, a ball, striking Mercer's horse in the fore leg, disabled him and compelled the general to dismount; and in the hurried retreat which immediately followed through the orchard, while he was in the very midst of the fight, trying to rally his flying troops, he was felled to the earth by a blow from a British musket. " The British soldiers were not at first aware of the general's rank. So soon as they discovered he was a general officer they shouted that they had got the

withdraw Gen. Howe from Trenton and give some reputation


arms.

to our Happily wo succeeded. We found Princeton about sunrise with only three regiments and three troops of light-horse in it, two of which

were on their march to Trenton. These three regiments, especially the two first, made a gallant resistance, and in killed, wounded, and prisoners must have lost five hundred men upwards of one hundred of them were
;

dead on the field; and with what I have with me, and what were taken in pursuit and carried across the Delaware, there are near three
left

hundred

prisoners,* fourteen of whom are officers, all British. " This piece of good fortune is counterbalanced by tlio loss of the brave
Cols.

and worthy General Mercer,


artillery, Capt.

Fleming,

who commanded
officers,
field.

Hazlet and Potter, Capt. Neal of the the First Virginia Regiment,

and four or
tained, as

five

other valuable

thirty privates, were slain

on the

who, with about twenty-five or Our whole loss cannot be ascer-

many who

arc in pursuit of the

enemy who were chased three


(

or four miles) are not yet

come

in.

rear of the enemy's army, lying at Maidenhead, not more than five or six miles from Princeton, was up with us before our pursuit was

"Tho
;

and cried, Call for quarter, you d Mercer to the most undaunted courage united a quick and ardent temperament he replied with indignation to his enemies, while their bayonets were at his bosom, that he deserved not the name of rebel, and, determining to die, as he had lived, a true and honored soldier of liberty, lunged with his sword at the nearest man. They then bayoneted him and left him for dead."+ It was afterwards ascertained that he had received sixteen bayonet wounds,:]: and he was also terribly beaten on the head with the butt of a musket by a British soldier while he lay wounded and helpless on the ground. He was taken to Clarke's house, and there most tenderly cared for and nursed by the ladies of the household but after lingering in agony for nine days he expired on the 12th of
rebel general,
I'
'

rebel

over

but, as I

had the precaution

to destroy the

bridge over Stony Brook

January.

(about half a mile from the field of action), they wore so long retarded there as to give us time to move off in good order for this place. We

took two brass

away.
articles,

Wo

but for want of horses could not bring them also took some blankets, shoes, and a fow other trifling
field-pieces,

Gen. Washington while on the field of Princeton had learned with great grief of the fall of Mercer, who was reported killed, and it was not until he had

burned the hay, and destroyed such other tilings as tho shortof. [Hero follows a paragraph which has before been given, viz., an explanation that his original plan had been
ness of tho time would admit

and attack tho post of Now Brunswick for tho puiposo of destroying the British stores doposited there.]
to proceed to
"

made his headquarters for the night at Somerset Courthouse that the commander-in-chief received with corresponding joy and thankfulness the intelligence that
his

old friend

and

companion-in-arms,,? although
W.
P.

From Hie

best information I

havo received, Gen.

Howe

has

left

no
f Recollections of the Life and Character of Washington, by G.
Oustis.

men

The truth of this I am endeavoring to ascertain, that r may rogulato my movements accordingly. Tho militia are taking spirits, and, ] am told.are coming in fast from this
State; but I four those from Philadelphia will scarcely submit to tho hardships of a winter campaign much longer, especially as they very

either at Trenton or Princeton.

unluckily sent their blankets with their baggage to Burlington.

must

The
-.I

iiujuI.it. ,1 prisoners

taken by the Americans


t.

in the conflicts

of

the 3d
'llie

January

in

and

entire loss of the

ai Princoton was two hundred and thirty, Americans on that day did not exceed thirty, killed

and wounded.

Moses Scott, of New Brunswick, with other surgeons, was willi Gen. Mercer under tho tree after tho battle, and said that ho had received sixteen wounds by the bayonet, though those wore not thought by the general himself (who was a physician) to be nocessarily mortal, but, that while lying on tho ground a British soldier had struck liiiu on tho head with his musket; 'and that,' said he, was a dishonorable act, and it will provo my death.' " JZaum's History of Trenton. g Mercer and Washington had been comrades and warm personal friends in tho campaigns against the French in 1705.
I

"

Tho

late Dr.

'

'

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


severely wounded, was aol dead, and mighl recover. At this he at once dispatched his nephew, Maj. reorgi
I

IX

THE REVOLUTION.
in

59

[fCapt. Leslie died

the evening of the day on


ais

which he received
his death must

his

wound,

stated bj Custis,

Lewis, with a Bag of truce and a letter to Lord lornwallis, requesting thai every possible attention mighl
i

be shown

to the wounded general, and thai Maj. Lew is mighl be permitted to remain to attend on and nurse him. "To both these requests," says Custis, "His Lordship yielded a willing assent, and ordered bis Upon an staff surgeon to attend upon Gen. Mercer. examination of his wounds the British surgeon observed that, although thej were manj and severe, he was disposed to believe they would not prove danger-

have occurred at or mar Somerset Court-house,! where the general made his headBut, quarters on the night of the 3d of January. however this may have been, lie was buried with military honor-, as stated, at I'luckainin,

where

his

grave

may still be known by a plain monument erected to Alter his memory by his lather's friend, Dr. Rush.J
his death

Gen. Washington Bent


IbiL'

his aide, Col. Fitz-

gerald, with a
I

of truce to the

camp of

<

'"rnwallis.

ous.

.Mercer, bred to the profeSSl


I

if
I

an army sur-

was received al the British headquarters ith great courtesy, and upon his relating the fact of 'apt. Leslc
<

use my right geon in uropi Bd tc young Lewis arm, George, and this gentleman will then discover the Bmalleal of my wounds, but which will prove the most fatal. Yes, -ir. thai i- the fellow thai will soon

death and the manner of his burial to the high officers present, they exhibited great emotion, and one
lie'-

of the generals,
to a

who had been compelled

to withdraw-

window

to

hide his tears, returned by the colonel

do

in \ During the period that he business.' languished on the eoueh of -tillering ho exonerated
.

his warme-t acknowledgments to the American commander-in-chief for his kindness, and the honors paid
to the

oemiea from the foul accusation which they not bis only bore in 1777, but for half a century since, viz., of their having bayoneted a general officer alter he
t

dead

officer.

The cannonading on
been heard
in

the l'ritieetiui battle-field

had

nearly every part of the counties of

-word and become a prisoner ol he only relinquished his sword when his arm became powerless to wield it."

had surrendered

his

war, declaring that

The kindness ami

courtesy of Lord
l

lornwallis in so

rsel to their northern boundaHunterdon amis and the people wen- iii a state of the greatest excitement and suspense as to what it portended. During the latter part of the day those living along

ries,?

readily ami fully granting

Washington's request in reference to the wounded general Mercer was as fully and generously repaid by the consideration and
ten.

the valley of the Millstone learned the facts by the


+O110 account "f Oapt Leelio's death says be was "carried i" Pluokantheporohof a small inn almost Immediately on
i

kind attention bestowed,

bj

order of the

\
I

ican
i]

there."

f his British prisoners, commander, on 01 William Leslie, of the Seventeenth Regiment, who was mortally wounded and captured by the patriot

There Is no root in t- doubl thai this account then Gustls was mistaken In saying " hedied thesai
venlng
ol

is

correct; and if

venlng,"that
:

in,

il

the

ilaj

of the battlo.
-

hlle halting al Millstone in uiai

the night after the battle the

ildlers

having
plei
f

in

forces at Princeton.

An
in
lit 1.
1

which Leslie waa conveyed bivouacked on a


near, the sito of the preeoni parsons
place.

account of the death of this


bj

woodland on, or very mi Church atthat


i

bravt

young
til'-

officer is
c

thus given
-in- in'
fleld
i

Custis:
iii*

following, having reference

to

tin"

last

restlngsplace
ol - imi rsel

"f tho

"it was while the

rained up

horse upon ap-

gallant Leslie,
1876)
:

i-

taken from Dr

oner's

History

Cm my"

proaching

where la} the gallant Ool Hexlet in. hi iii\ wounded that he perceived some British soldiers supporting a wounded officer, and upon Inquiring hi* name and rank v a pari of the genoral's 'Copt l' die.' Dr. Benjamin Rush, who for \ n f the Barl of LovonT* to which the aoldleri solto, earnestly asked,
i"t

in

ii

plowed

" Manj years since

wall in front, unit

ney was sent from ScoUand i.>i>ulMoMonomore recently tin- Presbyterian church wa
..

ii,

extracts

ill

'

Interest:

'

thlscountrj

replied
']
i

my
hta

care that

1-m-i hh-i': iutho affirmative. Tlio doctor tlienoddi lodofflcor to bo placed nndor rour Excellency to pormlt this v. pai may return, in however small a dog
l ,

Hnnj persons lathis country ili recall itit pleasure tin- vudl t.. eslle Holvflie, brother of the lasl yew d1 thi Hon. n iland partner in and Melville, win- some time
i

...
t

iinii..t

Mi. Mi

nil... 1.,

\-s. .i..i.u\

..I

tli..

ui'..

States Treaaury.

.'

Mr. Helvllle mentioned the iacl that

om
IntiMiniry
i

gallons I

owe

to his worth*
I

many

kindnesses
Tli

hands whllo

was

student at Edinburgh.'

war, and that tho (hmllj


buried.

ible to learn In

mediately grantod, but, alas 1 poor Min ml:, and u .1- burled tho next da} ili.'il the sai
the

There was tradition


tin- rpot.

thai

in-

remains had

n deposltad in a

at

Pluckamin with
t..

them
.in..
I.,
.i

littlo

honors
last

"I

war.
rest,

Ells

troops, as thoy

lowered the remains

Un-

soldier's

shed tears ovoi

lovod

mender."*

only the other da] an American friend of Mr. Melville, hlstor) with qnite anothei object, stumbled .ii the story of in- ancostoi '- death, and, Bndlng tint in- fell at tin- battle of Princeton. Jan. 3, 1777, pursued the Inquiry, and dh
:

Phi

Ibll

of
a battall
i

an ontrj

In a diary In

kopl by Ool.Rodney

n well preserved.
"..-

."'
.
.

who

mended

Delaware militia

athlngtoi
inn
tin.1

tan-, at

1'rii

tmi was alao heard

much
ol

farther

Unit linn-:
Pi
i

remotest bounds of Hunterdon.


:.t

R
al

win,
i

.'.in.

">,

1777.

ravian brethren
a. IbUOVi

The Journal Bethlehem, Pa, contains entries howtnj


v.

the Mo-

"Thegonora! continued bore


i

this
!-

day

amy.
i

He
!

1777, lln. tin


I

Infantry

attend the
war.

aj ol

OoL

Capl

rounds through Ontin. n|

ii---in.il.
'-

unt \m-1i-

tt.

uurj
fell
.

bun with the


-.

.-i

He a

|ng "I

l!'-

who

al

Prln

Phoy readily obeyed in paying due

heard long

Unued can
'
.'

braver}

though In an onemy. "Oapt Honry was now gone home, and


i i

beenal Princeton.1
I
I

Tin- hospital referred tointheflrsl

onto was tho

md
Humphries
I

of the
to

spite] of tin- at

in.

of Infantry, but, as

had uol paid anj atteution

the
i.

-in,

Warren, and
Brll

military lum

luoated Oapt.

it

."
. .

,: 1770, when nun aval J t. remove a

farther into

tin- tnti

60

HUNTEKDON AND SOMEKSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.

passage of the patriot forces, and on the followingday the glad news was spread farther and more
widely,
till,

CHAPTEE

VI.

on the morning of the

5th, there

were

few of the inhabitants of either county who did not know that Washington's army had recrossed the Baritan and was in bivouac along the hillside at Pluckamin. " Many a horseman during the night dashed

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES IN THE REVOLUTION (Continued).


Tho Marvelous Change produced by the Campaign of Trenton and
Princeton Gen. Howe's " Protections" Atrocities of the British in Somerset and Hunterdon Counties Washington's Proclamation to the People Skirmish at Weston, Somerset Co. Gen. Dickinson Defeats the British and Captures a Wagon Train Occupation of Middlebrook by the American Forces in 1777 Letter of Gen. Heard from Earitan "Washington Rock" Attempt to Entice Washington from his Stronghold in the Hills The British Troops leave the State and the American Army march through Somerset and Hunterdon to the Delaware Washington's Letters from Coryell's Ferry Hunterdon and Somerset Troops at Battle of Brandywine Valley Forge Col.

onward

to this point to ascertain

what

it

[the light of

the camp-fires at Pluckamin] portended, and when the news was brought back that it was Washington the joy was almost rapturous everywhere."*

The army
iness

arrived at Pluckamin on the evening of

the 4th of Januaryf in a condition of extreme wear-

and destitution. Not only were the men worn out by loss of sleep and the excessive fatigue of the rapid night-march from Trenton to Princeton, the
battle at that place,

Frelinghuysen's Expedition to Staten Island


Carrier

The Tories Penn and Chew under County Extracts from Minutes of the
Army cross
at Coryell's Battle of

A Female Tory DispatchCouncil of Safety, Etc.

Surveillance in Hunterdon

British evacuate Philadelphia and pass through

and the subsequent marching to Kingston down the valley of the Millstone, and from

ington's

New Jersey WashMonmouth, Etc. Somerset

the Earitan to the mountains, but they were very poorly supplied with food, many of them shoeless

and

suffering

from cold through lack of blankets and

sufficient clothing.

The

officers as

well as the private


Col.

Processes against Forfeited Estates, Etc.

and Hunterdon Troops behave gallantly Cantonments at Middlebrook Gen. Washington and Wife at Somerville Five Soldiers Hung Gen. Knox's Headquarters at Pluckamin Grand Ball and Supper Simcoe's Raid in 1770 Burning of the Church, Court-house, Etc. Capt. Peter G. Voorhees killed The Ladies of Huuteidon and Somerset Close of the War The Currency Patriotism under War Burdens

soldiers suffered

from the same cause.

Eodney

said (in the diary before quoted from), in reference to his condition during the halt at Pluckamin, " I had

FROM THE BATTLE OF PRINCETON TO THE CLOSE OF THE WAR.

nothing to cover me here but my great-coat, but luckily got into a house near the mountains, where I fared very comfortably while we stayed here." But there were few even among the officers who fared as well as he in this respect. During the day of January 5th the main body of

The glorious result of the campaign which commenced on the south shore of the Delaware at Mcmas Day,
tively

Conkey's Ferry at nightfall on the evening of Christ1776, and ended when the weary and shivering soldiers of Washington entered their comparacomfortable winter
quarters at Morristown,

and waiting for detached bodies to rejoin it. J When the commands had all reported, and the men had in some
the
lay quietly at
resting

army

Pluckamin

fatigue
to

degree recovered from the effects of the excessive and exposure which they had been compelled

wrought a wonderful change in the aspect of affairs in New Jersey. A few weeks before, when the slender and constantly-decreasing columns of the American army were crossing the State towards the Delaware in flight before the pursuing and victorious legions of
Cornwallis, a large proportion

endure in the marches and battles from the Assanpink to Pluckamin, the army moved out from its temporary camps at the latter place and marched leisurely to Morristown, where it went into winter quarters in log huts. It is said that while there the only command of which the men were in complete uniform was Col. Eodney's battalion of Delaware troops, which on that account was detailed for duty as a body-guard to the commander-in-chief.J

of the people of the State had become discouraged,


and, despairing of a successful issue to the struggle
for liberty, large

probably a majority

numbers of them promptly availed

themselves of the terms offered by the proclamation of the British commander guaranteeing pardon and
Ijrotection to

such rebels and disaffected persons as would come forward to abandon the patriot cause and renew their allegiance to the king.|| It is stated that

* Rev. Dr. Messier.


| Losslng (vol. j. p. 30G) says that Washington, having dofoated the British at Princeton, " pursued them as far as Kingston, whore ho had

town, up to tho time of erecting a liberty-pole, was removed in the sum-

mer
||

of 1880 to the residence of D. D. Craig, at Basking Ridge, in Somer-

the hridge taken up, and, turning short to the

left,

crossed the Millstone

River twice, and arrived


li.

at

Pluckamin

the

same evening"

And again
tlio

(vol.

p. 2U9) lie says, "

Ho

destroyed the bridge at Kingston, which checked


Mill1'lurk

the progress of Cornwallis for some time, and having crossed


stone twice, ho
rc;ji:iii'il
iii

DiiiI

evening."

Kilt this

in

clearly a

mistake, as tho account of Washington's halt with his


erset Court-house
ticated.

army noar Somis

during the night succeeding the battle

well authen-

% In Washington's dispatches to Congress dated at Pluckamin on that day he says, "Our whole loss cannot bo ascertained, an many who are
in pursuit of the

where it was again raised. British commissioners [Gen. William Howe and his brothor, Admiral Lord Richard Howe] issued a proclamation commanding all persons assembled in arms against His Majesty's government to disband and return to their homes, and all civil officers to desist from their treasonable practices and to relinquish their usurped authority. A full pardon was offered to all who within sixty days would appear before an md subscribe officer of the Crown, claim the benefit of the proclamatk a declaration of his submission to tho royal authority. Seduced by this proclamation, not only tho ordinary people shrunk from tho apparent
set Co.,

"The

fate of the country in this

enemy (who were chased


which was used

three or four miles) aro not

yet come in."


g

The

flag-Htaff

at Washington's headquarters, Morris-

its murkiest hour, but tho vaporing patriots office und distinction at the hands of their countrymen when danger in their service was distant now crawled into the British linos, humbly craving the mercy of their conquerors, and whined out, as justi-

who sought

HUNTERDON AND SOMKRSKT COUNTIKS


for a considerable time the daily average of persona within the State who thus signified their adhesion to the royal cause was more than two hundred. Scarcely an inhabitant of the State joined the army of Washtriot-,

IN

THE REVOLUTION.
glorious event

61

and

tin-

of Princeton

fanned

ington as he was retreating towards the Delaware, but, on the contrary, great numbers of those who were already in the Bervice from this State deserted and returned to their homes. " The two Jersey regiments

and steady tlame. An immediate result was a rei ival of hope and courage among <> .f rs of them to sey militia, causing join the American army, adding materially to its efthat -park into a strong
j
I

fective -live .th.


I

['he militia are takings] into, and,

am

told, an-

bag in

fast

&

this Stat'
-

which had been forwarded by Gen. Gates, und

St

lair,

went
all

nil'

to a loan the

moment they entered


without
a single priSt.

their
vate,

own

State.

A few

officers,

willt'>

of these regiments which

Clair

writWashington in his dispatch ten ai Pluckamin on the 5th of January, only two days after the victory of Princeton; ami tin -ion- from thi- source wire much more numerous after that time. "The militia of New Jersey, who had
(ien.

brought

the

commander-in-chief."

The mosl
induce

hitherto behaved shamefully,^ from this time forward

earnest exertions of

Governor

Livingston to

the militia to oppose the invading


less.

"Those who

visited the

army were Bruitarmy brought l>ark an


in dis-

generally acquired high reputation, and throughout lucted themselves with a long ami tedious war c
spirit

unfavorable report.
loyalty,

They secretly or openly advised


their

others to do nothing that would involve them

ami thus jeopardize


t'll itself

possessions.

Old

people

US that aucb was the talk with

many.

The

Legislature,

defenseless, had

ton to Burlington,!

and

there,

moved from Princeon the 2d of December,


to

ami discipline scarce surpassed by the regular ntry In -mall parties they now semi red the in every direction, -ei/ed on stragglers, in several Light skirmishes behaved exceptionaUy well, and collected in such numbers a- to threaten the weaker British posts with the fate which tho-e at Trenton ami Princetroop-.
i

thej adjourned, each


his

man going home

look after

In a few days, indeed, ton had already experienced. the Americans had overrun the Ji rsi j -." Among the

own
.f

affairs.

Until the battle of Trenton, on the

L'i'.ih

that

month,

New

Jersey might have been Con-

sidered a eoni|Uered province.


[of Hunterdon],
treasurer,

Even Samuel Tucker chairman of the Committee of Safety,

ha Lit a nt-. tho-e who had maintained their II n-werving devotion to the patriotic cause once more took heart; and even of tho-e who, from motives of fear
in

ami

and judge of the Supreme Court, took a protection of the British, and thus renounced allegiOpen inance to this State and vacated his offices.] surrection against the American cause had broken out ill several counties, among which was that of

had availed themselves of the "prothe greater number were nGen. Howe's joiced at the successes of Washington. ' protections''^ had proved to them a delusion. During tin' time in which the British held undisputed control the country in all directions had been ravself-interest,

tection" of the British,

Hunterdon, where as heforc noticed the malcontents had proceeded to violence against the Whig inhabiti

igedbyth
the

ir

fcraging-partiBS,

composed principally

of Hessians.

Tins,- mercenaries were unable to read

of that section, plundered the house of ('apt. Joues and boldly declared tin ir intent) in of p icing In Monmouth County a similar, the British army. ants
hut

inhabitants

language; and s,,, when the "loyal'' who had secured protection papers exhibited them to the German marauders, the latter regard) d
English
if

suppress which
affection,

even more desperate, state of affairs existed, to it aecessarj to detach a was deei
I

them no more than


pa

they had been Washington's

Btrong military force under Col. Forman.

Panic, dis-

.hut treated their holders with contempt and -howed them no more consideration than was accor-

and cowardl] submission were found everywhere; despair had seized on all hut the sturdiest patriots ami the conflict for liberty seemed well-nigh
;

ded

io their

Whig neighbors,which was

-imply none

at all.

hopeless.

thi- period by the

In the depredation- and atrocities committed during Hessian and l'.riti-h soldiery, Som-

But a marvelous change was wrought by the favorable result of the campaign of Trenton and Prin
ton.

The Christmas

victory at Trenton rekindled a

bright spark of hope in the breasts of despairing paflcntltm.

Him, though they

tool Milted

with ..there in locking a


not

.-

lilu-

{SeeOordon't "History ,.f New Jersey," p> 2TO. the state of Now Jersey, took | The whole number of those who, In advantage of tho proclamation of the brothers Bows I* said toharo been two thousand seven hundi r VbUov
I

Uonal tvilrra of grievance, the; approved


adopted, and
tort, ,./

wen

at all timet

oppose

Maura lut.lv ." OeroWi Hi-

mntyman

bj

thai

an
i

'

who,alltUe more
el

than two weeks

later, ;,- defeat!

by

Washington

Prim ston

.Vic Jtrtey, p. 223.

do hereby Oertirj that

the Dearer Abraham Sedham.of


'

sfJddle-

Ibid.

bnah, In thi
of iho Legislature, enforced bj
thi
ii

"'" d anl a ra Hon

|Tho removal!
British army, were

Proclamation pnbUshs
by Hi"
Uil:'''

al

V
in

,-t.
i.i

ton to Burlington ; from Bnrltngton


I

PiUstown; and
thi

Id,

where It was dissolved on

from thai 2d of December, 1778.


finally,

osllsno) Qensral

Hows.

Wherebj he la entitled to the protection of aU

ad Soldlen lerving In nil KaJeaUes'


bimsalf, In-

Army

America, both Ibr

Motfs Gordon
J
I i

"
|

Find Centurj of Hunterdon County."


finiy
tlu"

numb
i:

and property, and


this l-Hi

t" paai un.l

r.|wu on his lawful

.ut
I.

molestation.

Qallowoy and Mien, of Pennsylvania,


o
.1

He might ha

i.e.

,1

n.

my hand

day

Deoember,

1778,

\. Jersey."

62
erset*

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


the army headquarters, or the nearest headquarters of any general officer iu the Continental service, and there to surrender their protection papers and swear allegiance to the United States of America; upon
to receive full pardon for past provided this was done within thirty days from the date of the proclamation. But such as should fail to conform to these requirements within the specified time were commanded to forthwith withdraw themselves and families within the enemy's lines, and
offenses,

and Hunterdon were among the four or five counties which suffered the most severely of any in the State. " Neither the proclamation of the commissioners [General and Admiral Howe] nor protections
saved the people from plunder or insult. Their property was taken and destroyed without distinction of persons. They exhibited their protections, but the
Hessians could not read and would not understand them, and the British soldiers deemed it foul disgrace
that the Hessians should be the only plunderers. Discontents and murmurs increased every hour with

which terms they were

the ravages of both, which were almost sanctioned by general orders, and which spared neither friend nor foe. Neither age nor sex was protected from outrage.
Infants, children, old men and women, were left naked and exposed, without a blanket to cover them from the inclemency of winter. Furniture which

upon their refusal or neglect to do so they were to be regarded and treated as adherents to the King of Great Britain and enemies of the United States. The effect of this proclamation was excellent. Hundreds of timid inhabitants who had taken protection

now flocked

to the different

headquarters to surrender

could not be carried away was wantonly destroyed, dwellings and outhouses burned or rendered uninhabitable, churches and other public buildings consumed, and the rape of women, and even very young
girls, filled the measure of woe. Such miseries are the usual fate of the conquered, nor were they inflicted with less reserve that the patients were rebellious sub-

them and take the required oath of allegiance. The most inveterate and dangerous Tories were driven
within the enemy's
lines, or entirely

out of the State,

and the army was largely increased by volunteers and by the return of many who had previously served in its ranks, but had deserted and returned to their homes during the dark days of November and December, 1776.
lay in quiet at Morrisfor nearly five months. During this time, although no general movements were made, small bodies of militia and other troops were almost constantly harassing the enemy, and several minor fights occurred, one of the most important of which took place at Weston, in Somerset County, on the 20th of January. In consequence of the Americans having captured and destroyed a number of boats ascending

jects.

But even the worm


. . .

pressor.

upon the opWhat the earnest commendations of


will turn

The main body of the army

townj

Congress, the zealous exertions of Governor Livingston and the State authorities, and the ardent supplications of Washington could not effect was produced by the rapine and devastations of the royal forces.

The whole country became

instantly hostile to the in-

vaders. Sufferers of all parties rose as one man to revenge their personal injuries. Those who, from age and infirmities, were incapable of military service kept a strict watch upon the movements of the royal army, and from time to time communicated information to their countrymen in arms. Those who lately declined all opposition, though called on by the sacred tie of honor pledged to each other in the Declaration of Independence, cheerfully embodied when they found submission to be unavailing for the security of
their estates.

wallis' forces at

the B.aritan laden with provisions for the use of CornNew Brunswick, the British were compelled to forage the country with more than their

usual energy.
four

One of
strong,?

their foraging-parties, about

east side of the Millstone River, in that part of Somerset

hundred

had been raiding on the

could not apprehend the consequences of British taxation nor of American independence could feel the injuries inflicted by inso.
. .

Men who

County which is now the township of Franklin, where they had seized a large number of cattle and sheep, and, learning that a considerable quantity of flour was stored in a mill at Weston, proceeded to that place, took possession of the flour, and com-

and brutal soldiers."! Gen. Washington was not slow to avail himself of the advantages to the American cause offered by this
lent, cruel,

menced loading
X

it

upon

their wagons.

But

in the
Is-

detached force of sevoral hundred men, under

command of Gen.
in

situation of affairs,
issued,

and on the 25th of January he from his headquarters in Morristown, a procla-

rael

Putnam, was stationed


if

act as a corps of observation merely, being too

serious opposition

January to numbers to offer the enemy should appear in force. In Hagemnn's

at Princeton in the latter part of

weak

mation requiring all persons who had accepted protection from the British commissioners to repair to
* "Somerset County lay at
partles
tlio mercy of the enemy, whose forngingwent out from New Brunswick, where Howe had quartered his Neshanlc and the South Branch,

"History of Princeton" there

is
:

related an incident illustrative of Geu.

Putnam's strategy,

as follows

"

British officer, Maj.-Gon.

McPhorson,

who

lay mortally

tary comrade in

wounded at Princeton, desired the presence of a milihis last moments, The kind-hearted Gen. Putnam could

from the enemy.


friend,

not refuse the request, but resorted to strategy to hide his weakness Ho Bout a flag to Now Brunswick in quest of the

troops, across the Millstone as Tarns

who

entered Princeton after dark.

gathering everything they could lay their hands on, and maltreating

so that every
all

whenever any resistance wan offered. It "" laelfthe idea that they were or might be rohels formedasufflClent excuse in the minds ot the soldiers for any outrage that their passions prompted them to commit." Mealer'u History nf Somerset County.
t Gordon, pp. 232, 233.

llf Inhabitants most cruelly

The general had arranged it unoccupied house was carefully lighted, lights gleamed in
ho marched and countermarched his

the

collogo windows, and

scanty forces to such effect that the British soldier on his return to thecamp reported it at least five thousand strong, while he had only a fow hundreds."
I

One account places

its

strength at six hundred men.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


mean time
to

IX

THE REVOLUTION.

C3

intelligence of the

movement was earned

of frequent occurrence during the winter and spring


of 1777.

Gen. Philemon Dickinson, who with a -mall force was stationed to hold a small earthwork at Somerset Court-house (Millstone village), a shorl distance from the mill, but on the opposite side of Millstone Etivi r. Upon learning the facta, Gen. Dickinson, being determined (" attack the party, moved out with a force hi two compani: a of mtinental tiitv F: inn ham riflemen, and a small body of New Jersey militia, and, proin all. about four hundred and fifty men, ceeding to the bridge at Weston, attempted to cross

On the opening of spring, the American commander,


from bis position
at

Morristown, watched closely and

anxiously the movements of Gen. Howe's forces at New Brunswick, for he had no doubt that the British general was intending to make an important movement, though in what direction he could do! learn, though he believed that [owe's objective-point would be the city of Philadelphia. Early in May it was ascertained by Gen. Washington that the British force- at New Brunswick had been largely augmented; and that
I

it,

but failed, as the

enemy held

the opposite end,

with three pieces of artillery trained upon it. The Americans then Bought a fording-place below, and,

they were engaged constructed that


it

in

building "

portable bridge SO

plunging into the river where the water was waistdeep and filled with Boating ice, crossed the stream and attacked the British with such vigor and determination that they fled precipitately towards New Brunswick, leaving forty-three wagons, one hundred and four horses, one hundred and eighteen cattle,
seventj sheep, and twelve prisoners
in in

might be laid on flat-boats," in Regarding this as an other word-, a pontoon-bridge. almost certain indication that Howe was preparing to Washington at Delaware, move forward ami cross the
:e
I

decided to

move his
ait. nipt

forces to a point nearer

New

'.in

n- wick, to

l.c

within striking distance of the enemy


to
i

the

Gen. Dickinson, whose


five.

loss

of

men

the

liirlit

hands of was

in

case be should

secute his suspected de-

sign.

The

total

loss of

the enemj was about thirty


in his

The Inward
I

point selected was the range of hills to the

of the village of
as

Bound Brook,generally

mention of this affair, highly commended the energy and skill of Gen. Dickinson, and the gallantry evinced by the force under v than hall' of which was composed hi- command,

men. Gen. Washington,

the" Heights of Middlebrook,"- -ami to this place the army was moved from Morristown about the 28th ..I "May.; on which day the headquarters of the
meiiti.
+ Detached

of raw militia.

commands
on
the

<>t

the

army

had, however,

n Btatlonod at prior
t"
this,

A similar
February
< 1
1

affair

occurred on or about the


in

1st

of

different

polnti

Millstone and

Rarltan

Riven

during the winter and spring.


Somerset Court-house, as
in
i.

Gen. Dickinson had been stationed at


-

at
1 1

Piscataway,
1

which

at

least thirty-six

wo have

and had made

a successful

ad-

were killed, while the Americans h>st > of the nine killed ami fourteen wounded. The force of the

hi
\

Unit place in

January against the


i

British foraging party at

n Btatlonod nt Boot forceundei Gen. Lincoln had i-> ill" lt.-v. l>r. Mr..This fact In menti earlj as April.
I

was about one thousand, with three fieldpieces; while the Americans were only ahniit seven hundred strong, and uearlj or quite all militia. En the first attack the enemy were compelled to retire. but, receiving reinforcements, they again advanced
British

Sen. Bet
.

era el
village,
Id
li

the

end of tinhaving two stories tint Bound Brook <


tinii

was th

ilj

house

t.v

Peter

llllamson.

[twasinba Gen. Lincoln himself, when giving an


boast

About ami drove the militia from their position. '.ru usw ick, f New N ei Isi three week- la er, " militia, with a detachment of one hundred and fifty
t

account of bis retreat from thla place, usee tt'<' foil Being -i itlonod al Bound Brook, on the Rarltan, he had an extent in -i\ mil. - to guard win, u force of I---, iiiiiu to-' hundred men

(
lit

for duty.
trol, be

'i

>1

'i

Grant,

On the 18th of Ipril, 1777, owing to ii.-inv under Oomwallls and was surprised by a large party of tl who came opon him so suddenly thai the general and one ol bis
'
;
i

his pa-

surprised and captured Mai. Stockton (one of the numerous family of that name, who from his treachery

aides had

shack
\,
,,

tl

>

this

house

bio It-house

,.r f..r-

ommandlng Uie

crossing over Bouud Brook


tha river.
.

was called

'

Double Kick'),
lined
at

vates, refugees, in

the head of fifty-nine priTwo or three quite British pay."


at

shop which

Mm.
the

severe fights
oni

"SpanktOWn"

Kahwayi,

Olios

owns
>.f

When Gen. Lincoln

rati

inta sll fled to

mi

the 6th of January, in

bushels uf

salt ami other stores the British, and another on the 2Sd of February, between the brigade of Gen. Maxwell and the Third

which a thousand were captured t'r

mountain, leaving
pant
the

a soldlor's corpse In the blot It-house

the

earl] In
to

the spring, as

i-

shown by

the follov

li

sd by

him

Gov-

ernor Livingston (N. J. Revolutl

try

Oorrespondon

[n the latter fight the British Brigade from A.mboy. Americans were victorious also, and drove the enemy
I

" II. IDO.1


1

hoi
py
<-f

SI,

BjJU
I

tl
I

you have
id

it

a letter

,i.

untyol Hunterdon, by which you will see


panlos rafuatug to do Uialr duty,
,

vi

through the -inn\

all

the

wa\

back

U)

\ml...y, inof novornl


I

flictingon (hem a less (according to British reports

should

men killed and WOUnded, The loss of the American- ua- three killed ni'i- similar to those and twelve wounded, lac above mentioned, and others of less importance, were
nf four officers and nearly one hundred

ill,-

nutter,

it.

hi

Hi-

man may
dl

hero, they being very

much wanted
Llki wise, should be glad of

times expire this day m. u

what Is to be done with people Uiat refuse


1

to glvt apt!
op.

bmvt

\.

ii

lot

confinement thai
laol

T'i

mlllUa lawpolntaont noi

what

is to

bo dono with such people.


.I

found

"itli l.c

army, and no* In confinement, who has iufuruied

64

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


mand
at

commander-in-chief were established at the new position.

Princeton,

had

about

fifteen

hundred

The
is

location of the

American

forces at

Mid-

troops under
retreated
to

him
the

at that place.

He

subsequently

dlebrook
"

thus described

:*

Delaware River, but again ad-

encampment by sa}'ing that it was on the right of the road leading through the mountain-gorge in which Chimney Rock is situated, just where it rises up from tho bed of the little stream and attains the level of Washington valley. A strong earthwork was thrown up about a quarter of a mile
the precise place of the
to the northwest, almost in the centre of the valley, as a protection to

We may sufficiently indicate

vanced
the

to

the line of the Sourland Hills, along

any movement approaching from Pluckamin; and the whole of the defile leading through the narrow mountain-valley was strongly guarded, while the brow overlooking the plain bristled with cannon. Just at the edge of the wood, east of Chimney Rock, huts were erected as quarters for the officers, and everything done which either safety or comfort demanded in the emergency. At Bound Brook a strong redoubt was constructed, commanding the bridge over that miry little stream, just north of the present railroad-crossing, looking to any attack to be made from the way of New Brunswick. Having taken, in this way, all possible
precaution against surprise, he
felt

southern border of Hunterdon County, and while in this position, waiting to co-operate with Washington in case of an engagement, his forces were considerably augmented by the arrival of troops from the South, moving northward under the order
before mentioned.

Gen. Benedict Arnold, command-

ing at Philadelphia, was ordered to station a force on the New Jersey side of the Delaware, to do what

might be done

to prevent the British

from crossing

that river, in case they should succeed in escaping

strong to abide the issue of events.


.
.

The

result justified his sagacity as a military tactician.

On the apex

of the

Round Top, on the

left of

the gorge in which Chimney Rock

stands, there are yet to be seen rude remains of a hut which

Washington sometimes frequented during those anxious months of 1777. On the east side of the gorge, also, fronting the plain north of Middlebrook, there is a rock which has been named Washington Rock,' because there he often stood to gaze anxiously upon the scene it overlooks. On the mountain west of Plainfield, also, there is a very large rock which has received the same appellation."
'

The last-named point (which is more generally known than the other as "Washington's Rock") is on
the mountain-side, near the top, not far from and in
full sight

New Brunswick had been reinforced until it numbered about seventeen thousand effective men, a force far outnumbering that of Washington, including the corps of observation under Sullivan. Moreover, the British force was largely made up of veterans and was finely equipped, while a large proportion of the American army was composed of raw militia not well provided with equipments and clothing. The position occupied
by Washington, however, was very strong by nature and fortified to some extent, and his location was such that he could at once take advantage of a movement of the enemy, whether he should advance towards the Delaware or retire towards the Hudson for he was still in doubt as to the intention of the British commander, whether it was to move directly on Philadelphia by land, to return his troops to Amboy, there to embark and proceed by sea and the Delaware Bay to reach the same objective-point, or to move up the Hudson River to co-operate with Gen. Burgoyne, who was then reported to be moving southward from Canada by way of Lake Champlain. In a little more than two weeks after Gen. Washington occupied the heights of Middlebrook the British commander began to unmask his designs. Leaving a force of about two thousand men under Gen. Matthew in New Brunswick, the main body of the British army, in two divisions, under Lord Cornwallis and Gen. De Heister respectively, moved out at about midnight of the 13th of June, and marched rapidly by two routes towards Middlebush and Somerset Court-house, which last-named place was reached by the division of Cornwallis before sunrise in the morning of the 14th, while De Heister, having taken a more southerly and circuitous route,t arrived at Middlebush at about the same time. Both divisions

from Washington and Sullivan. The British army in and about

of the railroad-station of Dunellen, in a


It
is

northeasterly direction.
position,

a very

commanding

from which may be obtained an unobstructed view of the whole valley and adjacent country for
its

many miles. name from the

This, like the other, has received


tradition that the
it

American gen-

eral-in-chief often visited


tion.

for

purposes of observa-

The army of Washington, at the time wdien it moved from Morristown to Middlebrook, was about
eight thousand four hundred strong, including cavalry

and
were

artillery.

But of these more than two thousand


this,

with other causes, reduced his efthousand seven hundred and thirty-eight men, rank and file. This number, however, was soon afterwards very considerably increased
sick,

and

fective strength to five

by accessions from beyond the Delaware, for orders had been issued for all troops in the field, as far
south as the Carolinas, to rendezvous in

New

Jersey.

When

the

Sullivan,

movement to Middlebrook was made, Gen. who had succeeded Gen. Putnam in com-

me

there are many porsons out now upon the same business, chiefly in Sussex County. ... I should have sent after them myself, but have so lew troops now here thought proper not to spare them, but wait your
directions."

The

[otter

from Col. Beavers referred

to in the above,

1777, complained of certain officers of tho

dated March 29, Hunterdon battalion in this

the

| "Gen. Cornwallis, in marching with his division to Millstone, took Amwell road, which then came into the Princeton road but a short

language: "This is the second time the other field-officers and mysolf have met on tbe orders you have sent me, and can do nothing, as throe
of the captains of ibis battalion refuse to act; nor havo thoy
until in their

warned a

companies on either of tho orders, to wit: Capt. Shenard,

Capt, Meddler,

and Oapt. Oline."


8:1.

*
f

By Bev.
Hon.

Dr. Messier, in his History of Somerset County, p. Italph Voorhces, " Our Home," p. 495.

Run Brook near New Brunswick, which ho followed until he reached Millstone, while Gen. Do Hoistor followed tho one running along the west bank of tho Raritan for more than three miles until lie camo to tho Van Duyn place, where ho turned to tho left and followed tho road leading from thence into the Amwell road, a few yards oust of tho present Middlebush church, about half a mile west of which ho encamped with his troops." lion. Ralph Voorliew.
distance above the Mile

Ill

YI'IIKHOX
11

AM)

SO.MKIiSKT ('(UNTIKS IN T1IK REVOLUTION.

65

threw up earthworks of considerable strength. The object ofthe British genera] was tosevei communication between Gen. Sullivan and the main body ofthe American army, and, if possible, to tempi Gen.

taken, value three hundred and Beventy-one pounds

Washington to move down from his almost impregnable position and give battle to the British on ground

Van Liew, Brunswick, house, outhouses, and hams burned, valued at five hundred and nini Others win. suffered shillings five pence. n or less severely during tin- stay of the II' ssians
nineteen shillings three pence; Johannes near

New
i

own choosing. But the American general could not be so lured from his stronghold among the
of their
hills.

Hemerelj advanced

his forces to
all
I"-

the south side


but

of the mountain, and

made

preparations to fight attacked


;

on thai ground

beyond this In- 'lid not go, for the chances in a battle upon the plain would have d too much in favor ofthe enemy.
if

he should

Middlebush and on their withdrawal to New Brunswick were .John Wyckoff, Cornelius Van Anghii. Peter Wyckoff, Philip Pulkerson, John Stothotf, Abraham Van loren, and Berdus rarretson. Three days after lornwallis and >e Heister retired from Hillsborough and Middlebush to New Brunsiii
1 <

<

At the sa

time, Sullivan's force laj in the neighborHill

hood of dovcr

awaiting events and receiving


-

wick that place was evacuated June 22d by the w hole British army, which then eon need it- retreat towards Amboy. Anticipating this movement, Washington had

large accessions from the

'ces

before mentioned.
to

made

his dispositions accordingly, detachisa

The two

British divisions continued

hold their

ing three brigades under Gen. Gi


rear,

their

positions on the Millstone and at Middlebush for five

days, vainly defying Washington to


fight

come down and

them.

During

this
at

time Cornwallis'

dered the inhabitants


i

and

in

the yicinity of

men plunSomnot

sending orders to Gen. Sullivan to move down in all haste with his division in co-operate with Greene, and directing Gen. Maxwell to fall on their

jet

lourt-house,

and

set fire to

the Presbyterian and

Dutch churches
destroyed.

there,

though the buildings were

Sank; but his plan- did not succeed, for Sullivan, having received his order at a late hour and being a long distance away, was unable to join Ireene in time
(

A number
1
'.

of farm-houses were burned.

to

be of service, while the orders sent to Gen. Maxwell

On
found

tlir
it

'

of June, the British general


hills,

having

impossible to entice Washington


in

from his

stronghold

the

the troops of Cornwallis

and
ved

were not received at all by that officer, the courier by they were sent either having deserted or being u captured by the enemy. Morgan with Ids ritl

whom

De

Heister suddenly evacuated

the positions they

had held during


rapidly hark to
Eeister's
1 1 1

the preceding five days and

attacking them
joined
in

gave the retreating troop- considerable annoyance, at sunrise on the 22d as they were

New

army

left

Brunswick. "When Gen. De Middlebush, tradition states that

about leaving Now Brunswick.

Wayne came up and


enemy from some
which

the attack, driving the


hill

attempted to burn everj building between that

redoubts on the

west of Brunswick, after

place and
put
out.

New

Brunswick,

Some

of the
to

fires

were

they crossed the Etaritan and retreated rapidly, but


in good order and with gnat caution, to Anilmy, reaching there with very little his-, for their rearguard was too strong for the thr.-e brigades under

and some buildings

failed

take fire."t

Yet a very large amount of damage was done by the retiring Hessians. .Judge Voorhees, in the paper

above quoted from, gives the names of the several


ferers,

suf-

(ireene to

make much impression upon them.

Gen.

with their losses, as follows: Garret Voorhees, of Bliddlebush, dwelling-house, six room-, entry, and
kitchen, bur
stolen,
I.

Howe,

in hi-

report of the operations, said, in refer-

ence to the attack before referred to as having been

with other property destroyed and

made by Wayne and Morgan,


"Upon
quilting the
<-jnu|>
;ii

amounting in all to four hundred and fiftyone pounds seventeen shillings eight pence; Peter
Rapalye, dwelling-house
forty-two

liiunswi.lv

th.'

enamj brought a few


y fired at

troups forward, with tn

three pleoesof can


t<

by

thirty

feet,

without the lea

my

return from us.

kitchen

twenty-four

bj

twenty-four,

weave-house

fourteen by eighteen, barn forty-two by forty-eight.

They also pushed some battailous Into the w 1- to harass the rear, whero Lord Cornwallis commanded, who soon dispersed them with the loss of only ie men kUlod and thirteen wounded, tin- enemy having uluo
killed mi.
t

burned, and other losses, aggregating three hundred and ninety-three pound- John Spader, on the oppo;

about thirty worn

site side

of the Amwell mad, kitchen and barn burned, value two hundred and twenly--i\ pounds -i\t,on
eight
l

Howe'- fores from New Brunswick spoken of by Lossing} as a stratagem intended only to indue,- Washington to withdraw his

The

retreat of
is

to

\niiioy

shillings
road,
g

pence; Hendrick Bergen, on same frame house destroyed and other property
"i

army from

it-

strong position

in

the hill-

at

Middle-

rthoBeToluUon,"Tol.l p.331: "Vailing to draw Wash*

"Two

earthen tbrUflcations

redouble wore throw n op,


I

ington (torn
n

lit-

pool

i.\

till,

manoeuvre [the moTemenl "f OornwalUsto


w n
i- v. hi.
1,

(he

Amwoll rood

In Mlddlelmsh, a few
anothor, about two hundrod

fthe
i
.

suo-

present Mr.

Wo
1
1

ilsoy,
-

and

fiftg

yards south of
i.,

on-

it.l.iit-t

i..

Nea Brunswick, and than


Partly

the

first,

near
i>\
ii

railroad,

two

othei IbrtMi

amboy,

si

last-named
hi

Oot nwallls] on the land "f the present few yards

John

V,
I

rements, and hoping


n loreled

Hlllstone,

rhej have
tl

all

iltor
,

the

by the ploweharo, so thai Oi n


i
'

its loft."

Hon. Ralph
actij

Ii.ia, p,

198.

and also advanood v/Hh his whole force to Quibbletowo Ht or -,v mil Tlil was oxik. ." what Howe destnd to accomplish.
. .

66

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


But Howe
in his report does not support such
to that part of his operations,

brook.
a belief.

In reference

he
it

says,

manner stated. " But the resistance they encountered at every stage of their advance was disheartening in the extreme. Nearly every cross-road
in the

"On

finding their [the Americans] intention to keep a position which would not have been prudent to attack, I determined, without loss of

had

time, to pursue the principal objects of the campaign

by withdrawing

the

to the

army from Jersey, and in consequence of this determination returned camp at Brunswick on the 19th, and marched from thence to Am22d, intending to cross to Slaten Island,

its squad of pugnacious militia, which poured its deadly volleys into the splendid columns of the wellequipped troops." At Woodbridge, Cornwallis fell in with Morgan's Rangers (the American " corps of seven

boy on the

from whence the em-

barkation was to take place."

This shows that it was not his object to deceive the American commander, but to move his army to Staten Island for embarkation and it seemed evident that Washington believed such to be the case, for soon after sending Green in pursuit and dispatching orders to Sullivan to inarch down and join him he withdrew his army from the heights of Middlebrook, and moved it forward to Quibbletown (now New Market), a position far weaker and more exposed than the one which it had previously occupied. The intelligence that Washington had left his fortified camp in the hills was brought to Gen. Howe after his troops had arrived at Amboy and part of them had crossed to Staten Island. And then he conceived the idea of making a sudden retrograde movement back towards Quibbletown, hoping to surprise Washington in his new and weaker position, to bring on the general engagement for which he had been manoeuvring since the 14th, and, by turning the American left, to gain the hills of Middlebrook in their rear. These facts' are made clear by the follow;

hundred men, with one piece of cannon," mentioned by Howe), and a severe skirmish ensued, in which, of course, the Rangers were compelled to give way before the heavy masses of the enemy. But the sound of their fusillades was borne to the ears of Washington, who instantly understood its meaning, and without delay moved his main force back from Quibbletown
to its former secure position

on the heights of Middle-

brook.

The

British right, under Cornwallis, was soon after


Stirling,

engaged with the troops of Lord was thus reported by Howe


"Lord Cornwallis, soon
after

which

fight

Plains from Metuchen Meeting-house,

manded by Lord

Stirling,

whom

he was upon the road leading to Scotch came up with the corps comhe found advantageously posted in a

country covered with wood, and his artillery well disposed. Tho king's troops, vieing with each other upon this occasion, pressed forward to such
close action that the enemy, though inclined to resist, could not long maintain their ground against so great impetuosity, but were dispersed on all sides, leaving three pieces of brass ordnance, three captains and

sixty

men

killed,

and upwards of two hundred

officers

and men wounded

aud taken."

The

latter part of this

statement

is

without doubt

ing extract from his report,


"The

viz.

necessary preparations being finished for crossing the troops to Staten Island, intelligence was received that the enemy had moved down

an exaggeration, as Lord Stirling, although he admitted the loss of the three guns, mentioned only a comparatively light loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners.

He

was, however, compelled to retreat before

from the mountain [Middlebrook Heights] aud taken post at Quibbletown, intending, as it was given out, to attack tho rear of the army removing from Amboy thai twc corps had also advanced to their left, one of three thousand men and eight pieces of cannon, under the command of Lord Stirling, Gens. Maxwell and Conway, the last said to be a captain in the French service; the other corps consisted of about seven hundred men, with only one piece of cannon. In this situation of tho enemy it was judged advisable to make a movement that might lead to an attack, which was done on the 20th, in the morning, in two columns. The right, under command of Lord Cornwallis and Maj.-Gen. Grant, Brigadiers Matthew and Leslie, and Col. Donop, took the route by Woodbridge towards Scotch Plains; the left column, where I was, with Maj.Gens. Sterne, Vaughan, and Grey, and Brigadiers Cleveland and Aguew, marched by Metuchen Meeting-house to join the roar of the right column in tho road from thence to Scotch Plains, intending to have taken separate routes, about two miles after the junction, in order to have attacked
;

the heavy British force,* which pursued him over the


soldiers of both armies complete exhaustion from the intense heat of the day, but when the British columns arrived at Westfield they found that their outhills as far as Westfield.f

The

were in a

state of almost

ward march was ended, for Washington had escaped and his army was once more posted in security beyond " Looking towards the hills, the weary their reach. soldiers saw that Washington had made his camp among them, having forsaken Quibbletown and all the plain. Every movement was in view of the American commander for, taking his position on
;

the enemy's

loft

at Quibbletown.

Four

battalions were detached iu the


*

morning, with six pieces of cannon, to take post at Bonhamtown. The right column, having fallen in witli tho aforementioned corps of sevon hundred men soon after passing Woodbridge, gave tho alarm, by the firing that ensued, to their main army at Quibbletown, which retired to the mountain with the utmost precipitation. The small corps was closely

The

forces encountered by

Lord Stirling on

this occasion

were com-

posed of three regiments of Hessian grenadiers, one regiment of British grenadiers, one British regiment of light infantry, the Hessian chasseurs,

pushed by the cannon."

light troops,

and with

difficulty got off their piece of

The above statement by Howe explains his retrograde movement and its objects pretty clearly. Having become aware of Washington's advance, he caused
that part of the forces which had already crossed to Staten Island to be moved back during the night of the 25th, and early in the morning of Thursday, the
20th,

aud the Queen's Rangers. Stirling also knew that tho heavier column, under Howe, was close in tho rear and would soon reinforce Cornwallis; which event his (Stirling's) command must have been cut to pieces had he attempted to hold his ground. " The enemy," said Howe in his report, " was pursued as far as Westf field with little effect, the day proving so intensely hot that the soldiers could with difficulty continue their march thither. In the mean time it gave opportunity for those flying to escape by skulking in the thick woods until night favored their retreat to the mountain. The army lay that night at Westfield, returned the next day to Hallway, and the day
iu

following to

Amboy.

On the

:10th, at

ton o'clock in tho forenoon, tho

troops began to cross over to Staten Island, and the rear-guard, under the

command
least

of Lord Cornwallis, passed at two in the afternoon without tho

marched

his

columns back towards

New Market

appeurance of an enemy."

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


the bold bluff

IN
Ii..n>iv.

THE REVOLUTION.
Gen. Stephen, with biaown
. i

67

now

so well

known

as

'

Washington's

and]
al

Rock,' he was able to distinguish any important

man-

i.t

How

ill's

Perry, foni n

"1 bavothougbl propel


inn!
.ii

t"

hall tho

whole army

thesote

oeuvre the foe might choose to make.


o'clock mi

It was three [June 27th] that the English generals, seeing Washington's impregnable position, tiink up their line of march from Westfield In A inlmy, assaulted Hank ami rear b\ Sciitl j lit Eorse and Morgan's Rangers. They encamped that

Ti

ni..

ii

nil
tf

our know lodge


re

Friday afternoon

re cortaln.

theS
of Philadelphia,

now within two


I

march makeover^ Howe, by


ii
.

and can be

tl

In timi

-iinni.
this expeditli n to

Oo the other hand,


is

a deep feint,

and

should turn bis attention again to the North Blvor, wi ixpodltlously than if wewei n. I'liininii'-lanny in
..

night
assed
nt

at
a-I

Spanktown [Rah way].


iel ire,
i

The

next day, har-

advanced. "Tin. Importance of


arrival Is apparent;
ii,

my
i

receiving the earlieet Intelligence of tho fleet's


1

they resumed their reheat and arrived

and Congress,
in.

Amboy, from which, on the last day of June, they departed, leaving New Jersey in possession of the American army. During the remainder of the war the latter held Amboy, and the State was never again
so completely overrun with
troops, although

ni

..1

im certain, will ansmltUng II hi m<


i-

In

the mi

in

ii'

authentic advice should be bad of the


the

fleet's

coming into
it

Delaware
ing officer

nt

same time
tn

that

it

communicated
Stirling
nil
tin-

to
..I

me,
tin-

will tio

command-

hi

Trenton,
I..-

advance with

troops from thence.

marauders and
it

siimilii tlii^ in.t

British

done, the marching of the troops there will be con-

many
in

delayed.

parties entered

for

pillage

"

have

ilii-

honor

t-<

be, etc,

. .

from hostile camps

adjoining State-."

v.

When the last of the British troops had left Amboy and crossed to Staten Island, with the evident intention nf embarking on the ships of the fleet, lien. Washington was in great doubt, and felt no little anxiety as to their destination, whether it was Howe's intention to take the route by sea and the Delaware Bay to Philadelphia, or to proceed up the [udson to co-operate with Burgoyne in his southward advance down the upper valley of that river. As the latter seemed rather the re probable, the American armj t after evacuated it- position at Middlebrook and moved northward to Pompton Plains, where, and at other points between there and the Eludson, it was statioiied until it was ascertained, about two weeks

The
"sii:.

next day he sent the following message


"CoBYl i.">. .Inly 31, ten o'clock a.m. amtlilsmomest honoured with youreof Rvoo'clock thi- moruition. One division had
;

[ng,and have accordingly sel the armyl llii- Ivlnwurc III.- diiy l...|.ip. y.-st.-i.l;iy
.

.1

Hint

mil in hopes Ilio

iwhole of tin. troops now inn. Mill bo able to reach Philadelphia lorow evening. Lord Stirilng'e .In Ision lies Jusl 3 rear, and will more m as I can get the on with us. E propo
i

in.

i...i

..1

ii..

annj

ovoi
"
1

mi, with the greatest

rosi

t,etc.,

11. W."J

The main body


Coryell's

t>f

the

army struck the

river at

later, that

the British Heel, with the

army t on board,

gone to sea With the apparent intention of making b remenl against Philadelphia. There upon the American army was again put in motion, and proceeded 1>\ easj marches:] across the state, through the counties of Somerset and Hunterdon, to the Delaware River, which was reached by the heads
ha<l actually

and Howell's Ferries, the division of Lord Stirling forming tin- column which crossed at Trenton. Anticipating this movement, Washington had requested President Wharton to have accurate drafts of made the river and it- approaches. This had been do lie. and boats for the passage Of the army aero the had been collected at New Hope and points above. Having crossed the river to the Pennsylvania -bore on the 29th and .".nth at 'on ell- and low ell'-. the main body of the army were put in march down
1

of his columns
Coryell's

at

three different

points

(Trenton,

and Howell's Ferries

on the 28th of July.


with the ventre colfrom which place he

The -commander-in-chief moved umn tot 'ory ell's Lambertville),


i

role to the president of

<

'ongress as follows
lis li RRT, J|R81 ynii the .ml
I

road in the morning of the '.l-t of July, bn. Washington starting at the same time for Philadelphia, where he arrived on the 2d of August. Two or three days later he rode out from the city to brinaiilow n, w hire he found the main body of the army. At about that time information wa- received which
the York
:

hd
"<*,. in
v.

to

the belief that


this

Howe had
the

returned to Sandy
put
in

Jul)

80, 1777.

"Sti;,

dO

ni\-'ll

lie

In.

M. in

I.

Inie
Ighl

Hook, and upon


retrace
it-

army wa-

motion

tn

the twenty-eighth, at night, wltl

steps toward- Coryell's, but only reached

which

|i.

the over thai evening, thai

!.-

whol

encamp

the

Ilartsville,
1

Bucks

Co.,

Pa.,

when

it

was halted by

i .

Woodbridge and Vicinity.


British Hi..
i

'ill.

loft Ni
I

having on board Gen.


i

Howe

an express having arrived with dispatches from Congress) tradicting the report of How.'- return to

iin.l

tliiiu-M\ British and

-.

Including light Infantry

New York.

The

forces then

remained en-

and grenadlora, with a poworful artlllory t o N died the in Queen's Bangers, and u rogl hie ! the army was divided botween New ^ ork and B MS, Delaware J Waahington iliil nol move towardi fni In- dill had a suspicion thai Howe's going to i a mi mere]) Int, and that his real Intention was to return and pi np the H which ens.- the American armj would be compelled to march back again, and, In any ovent, Washington know thai he had more than sufficient in roach Philadelphia tn adi mi u ot Howe, when h should eartain thai the latter was mail] moving against that city.
1
1 I

camped

ah. in.' the Ne-haiuiin

Hills for thirteen day-,

when, mi the morning of the 28d, on receipt ot positive intelligence that the British Beet had appeared
at

the head of the

'he-apeakc, and that the force- had


landing,
at

t.

lauded, or were ah. nit

the head of navivol


ii.

r\

.si 111

the

..Hi

Ijihia.

GS

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


army was again put
in

gation on the Elk River, the

motion, and, passing through Philadelphia and across

the Schuylkill on the 24th,

moved southward.

The

on the 11th of September, in the disastrous battle of the Brandywine, in which conflict the commands of Lord Stirling and Gen. Maxwell (containing a large number of Hunterdon and Somerset County men) took a prominent part. The battle of Brandywine was followed by the adjournment of Congress to Lancaster, Pa., the British occupation of Philadelphia (September 26th), and by the battle of Germantown (October 4th), which resulted in disaster to the American army, and in which, as at Brandywine, the New Jersey troops under Stirling and Maxwell fought gallantly. After that unfortunate battle Washington took up a position at Whitemarsh, from which point it was his original intention to advance on Philadelphia but this enterprise was abandoned, and he soon after moved his forces to Valley Forge, where they went into winter
resulted,
;

movement

but was compelled to leave his rear-guard as prisoners of war in the hands of the British. According to his report to the commander-in-chief, he brought off eleven officers and one hundred and thirty privates

and killed and wounded a considerable while his own loss was stated at three officers and ten privates killed and fifteen wounded, and nine officers and one hundred and
prisoners,

number of the enemy

twenty -seven privates taken prisoners so that the losses on each side appear to have been about equal. The following letter was written by Col. Frelinghuysen* to Governor Livingston immediately after
;

the return of the Staten Island expedition.

It is

given here, not on account of any especial mention of that affair found in it, but because it was written

by a distinguished soldier and citizen of Somerset County, and because it has reference to some of the
public matters of that time
"Raritan, Aug.
25, 1777.

"Dear
town, and
plain

Sir,

I expected yesterday to find Your Excellency at


extremely sorry that Your Excellency
I have so
left

Morris-

quarters.

am

the place be-

fore I arrived.
of,

that I

am

communicate, and so much to comextremely anxious to see you, but conceive it my


to

much

Meanwhile, during the part of the year which succeeded the departure of the armies of Washington and Howe from New Jersey, the State, though freed from the presence of large bodies of troops, was still the theatre of some minor military operations. When Howe embarked his army for Philadelphia he left on
Staten Island between two and three thousand men,

duty to repair again to my station before night, which I could not reach should I first go to Princeton. I am, besides, so much fatigued

by losing
" Col.
several

my

rest for

two nights past that

must necessarily choose the

shortest road.

Middah waits upon you, and will represent to Your Excellency things concerning which I have not time to write. In par-

about sixteen hundred were European troops and nearly one thousand were loyal provincials. This
of provincial force

whom

made

frequent raids into

New Jersey,

acquaint you with the circumstances of the for I suppose my letter on that subject, having affair on Staten Island been sent to Morris, is not received. The principal matter on which I am so desirous of conversing with Your Excellency is the unhappy condition of our State. The Continental troops are to march towards Philadelphia. The militia who have turned out are a trilling number, the enemy are encouraged and irritated. The consequences, I fear, will be
ticular, the colonel will
;

doing much damage, but always making a short stay, and retreating rapidly back to the island, where they were under the protection of the European troops. On one of these occasions they had penetrated to

fatal to that county,

nay, I have

reason to believe the

enemy

will not

lay idle after the removal of the Continental troops. Is it not in Your Excellency's power to prevail upon Gen. Sullivan to leave one of the

Woodbridge, and taken captive twelve persons strongly


account of these an expedition to Staten Island for the purpose of capturing this proattached to the patriot cause.
incursions, Gen. Sullivan projected

On

Jersey regiments ? If so, it is the only means, I believe, which can be used for the salvation of that county [Monmouth]. I must certainly fall a prey to the enemy with my little party if the enemy choose to come down and we attempt to drive them hack. I fear much the loss of character, but I am most concerned for the poor inhabitants and their
property.
I

am, however, determined

to exert

my

utmost

abilities for

vincial force,

whose camping-places were

at different

future conduct by those

the defense of this State, and I trust I shall not be blamed for any of my who are unacquainted with my situation. I
I have four prisoners who were having been with the enemy all winter, and are now shall send them on with the two among us I making before apprehended. Your Excellency's directions respecting such meas-

must inform Your Excellency that


taken up
as spies,

points along the island shore, opposite the Jersey


coast, and so far distant from the camp of their European allies that it was believed they might be taken without alarming the foreign troops. The force detailed by Sullivan, and accompanied by him in person, was composed of the select troops of his division, with a body of militia, the latter under command of Col. Frederick Frelinghuysen. The expedition, hovvever, met with quite as much of disaster as of success for, having effected a crossing before daylight unperceived by the enemy, it was afterwards misled by the guides, which caused such an interference with the preconcerted plan of attack that one entire battalion of the enemy made its escape, and, although a number of officers and men of the other commands were taken, tin; alarm was given to the British regulars, a pari of whom, under Gen. Campbell, advanced to attack Sullivan, who thereupon retreated to his boats,

their appearance

ures as Col.

Middah

will

mention I hope

will be

especially with reference to the procuring of

immediately forwarded, ammunition. I must not

forget to congratulate Your Excellency on the groat loyalty of Hunter-

don County. "On Saturday arrived at Elizabothtown Liout.-Col. Houghton, with one private, a baggage-wagon, and two horses.f The colonel says it is occasioned by a report having been industriously spread among the Inhabitants that Gen. Dickinson advised them by no means to go, there being no need of any militia; that their being called upon was solely owing to a whimsical notion of Gen. Hinds. Something, doubtless,

must bo done immediately upon my arrival at Elizabethtown. I shall order Col. Houghton to return and wait upon Your Excellency. I dare
* f

New

Jorsey Itov. Correspondence,


is

p. 94.

The inference

that

all

the rest of the regiment or battalion

had

Perhaps this is the incident referred to by Gen. Putnam when, in mentioning the desertions occurring during the summer succeeding the battle of Princeton, he said that the militia deserted, in bodies, and that in ouo case an entire command ran away, except one ojjlecr and a
desortod.

lame man.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


o

IX

THE REVOLUTION.
tli.Mii.iv.,

69

of
i

Gen Sullivan

induct in the affair of Staten Island


[

ddwell liodojired tocarrjmil


t"

Plan Into execution, and

will

can 6
I

opinion, bni
"I

seriously boltovo that,


ble neglect will be
i

wish ] moj be wrong iii my upon inquiry, nothing imt the


i

the Board an account of the expenses atb

found the

nose of ourli

end

by Col.
"
I

If.

tun

11 letters which received last night Your Excellency's moei obodionl and most honorable servant.

About the 18th of October the welcome intelligence was received in New Jersey of the surrender of Hurgoyne to Gen. Gates at Saratoga.! When the news came to ren. Washington he at once issued order- to all outlying detachments to stoji all stragglers from making their way to the enemy, who then had post

"Hib ExosixxNCi

Gov,

Livingston." at
it

About three weeks after the affair the disaster on the Brandywine made
<

Staten bland
necessary that

the Jersey militia, as well as the militia of other States, should be sent to reinforce ren. Washington's army. The request of Congress to this effect was transmitted by it- president, .iniin Hancock, on the l-ili of Sep-

session

of Philadelphia.
to

An

official

dispatch from
far as
it

tember, to Governor Livingston, ordered the militia forward under


liiur

who 1m command

diately

Basking was feared it might be captured by the Americans if it proceeded any farther in charge of the male ine cni-vr it was
Gi
a.

Burgoyne

Howe

had come as

Ridge, in Somerset County, where (as

of Gen.

intrusted to a

woman,doubtless

Armstrong. The number asked for by Congress was thousand from New Jersey, and, although entire quota was not filled, all the militia companies which were available at the time (less than a thousand

men) crossed
in

the Delaware

Pennsylvania.

At

the

and joined Washington same time a column of

American troops which had been stationed ai IYcksmoving from that point, entered and crossed the State of New Jersey, marching through Somerset and Hunterdon Counties, and reported to Washington about the 1st of October. Soon alter the battle of rermantovi a the New Jersey militia were sent back to their own State, where
kill-on-tln-l Cudson,
<

who took it and prothe Tories of that vicinity. ceeded on horseback toward- Philadelphia; but she bad not passed overagreat part of the distance when she was halted by Capt. Craig, of the American army, and on taking off her bonnet (which operation she resisted most energetically] the dispatch was discovered but after an examination of it- contents she
;

the wife of one of

was remounted, the dispatch given back to her, and to proceed on her journey towards Gen. Howe's headquarters, the captain bidding her godspeed with the remark that "if -he had such news
she was allowed
to take to the British
-...ni

commander, she might he

off as

as -he pleased."!

their presence was thought to be necessary on account

of the threatening attitude of Sir Henrj Clinton, the


British

commander

in

New York, who

early in Sep-

tember had invaded the State with three thousand men in two col ns, one moving by way of Elizabethtown Point and the other by Fort Lee, and uniting at New Bridge, above Hackensack. He remained in the state but a few day-, but bis presence and his
threatening attitude alter his withdrawal created a genera] alarm, which continued through the fall and
succccdiii". winter.

During the month of September in that year two diBtmguiohed nss of Fsnrsylvama ufessrc Perm ami (hew, respectively the royalist Governor and chief justice Of that State, were removed thence l.y the Continental authorities and placed under surveilI

lance in

Hunterdon

lounty.

The

dissatisfaction crei- shown by and by a let-

ated in
ter
is

New

Jersey by thi- proceeding


I

the proceedings of the

krancil of Safety

from the Executive, given below.

The following
October, 1777.

from the Minute- of the council:


"San
"Present His Excellency
in. ay, ttli

In this

connection the following

extract from the Minute- of the Council of Safetj of

New

Jersey

i-

given, -viz.
"HONDAT,
17th N-V-. 1777.

Livingston, Mr, Condlct, Mr, Elmer. ... It being represented t.i tlio President * Council of Safety: That the late Gov Penn, of Pennsylvania,
li.
.

W
'

'Il.-W,

f. Int.-

"The Council metal


Its
iii.

Princeton.

His Excolloncj prodnci


D

mltted by the
Hi

II. .n' '

Board "f
I,

War

t..

reside at "r ne
letter be written
ol
t..

'.

U'

'

ildwoll to MoJ 1 Qi o
1

Tlmt n

containing his report

a1 Dickinson
i

who had bean

Congress, Informing

them of the impropriety

requested by the Board to inform of tlio most

and appoint alarm posts, bj which ii ippoars to this Board m in ni rathe piece ol Cannon' now lying at Princeton tottte monntain that nearly divides the space between Elisabeth and Horria* town, I" be put lor Guard of tlio Mao who ilvos where the non Is to bo fixed, and a few of his ni ixempted
i

fin

a letter written by William

Peterson
id iii"

t..

Governor
.

"I
wal

i-. 1777. Is

following: "

Gen. Burgoyne has surrendered blmself and his


I

whole army
i

prl

of ... to Gen
it

nil

npon;

comes quite

direct.

Tho bearer

will

Infrm

i.. .ni

\i

Ultary Duty.

Guard Irom the said Ho "inn in ma) soe Uie by that moans know that tlio iii ni. fired ai Ellxaboth Town are intended for an alarm d: upon tlmt signal fire the Cut n on tho Mountain. Thol inn it ii-r.u|ion agreed
1
I
i

the Hill where

That U

11

would
mi rly
II
I,

pile

on
Iphla
i

'met/ Jlervlutionory
BaflstM.
.

Omj-

wl

u-t

and Johnston.

the Iron-works within a law milas of the Near the furnaces was tl

Ho was a
I

patrii'l.
ii.

In

Taylor

[at

High

Probably the cannon which Counl bisoartiip wort at Prii hlngton on UioSdol January,and afterwards left therebj tho British on their wttlidrawal from
*
t I

.mi
brought U

mi.

the attorney-general,

Ohav
Tradition reports that they
fiddler to

raylor.

ind

an Indian

Buppoeed
campus

to

bo

thi

unc gun which


ludli

i- -till

In

axlsb

bcguHo the lor with a


title-page."

in tlmt

town, bavin

man]

veara after

copyof Dairy topic's 'Moinolre, with


Coins/.

hil intograpb

npon the

being used as above

70

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


parole in this State, as
it is

nearly encircled by the


.

"
.
.

Wednesday, 26th Nov.

Enemy;

or

if it

their present situation to

be suffered, That the above persons be removed from some more secure & better affected part of the

State; and that the Executive Depart mt of this State have the disposal

of them, so

far as respects the place of their residence."

"The Council met at Princeton. Agreed: That there he advanced to Co" Chamberlain for purchasing 2u,000 Flints in New England, and for defraying his expenses to Wooster in the Massachusetts Bay, whither he is to conduct Mesr B Penn & Chew, the sum of 200."

In conformity to this resolution of the council, Governor Livingston wrote the President of Congress
as follows
:

That

Col.

as directed

is

Chamberlain made purchase of the flints shown by the following extract from the

Minutes of the council,


"

viz.
"

Princeton, October

4,

1777.

March

17, 1778.

"Sir,

The council a few days

ago was informed, but not

officially so,

that Mr. Penn, late Governor, and Mr. Chew, late chief justice, of Pennsylvania, with some others, had been removed to the Union, in the county

We are extremely and rank in life should have been sent into this State, which is nearly encircled by the enemy, to say nothing of our domestic foes. Wherever the enemy go, they never fail to make friends and abettors, or at least to call up such into active life in their favor as during their absence remained in a sort of inactivity. We have suffered extremely from persons under parole. A course of experience has fully convinced us that they have always tinctured the neighborhood in which they have been fixed with Toryism and disaffection. There is hardly a county in this State which is not at present exposed to the incursions of the enemy and therefore we submit it, whether it be
of Hunterdon, by order of the Hon. Board of War.
sorry that persons of their political caste
;

Agreed that Co Hathaway receive The Council met at Trenton. from M r Ogden at Boontown the 20,000 flints sent or to be sent into this State by M r Archibald Mercer from Boston (first paying to Ogden at Boontown for the cartage), A to be accountable for them when proporly
"
1
. .

called upon."

During the

fall

and winter of 1777 the Council of


is

Safety held two sessions at different places in what

now

the county of Hunterdon,

viz.,

at Pittstown,

They have an imperceptito send any suspected persons into it. and baleful influence even upon the well ^affected. We request, therefore, that the above gentlemen may be removed into some other Of all Jersey, the spot in which they are State as soon as possible. &t present is the very spot in which they ought not to be.* It has always been considerably disaffected, and still continues so notproper
ble

where it convened on the 16th of October and remained in session from day to day until the 24th, guarded by a detachment of soldiers under Lieut. Henry Young,J and at Bingo's from the 26th of December to the 1st of January, 1778, when it adjourned to meet at Springfield.

When

the news of the surrender of Burgoyne with

withstanding
ests,

all

our

efforts,

owing,

connections, and influence of Mr.

we imagine, in part, to the interJohn Allen, brother-in-law of

Mr. Penn, who is now with the enemy. Of this the Board of War must have been entirely ignorant, otherwise they would not have made such an order of removal. And we are willing to ascribe it to the hurry and multiplicity of their business that either the honorable the Congress or the Board of War should have selected any part of New Jersey as a prison for malcontents without first notifying the same to the executive power of the State. Nor can we persuade ourselves that they will have any objection against our removing the before -mentioned prisoners out of this State to such other parts of the country as Congress may think most fit for their Safety or, if they must remain in this State, to leave it to our direction in what particular locality they are likely to do the
;

army reached Paris, on the 4th of December, 1777, and was at once transmitted to Versailles, the king informed the American commissioners, through M. Gerard, one of his secretaries of state, that the independence of the United States would be acknowledged by France, and that the treaty of alliance and commerce between the two countries would be concluded. In accordance with the assurance given
his entire

by the monarch, that

treaty

was

finally ratified

on the

least mischief.f

6th of February, 1778, but it was not until the 1st of the following May that the glad intelligence reached

"I
"

am

your

oh't

and hum.

ser't

"Will: Livingston.
His Excellency John Hancock,
" Pres't of Congress."

Gen. Washington in his squalid winter quarters at Valley Forge. On the 7th of that month it was officially

announced

in general orders

in-chief to the

army amid great

by the commanderrejoicings, which

and the Govand it was ordered to remove County to the State Penn and Chew from Hunterdon of Massachusetts. Following are given extracts from the Minutes of the Council of Safety having reference to their removal

The

request of the Council of Safety


to,

ernor was acceded

"Monday, 24th November, 1777.


" The Council met at Princeton. Agreed That the officer who is to conduct John Penn & Benjamin Chew to Wooster [Worcester, Mass.] he directed to purchase in sonic of the New England States, for the use of
. . .

were followed by religious observances in the several commands. " Washington, with his lady and suite, Lord Stirling and his lady, with other general officers and ladies, attended the religious services of the Jersey brigade [Maxwell's], when the Rev. Mr. Hunter delivered a discourse. Afterwards all the officers of the army assembled and partook of a colWhen lation provided by the commander-in-chief. he took his leave there was universal huzzaing:

this State, 20,000 Flint*."

The Governor's

letter

and the resolution of the council, above quoted,

Long live General Washington P The huzzas continued until the general had proceeded a quarter of a mile, and a thousand hats were tossed in the air.
'

tions

imply that Toryism was more rampant in Hunterdon than in other porBut it is proper to remark that, while it is undoubt"i the State,

among the inhabitants of Hunterdon moro disaffection than was found among those of any other county (with perbaps the exception of Monmouth), yet there were among its people a very great number who maintained sentiments of the most unadulterated and
edly true that there existed

round and huzThis event marked the coming of almost the first ray of hope which pierced the gloom of Valley Forge, and it was not long after-

Washington with

his retinue turned

zaed several times.'^

wards that the campaign commenced which ended in


glory ami victory on the
field

exalted patriotism throughout the entire Revolutionary Btruggle, and that it was excelled by no county in New Jersey in the number and gallantry
"('

of

Monmouth.
# Loaning, vol,
ii.

the troope which

it

Bent

1<

the Held.
.;

tN.J.Bev.Corr.,pp,

101, 102.

Minutoa of the Council, pp. 147-254.

p.

HUNTERDON
<

A.ND
I

SOMERSET COUNTIES

IN

THE INVOLUTION".
in

llinton took comLltfa of May, sir 1. mij of the British army in Philadelphia as successor Sis instructions from England were of Gen. Howe. to evacuate Philadelphia, and this he determined
in

the

towards the Delaware

pursuit.
al

Passing through
Coryell's Ferry,

mand

Doylestown, Lee reached the river

and crossed into


of the 20th.

New Jersey On the same

at that

point in the night

night Washington,

on

doing on the 28d of May,* it being with the troops by water tention to proc
I

his
to

in-

followed with the remainder of the forces,


;it

who encamped

New

"S'i

>fk.

But, as he considered the probability thai the

Doylestown, and, resuming the inarch on the following day, crossed at Coryell's on the 22il.J From
'ory ell's

Beet might

be delayed

bj

bead-winds, thus enabling

Washington to reach New York before bim, he changed hi- plan, and decided t<> move hi- army to
thai city liy land across the State of

New

Jersey.

In

pursuance of thai plan he evacuated Philadelphia before daylight in the morning of the 18th of June, and bj ten o'clock in the forenoon bis entire army had the Delaware and landed at Gloucester Point. In the evening of the same day his forces encamped
i

;ii

and near Haddonfield, on the south Bide of

looper's

Creek, five miles southeast of Camden,


place they
ing

Prom

that

up the

ved on the following morning, marchDelaware, and nearly parallel with it.
in

the army moved over the highlands to Hopewhere Washington remained during the 28d. At that point he detached six hundred riflemen, under Morgan, to annoy the right Hank of the enemy, while .Maxwell and Dickinson wen- engaged in the Bame duty on his left. Lee's column had moved by a more southern route, by way of Pennington, and thence to Princeton. Washington's column, moving from Hopewell, also passed Princeton, and the entire- tones conIt had been the intention of centrated at Kingston. the British general to move to the Raritan and embark his troops al New Brunswick or Amboy, but when he found Washington almost in his fronl at Kingston, be
(

well,

They moved
Holly,
town.
of

three divisions,

one by way of Mount


the

turned

to the right,

taking the road leading to Free-

through Columbus, and one by BordenThis


last

hold and Sand] Hook.


sulted from the

division,

when near

mouth of

Crosswick's Creek, was attacked by three regiments

New

Jersey militia, under Col. Frederick Freling-

huysen, Col.

Van Dyke, and


:i

Col. Webster.
a loss

It

was

Inn a skirmish, resulting in

to

the

British of

Monmouth, which removements ahovc mentioned, it is not intended to give a detailed description, for it i~ matter of genera] history, and as such well known to all readers. On the rningof June 28th the British

Of

the battle and victory of

;l

lour killed and

greater

number wounded.
-

They

thru

moved

to Crosswick's, where they were again

attacked by the militia while the

were attempting to This they finally repair the bridge over the stream. succeeded undoing, and moved on towards Allentown. Maxwell's Jersey brigade had been detached from the
in:iin

army, under llinton, upied a strong position near Min lit li Court-house, and Gen. Washington was When approaching it. within some six miles of Clinton he learned thai the latter had abandoned his po1

sition
ceipl

and was moving towards the coast


of
this

On

re-

body of the American army, and was now cooperating with the Forces oJ Gen. Philemon Dickinson to obstrud and harass the British columns us much as possible, bul they were too weak to interfere
than by destroying bridges and obstructing roads before them. Clinton did nol
with their march others
ise

he ordered the armj to and sent directions to Lee, ho had the advance with about live thousand men. to use all possible -peed to C 6 Up with the enemy, and
intelligence

move on with

rapidity,

on

doiiiLr

so

to

attack
to

him "unless then-

are very

powerful reasons
the

the contrary," assuring him, at the main body would coin.' up


hi-

same time,

thai

attempt

to

an attack. mlaj town.


I

move rapidly, bul seemed rather to invite On the 24th of June his column reached
Brit-

a- rapidly a- pos-ilde to

support.

Washington

then pre ed on with the rear division of the army, bul after marching some Sve miles learned, to his
surprise

Washington had suspected the design of the


ish

and alarm,

thai

Lee, having only delivered

commander
it

to

move

his

forces bj

land to

New
rear

volley into the ranks of the

enemy, was

al-

was nol until Clinton's army was safely across the Delaware thai he became certain thai such I"\- soon as positive intelvement. would the e of the evacuation reached him he Benl Arnold with a small force to occupy Philadelphia, and in the afternoon of the 18th (the same daj on which the
York, bul
i,
I,,

ready retreating with

precipitation

directly on the
1

dm

thereby cau m.; imminent dan ;orcf

general panic

among

the forces.

Putting -pur-

to his

horee, the general-in-chief hastened towards the scene of disorder, and, meeting Lee, he sternly and severely

British crossed

into

New
1

Jersey), sis brigades,!

prising the divisions of


:i

and W;n ne, forming corps which was under command of Gen. Lee,t moved
In ene
"Ulstorj cf the OommonwoalUi of PounajrlYanla" lays l"l on Hi" 24th.
Qen, Ohnrli
.,

Washington a

an Congress as follows:

"Hi
I

ham

tha honooi

el am Don

In .i.-nwy.and

(p.

thattherj

LSS) t

ln,woproog toward!
Pi
1

who
03

ton, In

order

Bid

,,

Iho DrIUsli

u
'

changed in Mny, 1778. for G Barge, and wai rolnatatod w a ihlnj ton. an
i'

Joined Iho
:

nny
In

at Valloj

11.

no.
U W."

In

l"- old position

id

72

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


for his

reprimanded him*

shameful conduct and

or-

leaving Washington master of the

dered him instantly to turn back. He then dashed among the flying troops and succeeded in rallying

them, and induced them to re-form and face the enemy. This occurred between twelve and one o'clock in the day, and it was the turning-point in the conflict. Other troops soon came up Greene and Stirling and " Mad Anthony" Wayne interposed their divisions and became fiercely engaged and during the remaining hours of that hot and sultry Sabbath
; ;

field. Lossing remarks? that the result might have been a complete defeat for the British, and probably a surrender of their army, if Washington had brought into the battle

the corps of riflemen under the redoubtable Morgan.


"

For hours the

miles below

latter was at Richmond Mills, three Monmouth, awaiting orders, in an agony

of desire to engage in the battle, for he was within

sound of

its

fearful tumult.

To and

fro

he strode,

afternoon the battle raged at intervals with great fury

uncertain what course to pursue, and, like a hound in the leash, panting to be away to action. ... It appears

and with varying success, but in general favoring the Americans, until darkness closed over Monmouth Plain and ended the strife. The wearied soldiers of

probable that had he fallen on the British rear with


his fresh troops at the close of the day, Sir

Henry

Clinton and his army might have shared the fate of


the British at Saratoga."

Washington and Clinton

rested

rently waiting for the light of a

mence the
ish

struggle.

But

at about

on their arms, appanew day to recommidnight the Brit-

The New Jersey


Stirling

troops in the

commands

of Lord

and Gens. Dickinson and Maxwell


all

(in

which

columns moved away in the darkness, so silently that their flight was not detected by the Americans " With silent steps column until hours afterwards. after column left the camp and hurried towards Sandy Hook. So secret was the movement, and so deep the sleep of the patriots, that the troops of Gen. Poor, lying close by the enemy, were ignorant of their departure until at dawn they saw the deserted camp of the enemy. They had been gone more than three hours. Washington, considering the distance they had gained, the fatigue of his men, the extreme heat of the weather, and the deep sandy country, with but little water, deemed pursuit fruitless, and Sir Henry

were found nearly


mouth.

the soldiers from Somerset and

Hunterdon Counties) behaved most gallantly at MonDickinson (who was in command of the Jer-

sey militia, including the battalion of Col. Freling-

huysen) displayed the greatest bravery. He and the him were commended by Gen. Washington in his general order, of the day after the battle, in these words
troops under
this State are also thanked for opposing the enemy on their march from Philaand for the aid which they have given in embarrassing and impeding their motiouB so as to allow the Continental troops to come up with them."

"Gen. Dickinson and the militia of

their nobleness in
delphia,

The British army reached escaped. Sandy Hook on the 30th, where Lord Howe's fleet, having come round from the Delaware, was in readiness to convey them to New York."f The battle of Monmouth was one of the most severely contested of the conflicts of the Revolution, and
Clinton
. . .

Maxwell commanded the Jersey Brigade of Contiwhich behaved with great gallantry during the battle, and performed excellent service in annoying the enemy in his retreat to Sandy Hook, this brinentals,

gade, with Morgan's corps of riflemen, being sent for-

ward on
29th

this last-named

duty on the morning of the


discovered.

in

its

result has always

for the
fact

American arms. that the British army

been regarded as a victory! This view is sustained by the


stole

when the enemy's absence was


of Clinton's

away

in the darkness,

The departure
left

army from Sandy Hook

New

Jersey free from the presence of armed ene-

UBed very disrespectful language

* Lee answered Washington in a defiant manner, and after the batlle tu him in two letters (dated June 29th
30th).

and

For

this disrespect to the commander-in-chief, as also


viz.,

on two

other charges,

" Disobedience of orders in not attacking the

onemy

on the 28th
disorderly,

of June, agreeably to repeated instructions,"

and " Misbe-

havior before the

enemy on the

Banie day, by

making an unnecessary,

mies upon her soil, and the militiamen of the State were then allowed to return to their homes, to remain until some other exigency should require them to be again called to the field. The army of Washington was moved from Monmouth to and across the

and shameful retreat," he was tried by a court-rnartial convened on the 4th of July at New Brunswick. It consisted of Maj.-Gen. Lord Stirling (who wus the president), four brigadiers, and eight colonels. On the 8th of August their decision was rendered, finding him guilty on
all

tho charges, and sentencing him to be suspended from any and all
in

command
Gen. Lee

any
the

of the armies of the United

States for tho term of

twelve months.
left

This finding was approved by Congress, and thereupon

army and removed

to Philadelphia,

where he died four

years afterwards, never being again called into service. f Lossing.


J That Washington so regarded it is shown by tho following extract from his general ordor dated at Freehold on tho morning after tho

battle

"

Tho commander-in-chief congratulates the army on tho

victory

Hudson River, and took position in Westchester Co., N. Y., awaiting developments as to the intentions of the British commander, who was quartered in New York City. The headquarters of Washington were at White Plains, from which point he narrowly watched Gen. Clinton, suspecting it to be the design of the " Sir latter to move into the New England States. Henry gave currency to the reports that such were his intentions until Washington moved his headquarters to Fredericksburg, near the Connecticut line, and
eastern coast.

most and men who distinguished themselves upon this occasion, and such others as, by their good order and coolness, gave tho happiest presage of what might have been expocted had they come to action."
sincerely the gallant oliicers

obtained over the arms of His Britannic Majesty, and thanks

turned his attention decidedly to the protection of the Clinton then sent foraging-parties into

'

Field-Book of the Revolution,"

vol.

ii.

p. 3G4.

BUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


New
Jersey, and ravaged the whole country from the
i" the
.
1

IN

THE REVOLUTION.
..
t

7:5

door ami window

..f

the

Hudson

Raritan and beyond."*


thai

luge of a proper Bute,

and mot
1

wooden binges.

In

tin-

manner

imv

ir

soldiers without nail-, mi.

almost nithonl tooif ex< epl the axe


tin-

Finally, being convinced

the

enemy had no
resolved
to
arranged

provided forthelrofficeraand for themselves convenient


fortable quartern vdth little or
in straight

designs on
place bis

New England, Washington

no expense to

public
line,

The huts are


'

army in winter quarters at different points and in the most advantageous positions. This was done in December, 1778. The dispositions were made as
follows
:

village,

according to their
I

rank, the kitcheni in

tin- rear, an. I tin-

whole

is

similar in form
!

encam]
soldiers'
li

nt

Thi
f

of
an.
I

tile
Is

Five brigades were cantoned on the easl side

I""
tin-

b,

every

Ing swept clean for


tin-

pu
l-ythr

ti

:r

and

r..U.li-

of the Hudson; one brigade at West Point; oneal Smith's Cove, mar Baverstraw one at Elizabeth;

csll "i
M.I..I
,
l.
,

reepei

tlvi

".-nil

int. in.

ai.artiii.nl

l-.ur officers,
r.-.in, aii.l

town; and Beven brigades


1

al
;

and

in

the vicinity of

,,
..1

hi

..11.'

Middlebrook, Somerset "<>. the reserve artillery was What has usually been quartered at Pluckamin. tcrmcil the " camp al M iddlel.rook" was composed of
three distinct cantonments,
tin the smith side of the

tain t.n
<_
I

twelve
I

111. -ii.

with their cabins placed one shove the other


will,

dOSt
...

Hi'

wall- an.

lill-.l

-llaw.ali.l OUS

I.

lank,

fol

BBCh Ulan.
'

In.w

.n|.\ a lint

with .mi

li.l.l-'li"

a- Hr.'llt,

lieriweather."

Raritan River, west of the Millstone road, and south

"In Washington Valley," says


ea-t
ol'

Dr. Messier, "just

of the
lurai..
1

residence of the
the

late

John Garreteon, was


First,

the road a-

encampment

of the

Second, and

the level

up from the gorge In-lowto of the BUITOUnding country, artillery was


it

ri-e-

Seventeenth Regiments of Pennsylvania troops, formA smaller ing the division of Gen. Anthony Wayne.

placed, and a

fort

erected a

i\-w

hundred yard-

to the

cantonment was established along the


the gorjrc in wliieli
clear as to

hillside cast of
It

northwest, to defend their position from any attack by way of the opening of the valley at Pluckamin.

Chimnov

Itock

stands.

is

not

The remaindegree.

ment.
quite

who were One account


officers

the occupants of this encampStates that

they were marly or


\a

all

of the Beveral brigades, but this


largest

of this earthwork are still i-ililc in There was also along the old Raritan road, Id bridge Over tile ea-t of the road which cm-- e- tl Raritan River, a number of mechanic-shops, where
\

body of troops, in which was included the division of Gen. Greene, occupied a camping-ground on the northeast -lope of Mount Pleasant, on lands of Derick Van Veghten, between Chimney Rock and the site of the present village of Somerville. The ground on which the encampment was located was then coded with a very heavy growth of tiiulier. which is probably the reason why was -elected, for the forest would furnish tire-wood
improbable.
it

The

repairing of ambulances, shoeing of horses, and -itch other operation- ;i- an necessary in connection witli

encampment were done. camp-ground on Mount Pleasant, were on the land of Derick Van Veghten, -11 lie re. ..re m ami of course lie damage in hi- property
.imv and a
military
The-,- -hop-, as w
ell

as the

than any Other individual


land was
tor fuel,

in

the vicinity.

His woodit

and logs for the erection of huts for the soldiers, while such part of it as was aot felled for these purposes would form a very desirable protection against the
winter inds.
al

was used any other objects connected with the comfort of the troop-; hut he limv the damage like a That he ever received any compensation is nowhere affirmed in any document, or even in any
cut
for buildin<r the

down

hut-

and

for

tradition-

coming down
. . .

to u-

from the remembrances

For nearly two months after the arrival of the army this place the soldiers had only tint- to >licltcr

of these times.
just

The old Abraham Staats house,

them, but they were soon ael at work building cabins, which does not appear to have been accomplished by them with ah rapidity a- similar work was m war of the Rebellion, done b) the armies in the 1.
i
1 1

below Bound Brook, on the east Bide of the turnpike and near the river, in which I'.aroii Steiihen had
his

winter quarters in 177*

7:1.

fortable -tatc of preservation.


sian,

whose hoc nf

liberty

in a comHere that noble Prusinduced him to give the

-land- yet

February that the) were completed and occupied, a- appear- bj the following extract from Thatcher's " Military Journal," viz.:
for
it

was not

until

aid of hi- personal

influence to our

almost

fainting

cause, -hpt
Ion":

and thought and planned during those winter nights when hope had hardlv yet dawned
efforts tor
r

wry
1 1

[1779,]
ii"-

Having

upon the struggling


continued
utn
e

to

live

nndot
I >
1 1 i

of

w Intor, we

ml
Ighl w.-.-k.I

-_r

the time that the

American liberty." army remained at Mi.

1.

11c-

havo
in

constructing log huts, which atdength


tro

i-.Ui

..tti-

Washington and hi- lady occupied apartments which had hecn especially fitted up tor their
hr.nik.
t

leu.

now Linderc
In

Ibrtablo covering for thi

Ol

tllO

WlutOl
ten

with the trunks of trees eat


ths,
I

Intovorlou

Ut

Intended,

and are flnnlj conmet ( dovotalllng,

which

mltlea in the

The vacancies between


..t

tli

n with plastering
:

inn.

an.

1,0
1.v.

me

lot

h
1 1

sovered with

tilmnev, iltui
iinil.ii

ind

.if

tin.

house of Caleb Miller, good repair in the west part of the village of Somerville, near the place win- re the railroad crosses the road leading to Raritan vilupied at that time by the comUse in the then unfinished
i> still

standing and

in

butamalloi tlmbora, snd


1

botlt

Iho

Innerand

iverod w Itb

1.0

pin

mander-in-chief now remains in precisely the same condition in which it was when he left it. It w a- from
thi-

bouse that

till

his orders

ami dispatches dated

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


thus noticed in one of the public journals of the
it

" Headquarters, Middlebrook" were issued during the

was also in this house that he conceived and matured the plans for under command the expedition which, of Gen. Sullivan, moved from Easton, Pa., by way of Tioga Point, into the country of the Six Nations in 1779, and inflicted summary punishment on those tribes for their share in the atrocities of Wyoming and Cherry Valley. One of the orders issued by the commander-in-chief from these headquarters, and bearing date Feb. 6, 1779, was as follows
Lord Stirling* during
endeavor

winter and spring of 1778-79, and

time
"

The anniversary of our

alliance with France

was celebrated on the

18th ultimo at Pluckamin at a very elegant entertainment and display

"The commander-in-chief approves his command at


to preserve order

the order issued by Major-Gen.


the camp, and thanks

him

for the

and

discipline,

and the property of the farm-

camp. He doubts not but the officers of every rank, from a just sense of the importance of securing to others the blessings they themselves are contending for, will use their utmost vigilance to maintain those privileges and prevent abuses, and nothing can redound more to their personal honor and the reputation of their respective corps.
ers in the vicinity of the "

Alexander Scammix,
" Adjt.-Gen."

by Gen. Knox and the officers of the corps of artillery. It was postponed to this late dayf on account of the commanderin-chief being absent from the camp. Geu. Washington, the principal officers of the army, with Mrs. Washington, Mrs. Greene, Mrs. Knox, and the ladies and gentlemen of a large circuit round the camp, were of the company. Besides these, there was a vast concourse of spectators from every part of the Jerseys. " The barracks of the artillery are at a small distance from Pluckamin, on a piece of rising ground, which shows them to great advantage. The entertainment and ball were held at the academy J of the park. About four o'clock in the afternoon the celebration of the alliance was announced by the discharge of thirteen cannon, when the company assembled to a very elegant dinner. The room was spacious and the tables were prettily disposed, both as to prospect and convenience. The festivity was universal and the toasts descriptive of the happy event which had given certainty to our liberties, empire, and independence. In the evening was exhibited a very fine set of fireworks, conducted by Col. Stevens, arranged on the point of a temple one hundred feet in length and proportionately high. The temple showed thirteen arches, each displaying an illuminated painting. The centre arch was ornamented with a pediment larger than the others, and the whole edifice supported by a colonnade
of fireworks given of the Corinthian order.

But neither general orders nor the


officers

efforts

of the

[Here follows a description of the thirteen

proved effectual in preventing the depredations of the soldiery on the inhabitants, until finally the sternest repressive measures became necessary, and were adopted, as is shown by the following extract from Thatcher's "Military Journal," it being an account of a military execution which took place within the lines at this place for the crimes indicated,

illuminated paintings, with their accompanying mottoes.]

"When

the fireworks were finished, the company returned to the

academy and concluded the celebration by a very splendid ball. The whole was conducted in a style and manner that reflects great honor on
the task of the managers."

Thus, with something of

festivity,

but far more of

viz.:

"April 20 th [1779]. Five soldiers were conducted to the gallows, according to their sentence, for the crimes of desertion and robbing the inhabitants. A detachment of troops and a coneuurso of people formed a

around the gallows, and the criminals were brought in a cart sitWhile in this awful trembling on the verge of eternity, three of them received a pardon from the commander-in-chief, who is always tenderly disposed to spare the lives of his soldiers. They acknowledged the justice of their sentence and expressed their warmest thankful ness and gratitude for their merciful pardon. The two others were obliged to submit to their fate. One of them was accompanied to the fatal spot by an affectionate brother, which rendered the scene uncommonly distressing and forced tears of compassion from the eyeB of numerous spectators. They repeatedly embraced and kissed each other with all the fervor of brotherly love, and would not be separated until the executioner was obliged to perform his duty; when, with a flood of tears and mournful lamentations, they bade each other an eternal adieu, the criminal trembling under the horrors of an untimely and disgraceful death, and the brother overwhelmed with Borrow and anguish for one whom he held most dear."
circle

ting on their coffins and halters about their necks.

situation,

and army passed about six months of winter and spring in their encampments near Middlebrook and Pluckamin. That they remained there until June, 1779, is shown by a letter? written by Gen. Washington to Governor Livingston, dated in that month (but without day), at "Headquarters, Middlebrook." The army, however, left its winter quarters about the first of that month, and reached the Hudson on the 7th. Gen. Wayne moved from his encampprivation, if not of actual suffering, the officers

men

of the patriot

||

ment, south of the Raritan, to the Hudson, where, on the 15th of July, he stormed and captured the British
fortifications at

Stony Point. "

From

this time," says

Dr. Messier, "Somerset County ceased to be the, resting-place of armies fighting in the cause of liberty
;

and the
in one
is

foot of a British soldier trod

it

hasty visit (Col. Simcoe's raid in 1779),

no more except which

to be related."

The succeeding

operations of the

of the artillery brigade was located, as has been already mentioned, at Pluckamin, which was

The camp

American army during that year were carried on along


the

Hudson River above New York.

Gen. Knox; and there, on the 18th of February, was given, under the auspices
also the headquarters of

of that general and his subordinate officers of the artillery, a grand ball and supper, in celebration of the

anniversary of the signing of the treaty of alliance between France and the United States. The affair, which appears to have been a brilliant one, was
first
* Having reference to an order which had boon previously issued by Lord Stir Tif directing Unit strict attention be paid to a certain resolution
1 1

f The treaty of alliance was concluded on tho 6th of February, 1778 t which was of course tho day on which the anniversary celebration would havo taken place but for tho absence of the commander-in-chief. " Tho exact locality of tho academy tradition fixes on the oast sido X of tho village street, a short distance north of the late Boylan residence, and tho edge of the wood on the farm of tho late Dr. Henry Vauder'

veer."
g
||

Dr. Messier.
p. 172.

N. J. Rev. Corn,

"As

soon as Washington was advised of this movement (the passage

of tho British fleet

up the Hudson
lie

for tho

supposed purpose of attacking

tho forts in tho Highlands),


in

drow

his troops

from their cantonments

ol Congress:

That

all officers in

the

army of the United

States bo hereby

New

Jersey, and by rapid marches reached tho Clove on the 7th, with

strictly enjoined to see that tho

good and wholesome rules provided for the discontinuance of protaneneas and vice and the preservation of morals among the soldiers are duly and punctually observed."

five

brigades and two Carolina regiments,

ho
to

pressed forward to Smith's

Clove,

whence there weir mountain-passes


ho encamped.'
1

the forts in tho Highlands,


ii.

and

there,

Lowing^ Fwld-Book, vol.

p. -12.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


la the latter pari of Ictober, 1779, a party of British
(

IN

THE REVOLUTION.

75

troops

made

a foray into Somerset

County, penetrating

Setting out from BlizabethtOWn, the raiders proceeded to tjuihhlctown (afterwards known a- New

Millstone, doing a considerable amount of damage, and partialis accomplishing the object for which they came. This expedition is usually mentioned as ''Simcoe's raid," because tile exploit was performed by a force of men under command of LieutCol. Si i.ci,, of ill' British army. The account of it given below is drawn partly from Simcoe'a own report, and partly from a narrative of the affair written bj the late Hon. Ralph Voorhees,
as far as

Market without any notable incident except thecapofa prisoner. " Capt. Sanford'a men forme. the advance-guard, the hussars followed, andStewarfs men wen- in the rear, making, in the whole, ahont eighty. A Justice Crow was soon overtaken: Lieut.-CoL Simcoe accosted him roughly, called him 'Tory.' nor it" believe his excuse when, in the American se
t

ii

e.

ing,'

idiom for courtship, he said he had only been a-sparkbut sent him to the rear-guard, who, being
'

mand of ol. Simcoe on this men belonging t.> a somewhat celebrated corps known as the "Queen's Rangers," which was mostly made up of native Americans,
The
force tinder
i

expedition consisted of

Americans, easily iprehended their instructions and kept up the justice's belief that the party was a detachment from Washington's army. Many plantai

tion- were

now passed

by, the inhabitants of

which

Westchester Co., ticut. N. Y., and in neighboring portions of Com had assumed command of this body in Col. Simcoe
Tories, enlisted
into the corps
in

re

up.

and

whom
At

the party accosted with friendly


Lieut. -Col.

salutations.

Quibbletown,

Simcoe

and afterwards brought it up to excellent discipline and great ellieienex


1777,

a
.

condition of

had just quitted the advance-guard to speak to Lieut. Stewart.f when, from a public-house on the turn of
the road, some people
their

The strength of the force detailed from the " Uangers" lor this particular service was about eighty men, who,

came out with knapsacks on

shoulders, bearing the appearance of h rebel

embarking

guard.

at Billop's Point in the night of the 25th of October,

were landed
o'clock in the

at

Elizahethtow

Point at about three

morning of the L'r.th, when, the column having formed and moved out a short distant d the road, Simcoe announced to his officers the object of the expedition, which was to proceed swiftly to Van

till he had when, checking his horse to give notice, the hussars were reduced to a momentary halt opposite the se. Perceiving the supposed guard, they threw themselves oil' their horses, sword in hand, and

Capt. Sanford did not see them

pa ed

by,

Veghten's bridge over the Raritan (near the present railway-station of Finderne there to destroy a
,

number of flat-boats which Washington had left in the


river at

that point,

and, having done this, to cross


to Mill-tone,

Simcoe instantly made some thousand pounds of paper money which had been taken from a passenger, the master ofa privateer, nor could he stay to search for it. lie told the man 'that he would be answerable to give him his money that
entered the house.
I.ieiit.-( 'ol.

them

re

nut. but they tailed to discover

the river

and proceed

take the

Amwell

it till they eame to a house at a corner of a road diverging from it to the south and leading into tin- Princeton road running from that place to New Brunswick. Their object was thus to make a

road, and follow

night at Brunswick, where he should quarter,' exclaimed aloud to his party, 'that these were not the Tories they were in search of, although they had

around New I'.nin-w ick BO a- ! avoid Contact with any American troops that might he stationed in the vicinity of that town: hut after pa-sin
Circuit
,

knapsack-,' and told the country people who were assembling around 'that a party oi' Tories had made their escape from Sullivan's army, and were trying to

having arrived at the heights on which stood the "Grenadier Redoubt" which had
Brunswick, ami
i

intoStaten Island, as Cliff (who had been defeated near this very -pot. taken, and executed had formerly done, and that he was -cut to intercept them.' The
get
i

sight of

been built by the British during their occupancy of the place in 177ii ami 1777 the) were "to discover
,

.lust ice Ci-,,w would probably have aided in deceiving the inhabitants; but, unfortunately, a man

themselves"

to the

American

militia for the purpose

of inducing the latter to follow

them,

in

whicl

knew Lieut.-Col.8imi .and an express wa- -.in to Governor Livingston, then at I'.run.-wick. a- soon a- the party marched.
personally

they were to retreat to South River Bridge, which they were not to destTO] or to crOSS, hut to form an ambush near its western approach in which they were to l.e

"The

party was
fell

now conducted by a country


and
to

lad

whom

they

in with,
iii

whom

Capt. Sanford
|

being die e.l

red

and w

iihoiit

hi- ch.ak

had been

supported by a bodj of British infantry which had been ordered to that place, under command of Mai. Armstrong), for the purpose of entrapping ami, if
possible, capturing their
in brief,

introduced a- a French

officer.

He gave information

that the greater part of the bout-

American pursuers.

This,

was the general plan of the expedition.


1

had been -.lit on to Washington's camp, but that eighteen were at Van Vector's [Van Veghten's] bridge, ami that their about a mile from it. horses were ,i He led
:

; ,

f:

,i

the party
* Fifty boats hud d built, hj Washington!! ordera, on
iti"

to

an old camp of Washington's, above


.

Delaware,
>

ami haule
ltarltati.

across

Thoy waro intend

ogtoNev

were capable of carrying aoronty now remained at the bridge.

men

each

i\

dgoon tho fork, and third of them

t" Lieut Stewart wae anal aatTely known aa 'Tory Jim.'


whereaboul Boand Brook

inrtitan roralUt,

If hi

or Barltan, it

would

not

olaedaoybar* bean well fbr

him."Br,

7fi

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Lieut.-Col.

Bound Brook.*

Simcoe's

instructions

at the corner of the junction of the

Amwell road with

were to burn these huts, if possible, in order to give as wide an alarm to the Jerseys as he could. He found it impracticable to do -so, they not being joined in ranges, nor built of very combustible materials. He proceeded without delay to Bound Brook, whence he intended to carry off Col. Moyland; but he was not at Mr. Van Horn's.! Two officers who had been ill were there; their paroles were taken, and they ordered to mark sick quarters' over the room-door they inhabited, which was done and Mr. Van Horn was informed that the party was the advance-guard of the left column of the army which was commanded
'

the highway leading to the Princeton road, to take to


for was that which had stood at the place named, but had been burned two years before by the British. The guide which they had impressed at Quibbletown supposed he knew the place perfectly well, but he was ignorant of the fact that the house had been burned, and he therefore unwittingly led them astray. So they continued, in consequence of

the right.

The house they were looking

of Garret Voorhees,

this mistake, to follow the

Amwell road until they came within two miles of New Brunswick. " Alarm-guns were now heard, and some shots were
by one person, who, as
afterwards appeared, being out a shooting, and

by Gen. Birch, who meant to quarter that night at his house, and that Sir Henry Clinton was in full march
for

fired at the rear, particularly


it

Morristown with the army."

From Bound Brook the raiders proceeded rapidly to Van Veghten's bridge, where "Lieut.-Col. Simcoe
found eighteen new flat-boats upon carriages; they were full of water. He was determined effectually to Combustibles had been applied for, destroy them. and he received in consequence a few port-fires; every hussar had a hand-grenade, and several hatchets were brought with the party. The timbers of the boats were cut through, they were filled with straw and railing, and, some grenades being fastened in them, they were set on fire. Forty minutes were employed in this business. The country began to assemble in their rear, and, as Lieut.-Col. Simcoe went to the Dutch meeting,' where the harness and some stores were reported to be, a rifle-shot was fired at
'

hearing of the incursion, had sent word to Governor Livingston, who was at Brunswick, that he would
follow the party at a distance

and then give a

shot,

that he might

know which way they

directed their

march.
told the

women to inform
'

Passing by some houses, Lieut.-Col. Simcoe four or five people who were

pursuing the rear that if they fired another shot he would burn every house which he passed.' A man As the party or two were now slightly wounded. approached Brunswick, Lieut.-Col. Simcoe began to be anxious for the cross-road diverging from it into
the Princeton road which he meant to pursue, and which having once arrived at, he himself knew the

him from the

opposite

bank of the

river."

The

dis-

patch which had been sent to Governor Livingston at New Brunswick had had the desired effect. The Governor had sent out express-riders to alarm the country, and the people were preparing to give the

marauders a warm reception. The " Dutch meeting" mentioned in Simcoe's narrative was the old edifice of the church of Raritan, It stood on the north side of the river, built in 1721. This about six hundred yards below the bridge. church-building they burned, together with a few military stores which it contained. They then returned, crossed the bridge,

by-ways to the heights he wished to attain, where, having frequently done duty, he was minutely acquainted with every advantage and circumstance of the ground. His guide was perfectly confident that he was not yet arrived at it; and Lieut.-Col. Simcoe was in earnest conversation with him, and making the necessary inquiries, when a shot, at some little He distance, discovered there was a party in front. immediately galloped thither, and he sent back
Wright, his orderly sergeant, to acquaint Capt. Sanford that the shot had not been fired at the party,' when on the right at some distance he saw the railfence (which was very high on both sides of the narrow road between two woods) somewhat broken down and a man or two near it, when, putting his horse on
'

went

to Millstone,

and

the canter, he joined the advance

men

of the hussars,

there burned the Somerset County court-house:]: with

That building stood about twelve rods its contents. west of the present Millstone bridge. They burned also a house and shop belonging to Cornelius Lott (valued at six hundred and twenty pounds ten shillings and eleven pence), and at the same time a house and kitchen belonging to William Cox. From thence the troopers followed the Amwcll road towards New Brunswick, intending, when they should come to the house above mentioned as (supposed to be) standing
i

determining to pass through this opening, so as to avoid every ambuscade that might be laid for him, or attack, upon more equal terms, Col. Lee (whom he understood to be in the neighborhood, and appre-

hended might be opposed to him), or any other party, when he saw some men concealed behind logs and bushes between him and the opening he meant to pass through, and he heard the words 'Now, now!' and found himself, when he recovered his senses,
prisoner with the Americans, his horse being killed with five bullets, and himself stunned by the violence of his fall."

In.

of

lie

.im;i mi pui' ills >[ Wnslii


1

niton's

ni'iiiy

limine, the preeedhig

winter; nituaten on the hillwhle

eiint

of

Chimney Kuck.

f Col. Moyland bafjmarried a daughter of Philip Van Horn, andlt waa supposed he might ho found there on a visit to his wife. { October 27, 177'J.

An American party under command of Capt. Guest had formed an ambuscade, near De Mott's tavern, two miles west of New Brunswick, and upon the advance

BUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


of the British Bangers had fired upon them, killing the colonel's borse and taking Simcoe himself prisoner Thi remainder of the in the manner above stated.

IX

THE REVOLUTION.
Simcoe expedition, and the manner of
Ihe hand-

reference to the
its

execution

"This enterprise waa considered

party were pursued by the

Americans, one of
hi-

whom,
be th town
Point
t..

Oapt. Peter G. Voorhees,


of In-

in

zeal
to

advanced ahead
leap
a

South Amboy,

fifty-five
s

mil.-, in the course of the night

and

men, and
-

in

attempting

fence

at

morning, passing through


than eight or nine
mi.
I

m
nol

road, at

the head of

Town

lane, his

horse
Dfllos from the legion of Lee, which became Increased from the debilitate
'.

more
liis

became entangled, ami tin- British, on coming up, fell upon Hi in and hacked him must terribly with their Be was taken to New Brunswick, and died sabres.
there a few hours afterwards.
II'v.

i.i- lasi
i

point of danger,

condition to which
i-

..a

very extraordinary,

Lieut.-! ol
..I

'.

was

a brother-ini

Uie night, stopped at a de]

' "i
i

mragi

11

mtinontal

law-of Col.

John

Neilson, and
a
it

a- a

young man
in

about midnight, drov


usual vouchers, signing the
ivered by
I

waked up the commissary age, and gTe the


i
.

highly esteemed. Be was lar army, having entered

brave officer
at

the regu-

the

tmenci menl of

Hi.-

At the time of his death he was a captain the war. in the Firs! Regiment of New Jersey Continental
troops,

irps

nemo of the legion quartermaster without .mmi ary or libi assistants. American > ... woe theaame, green coatees and leathei

yet the snecen

of the stratagem was astonishing."

commanded

by

k>l.

'

tgden.

About the 20th of December,


into winter
<

1779, the

army went

Col.

Simcoe was concealed, during the nighl suc-

ceeding his capture, in a store-house in New Brunswick t" prevenl the enraged people from killing him in revenge for the cruel treatment which Voorhees

had received al the hands of the British troop-. Be was removed from thence to Burlington, where be remained a prisoner until exchanged.* After Simcoe was taken prisoner his demoralized eommand made all haste to reach the appointed rendezvous at South River bridge, where they found the e infantry, under Maj. Armstrong, who had c promptly up, as agreed, and had taken two American The Dr. Ryker and Mr. John Polhemus. ST8, pris advantages thej had gained by the expedition were hardly great enough to outweigh the loss of their leader, a result which rami' from their guid norance of the fact of the pre\ ions burning of ferret Voorhees' house. Otherwise they would have taken the circuitous route intended by them, would have probably arrived at South River in safety with their commander at their head, and might have succeeded in drawing the Americans into their ambush and capturing them, as contemplated in the original plan.

quarters,the northern division, under command of ten. Beath, locating on the east Bide of the Hudson below West Point, and the main body, No with the commander-in-chief, at Morristown. events of importance pertinent to the history of Somthe year urred in erset and Hunterdon Counties

which succeeded. The dispatches and orders of Washington during that time were dated from "Headquarters Morristown," "Headquarters Springfield," "Headquarters Rockaway," "Headquarters Ramapaugh," " Eeadquartersl Irangetovi a," " [eadquarters mar the Liberty Pole," and from several other plai -.
I

of supplies for the army, the slowness with which new troops were furnished by New Jersey, the necessity of imdate drafting, the hardships endured by officers
of these

Many

mention great

scarcitj

'

of

of the depreciation of rendered their pay insufficient the alarming c nditisn cf for thiir barest necessiti: the affairs of the country, and other similar su
the the currency, which
i,

army on account

During the year

(in

January, 1870)

Lord Stirling

commanded

partially successful expedition toStaten

In the

memoirs of

!ol.

Lee the celebrated


is

"

Lightin

Horse Harry") the following opinion

expressed

"When
;

ol

31

Iionov
-

to

tho ground and rendered Insonslble, Ja


lit

Scl

iman.of

flew Brunawlck, invod

life

by Ilinuting
to itab

il-H..
;

Ui

dierof the militia


..I

who sttomptod

him
I

no

mil
Ho,

in

student of medicine In
i

Jonathan Ford Morrie, aftei Now Brunawlck, blc


I

then h

lilm,

and odmlnl

res aa

could

btoinod
flo

Hi

tin a la!

mtoNi

bland; a British force of about five thousand men, under Gen. Cnyphausen, crossed (June 6th) fr Staten island to Blizabethtown Point, and a. Ivan towards the interior, but wasdriven back to the Point again, on the 23d of June, a larger force, under Sir Henry Clinton, advanced from the same place to Springfield and burned the town, but, being resolutely m.t by the Continental troops and the Jersey militia, deemed it prudent to retire, which he 'ii<l the Bame
1

and proporly carod

for,

recovered and wn
hta
<

nxlonhis

Qommand
Sno
r'a

again,

and was present with


1U'
r,

Ordinary, on Jann

Jurj
79,

sly, 1778,

uliy a'noal of Torlce,'ot


.I,,,, i,

and at Oyetoi Bay, Long Island, 1778 wh William Frank


H
to
lei

where Ihero was


a,

and crossed back to Staten Island. On the tth of July the ladies of Trenton met in thai town " for the purpose of promoting a subscription for the relief
day,

liter-

wnecl

thi

ilutl

Oanadn, and rote

Inquire

foi

Uie young

man who had

kindly an.

humanely assisted him ol DoMotl maolf, thanking him toDl Uor


ii.

cond Ume,
foi Ills attentions,

and

offering

hum

.in. hi
Ii

...

provided

ho

won Id

\i-n sd

him him In
Eng-

and encouragement of those brave men in the Continental army who. stimulated by example and regardless of danger, have so repeatedly Buffered, fought, and bled in the cause of virtue and their oppressed counand, taking into consideration the scattered situation of the well disposed throughout the state who
try,

Oanada, whl.

Di

Morris e
.i

nl with lereral t ulptu mural monu In Exeter Cathedral, executed bj Elaxman, the nunous Kngllih sculp-

land in 1806, and bos


tor."

would wish
ing, for the

to

I>r. .llirn/i.Mii

contribute to bo laudable an undertakpurpose of the convenience of such and

18

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Somerset and Hunterdon, though the points which they passed in their march through these counties are not precisely known. Crossing the Delaware at Trenton and the neighboring ferries in the morning of September 1st, the
armies marched on towards Philadelphia, which city they passed through on the 2d, and on the 14th of

the more effectually to carry their scheme into execution, unanimously appointed Mrs. Cox, Mrs. Dickinson, Mrs.

tee

Forman, and Miss Cadwallader a commitwhose duty it was immediately to open a subscription and correspond with the ladies, hereinafter named,
of the different counties throughout the State, requesting their aid and influence in the several districts,"
the ladies so
subscriptions.

named to form a committee to promote The committee for Hunterdon County

were Mrs. Vice-President Stevens, Mrs. Judge Smith, Mrs. Charles Cox, Mrs. R. Stevens, Mrs. Hanna, Mrs. Lowery, Mrs. I. Sexton, Mrs. B. Van Cleve, Mrs. Col. Berry, Mrs. Dr. Barnes; county of Somerset, Lady Stirling, Mrs. Gen. Morris, Mrs. Col. Martin, Mrs. Attorney-Gen. Paterson, Mrs. R. Stockton. In the same month (June, 1780) a large force of French troops arrived, under Gen. Count Rochambeau, to take the field as auxiliaries of the Americans, and to operate under the orders of Washington, who thereupon projected a joint attack on the British, in New York, but afterwards abandoned the project. On the Hudson the most notable events of the year were the culmination of Arnold's treason and the capture of the unfortunate Maj. Andre. Early in December the American army went
into winter quarters.

September reached Williamsburg, Va., from which point Washington and Rochambeau went on board the French flag-ship the " Ville de Paris," in the York River, and there, with the French admiral, Count de Grasse, concerted the plan of the campaign which ended in the surrender of Lord Cornwallis with his army at Yorktown on the 19th of October.

The march of Washington's forces from the Hudson on their way to Yorktown in August, 1781, was the last movement of an army across the territory of Somerset and Hunterdon Counties during the Revolutionary conflict, unless

we may count
and

as such the return

of the

New England
later, after

New

Jersey troops, a few

months

the surrender of Cornwallis ren-

dered their presence in Virginia no longer necessary. The commander-in-chief, however, passed this way several times afterwards before the close of the war,
the most memorable of these visits being made in the autumn of 1783, under the following-named circumstances The preliminary articles of the treaty of peace between the United States and Great Britain
:

In the summer of 1781 the American army and its French allies concentrated on the Hudson River, for the purpose, as it was understood, of making a combined attack on the British in the city of New York. They remained in the vicinity of Dobbs' Ferry for about six weeks, during which time Washington abandoned the project (if he ever entertained it seriously) of attacking the city, and resolved instead to moye
the armies to Virginia to operate against Cornwallis.

were signed on the 30th of November, 1782, the treaty The to take effect on the 20th of January following. cessation of hostilities was formally proclaimed on the

He, however, concealed

his

containing details of his pretended object to


against the city, intending that these should

new plan, and wrote letters move


fall

Then arose the question of how the army could be disbanded in safety, for Congress was without means to pay the soldiers, and there was, on that account, a general dissatisfaction among both officers and men, and this was accompanied, in some
19th of April.

into
as

the hands of Sir Henry Clinton.

The

result

was

by open threats of mutiny and violence. A band of Pennsylvania troops who had been discharged
quarters,

he had intended it to be. The letters were intercepted and taken to Clinton, who was completely deceived by them, and, continuing to watch the American force on the Hudson, failed to reinforce Cornwallis, as the latter had requested him to do. Meanwhile, Washington completed his preparations, and in the latter part of August crossed the Hudson at Verplanck's Point with the American and French armies, and marched rapidly across

at the expiration of their term of service without re-

became violent and and in spite of the remonstrances of from Lancaster thenl marched of their officers a body to Philadelphia with the avowed purpose of forcing
ceiving their full arrears of pay
insubordinate,

from the Continental Congress (which was then in

ses-

sion in that city) or from the Executive Council of the

New

Jersey to Trenton, some of the troops

State a redress of their grievances. There were only about eighty of the malcontents, but on their arrival
in Philadelphia, on the 20th of June, they were joined

[passing through the Ramapo valley and Morristown, and others passing the Ringwood Iron-Works. The French forces took the route by the Hackensack valley to Newark and Perth Amboy, at which place they

built ovens, constructed boats, collected forage,

and

by other soldiers in the barracks of the city, by which means the whole number was increased to about three hundred, and with this augmented force they moved to the State-House, where both the Congress and the
Council of the State were assembled. They proceeded at once to place guards at every door, and their leaders sent in a written message to the president and Council
of Pennsylvania, to the effect that if their demands were not acceded to within twenty minutes the infuriated soldiery would be marched into the building and

made other movements indicating an intention to move on New York; but these were suddenly abandoned, and the march was resumed to Trenton, where
significance of the

was aware of the movement. The American columns which took the upper route must have moved through
all flic

forces arrived before Clinton

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


ee upon both bodies.
ever, carried into execution,

IN

THE REVOLUTION.

The threat was not, howand the mutiny was finally

ivas
th,

issued

2d of

November,

from the headquarters at Rocky Hill on 17s.:. he referred to the procla<

quelled.

It

wa- more the State Council than Congress

that was the object of their resentment, but the

memfor to

bers of Congress considered that their body had been


grossly insulted,

having

been kept under duress

mation of longress of the 18th of Ictober applauding the armies for their virtue, fortitude, and magnanimity, giving them the thanks of the country for their long and faithful services, and ordering their
discharge from Bervice after the 3d "f November, and
said,
" It only remains for tin- commander-in-chief more, and that for the last time, ' Hi
to address
'

more than three hour-,

and they

at

once resolved

adjourn from Philadelphia to Princeton, N. .1. This was accordingly done, ami in pursuance of the resolution they

himself Once

convened

in

the

library-room of Nassau

idled stale- (how-

Hall, at Princeton, on the 26th of the same month. and continued there during the remainder of the Session.

ever widely dispersed the Individuals who composed them may bo), and to ill them an affectionate, a [ong,fareweli. But before the commander-inchief takeshi- limit leal
i

l.nr.

he u

i-li.s to

indulge
their (u-

removal to Princeton the president of Congress wrote to Gen. Washington, at Newburg-on-the-Hudaon, asking his attendance before that body to consult on the arrangements for peace, the disbatndment of the army, and other public.
after the

Some time

blmselfafow moments in calling to mind nslight review..! thepa-t; ho


will then take the liberty of exploring with his military
fri
i

turo proepecls,

of advising the general llnoof conduct which, in hisopinn


1

In-

will c

lu.ie

the
it

a.l.

lr.-- l.y

expressing

ii

he reels himself under for the

spit

.-.land aide assistance be


..nice.
.

has experienced from


I

them

in th.-

performance of an arduous
last

Leaving the army on the Hudson in command of Gen. Knox, he at once repaired to Prino ton and reported to Congress, when he was addressed bj the president, who congratulated him on the success Of the war in which he had acted SO prominent and
H-.

And, .eing now to conclude these his

leave in a short time of the military character,


to the armies be has so Long bad the honor again offer In their behalf hi

puMic orders, to tike his ultimate and to bid a final adieu


t.

command, he can only


nl

country
here,

hem

brilliant a part.

In this address he said,

"In other
praiso
is tin*-

nations

many have performed eminent


earvioes

services for

which

and may thechoioest of Heaven's ravore, both hen- and hereafter, attend innumerable blessthose who, under the Divine auspta With these wishes, .nil this benediction, the comings for others! ii. -chief is about to rotirc from the service. The curtain of soparailon will soon be drawn, aud the military se.ne, to him, will be closed

tic-- public. But to you, sir, |>eculiar have beoD essontial in acquiring and estaband independence of your country. They deserve the grateful acknowledgments of a tree ami Independent nation."

they liavo deserved the thanks of

Your

lishing the freedom

THE CURRENCY. The currency had become largely


dollar

depreciated.

The

To

this

address

the general

made

brief

and

modest reply, and then retired. Washington remained in attendance upon Congress until the early part of November, and during this time he occupied as headquarters a house which had

1777 was worth -even shillings ami sixpence, in 1780 passed for only threepence. have had the use of an obi list made a- a memoran-

which

in

We

dum

of this progress of the downfall of the. circulating


it

medium, and append

as a curiosity.

September,

been provided for his use at Rocky Hill, in Somerset County, some three or four miles from Princeton.! Berrien, located It was the residence of Judge John .He, ground about a quarter of a mile east of on the river, on the right hand of the road a- it ascends
i

1777, the Continental dollars

passed for seven shil-

lings and sixpence; October, ten shillings;


ber,

Novemlive
live

six

shillings

anil

threepence:

December,

li

shillings

from Rocky Hill < illage t<> the top of the hill towards nKingston. It i- -till -lauding, in much the sai dition that it was in tin' days of the Revolution, excepting that a veranda which formerly extended along been the entire south side of the building has -it
demolished.
Il

shiland eightpence; January, 1778, lings and twopence; February, four shillings and nee; March, four shillings and threepence: April, three shillings and nincpence; May, three shillings and threepence; June, two shillings ami

belonged to the estate

..f

the late

William Cruser for many years, and is now owned by occupied by WashDavid .1. Mount. Esq. The r ington as hi- headquarters ami office remains just as
>

tenpence; duly, two -hillings and sixpence; August, two shillings ami twopence September, one shilling and ten ami one-half pence: October, one -hilling and seven and one-halt' peine N. .\ ember, one shil;
;

he left was in

it,

this

and is kept room that

for
In-

inspection by visitOH
received
the

[1

commit Ices,

members of Congress, and other

dignitaries in con-

ferences on public affairs, and it was also in this room that he wrote his farewell orders and addr.-- to the

armies of the United States.

In that addre-.
i

which

When ho returned to Nowburg, and Ihonco, upon n R i >>ik bj the Uriii^h (November 25th moved his houdnuariore
i

to

thai city,

ami fourpence lea mber, one shilling and twopence; January, 177'J. one shilling; February, ten and one-half pence March, nincpence April, eightpence; -May. seven and one-half pence; June, six and one-third pence; .Inly, sixpence; August, five ami one-halfpence; September, fivepence; October, November, fourpen., four and one-half pence comber, three and one-half pence; January, 1780, threepence; February, threepence; March, two and one-halfpence; and up to the L8th of May. 17 so. ,,, and om-tenth pence, and then nothing. How the
ling
;

>,

f'Wohnve
Ington while
a

it

h.>
\

from tradition thai there wai a*-,. ... In the Tillage Princeton], attending upo

people managed,
I

in

such

a state of thing-, to

-dl or

room

In

Mm

Ho

traffic

at

all

i-

mystery, and
i-

JVinccf.'ii.

kept in the held

the armies were It i- only analmost a miracle.

how

80

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


" Ordered, That a representation and petition to the Legislature be drawn up pursuant to these resolutions and signed by the chairman, and

what is to be done Robert Morris' immense fortune was often the only confidence which floated the Continental currency and kept the armies in the field.
will be done."

other confirmation of the adage, "

that the representatives of this county be requested to lay the same before the respective house.

"Extracted from

tiie

minutes of proceedings and published by order.


"

Wm.

C.

Haston,

PATRIOTISM UNDER

WAR BURDENS.
at Mill-

" Chairman."

The following minutes of a public meeting

RECORD OF PROCESSES AGAINST FORFEITED


ESTATES IN SOMERSET,
1779.

stone, about July, 1779, are interesting as evidence of

the pressure of the burdens of the war, and the patriotic spirit in

which

it

was proposed
lost.,

to

meet them

"At a meeting
county,

of the electors of the County of Somerset, pursuant to


at the Court-House of said

but a sample of many of the inquisitions of the courts of both Hunterdon and Somerset Counties during the Revolutionary period

The

following

is

notice by advertisement on Thursday, 3d

"Somerset,

to wit.

The

State of

New

Jersey to Jacob Berger, Frederick

"The

business of the meeting being introduced and discussed, the

fol-

Frelinghuysen, and Hendrick "Willson, commissioners duly appointed


for said

lowing resolutions were adopted: " Wttereas, The concurrence of a variety of causes, the bills of credit emitted under authority of the United States in Congress assembled, have
greatly depreciated in their value, and in addition to the quantity circulating will tend to increase such depreciation; therefore

county on the part and behalf of the said State


to

to

take and dis-

pose of for the use and benefit of the same, the estates of certain fugitives

and offenders in the said county, or


" Whereas, Lately, that
is to

any two or more of them, greet-

say of the term of January, in the year of

"Resolved, That a petition be presented to the Legislature, requesting

our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine, in the Court of

them

to

make

application to Congress

on behalf

of this State, that the

Common

Pleas held at Hillsborough, in and for said county of Somerset,

emission of

bills of credit

be henceforth discontinued.

before the judges of the same court, find


in favour of the said State of

That the Legislature be requested to make application as and recommended for a general limitation of prices throughout the United States, according to which such prices may be diminished slowly from the present time or at stated periods and by small differences, until the quantity of money be reduced by taxation to what is necessary for a circulating medium. "And whereas, Taxation is the most natural and beneficial source from which to derive the supplies necessary for supporting the army and carrying on the war, "Resolved, That the Legislature be requested to make application as aforesaid that requisitions of taxes be henceforward made on the States for the above purposes; and that to avoid as far as possible the expenso of purchasing in the modes hitherto practiced, and the necessity of such large circulations of money through the public treasury, a just quota of provisions, forage, and other necessaries for the army be laid upon each
aforesaid, that a plan be adopted

" Resolved,

New Jersey,

judgment was had and entered pursuant to Law, against Rich-

ard Compton, Junior, late of the county of Somerset, on an inquisition

found against the said Richard Compton for joining the army of the King of Great Britain & returned to the said court, as may fully appear of record; you are therefore commanded and enjoined
dispose of all and singular the lands, tenements,
fee or for
to sell

and

& Hereditaments held in

term of life, and generally all the estate real, of what nature or kind soever, belonging or lately belonging to the said Richard Compton, within the said county of Somerset, according to the direction of an Act for forfeiting to and vesting in the State of New Jersey the real estate of certain Fugitives & Offenders, made and passed the eleventh day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and
seventy -eight.

"Witness, Peter Schenk, Esq

ough, the

first

Judge of the said Court, at HillsborTuesday of January, in the year of our Lord [one thou1",

State in such kind as they are severally suited to produce, to be paid in

sand]* seven hundred

&

seventy-nine.
"

the

way of tax

at regulated prices

by those who

raise

them, while those

By

the court,
"

who

do not, pay a fair proportion in money.


it

Frelinqhuysen,
l

"Resolved, That

be expressed to the Legislature as the sense of this

Clk.

meeting that on levying all future- taxes and aids for the use of the State and Union in general, the assessments be made according to the value of all property possessed by each individual, it being reasonable that persons
should be taxed for their money, their income, the faculty and means of acquiring property, or for any estate whatsoever.
" Wltereas, There
is

"Recorded April

1,

1779.'

great reason to believe that

many

persons em-

ployed in various branches of the public department of the United States are guilty of mismanagement and fraud in the execution of their trust

CHAPTER
Continental Troops, First Establishment

VII.

and applying the public money, and there being no ready and regular mode presented by public authority, of which sucii as are disposed may avail themselves, to furnish the necessary information to those who have the power to correct such abuses and thereby prevent unnecessary increase of the public burdens,

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES IN THE REVOLUTION (Continued).


Second EstablishmentThe Recruiting-Officers and Muster-Masters Regiments Officers Militia The Quotas of the Two Counties " Minute-Men Roster of Field- and Stall-Officers Roster of Rev"Jersey Line"
raised,

"Resolved, That the Legislature he requested to direct


nient and adequate
to such

some conve-

and Their
1 '

means of collecting and transmitting to Congress, or Hoard or Committee by them appointed as may be adequate in
executive power of the State in cases
is

olutionary Soldiers from these Counties,


tia,

who

served in the State Mili-

point, of jurisdiction, or to the

and Continental Army.

where that
<an
In-

competent,

all

such authentic evidences and documents as

procured, that the guilty

may

bo punished and the faithful ser-

vants of the public

may

be rescued from that Indiscriminate censure


all,

TROOPS FURNISHED BY THE TWO COUNTIES DURING THE WAR.

which the bad ami unworthy bring upon

and that we will exert our

utmost endeavors for effecting so laudable a purpose. " Whereas, Virtue and good morals are not only productive of individual
happiness, but have a great ami extensive good effect upon the political

The

first

Continental troops of the "Jersey Line,"

raised in 1775, were two battalions, designated the

government when they are cultivated, wo will by our example and influonco endeavor to promote theeo, and will look upon It as the course of duty to support and strengthen the nrm of the civil authority in detecting ami bringing to deserved punishmenl all such aa are guilty of profanity, immorality, extravagance, Idleness and dissipation, of extortion, sharping and oppresstate of every

"Resolved, That

Eastern and Western, and subsequently the First and Second, Battalions. The First was commanded by Col. William Alexander (Lord Stirling), and, after

promotion to be brigadier-general, by Lieut.-Col. William Winds, who was raised to the rank of colohis
*

sion, a ml of all such practices as tend to the unjust

advantage of individ-

uals and detriment of the community.

clerical error.

Ill

NTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


bj

l\

THE REVOLUTION.

-1

ml

the

Second

Col.

William

Maxwell.

The
In

of four battalions, Somerset sent two companies, terdon tour.

Hun-

following year a third battalion was added, which was


placed under the

Of

the battalion, comprising

thi

command of Col.
-

Eliaa Dayton.
I

the

fall

of this year

776

a "

secon

establishment"

companies and two from Sussex, David Chambers was colonel, Jacob West lieutenant-colonel, and Enos
Kelsey major.

of troops from

New

Jersey

for

the Continental

army

was made, embracing four battalions, commanded by Iglols. Silas Newcomb succeeded bj !ol. Matthias den), Isaac Shreve, Blias Dayton, and Ephraim Mar" Maxwell's Brigade," tin. These formed commanded b] Gen. (late colonel] William Maxwell. A new arrangement of the American arm] was effected in 1778, under which, and during the campaign of 1779, the " Jersey Line" embraced three battalions. Feb. 9, 1780, Congress called upon this Stati for sixn to supply the defiteen hundred and twentj in which Volunteers were called for, large bounties offered, and recruiting-officers appointed for the several counties, those for Hunterdon and Bomereet being Capt. John Mott and Capt. Nathaniel Porter, the quota of Hunterdon being eighty-four, and of Somerset fifty-four men. The " muster-masters" were Maj. Joseph Brearley for Hunterdon County, and Col. Frederick Frelinghuysen for Somerset. Thi three regiments thus raised were commanded by lols. Matthias Ogden, Isaac Shreve, and Elias Dayton, respectively. Each regimenl contained six companies, :iml they were commanded as follows First Regiment. Capte. Jonathan Forman, John Flahaven, Giles Mead, Alexander Mitchell, Peter G. Voorhees, and John [olmes. Second Reginu nt. Capts. John Hollingshead, John
<
<
I

Under

the call of Oct.


in

9,

1779, for four


I

thousand
.20,
177'.',

volunteers to continue

service until

one regiment of ten companies was raised in Somerset, Sussex, Morris, and Bergen, and another regiment of equal size in Hunterdon and Burlington Counties. Other calls were made, viz., June 7th and 14th, for six hundred and twenty-four men each, whqse term was to expire Jan. I, 1781 and Dec. 26, 1.780, for eight hundred and twenty-four men. whose term was

to expire Jan. 1. 1782; Dec. 29, 1781, (bur hundred ami twenty-two mi a, for service until Dec, 15, 1782. On June 3, 177".. the Provincial Congress of New

Jersey passed an act providing a " plan for regulating This plan was -till further thi militia of the colony."
considered and amended
i.ug.
L6,

L775.

After that

<

were ordered to be commissioned by the Provincial Congress or the Committee of Safety. In the assignment then ordered Hunterdon had four and Somerset two regiments. " Minute-men" having been raised in Somerset and two other counties, in obedience to the recommendation of Continental Congress, this ordinance [of Aug. 1775] ordered the several counties to furnish them, ranging from one to
date
all officers
<
1 * .

eight companies each, the

assignment

for

Somerset

being five, and for Hunterdon eight companies, being one-sixth of the number raised in the whole State.

\. Cumming, Samuel Reading, Nathaniel Bowman, Jonathan Phillips, and William Helms. Third Regiment. -Capts. John Ross, William Gifford, Richard Cox, Jeremiah Ballard, Joseph I. Anderson, and Bateman Lloyd. Gen. Maxwell continued t<> command the Jersey Brigade until July, 1780, when he resigned, and was

These companies of "minute-men" were "held


constant readiness, on the shortest notice, to

in to

march

any place here assistance might be required, for the They defense of this or any neighboring colony." were to continue in Bervice four month-. Their uniform was
a

hunting-frock, similar to that of the


I

rifle-

men

in

the

Sontinental service.

succeeded by Col. Elias Dayton, as senior

officer,

who

commanded the same until the close of the war. The news of the cessation of hostilities was announced in the camp of the brigade April 19, 1788, and the Jersey Line was discharged November 8d of
thai year.

Ml

1.1

\.

At various times during the


reason of
it-

war New

Jersey, by

In February, 1776, the Committee of Safety of NewYork called upon the Provincial Congress foradetachment of militia to assist in arresting Tories in Queens k>., L. L, and Staten Island, N. V. Of the .-even hundred men ordered out for that purpose, SomAnother <i<-erset County furnished one hundred. taehment of minute-men was ordered, Feb. 15, 77<>. to proceed to New York. This was commanded by Mark Thompson, lieutenCharles Stewart, colonel
t

being continual!} exposed to the incurnecessary to

ant-colonel;

Frederick

Frelinghuysen,

first

major;

sions of the British and the ravages of refugees and


Indians, found
it

embody,

as occasion

required, a certain quota of volunteers from the militia

of the different counties.

These men were held


not only in this but
in

liable tn duty

when needed,

adjoining States.

"New

These organizations were called Jersey Levies," "Five Months' Levies," but

and Thomas Henderson, second major. Feb. -'.'. 1776, the remnants of the minute-men were incorporated in the militia of the districts where tiny resided. June '!. 1776, the Continental Congress called for thirteen thousand eight hundred militia, the quota of New Jersey being three thousand three hundred. Hunterdon and Somerset furnished one of the five

most generally designated as " State Troops."


ing

Hun-

terdon and Somerset Counties furnished the follow:

Under the

act,

passed Nov. 27, L776, for the raising

compaand three companies from the last-named county. The battalion was commanded by Stephen Hunt, colonel Philip Johnson,
nies from the first-named
;

battalions required, in the proportion of five

82

HUNTEEDOX AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


and CorSecond Maj. Daniel McDonald. Second Maj. (promoted from first lieutenant and captain) George Holcomb. Adj t. David Bishop.

lieutenant-colonel; Joseph Phillips, major;


nelius Baldwin, surgeon.*

July
of

16, 1776,

Congress requested the Convention

New

Jersey to supply with militia the places of


Col.

FOURTH REGIMENT.
John Mehelm.
(promoted from captain, second major, and lieutenant-colonel) John
Taylor.
Lieut.-Col. (promoted
Col.

two thousand men of Gen. Washington's army who had been ordered into New Jersey to form the FlyingCamp. Of the thirty companies of sixty-four men each, furnished under this call, Somerset provided two and Hunterdon four companies, which, with two from Sussex, comprised one of the four battalions, and its officers were Mark Thompson, colonel; Abraham Bonnellj lieutenant-colonel Enos Kelsey, major and Jacob Jennings, surgeon. April 14, 1778, the militia was divided into two brigades, that of Somerset being in the first and that of Hunterdon in the second. Jan. 8, 1781, it was formed into three brigades. During the war several companies of artillery and troops of horse were raised. "The good service performed by the militia is fully
; ;

from captain and

first

First Maj. (promoted from second major)

major) John Teobrook. John Stevens, Jr.

First Maj. (promoted from captain) Godfrey Kinehart.

Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Ebenezer Berry. Surgeon Oliver Barnet.J

SOMERSET COUNTY.
FIRST BATTALION.
William Alexander (Lord Stirling). (promoted from captain) Stephen Hunt. Col. (promoted from captain) Frederick Frelinghuysen. Col. (promoted from lieutenant-colonel) Abraham Ten Eyck. Lieut.-Col. (promoted from second major) Derrick Middah. First Maj. (promoted from captain) James Linn. Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Richard McDonald. Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Thomas Hall.
Col. Col.

recorded in history.

At

the

fights

at

Quinton's

Bridge, Hancock's Bridge, Three Rivers, Connecticut


Col.

SECOND BATTALION.
Col.

Farms, and

Van

Neste's

Mills they bore an active

Abraham Quick. Hendrick Van Dike.


from from
first

Long Island, Trenton, Assanpink, Princeton, Germantown, Springfield, and Monmouth they performed efficient service in supporting the Continental Line."f The field- and staff-officers of the militia regiments of these counties were as follows
part, while at the battles of

Lieut.-Col. {promoted Lieut.-Col. (promoted

major) Benjamin Baird.


major) Peter D. Vroom.

first

First Maj. (promoted from second major) William Verbryck. First Maj. (promoted from captain) William Baird.

Second Maj. Enos Kelsey. Second Maj. (pro. from captain) Abraham Nevius.

The following
State troops,

is

list

of those from the county of

HUNTERDON COUNTY.
FIRST REGIMENT.
Col. Isaac Smith. Col. (promoted

Hunterdon who served


war \\

either in the Continental army,

or militia during the Revolutionary

from

first

major) Joseph Phillips.

Joseph Beavers, colonel Second Regiment.

Lieut.-Col.

Abraham Hunt.
Houghton.

Lieut.-Col. (promoted from captain) Jacob

David Chambers, colonel Third Regiment, June 19,1776; colonel battalion State troops, Nov. 27, 1776 colonel Second Regiment, Sept.
;

First Maj.

Ephraim Anderson.

9,

1777

resigned

May

28, 1779.

First Maj. (promoted from captain) Joseph Brearley.

Second Maj. Isaac De Cou. Second Maj. (pro. from first lieut. and captain) Benjamin Van Cleve. Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Henry Phillips.
Adjt. Elias Phillips.

George Ely, captain Second Regiment; lieutenant-colonel Third Regiment, June 21, 1781; also colonel. Nathaniel Hunt, colonel Second Regiment; resigned; also paymaster
militia.

Thomas Lowrey,

lieutenant-colonel Third Regiment,

June

19,

1776

also

SECOND REGIMENT.
Col. Nathaniel

colonel Third Regiment.

Hunt.
Bonnell.

John Mehelm, quartermaster and paymaster


colonel Fourth Regiment; resigned

staff

Brig.-Gen. Dickinson;
;

Col. Joseph Beavers.

May

15, 1777

colonel

and quar-

Lieut.-Col. Lieut.-Col.

Abraham

William Chamberlain. First Maj. Nathaniel Pettit.


First Maj, Cornelius Stout.

termaster-general, statT Maj.-Geu. Dickinson. Joseph Phillips, major Col. Hunt's battalion, " Heard's brigade," June 14, 1776; lieutenant-colonel Johnson's battalion, Aug. 1, 1776; col-

onel

ditto, Sept. 20,

1776

first

major First Regiment; colonel

ditto,

First Maj. (promoted from second major) David Bishop.

March

15, 1777.

Second Maj. Garret Albertson, Second Maj. David Jones. Second Maj. Cornelius Carhart. Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Samuel Growondyck. Adjt. John Schank.
Quartermaster Reading Howell.

Isaac Smith, colonel First Regiment; resigned, Feb. 15, 1777, to accept

appointment as justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. Charles Stewart, colonel battalion " Miuute-Mcn," Feb. 15, 1776; also
commissary-general.

John Taylor, captain Col. Neilson's battalion, "Minute-Men;" captain Fourth Regiment; second major ditto, Oct. 28, 1775; major Read's
%

Surgeon Gerahom Craven.

THIRD REGIMENT.
David Chambers. Col. (promoted from lieutenant-colonel) Thomas Lowroy, Col. (promoted from lieutenant-colonel) George Ely. First Maj. (promoted from second major) Cornelius Stout.
Col.

{J

ister of the Officers

See sketch in medical chapter. These rostors have been carefully compiled from the "Official Regand Men of New Jersey in the Revolutionary War,"

* Col. Hunt resigned, and Lieut.-Col. Johnson was promoted to colonel and subsequently killed, when Lieut.-Col. Phillips (promoted from major) became colonel, and Capt. Piatt Bayles wa promoted to be major. f "Officers and Men of Now Jersey in the Revolutionary War," W. S, Stryker, p. 338.

by Adjt.-Gun. William S. Stryker, published by authority of the LegislaIn its preparation the pension-lists of the government, the Minutes of the Congress of the United States, and of the Legislature and Council of Safety of Now Jersey, records of the War Department, as well as original manuscripts, rolls of companies of Continental troops,
ture, in 1872.
diaries of officers,

paymasters' memoranda,

quartermasters'

reports,

treasurers'
faithfully

receipts,

examined and compared.

"roturns" to the commander-in-chief, etc., wore It is the only oxtonsive and well-

authonticated record of the kind that has yet been published.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


battalion of State troops, Not. 27, 1770; lieutenant-colonel Fourth
17, 1777; oolonal ditto, May &, 1777; colonel regiment of State troo]*, 0d Abraham Bonnell, lieutenant-colonel Thirl Regiment; lieutenant-col-

IX

THE REVOLUTION.

83

William Covenhoven, captain.


Doremus, captain.

Regiment, Feb.

.iment
pi Third Regiment; pro. to captain

1 onal Thompson's battalion " Detached Militia,* July 1-,

177-"..

William Chamberlain,
cashiered

lieu ie nan t-colunel

Second

It. -giiuent,

May

14, 17-1

Joab Houghton, captain


13,

First

Regiment; lieutenant-colonel

ditto,

March
9,

1777; lieuteuaut-wluuul Taylor's regiment, State troops, Oct.


lieutenant-colonel First Regiment; resigned.
;

Moees Esty, captain ; also captain in State troops. Jacob Gearhart, sergeant Second Regiment; pro. to ensign and captain. William <;> arhart, captain Second Regiment lent; pro. to captain, ditto. Jacob Clashiirt, <].James Gray, captain Second Regiment; prisoner of war.
.

1779.

Abraham Hunt,

Philip Johnston, lieutenant-colonel

pro. to colonel

Aug.

1,

1776

killed

George Green, captain First Reginiv<>t. Ralph Guild, captain Fir-t Regiment, Hay Henrj Qullck, eaptaln Second Regiment
Hall, ca[
I

10, 1777.

at battle of Long Inland. John Tenbrook, captain " Minute-Men

"t.
*,

;"

fir-t

major Fourth Regiment,

Charles Harrison, captain; resigned -Tuly

1770.

Feb.

1,

1777; lieutenant-colonel ditto.

Bunt

Albortson, second major Second Regiment; com. cancelled; reFirst Regiment; resigned, commission as adjutant Second Battalion, First EstablishI

moved from county. Ephraim Anderson, first major


to accept

Iment Cornelius Hoppoek, captain Third Regiment Joseph Howard, captain.


-

Adam H

Hull, captain Fourth


J..}.

Regiment
17, 1776,

Hum,

captain First Regiment, June


I

ment
1778.

Continental Line.
;

Ebeiie/er Berry, captain Fourth Regiment

second major ditto, April 25,

William E. army.

inlay, captain

Third Regiment; also captain Continental

David Bishop, adjutant Third Regiment; second major Second Regiment; flrt major ditto. Joeeph Brearloy, captain " Minute-Men;" first major First Regiment; captain Continental army. Cornelius Car hart, captain Third Regiment second major Second Regiment, April 20. 1778, Isaac Do Con, second major First Regiment resigned July 5, 1776, Ion, captain First Regiment; captain Fomian's battalion, Heards brigade, June 14,1776; brigadier- major ditto, Jul. also major and quartermaster guartemia.*ter-Generars Department. Samuel Growendyck, captain Second Regiment second major ditto, Oct. 7, 1778; major Stale troops. onib, rir>t lieutenant Phillips* company, Third Regiment; pro. to captain; pro. to major, Jane 21 David June*, ensign Third Regiment; pro. to captain; second major Second Regiment. M Donald, second major Third Regiment; resigned July 24,
;
;

Christopher Johnson, captain Third Regiment OonMllns Johnson, captain Second Regiment
|

inson, captain.

James Johnson, captain.


Francis Kruser, captain. Cornelius Laue, captain Fourth Regiment.
Lucas, captain.
Maitland, captain.
ttedler, captain

Third Regiment.

m. .aptain First
.t.ii
;

Regiment; al*> captain Continental army;


,t

battle "f

Trenton.

Albert Opdyckc, captain Second lU-giment

John Peck, captain; also lieutenant Continental army. Henry Phillips, captain First Regiment John Phillips, .aptain Third Regiment Jonathan Phillips, captain Fourth Regiment; also captain Continental
army.
Philip Phillips, captain Fir>t Regiment,

Ma>

Charles Reading, lieutenant Third Regiment; pro. to captain; captain

Nathan ml Pettit, first major Second Regiment; com. cancelled; removed from county. Henry Chilli;-, .aptain First Regiment, May 10,1777; second major,
Nov.
1.1,

first

Regiment

John Reed, captain Fourth Regiment; also ensign Continental Army. Andrew Rsedar, private Capt Motfe company, First Regiment; pro. to
ensign,
;

1777.

and captain.
to captain.

Godfrey Rinohart, captain Fourth Regiment; pro. to first ma 1778; resigned, Nov. 6, 1779, to become member of Assembly.

.amp, lieutenant Fourth Regiment; pro. to captain,


;

John Steven*,
first

Jr.,

second

<

1.

1777; pro. to

major; resigned April 18, 1778. Cornelius Stoat, second major Third Regiment, June 19, 1776; first major Second Ragtment, 8ept 19, 1777; first major Third Regiment, June
10, 177.1;

John Schenck, lieutenant Third Regiment pro. John Sherrard, captain Third Regiment Ryncar Smock, captain. Philip Snook, .aptain First Regiment; wounded
. ;

in the thigh at the bat-

osabiered Haj

14,

178L

Jane 28, 1778 -aptain Third Regiment William Snowden, captain Third Regiment
Stanton, captain.

Benjamin Van Clove, first li.ut.rmnt First Regiment; pro. to captain ditto, Capt Johnson's battalion. Heard1! brigade, June 14, 177.; second major First Regiment, March 16, 1777; resigned, Nov. 13, 1777, tu become a member of Assembly.
Ellas Phillips, adjutant first

James

Richard Stilwell, captain Fourth Regiment Stout, lieutenant (apt Maxwell's company, Second Regiment;
captain Third Reg
Mar. b 10, 1826, aged seventy-eight jean).

Regiment
'

John Schanck, adjut l 3 Reading Howell, quarterm

1777.

Samnsl

Stoat, captain Third

it-

.-iment
.

.iment.
rj Phillips'

Oliver Barnet, surgeon Fourth Regiment, F -b. 14, 1776.

company, First
also captain

Gershom Craven, surgoou Second Regiment


leraon, lieutenant; pro. to captain.

1777; pro. to captain.


19, 1776;

WDliam
June
14, 1776; also

Tucker, captain First Regiment, June


.

John Anderson, captain Capt Johnson's captain in Continental army.


Jacob Beatson, captain.
Daniel Mi
iv.
<

battalion,

Banna

Albert DpdUta,

-unent
Fourth Baglment, Feb. it, 177*. Capt Tucker's company. First Regiment
li-utenant.

Bdward B
od Regiment; pro. to captain ditto.

Isaiah Yard, second lieutenant

Halhanial

lamp,

<

aptain.

June

19,

1778; pro. to

iir>t

May

10,

1777; pro. to captain.

Jacob Carhaii, captain Second Regiment


Israel Carle, captain troop light-horse,

H. Bailey, lieutenant Ssjeond Btgtmtnt


6,

Oct

1777.

Barton, Until

-iment.*

Cline, captain Second Regiment Joseph Cliinu. ensign Capt Tu. kert company, Fint Keglmsnt, Jnne

Isaac Basset, lieutenant Third Regiment.


19,

Burroughs, ensign First Regiment,

May

1",

1777

pro. to lieu-

1776; pro. to second lieutenant, tfaj 10, 1777; pro. to captain; also

tenant
Garter, lieutenant Capt. Johnson's
.

captain State troops.

company, Thiid Regiment

Jonathan Obmos, captain.

iment
rshon, captain Third Regiment; resigned Feb. 17, 1776, disability.
irjall, -'aptain.

H 1781. Elihu Chadwiv-k, ensign Seoond Regiment; pro. to lieutenant

Richard Corwine, nontenant (apt. Phillip*' >-.<mpany, Third Regiment James Crawford, lieutenant Fourth U
[bird

Regiment

84

HUNTERDON AND SOMEKSET COUNTIES, NEW JEKSEY.


Gordon, lieutenant Second Regiment.

Hayman, lieutenant. Abraham Hogeland, lieutenant


Regiment.

Capt. Growendyck's company, Second

Abraham Covert, ensign Third Kegiment. Samuel Everett, ensign Capt. Growendyck's company, Second Regiment. Henry Low, ensign Fourth Regiment, Feb. 14, 1778. James Mashatt, ensign Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment, May 10,
1777. Eli

John Hogeland, lieutenant Third Kegiment;

resigned.

Jacob Holcomb, lieutenant Capt. Hoppock's company, Third Regiment. Jacob Johnston, private Third Regiment pro. to lieutenant. John Matthews, lieutenant Capt. Harrison's company. Joseph Mattisou, lieutenant Third Kegimeut.
;

Moore, ensign Capt. Hunt's company, First Regiment, June


1776.
C.

17,

Luther Opdyke, ensign Capt. Nov. 5, 1781.

Johnson's company, Third Regiment,

Robert Maxwell, lieutenant Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment.


Cornelius Plahames, lieutenant Third Regiment.

John Reed, sergeant

State troops; sergeant Capt. Opdyke's

company,

Second Regiment; ensign Capt. Opdyke's company. Peter Rockat'ellow, sergeant Capt, John Phillips' company, Third Regi-

Abram

Post, lieutenant.

ment;

pro. to ensign

also ensign State troops.

John Prall, lieutenant Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment. Palmer Roberts, lieutenant Second Regiment. Philip Row, lieutenant. Garret Schanck, sergeant Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment;
to lieutenant; discharged April
6,

Amos

Scudder, private Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment; ensign,


10, 1777.

May
pro.

Shanks, ensign Second Regiment.

Amos

Starke, sergeant; pro. to ensign.

1777.

Philip Serviss, lieutenant Third Regiment.

Skillman, lieutenant.

Robert Taylor, lieutenant.

Moses Stout, sergeant Capt. Stout's company; pro. to ensign. Hendrick Suydam, ensign " Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse." Alexander Thompson, ensign Third Regiment. Oake Vorehase, ensign Third Regiment; resigned.

Thomas Thomson, lieutenant Fourth Regiment. Thomas Tobin, lieutenant "Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse,"
1777.

Samuel Smith, sergeant Capt. Philip


Oct. 6,

Phillips'

company;

also quarter-

master-sergeant.

Jacob Vanderbelt, lieutenant Third Regiment. John Vanderbelt, lieutenant Third Regiment. John Williamson, ensign Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment; pro.
to lieutenant.

John Burroughs, sergeant Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment. William Cannion, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment. Henry Chambers, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment;
sergeant of artillery.

John

Clifford, first

lieutenant Capt. Carhart's company, Second RegiCapt. Tucker's company, First Regiment,

David Davis, sergeant Capt. Maxwell's company. Second Regiment. John Dougherty, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company wounded in hand
;

ment.

John Fitch, first lieutenant June 19, 1770.

by accidental discharge of musket, Sept. 2, 1776. Benjamin Hendrickson, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company, First RegiAzariah Higgins, sergeant Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment. Peter Hulet, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company.

George Holcomb, first lieutenant Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment, Oct. 20, 1777. Nathaniel Hunt, first lieutenant Capt. Henry Philips' company, Third Regiment, May 10, 1777. Andrew Johnson, first lieutenant Capt. Philip Phillips' company, First Regiment. Ralph Jones, first lieutenant Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment, May
10, 1777.

Jonathan Hunt, sergeant Capt. Philip


20, 1777,

Phillips'

company;

disch. Sept.

Cornelius Johnson, sergeant Capt. Growendyck's company.

Joseph Justice, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Roger Larison, sergeant Capt. Henry

Bernice Kirkhoff,

first

lieutenant Fourth Regiment, Feb. 14, 1778.


Capt. Hunt's

Henry Mershon, first lieutenant June 17, 1776.


Moses Moore,
first

company, First Regiment,

Phillips' company, First Regiment. William Larison, sergeant Capt, Tucker's company, First Regiment. Thomas Leonard, private Capt. Tucker's company pro. to corporal and
;

sergeant.

lieutenant Capt. Hunt's company, First Regiment, lieutenant Capt. Guild's company, First Regiment,

James McCoy, sergeant Capt. Philip


Continental army.

Phillips'

company;

also private

May
May

10, 1777.
first

William Parke,

McCue, sergeant Hunterdon


William McGalliard, private Capt.

militia.
;

10, 1777.

Zebulon Barton, cornet " Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse," Oct. G, 1777.* Stephen Burrowes (Burroughs), second lieutenant Capt. Hunt's company, First Regiment, May 10, 1777. John Drake, second lieutenant Capt. Guild's company, First Regiment,

May

10, 1777.

James Egbert, second lieutenant Fourth Regiment, Feb. 14, 1778. James Haliet, second lieutenant, and second lieutenant " Heard'B brigade," June 14, 1776 also first lieutenant Continental army. Ellet Howell, Becmii] lieutenant First Regiment, Juno 12, 1776; also as;

sistant quartermaster in Quartermaster's Department.

P. Phillips' company pro. sergeant. John Moore, private Capt. Mott's company pro. sergeant, Sept.. 29, 1777. Nathan Moore, sergeant Capt. H. Phillips' company, First Kegiment. Nathaniel Moore, sergeant Capt. Hoppock's company, Third Regiment. Samuel Morrow, private Third Regiment; pro. sergeant; also sergeant Capt. Johnson's company, State troops, Palmer Phillips, sergeant Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Christian Sholster, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company. Jediah Stout, sergeant Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment. Joseph Tindall, sergeant Capt. Mott's company. Johnson Titus, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company.
;

Elias Hunt, second lieutenant First Regiment.

Ralph Lanning, second lieutenant First Regiment, June 17, 1776 scout and guide to Gon. Washington. Jacob Rank, second lieutenant Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment, Oct. 20, 1777. Nathaniel Temple, second lieutenant Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment, May 10, 1777.
;

Andrew Van Sick ell, sergeant militia. Henry Wambaugh, sergeant Capt. Stout's company. Third Regiment,
Jonas Wood, sergeant Capt. Henry Phillips' company. George WyekulT, sergeant Capt. Lucas' company. William Alters, private Capt. Tuckor's company; corporal Capt. John Phillips company.
1

Mathew Bevans,
army.

corporal First Regiment;

also

private Continental

Thomas Ackers, ensign Capt. John Phillips1 company, Oct, 20, 1777. JI< Baker, ensign Third Rogiment.

my

Philip Kevin, private Capt. Tucker's company, First


10,

Samuel Ueakes, ensign Capt. Hunt's company, First Regiment, May


1777.

James

Biles, ensign Capt. P. Phillips'

company, Flret Roglment; company,


c

also in

Capt. Bonnel's company, State troops.

Regiment; private Capt. Gray's company, Second Regiment; private Capt. Snook's company, Third Regiment; corporal Capt. Yard's company, First Regiment. Henry Kurrows, corporal Capt. Henry Phillips' company, First RegiJolin Campbell, corporal Capt.

Timothy

Jlruhh, Jr., ensign Capt. Guild's

First

Regiment,

May
Growendyck's company, Second Regiment.
also corporal in Continental

10, 1777.

David Chambers, private Capt. Tucker's


to ensign.

ripany, First

Kegimont; pro

George Corwine, corporal First Regiment; army.


Jacob Docker, corporal Capt. Henry

John Coudrfck, ensign Third Regiment,


* See also Somerset
lisl,

Phillips'

company,

second lieiihnanln.

Ralph Hart, corporal Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment. William Hart, corporal Capt. Philip Phillips' company, First Regiment.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTpS


David Hunt, corporal Capt, Tui
k<
i

IN

THE REVOLUTION.
.

85

"-

pan
id

Capt

Philip Phillips'

company.

James Kark, corporal Capt MaxweU's company, 8e


Henrj Hoore,
coi poral
,

Regiment
in<

-apt
i

Tuckei
l

m]
Oct.
6,
1

at

"Carlo's Troop

Ugbt-H
''"'

Jo epn Phillip*

coi poral

apt Uol

777.

Barcalow, Gilbert also In

Continental era

corporal Capt, Hoppoak's

Amns

smith, corporal Capt


pi [Tate.

Honn

company, Third U* Phillips company, Oct

1,

1777 ;

pro.

Bardin, John, Third

from

Regiment il1 " Iment Capt Maxwell's company*


1

;i1

Regiment Benjamin Van Kirk, corporal Capt, To Stlits Waiters, corporal Capt Philip Phillips' company. Maxwell's corporal Capt omj Peter Young, Charles Axibrd, musician Capt Tucker's company, First Regiment ompany alao In Capt HotCs Henry Mershon, musician Capl Cu ompany. William Morris, musician tapt Tucker's company. Jonathan Smith, musician Capt Philip Phillips' company. 'sompanj William smith, mn-ii urn Capt Tui ikoi
i

Barkelow, Cornelius, Second Reglmj

mis

Johnson's com-

Barkelow, Hunterdon, Second Beglment; also

in Btate troops.

Barkelow, John, Second Regiment Capt Srowendyck's company.

Barnet William.
William, 1'n-i Rffiiiiunt,
in
>.ni]Mi.i''.>
!

Capbj.

Tucker and

<

Henrj Phillips. Bartholomew, Daniel. Beam, John.

.i

inn m lan

apt

Hem

Phillips

company.
also

Beam, Lea
(apt.

i-.

Amos

Smith,

drummer

Capl.

Hott's

company;

Tucker's

M..S08.

company.
PRIVATES.
Abbott, John, Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment
Abbott, Bicbard, also In the Continental army, in
<

Beemer, John.
Bell,

William, Third Regiment

also In the State troops. also In the State DPQ ipe

Belli*,

John, Third Regiment

ami Continental

army.
Helloes,

api

pany.
Abbott, William, Sr
Abbott, William, Jr.,
i i

.it,

Capt John Phillips' company, Third Bogiment apt John Phillips' company, Third Regiment Capt John Phillips company, Third Regiment
I

Andrew, Second Regiment, Capt Harwell's company. Bennett John, First Beglment Capt Philip Phillips' company. Bennett, Kehemiah, Capt Tuckert company; also bo state troops and Conttnental army.
Bennett, Thomas, Capt Pucker
i ;

impany, First
1

ft

glment

ohn.
;

Peter,

Adams, Hatbew, Capt Stlllwell's company also in Continental army, in '.ipt. Luce's company. Adams, Pool. Adams, Samnel Adams, William. Almes, John, Vint Regiment; also In State troops, and in Continental iii ai m\ apt Phillips' ompany. Akers, Amos, Capt John Phillips' company, Third Be Amos Hrst Regiment; also in State troops, and in Conttnental Lkei army, in Capt Phillips' company. Akers, Daniel, Third Regiment, In i] John Phillips company. Akers, John, Third Regiment, Capt John Phillips' ompany. A kern, Jonathan, Third Begl m, !npt John Phillips' company. ifa Ird ut apl John Phillips' impany. Alden, To and In Continental army, In Second Battalion, $ ond itabllshment
i i
, i I

Binge,

Uliam, first Beglment Capt

t'.

PhiUIpa company; also instate

Bird, Peter,

hibald, First

Regiment;

also in State troops

and ContlnentaJ

army,
Blackford, Anthony, a No in the ConttnentsJ army. u Capt Carle's Troop pi... kwell, Beniami, Light-Horse'"

Blackwoll, Benjamin, "

Iapt Carle's Troop Light-Horse."


[bt-horac

and Infantry; also commissary of

i--u.-.

Blackwell, Stephen, " Capt <arlo*s Troop Light B

Djamin.
Blaine, J
Blair,

<

Benjamin.

Blair, Will
Plan.-, ft
:

UJou, John.

Bodon, James,
ETirsI

a]

uiy; also in artilloryand Continental

AUcut,John,
in
i

Regiment
i

al

o to

inttnentsJ

army,

iapt

Van Inglen's ompany.

army. \lam.
Benjamin, Capt Philip Phillips company, First Regiment Samuel, Capt Maxwell's company. Bonham, John. Bonham, Levi, ffirsl Beglment apt Tuckert company. Bonham, Eedehlah.
li
i,
'
i

Allen, John, Third


Allen,

Begum at
Regiment
1.
;

In

Capt John

Phillips'

company.

llllnm.
First
1

A il^n i, John,

also In State troops.


.

lohn

John
-,

[2

Hoses,

Capt John

Capt Tucker's company .]'' Tuckei ' ompanj Phillips company.


i i

am.

Andrews, Hei
.i

bei t

Bough
Boys, Juhn,

Andrews, John.
,

i-.

Bray, Andrew,
inipanj ,8
t;

apt Maxwell's company, Second Regiment Capt 3UUweU*a company also State ir.^.]-,
;

an. I Contt-

Applogate, William, Capt Bray's


Droops,

also State

nental army.

and

lontlnontal army.
>m]
i

Apploton, Samuel, Capt Cu koi


Ltmitage, B
ih,
'
i

Ri

[iment

B inry, Capt StUlwoJlt company; also State troops and ConttnentsJ army.
B

Iment

iment.

Armstrong, Rev. James

Vn

Capt

Regiment;
p...

Fohn,

Capt John PhiU

Iment

also chaplain Continental army.

Henry.
James.

Armstrong, John, Capt. Uaj pt


.

3ocond Regiment

Brlttain,

Still well's

company, Fourth B tglmenl


1

also State

Brittain,

WUllam, Capt John

Phillips'

and Continental army,


ri,

Broadhni
.

company. mpany.

Capt John Phillips company, Third Regiment Atnhloy, Thomas, Capt Henn Phillips imj my, Fii tB Iment
i

w BUam, Capt John


'i.

Phil

Bi ikav

\i

tin.

Anble, Andrew
Avii.ni.

Jamc
a,

<

iapt Tuckei

>>
i

tB

ment

Brokaw, Peter, also In the Continental army. Brown, Goorge, Capt SUIlweirs company; also State troops and ("nti.
nentsj army.

Balnbi

Id

John, First Begtm

mpany.
B ike, Horn
y,
i

Brown, J mes. First! Hi on ii. Joseph.


Brown, Timothy, Capl SttllwelPs troops and Oontinenral arm]
c

mim-nta! army.

Third
'

lm< at,

ul

PI

111
1

impany.
,-..
1

pany, Fourth

Regiment; State

at Capt, John Phillips company.

Bake, Peter, Third Raj

t Copt John

Phillips'

Bn

r,

Ja< ob.

Baker, Joseph, First Regiment Capt Philip Phillips

Sept

23, 1777.

hemna'

om| any

86

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


;

Brust, Israel, Fourth Regiment

also State troops.

Conselyea, Andrew, Capt. Stillwell's company, Fourth Regiment; also In


State troops, and Continental army. Contraman, John. Cook, Henry, Capt. Philip Phillips' company. Cook, Jonathan, Capt. Mott's company. Coolbaugh, William, Capt. Bray's company, Capt. Growendyck's compauy also State troops. Cooper, John, also in Continental army, and in State troops.
;

Buchanan, Alexander, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment. Buckley, Cornelius, Third Regiment; also State troops and Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. Bunn, Jonathan, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, and Capt. Tucker's company.

Bunn, Joseph, Capt. Growendyck's company, Second Regiment.


Burns, Daniel, also in Continental army.
Burnside, Patrick, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Cooper, Michael. Cooper, William. Corhart, Cornelius,


Cornell, John, Capt. Tucker's

Burroughs, Anthony, Capt. Mott's company. Burroughs, Edon.


Burroughs, Jonathan.
Burroughs, Stephen.

Cornell, Nathaniel, Capt. Tucker's

company. company.

company. Burrows, James, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment. Burrows, John, Capt. Tucker's company. First Regiment. Burrows, Joseph, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment. Burtes, John, Capt. Mott's company. Burwell, Thomas, Third Regiment; also State troops.
Burrows,
Israel, Capt.

Henry

Phillips'

Cornell, William.
Correll, Joseph.

Corwiue, John, Third Regiment; also in State troops.


Corwine, Samuel, Third Regiment; also in State troops.

Bussinghurg, William.
Butler, John.

Abram, Capt. John Phillips' company. John Phillips' company. Covenhoven, Albert, Third Regiment also in State troops and in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Coryell,

Coryell, John, Capt.

company, Second Regiment; also State troops and Continental army. Cahoou, Jacob, First Regiment; also State troops and Continental army, Second Regiment. Caldar, Ninian, Second Regiment; also State troops and Continental army, Capt. Ross' company. Campbell, Daniel, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Campbell, William, Second Regiment, Capt. Bray's company also in Continental army and State troops. Careck, James, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment.
Butts, Alexander, Capt. Gulick's
;

Cowell, Isaac.

Crab, James.
Craig, John.

Crammer, Peter.
Cray, James.
Creesey, James. Third Regiment; also Capt. Johnson's company, State
troops.
Critser,

Leonard, Second Rogiment; also State troops; and Continental army, Capt. Ross' company.

Cuiren, Richard, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment.

Carhart, Richard. Carhart, Robert.


Carlisle, Ebenezer, also in Continental

Dallemar. Robert, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com-

army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Carpenter, Henry, Capt. Tucker's company.

pany. Dane, James, Fourth Regiment; also in the State troops. Dangwell, John.
Davis, William, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment. Day, Thomas, also in Continental army, Fourth Battalion, Second Es-

Carpenter, Hope, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment.


Carpenter, John, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment. Carpenter, Richard, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

tablishment.

company. company. Case, Samuel, Capt. Hoppock's company, Third Regiment. Case, Thomas, in Third Regiment and First Regiment, and State troops;
Carr, James, Capt. Maxwell's Carr, William, Capt. Maxwell's
also in Continental

Dayley, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company, and in Capt.


P. Phillips' company. Dean, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Opdycke's company; also in State troops.

army.

Deare, James, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Stillwell's company;


Continental army.

also in

Case, Tunis.

Casey, William, Capt. Maxwell's company.


Catrell,

Decker, John.

Wm.,

also in the Continental

army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Chamberlain, Clayton.

Deemer, Joseph, First Regiment; also in State troops; and in the Continental army, Capt. Lungstreth's company.

Chamberlain, David, Capt. Jacob Carhart's company, Second Regiment and Continental army, in Capt. Johnson's company. Chamberlain, Godfrey, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Chamberlain, John, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Chamberlain, Lewis, Capt. Johnson's company Continental army.
;

Demund, William. Denman, John.


Dennis, Enos, Second Regiment, Capt. Carhart's company; also in State
troops; and in Continental army, Third Battalion, Second Establish-

also in State troops,

and

ment.
Devorce, John.
Dovore, John, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Stillwell's company
tinental army,
Dils, Peter.
Diltw, Jacob,
;

Chamberlain, Soth, Capt. Opdycke's company, Second Regiment. Chamberlain, William.

also in

Con-

and Stato

troops.

Chambers, Alexander, Capt. Tucker's company. Cherol, James, also in Continental army, in Captain Martin's company. Chew, Richard, also in Continental army, in Second Battalion, Second
Establishment.
Christopher, Daniel, Capt. Tucker's company.
Christopher, Jesse, Capt. Carlo's troop of light-horse.

Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Diugwell, John.
Ditmars, John.

ChurleB, John.
Clark, Joseph, Capt. Stout's company. Clark, Joshua, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Clark, Thomas, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Dohedra, John, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. Drake, Enoch, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Drake, James, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Drake, John, " Capt, Carle's Troop Light-Horse," also express-rider. Drake, Nicholas, First Regiment also State troops and Continental army, in Capt. Pulhomus' company. Drake, William, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company; disch. Oct.
;

Clayton, Job D., militia.

Clemens, John, Capt. Mott's company.


Clover, Peter, Capt. Stout's

30, T777.

company.

Dunbar, Lott, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Coghran, Tobias,
Mills.

militia.

Dunham,
Diinnter,

David.

Coleman, John, Capt. Growendyck's company; killed at Van Nest's


Coleman, Samuel, Capt. Carlo's troop of light-horse.

John.

Dusenberry, Henry.
Dusenberry, Samuel.
Dusenberry, William.
Elvis, Jacob, First

Comner, John, Capt. Gearhart's company; also in State troops. also in Stato troops, and Conger, Daniel, Capt. Stillwell's company Continental army.
;

Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.


Capt. Tuckei's company.

Conner, Edward, Capt. Growendyck's company, Capt. Brink's company, in State troops, and Continental army.

Emmons, Jacob. Emmons, Job, First Rogiment, Emmons, John.

Ill

\Ti:i;iM).\

AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


I
i

[N

THE REVOLUTION.

-T

Ennls (orlnnis), Robert, Socond Regiment, Copt. Brinks company; alio in State troops; also Continental unny, in Copt Anderson's company.
Bnt, Daniel, Sr. Knt, Daniel, Jr.
'Hi in--, Third K- iglment, !i>ck's company. I,,, i, \ lapt Krwinr, Bobert, Becond Begiment, Capt 0, Johnson's company; also
,,i.
<

m, Joseph, died In Rcodington, Nov. 30, 1825, aged eighty-one


years.*
i

i.-orge, also in

Continental army, Capt. Martin's company.

Harden
i

oi

Hardei

|,

llllam,

Third Begiment; also in State troops.

II

State troops.
J

Harrington (or Herri ngt on), William. Harris, William, "Capt Carle's Troop Ught-Hona." W Llllam, also In Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Hart, Absalom, Capt Mott'fl company, First
;

Imi,

Ktnirth

K- j.iun'iit, Capt.

BtJllwell's

troopa; also lergeanl In Continental army,

company Capt n<


i

also Stato

impany.

Hart, Asa,) Hart, A-h.-r,

Begiment Lment
Regiment.

Brans, Obadlah, t'ir^t Begimenl Capt. Andersou's company.


i

also State troopa

and Continental army,

r H pt. Tucker's company,

First

derick, also in the Continental army, Fourth Battalion, Second

Qooi

ilrd

Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Ishment
Hart, John, First Begiment, Hart, Joseph, First
II
i;

Fur rut, Cornelius.


lap! Henry Phillips' company, First Regiment. Ficller, Juh n, Capt Henry Phillips' company, First Begiment Field, Beth, Capt Maxwell's company. link, Nicholas, Capt Cornelias Johnson's company; also Stato troops. fflnley, John, militia; ale corporal In Continental army.

Oapt Mott's company.


' L '
i

Forrel, Absalom!

Fish, Joseph,

<

lapt.

M"lt' iiipaiiv,

u\-> in artilhry.

Tucker's company. Phillips' company ; disch. Oapt Hottfs company. Hart, Siimiiid, ''apt. Mott's company. Hart, Btepfaon, Capt, Tucker's company. Capl. lK-nr/riiillip- company.
ghn' "'
irt.

N.ithaniel, Capt.

Henry

disability.

Hart, Philip,

odatopker, Third Begiment

also State troops,

and Continental

11;.

un, William.

army.
Fisher, Jacob, Third

Heath, Andrew.

and Continental army. Fisher, John, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company. Fisher, Moses, Third Kegiment; also Stato troops, and Continental

Begiment

alio Stato troops,

Heath, David. Helmea, Joseph.

Hcnderehot, Abram.

army.
Eisner, Peter, Third Begiment, Capt. Stout's

company.

Hendrlckson, Thomas, Capt. Mori's company; wagoner Hepburn, William, Capt. Tucker's company,

ditto.

Fitch, William,

Oapt Brink's company;

Btate troops;

and Continental

Herrey, J
Hire,
Jiun.1i, Kir>t
.

army.
.1

Capt Maxwell's company. Rrgiiucut, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.


Lment,

isper,
) .

I'ii -i

^ini'-iii,

'apt.

TinrkerV company.

miah, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second


r,

Hlckson,
Hill,

-i

Mn

:>.,

tlao In C

mtinentaJ army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Third Begiment; state troops; Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's company. Fronch, Daniel, Third Regiment State troops; Continental army, Fourth
Bon
b
;

Samuel,
.'ii,

t'apt.

Holt's company.

Him.

Adam, Capt. Maxwell's company.


;

Battalion, Second Establishment

liixon, James, Third


ai ni\
,

Hixon, Abner, Third Begimenl also In Stato troops. Begiment; also in State troops; and Continental

Fn-m-h, Jeremiah. Imi Peter,


i,

Fullmore, John, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.


I'iniiiuii,

Joshua, Flral Begiment, Capt. Tucker's company; also Stato


also

b oops.

ompany. Hixon, Jedlah, Third Begiment, Oapt Btout's oompany. Hbcon, John, Third Kegiment also iu Continental army, Capt. Ballard's company. Hixon, Joseph, Third Regiment; also in Continental army ; and State
In

Capt

Ballai d*s

Furman, Nathaniel,

First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's. company wagoner. Cunen, William, Seooiid ltr^iinent, Capt. Maxwell's company. Gaunt), Daniel, in Begiment, Capt Tucker's company.
I

troops.

Qanno, Isaac.
Garrison, Matthias.

Hoaglaud, Amos, Capt Growendyek's company, Second Regiment Uoaglund, Derrick. Hoaghuid, John, Capt Growendyck's company. Hockenherry, John, Third Regiment; also State troops; and Continental
Hoff, Abel, Capt. Philip PbiUipa'

Gavon, John, First Begimenl Stato troops; also sergeant army, Writ Battalion, Second Establishment
;

in Continental

Holcomh,

Qhuliok, Ferdinand, Becond Begiment Capt Growendyck's compauy. Qhuliok, John, Second Begiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.
GhullcU, Hi
Qholiok, Samuel,
William, Cap)
id

> nd Begiment,
l

Begiment, Capt Growendyck's company. Capt, Growendyck's ompany.


<
;

army, Capt. Ballard's company. company. Klijah, Third Begiment, Capt. Hoppock's company; also In Btate hro rpa; snd Continental army, Oapt Anderson's company. Holden, Benjamin, Socond Regiment, Capt. Jacob Car hart's company; tri.ps, and Continental army. ill;-' St it. Holden, Benjamin, Third Begiment, Hunterdon; also Continental army.
;

c impenj 81 its troops; and ContiCapt Polhemus company. Godown, John, Third Begiment, Capt Hopp ck's ''mpany. Gordon, Bernanluf, Second ipt, Harwell's company.

ipdj he's

nental army, In

Hooper, James, Capt. Tucker's company also in artillery .f in Continental army, Oapt Amienton's company.
Horn,Ralpfa also in Con
I'h,
'I
i

pt Anderson's company, n's company, Stato


to

GoslhiK,

>

'

Goulder, Ellas, Firs! Begiment, Oapt Tucker's


Goulder, Js
Ifl
I

pany,

Samuel, Third Regiment,

Oapt

Stout's

company.

Be

lment, Oapt Tucker's company.


Hi.u.ll

John Hoeki
Howard, John, Oapt John
Howell, Arthur,
D

nborry.]

Goulder, William, Firel Begiment, Capt Tucker's company. John, Third It. ^iiii. Hi, .stato troops; also Continental army,
I

Phillips'

company. mpany.

Fourth Battalion, 8 cond BstabUshment


Grant, Bobert, Third Begiment, Gray, Ahram.

Capt Hoppock^ company.

Howi

ll.

K.'.i.hl,

Oapt

ttotft

oompany.

Green, William.

Howell, I-rai 1, Oapt Mott's company. Howell, John, Oapt Tucker's company.

ihappard, First

Begiment; also State


i

troops,

and Continental

Howell,

1-

Carhiirt'a

company

also State troops;

and

army, Capl
i.

Phillips'

impany.

Grludle, Jonathan, also In Continental army,

Capt Andoreon's company.

LlnentsJ army, Capt ivih emus* company. C Howell, William, "Oapt Carle's Troop Light-Horse.**
First

mi

i.

John,
John.

First

Begimont, Capt Hanrj PhilUps' company.


Huff, Anii

Regimont

tint

Phillips1

.ompany.

Gwinop, Geo]

Capt
I

Moil'
l,

tarn'

company

artillery, Slate troops;

Huff,

Thomas, Oapt Tucker's oompany.

irch

1777;

Oapt

Philip Philll]
U*s

my;
Humphries, John,
0a|
'

also In State troops.

Begiment
Bagin,
Bagin,
Hall,
i

I'avid.
!

oompany! mpany.

ipany.

bailee, also In Continental


I

army, In

ipt Martin's company,

ffaatardc* Gasslte,
1
i

Dec

HaU,

Jkj

mpany.

n,

llarch 81,

--T,

aged eighty-fire

years.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Hunt, Benjamin, Capt. Philip Phillips' company. Hunt, Daniel, Capt. Tucker's company. Hunt, Israel, Capt. Tucker's company. Hunt, Jesse, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Hunt, Juhn, Jr., Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Hunt, John, Sr., Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Hunt, Jonathan, "Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse." Hunt, Samuel, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, First Regiment.* Hunter, Harman, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. Hunter, James. Hutchinson, William, Second Regiment, Capt. Bray's company; also in State troops, and Continental army. Inslee, Joseph, First Regiment. Irwin, James, First Regiment; also in State troops and in Continental army, Capt. Phillips' company.
;

Leford, Vincent, Fiist Regiment; also

State troops,

and Continental

army.
Leigh, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.

Leonard, Nathaniel, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Leonard, Samuel, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Stillwell's company; State


troops,

and Contiuental army.

Lobdell, Thomas.

Lockade, James, Second Regiment, Capt. Jacob Carhart's company; also


in State troops, and Continental army. Long, George, also in State troops, and Continental army, First Battalion, Secuinl Establishment.

Long, Henry, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.


Loratt, Cornelius.
Loratt, Peter.
Lott,

Abraham,

First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's

Company.
;

James, Elias.

James, Robert, First Regiment, Capt. Philip

company. Jenkins, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Johnson, Abner. Johnson, Daniel, Third Regiment; also in Capt. Johnson's company,
Phillips'

Lyon, Henry, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Stillwell's company State troops and Continental army. Lyons, Elias, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. MacAndrew, Andrew, Second Regiment.

State troops.

Johnson, Enoch, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. Johnson, John (1), Second Regiment, Capt. Johnson's company; also in
State troops.

MacLick, Leonard. MacLick, Peter. Malaby, Cornelius,


Malat, Peter.

also in Capt. Anderson's


;

company,

Col.

Johnson's

battalion " Levies"

died while prisoner, Dec. 28, 1776.

Johnson, John

(2),

in

Hunterdon

militia; also in State troops;

and Con-

tinental army, Capt. Phillips' company. Johnson, Matthew, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. Johnson, Samuel, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Malcolm, John, First Regiment also in State troops, and in Continental army. Manners, John, Sr., Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company.
;

Johnson, William, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. Johnson, William, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Johnston, Andrew.
Johnston, Daniel Johnston, David, Second Regiment also forage-master. Johnston, Jacob, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company. Johnston, Samuel, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. Jones, Israel, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company. Jones, Joshua, Second Regiment, Capt. Jacob Carhart's company; also in State troops and Continental army. Jordan, Felix, First Regiment; also in State troops; and Continental army, Capt. Phillips' company. Kallender (or Killenar), Philip, Third Regiment, Capt. Johnson's com;
;

Mapes, Joseph. Marlatt, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Johnson's company


tinental army.

also in

Con-

Marlatt, Peter, Second Regiment, Capt. Peter Stillwell's company, Fourth

Regiment;
Marsh, John.

also in Continental

army.

Marcelles, Eden, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Marts, William, Third Regimemt; also in State troops.

Martin, Reuben, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

pany

State troops.

Kellison, William.

Matthews, Henry, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company. Matthews, Pearse, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company. Matthews, Robert, McCafferty, Joseph, Second Regiment, Capt. Opdyck's company; also State troops; and Continental army, Capt. Ross' company. McCain, John, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. McClellan, James, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Ketcham, Levi.
Kibler, Matthias, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

McCollem, Duncan, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. McCollom, John, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Kirkendall, Andrew.

Knowles, Jesse, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, and Capt. Tucker's company. Kuleman, Johannes, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Labaw, Charles.
Lafferty, John.

McConnally, Patrick, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. McConnell, Hugh, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. McCoy, Daniel, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. McDaniel, Edward, Second Regiment, Capt. Gearhart's company also in
;

Lahey, John, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. Lain, Daniel, Third Regiment, Capt. Juhn Phillips' company. Lake, Isaac, Second Regiment, Cupt. Maxwell's company. Lake, Thomas, Second Regiment, Capt. Bray's company also in State
;

State troops.

troops.

McDonel, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. McGonigal, Juhn, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. McKinney, Mordecai. McKinstry, Juhn, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Mclvinstry, Matthias.

Lamb,

Patrick, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's

company.

Lambert, Jeremiah, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Lambert, Lott, also in Continental army, Capt. Martin's company. Lancaster, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips company. Lane, Cornelius, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Lane's company; killed at
1

McLure, Andrew,

also sergeant in Continental

army, First Battalion,

Second Establishment.

McLure, James, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com.

pany.

Allentown, June
Lane, Gilbert.

27, 1778.

Lane, John.

McMaliau, David, also in State troops; and in Continental army, Capt. Phillips' company. McNeal, Henry, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com1

Lanning, Daniel, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips company. Lanning, David, First Regiment, Capt. Mutt's company scout. Lanning. Elijah, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company; also wagoner.
;

pany.

McSporry, Matthew, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Lanning, John,
1 Lanning, Robert, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips company. Large, Jonathan, Third Regiment, Capt. Juhn Phillips 1 company.

Meluby, Thomas, Third Regiment; also in State troops; and Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's company.
Morlett, John, Second

Regiment (probably samo

as

John Marlatt).

Lanison, John, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, ot, Capt. Philip Phillips' company. Latimer, John, Flrel Regi Latourettc, Peter, also In Continental army.
Lee, Charles.
Lee, John, Second

Mcrrell, Benjamin, First Regimemt, Capt. Tucker's company. Men-ell, David, Firsl Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Mershon, Asher, First Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Regiment, dipt. Maxwell's company.


26, 1826, vide

Mershon, Benjamin, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Mershon, Timothy, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Mil burn, Timothy, First Regiment, Capt. II. Phillips' company; diech.
Oct. a, 1777.

* Died

Juno

Hunterdon Garxtle, 182G.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


Sillier, Ehrunci
Fit
I

IN

THE K INVOLUTION.
Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company
;

89

Miller, Malaher, nl*) in tb<

Regiment Capt Tocker's company. may, Capt Anderson's coml

Price, Benj., Second

also In Conti-

nental army.
Price, Joseph,

pany.
Miller, Prime, First

Flmt Regiment, Copt. Mott's company.

Regiment, Oapt Mott'i company.


<

Price, Rico.

Mlteboll, William, also In the

Jon tinea to]

army, Oapt An (.lemon's com-

Quick, Henry.
Qui- k, Samuel.

pany.
Moufort,] sac,

Fourth Regiment, Oapt SUllweirsoompany; State troopej


d'

Quick, Willis

iment; State troops; and Continental army,


n

and Continental army, Oapt Lu<

company.
mpany.
1

Oapt Anderson's company.


!

Montgomery, AWJah, Ho
,

Willi
i'n
it

nt; State troops;

and Continental army,


pany.

Regiment,
Re

'

!apt

Uenrj Phillips company.


In

mV company.
Racy, Philip, Third Regiment, Capl
1

Moore, Henry,

First

iment;

State troops

and Continental

army,
i i

Second Establishment Regiment, Capt Mott'a company also wagoner. mpany. pt Tucko: fame .First R 1 h Firsl Regiment Oapt. Mott * c pany,
Firsl Battalion,
First
;
t

Rondel, John, also Continental army, In Oapt Martin's company.


Rap, Conrad, Second Regiment, Oapt Maxwell's
ut
;

also

ompany. State troops; and Continental army,


i

Capt

Ballard's

ompany.

Moore, John, Moore, Loo

FIi

it

io-Kt

at,

Oapt

Philip Phillips'

Capt B ry John Phillips' company. Capt Tuekor's company. Regiment, Capt. Mott's company. k< tt, I'" Moore, Samuel, First Rogiment, Oapt Mott's company. phen, Third Regiment, Capt John Phillips company. 1 Moore, William, First Regiment, Oapt Tucker * company. First lb _nn.Mii, '.i]ii. Tuckei 'e company. Morgan, Anthony, First Regiment, also In State troops and in Contlc,]

company. mpany. Phil]

Reader, William.
Recey, Philip, Se and Regiment, Oapt.

lxwcII's

company.

Hose

Third
I

ft

iment, Capt.

Reed,

Bonjuiiiiii, Firsl
i

Moore, Philip, Hi

ft

^Iment,

id),

1.

'in

;ii

Regiment, Oapt. Elenrj Phillips* company. m. First Regiment State troops; and Continental
;

Reed, Isaac,

Reed, Joshua

nental army.

Oapt Polhemus' company. Regiment, Oapt Mott's company. Regis at, Oapt Mott's company. Reed, Richard, Firsl Regiment, Oapt Mott's company. Reed, Thomas. urn, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company. .iin, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company, and Capt Mott's
army,
In First
< I 1 1

Mount,

Elijah,

Third Regiment, Oapt Stout's company.


i,

impany.
i

Mmi Mow,

ii

i,

Ezekii

Third

ft

gimt

at,

Oapt
1

Stout's

company.

Oapt Bray's
...I

impany;

also

William.
;

in

lontinental army.

Mulrhead, John, Capl h, Phillips company also State troops; and Cou1 linental army, apt Ballard company. Muirbeid, William, apt John Phillips' company, Third Regiment
!
<

Raid, Bphraim, Third Regiment,

Oapt

Stout's --ompany.

Reynolds, John. Reynolds, William.


Ridlor, William, Firsl Regin
Killn.'t, A
li

Capt Mott's company. at, Capt Tucker's company. Murray, .hums. First Regi Nj\ lor, Amc First Re Iment, apt Henry Philiips' company.
Munjoy, Jam<
,

FIral

Iment,

ompany;

also in artillery.

<

troopc and Continental

army, Oapt Anderson'.-' company.

Heal, Thomas.

Roberts,

Edmund.
1

Nebbaxd,

Elipfaalet, also la

Oonttnoutal army,
Labll

In

Oapt Andersons

coin-

1 Robertson, John, First Regiment, Oapt Philip Phillips

ompany.

pany, Fourth Battalion, Second E


Fobn,

liment
Roof,

William, First Regiment,


i

Oapt Tucker's company, Uogiment, Capt John Phillips' company.


Capt Maxwell's company, mpany.
('apt.

Nice, Biohai l,Fli

Iment, Capt. Philip Ph 111 I pa1 company.


1

Adam -

>nd

ft

tment,

Nlcebank, John, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips company.


in Oontl
tal

Rorits, Willi

irmy, in

Capt Anderson's company.


1 1

Rosbrook, John, Second K-uiimiit.


Rose,
rii. ii
[i
,

Maxwell'* company.

Nun, John, Third Regiment, Oapt John Phillips company. Oliver, Ulen, Third ft John Phillips company. Iment
'
-

"

Rose, Exeklel, First

in

>

ontinental army, First Battalion, Second Bfctab1

Rose,

Ual

ml

tapt Daj ton


In
I

npany, Third B
i

1 ThtrdI Oapt John Phillips company. Regiment Oapt Tucker(s c impany. Jonathan, Second Regiment, Capt Growendycki company. ithan, Third Regiment, Oapt John Phillips'
<
i

Otman, John, also Palmar, Edmund,

Continental army, Capt Anderson's com]

['ii,

also in Continental

army,

in

Fourth Battalion,

Irst

Regiment, Oapt Henry Phillips* company.

Establishment
Roy, Patri
,

Palmar, William, First Regiment Capt Mott*a company. f P H m, Daniel, Regiment, Oapt Tui kor s com]
I

at,

Li

il

also In

intinental

army,

Capt Qulick's company; also Stato 1 In Capt Polhemus company,Hrs1


also In Stato

Pearson, Tl

thy, First

Iment

ml

Tu

kei

mj iny,

Battalion, First Establishment

Mot I'd
Pel

rniilpiiin
al

Ruckman, John, Third Reglmont, Oapt Stouts company;


In

not, Robert

C mtinental

ai

my, Capt Anderson's company,

1
1

i]

Puuwell, David.
p<
i

Runk,

Ine,
'

John.
b
i,

Oapt J Runnolds, John, Third Reglmont; also


Willi u
'

In

Oapt

'

mpany. >hni m\ company,

Petorson, Samuel, Fourth


.

and Re Iment, Oapt Qrowi mdj W- tmpany. Rogimont, Capt Stillwell'B company; Btate troopi aud Continental army, In Capt J Battalion, Second Bel ibll ihmont mi' nt, lapt Tuckei s company. ft
9e
i

State troojie.
also

RyalI,G< rgo,3

mpany.
also in the

Hum, Timothy,

lontinental army, Fourth Battalion, Second

Rstabllshment

<

Ryon, John, Third Regiment;


army,
In
I

also In State troops';

and inrontincnt.il
impany.

Pbllhower, Christopher.
Phillips,

lapl

John,

First

He Iment Capt

Tui kei

Phillips, John, Fii

t]
'

mpany. mpany.
Phillips'
i

Sackrille, P

Saxton, Charles, Capt

il.
I I

Phillips

company,
'

First Rc( Iment, an

Phillips, bott, 8r,, Fli


Phillips,
l

Ri
i;
.

Iment, Oapt
uont,

Honrj
:

impany.
Dpany, and

'.il

Lott, Jr.,
I'm ker'a
,

l,

Oapt

P. PliilUps'

and OaptTu

ml
,

company.
I

ment
Scott Martin
Beudder,
I

Phillip

Phillips,

Pideook, Charles, Third Regl


I'm.
k,

Thee Fli Re Inn at, Capl Duel m emy. Thomus, Third Roglment Capt John Phil 1 at, Capt John Phillips ompany.
!

' dodiah,

Irsl
i

mpany, FlrstB Reglmont i'i Mottfi


' -

>mpany.

ment; also State

Jonathan, Third
VI

ft

lm< at,
imi at;

<

lapt

J >hn

Phi
I

.iin.-tit.il

army,

Plnkney,

Llllam, First

mtinentsJ

army,
i

In

Capt Longstreths company.


mtinontal army, Flrsi Ball

Andrew.

Shannon

Daniel,'

Llahment
Prall,

John, Second Reglmont


i

ided Jan! 80, 1777.


I

meat
company.
Uneutal armj

also

iuCou-

Pratt, Cornoltu

mi

atalarmy,

90
Shildol, Godfrey.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET

COUNTIES,

NEW

JERSEY.

Target, John, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.


Tarret, Cornelius.

Shoulder, Andrew.

Shubert, John, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company, and Continental army, First Battalion, Second Establishment.
Shusts, Matthias, also in Continental army, Capt. Martin's company,

Taylor, Elisha. Taylor, Henry.

Taylor, Isaac.
Taylor, Thomas.

Fourth Battalion. Sigler, Henry, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. Simons, Henry, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Simpson, John. Sinclair, Peter, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment. Slack, Daniel, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment. Slack, Uriah, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment. Sliugsland, Henry, Capt. Stillwell's company, Fourth Regiment also State troops and Continental army, in Capt. Yoorhees' company,
;

Tedrick, George, also in the Continental army. Terry, Abraham, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Thatcher, Elijah.

First Battalion, Second Establishment.

Small, William, Capt. Opdyck's company, Second Regiment; also State


troops,

and Continental army.

Smith, Andrew, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Smith, Benjamin, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company. Smith, Burroughs (also spelled "Burrowes"). Smith, Abijah, " Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse."

Smith, Hugh, First Regiment; also Continental army. Smith, Jacob, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company. Smith, James, Capt. Heury Phillips' company, First Regiment; also Continental army. Smith, Jasper, " Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse."
Smith, Jeiemiah, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Thimpel, John, Capt. Tucker's company. Thomas, John, First Regiment also State troops, and Continental army. Thomas, Robert. Thompson, George, First Regiment; also State troops, and Continental army. Thompson, James, Capt. Maxwell's company. Thompson, John, Third Regiment; also in State troops. Thompson, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Johnson's company; also in State troops and in Continental army, Capt. Phillips' company. Tidd, William. (See William Todd, evidently the same person.) Tindall, Joshua, Capt. Mott's company. Titus, Asa, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Titus, Benjamin, Capt. Mott's company. Titus, Jesse, Capt. Henry Phillips' company; also in Capt. Van Clove's
<

company,
Titus,

Col. Johnson's battalion, Heard's brigade.

Titus, John, Capt. Tucker's

company.
Phillips'

John H.,

Capt.

Henry

company

also in Continental

Smith, John, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Smith, John (1), Third Regiment also in the State troops.
;

Smith, John army.

(2),

Third Regiment; State troops; also in Continental


Jr.,
Sr.,

Smith, Jonathan, Smith, Jonathan,


Smith, Joseph
(1),

Capt. Capt.

Capt.

Smith, Joseph (2), Capt. Smith, Joseph, Capt. Philip Phillips' company. Smith, Joseph, " Capt. Carle's Troop of Light-Horse." Smith, Philip, in companies of Capts. Tucker and Philip Phillips. Smith, Thaddcus, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Henry Phillips' company. Henry Phillips' company. Henry Phillips' company. Henry Phillips' company.

company. Titus, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' compauy. Titus, Samuel, First Regiment, Capt. Heury Phillips' company. Titus, Uriah, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Tobin, Peter, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Todd, William, Capt. Stillwell's company, Fourth Regiment; also State troops and Continental army, in Capt. Luce's company. Treazey, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
army, Capt.
Phillips'

Troy, Samuel, Second Regiment, Capt. Gearhart's


troops.

company

also Stato

Tucker, Samuel, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company. Turner, Nathan, First Regiment also State troops in Continental army,
; ;

First Battalion, Second Establishment,

aud Capt.

Phillips'

com-

Smock, Matthias. Smyth, Joseph.


Snedeker, James.
Snider, Henry, Capt. Maxwell's company.

pany, Second Regiment. Tustin, Samuel, Capt. Tucker's company. Tway, Timothy, also in Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's company; later in Capt. Dayton's company. Ulph, Jacob.
Utt, John, Capt. Stout's

Snyder, Henry, Capt. Bray's company, Second Regiment; also State


troops.

company, Third Regiment.

Snyder, "William, Capt. Growendyck's company, Second Regiment. Sowers, John. Spicer, John, also in Continental army, First Battalion, Second Establishment.
Starker, Aarou.

Van

Arsdnle, John, Capt. Stillwell's

company

State troops;

and Conti-

nental army, iu Capt. Luce's company.

Van Van
Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van

Atta, John, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment.

Black, Arthur; company.


Clove, Isha, Capt.

also in

Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's

Stephens, Prince, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment. Stevens, Benjamin, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.
Stevens, John, Capt. Carle's troop.

Henry

Phillips'

company, First Regiment.

Derveer, James.
Devort, Charles, Capt. Maxwell's company. Devort, John, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Fleet,

Stevenson, Augustus, Capt. John Phillips' company.


Stigcr,

Adam.

Abraham, Capt.

Stillwell's

company

Stato troops, and Conti-

Stiger, Baltus.

nental army.

Jeremiah, Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment. Stillwel], Jon", Capt, Tucker's company, First Regiment; also artillery. Stockbridge, John, Capt. Maxwell's company.
si
ill

ill,

Gordon, William.
Gordon,
,

Capt. Maxwell's company, Socond Rogimeut.

Kirk, John, Capt. Tucker's company.


Kirk, William,

company. Stout, Andrew, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. company. Phillips' si., iii, Benjamin, Capt. John Stout, James, First Regiment; State troops, and Continental army. First Regiment; disch. Oct. company, Tucker's Stout, John, Capt.
Stockton, John, Capt. Philip Phillips'
1777. gtout,

Neulen, James, Capt. John Phillips' company.


Nollor, Cornelius, Capt. Philip Phillips'
1777.

company;

disch. Sept. 29,

30,

John

(tailor), Capt,

Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Henry Phillips' company. company. stout, Timothy, Capt, Stout's company, Third Regiment. company. Maxwell's Stnart, John, Capt. Sulliviin, Daniel, Capt. Gearhart's company, Second Regiment;
Stout, Joseph, Capt. Stout, Sin, Capt. Tucker's

Van Nunlen, David, Capt. Tucker's company. Van Noy, Anderson, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. Van Noy, John, Capt. Philip Phillips' company. Van Polt, John. Van Reid, Cornelius, First Regiment; State troops,
army, Capt. Phillips' company.

also Continental

also in

State troops,

Sullivan, William.

Sutpben, James. Sutton, Aim. m, Third Regiment; also in State troops. Sutton, Joseph, Third Regiment; also in State troops. Swallow, Jacob, Third Regimont, Capt. Hoppock's company,

Van Van Van Van Van

Sickle,

Andrew.
company.

Sickle, Garret. Sickle, William, Capt. Stout's

Tylo, Alimni. Tylo, John.


I

VftUght, Potor,
(

'apt.

Stout'B

company, Third Regiment.

(See Fougli.)

Veal, William, also

iii

Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.


Phillips'

Vint, John, First Regiment, Continental army, Capt.

company.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES


Voorbeeu, Albert, Cnpt. Maxwell's company,
Bt iph< a

IN

Till',

REVOLUTION.
!

91

Hunt

captain artillery; colon*

First

Battalion,
14, 177+1
;

Fi

',

1776

Voorheese, John. W'ainmii (or Warner), William, Capt Johnson's company; State troops;

colonel battalion, Hoard's brigade,


12,

June

resigned July
'.ittt.

1776; disability.
Quit k,

and Continental Army, Id Capt Rom' company, Third Battalion, Second Establishment, iss, Third Regiment; Stato troops; a^so Oontlnenta] Watenon, TJ army, Capt Mitchell's company, Wi'b'b, IIuk'', ''apt. Tii. -k.ir'tt company.
Welden, Alexander, Capt. Tucker's company. Welling, John, ''apt. P. Pb ill Ids' company.

Abraham

olonel

>nd Bottall
1

Ten Eyck, lieutenant-colonel First BattaU


colonel ditto.

Henry Yam
monl
State
I

nd
pe,

Battalion,

Sept

9,

ittt,

colonel regi-

Oct 9,

L779.
5,

Baird, first

colonel ditto,

major Second Battalion, April Sept 9, 1777; died.

1777; lieutenant-

Wosor, Jacob.
Westbrook, Cornelius.
James.

Derrick allddah, second major First Battalion, Feb.


coloiifi ditto, Feb. 28, 1777.

3, itt<;

lieutenant*

Peter
.

etherhawk, Johanne
I

Capl
i

U ixweU's company.

D.Vroom, captain Second Battalion; first 1777; lleutonant-colonel ditto, Sept 9, ittt.

inajur ditto,

John, lapt. 3ton Whlteal, Nathan.


\\ tilte,

ompany.

William Baird, captain

&

id

Battalion;

iir-t

major

.iitt..,

Not.

n,

1777.

Thomas Hal
Stiiut'n ...iiipany.
;
1

tto,

Feb. 28, ITTT.

Whitehead, John, Capt.

majoi Second Battalion; major Thompson's battalMilitia,"

[i

Lnii,
(toff,

Garret,

Capt John PhllUpa' company.

ion, "

Dotnchod
lothii

July

18,

1776; majoi ChamberB

battalion,

Wi<

John.
,

tfov.17,1776; resigned

June

10, 1779, to accepl

Wlllal

Win.,

Capt Cornelius Carbart's company; Stato troops; ami


In

SI its

r.

Oontlnenta] army,

Capt Bobs company.


;

Wi

in-ill
<

i,

Henry, Capt Qullck'a company


eumpiuiy.
In

also In Continental

army,

in

"apt. Aihk-n*oii'ts

James Unn, captain Blrsl Battalion; pro. to resigned June 28, 1781, Bichard McDonald, captain Firel Battalion;
28, 1777.

Oral major, Feb.

3,1776;

pro.

toss

>nd

maJor,Fob,
pro. to

Wilkinson, Wm., also

Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's com-

pany

died Jan. 23, ittt.

Abraham Ncviua, Heul


major, Nov.
I

oanl Second Battalion;

pro.-

to captain

Williams, James, Capt Hott's company.


Williams, Jul ui, also
in

6,

1777.
Firsl

Continental army,

llama,

Owen,

also In

Pothemus company, Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company,


lapt

.1

,hn

It
\

i,

major

Battalion.
;
(

Williams, Samuel.

Williamson, Abram, Capt Stout's company.


Williamson, Bar, Capl

Maxwell's company.

Williamson, Jacob,

lapt

Henry

Phillips

.ompany.

second major Second Battalion, June ", ittt major Sept 9, ittt resigned Not. 6, 1777; also pay masHunterdon Mate troops. Edward Bonn, payniaMn-; al-<- paymaster State troops. Joseph Gaston, paymaster.

William
pro,
tei

orbryck, captain
first

t.i

S morsel and

m, Jacob, Gapt Stout's company; State troops; also in Continental army, Capt. Ballard's company.

Joseph Babcoi

k,

aptnin S
I

ad Battalion.
Battalion; pro. to captain Second Battalion,

John Bah
Benjamin
; 1

I,

w
\\

llson, Daniel.

or Kerr), captain
I

Second Battalion.

llson,

Pram
i

Is,

lapt.

John

Phillip

'

company,
nl

irey,

captain First Battalion,

Wilson, James, Capt.

Homy

Phillips' run ipa in

Continental army,

John

Craig, captain Firai Battalion; captain Stato troops.


Firsl Battalion

in

Battalion, Se<

>nd Establishment, and Capt. Mltchell'e

company,

David Do Oroot, captain


Peter Dumont, capl dn Simon Daryea, captain

July 27,

177*;.

First

Beglment
ir1

Sec

ad Battalion.

ompany, Wilson, John, Capt John Phillips company, Third Regiment Wilson, Thomas, Capt John Phi w llson, H Mian tpl John Phil aps .Thirds Imont
Llson,
I

John, Capt tfaxwi

Firsl Battalion.

Philip Fulkerson, captain Second Battalion.

\\

Inooop,
Inflold,
id,

'

lornellns,
nl
i

William 0. Houston, captain Second Battalion, Feb, Aug. 17, 177... William Jones, coi Batl dion.

28,

1776; resigned

Matthew,

Continental army, Cnpt Andi


anj
,

rs >n'fi

company.

Andrew

BLlrkpatrick, captain First Battalion.


Batl dion
.

Wo

Ann

lond

Eb

Iment; also In State

kill* d

Sept

Ifi,

1777. Ellaabeth-

troops,

town, N.J.
ad

Wood, Daniel, Capt Qnllck'


i

Beglment ; also in State "ii Continental army, Cnpt Anders m'a company. Wood, Hozekiab tekiah), Capt Growendyck'i company. M lod, Michael, First Re Imenl otlnental army, In lapt Phillips companj fl I, William, also Contin ntal army, Capl ^ndoi m' enpany.
1
'
i

William

in

ml

il

Firsl

Batl dion.

Lott, first
talion,

lieutenant

Capt Ten Eyck^B company, Second Bat-

First Battalion.
First Battalion.
28, 1777.

William Uoffatt, captaiu


Jami
Sfo ire,
1

Samuel,
iti
i

t]

laiu
I

Second Battalion, April


;

ompany.
LI
lil

Worth, Jami w n hi.


,i
.

-.

"
i

apt

arlo

1 poo]

Horse.*'

John Parkor, captain Nathan


:

ii

>

Firsl

Battalion

captml

ib,

V
roy,

Continental

my, Capt
Peter Puni

..

17T7.
'
:

Polhomus' comp
n ^

kttallon.

Vard, Elijah, Capt. TuckorV company,


ord,

nd Battalion.
tl

Samuel, Capl Tuck or


,

aw

gei

Petoi

<

lapt Stout's

ompany, company
i

dion.

iud Battalion,
tpl
I

young, Hozektoh, Capt Mott's c< t] Xoung, Jaiix-, Capt P. Phillips Opdj i.r'- comp my, Toung, Phi mpany.
1

dn,
lion.

ptaln.

Rulofl S

it

Battalion.

Powell.

DaTld

Sm
.

Hunt's

Battalli n,

B
l,"

July

The following
served
in

are those from Somersel

'ounty

who

18, it

Lrst

Battall m.
at battl

9taata, lieutenant

Second Battalion; wounded


ti

the Revolution
i I

mantown, Pa
First Battr

Oct. 4, 1777; pro.

:.

Hunt's

William Alexondi
Frederick
l.lTTi.;

Battall .hi. Jul)

..,

1776; resign)

July, 1771

gonornl of Contluontal

oi 013

Battalion.

Frellugbuyson,
. '

Aral
1

m
tstoi d

atlnuto-

John

>ti

'0
:

captain

Company

--f

Artllloi
I

colonel

Kii-i
I

Buttallon, Feb. 28, 1777; rosigni


to to
i

to

accept
7,

Battalion,

spp

ilutmi

Dta

1777

pro.

t..

ftpmln

02

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Battalion.
(.'apt. Snmlli'y's company, First Battalion. Joakim Quick, ensign Capt. V room's company, Second Battalion. Cornelius Suydam, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company; pro. corporal and ensign in State troops. Matthias Sharp, ensign Capt. Porter's company, March 7, 1777. Peter T. Stryker, ensign Capt. Henry Sparks' company, Second Bat-

Coonrad Ten Eyck, sergeant Second Battalion; pro. to captain Second


Jacob Ten Eyck, lieutenant First Battalion
talion.

Isaac Parker, ensign

pro. to captain First Bat-

Cornelius Tunison, private Capt. Jacob


Philip

Ten Eyck's company,

First Bat-

talion; pro. to sergeant, to lieutenant, to captain.

Van Arsdalen, captain First Abraham Van Nest, ensign Second

Battalion.

talion.

Battalion; pro. to captain.


;

Andrew Ten Eyck,


pro. to

private Capt. Jacob

Ten Eyck's company

teamster

Kynear Vegbte, lieutenant Second Battalion pro. to captain. John Voorhees, ensign Capt. Duryea's company, First Regiment;
captain.

Minute-men; ensign Capt. Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion, June 19, 1778. Jacob Ten Eyck, Jr., private Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, July 8,
ditto; pro. corporal, sergeant

Peter G. (Van) Voorhees, second lieutenant, Continental army, Nov. 29, 1775;
first

1776; pro. ensign. Isaac Vantyle, ensign Capt.

lieutenant ditto, Sept. 18, 1776


1,

captain First Battalion,

John Sebring's company,

First Battalion.

Second Establishment, Nov.

1777; also captain First Eegiment;

Isaac Voorhees, private; pro. corporal, sergeant, and cornet of troop


light-horse.

captured and killed by Tories near


Battalion.

New

Brunswick, Oct.

2G, 1779.

Daniel "Wentzel, ensign State troops; pro. to captain, also captain First

Daniel

Ammerman,

private Capt.

Ten Eyck's company;


;

pro. sergeant.

George Auton, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company


sergeant.
Capt.

pro. corporal .and

David Wentzel, ensign State troops; also captain.

James "Wheeler, ensign


pro. to captain.

Ten Eyck's company, Second Battalion;

William Beekman, sergeant Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.


Isaac Bennett, private
;

pi'o.

sergeant.

Nathan

All, lieutenant Capt.

Duryea's company, First Battalion.

Burgum Brocaw,

sergeant Capt. Ten Eyck's company.


;

Peter Allen, lieutenant First Battalion.

Evart Brocaw, private Capt. Ten Ej'ck's company

pro. corporal

and and

Samuel Anuin, private;

pro. to lieutenant.

Jacob G. Bergen, lieutenant; lieutenant commanding guard at Princeton. Denice Bier, lieutenant. [Name also given as Dennis Byn.]
Rjbert Bolmer, lieutenant First Battalion. John Brocaw, lieutenant First Battalion killed Oct.
;

Derrick Brocaw, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company

pro. corporal

4,

1777, at

German-

town.

Abraham Dement,

lieutenant First Battalion.

William Frazer, lieutenant First Battalion. George Hall (son of Edward), private Capt. Ten Eyck's company, First
Battalion; pro. lieutenant.

Lane, lieutenant First Battalion.

Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion. Isaac Cool, sergeant Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion. Derrick Demit, sergeant Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion. Frederick Ditres, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company pro. to sergeant. Derrick Dow, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company; pro. to sergeant. Fulkert Dow, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company pro. to sergeant; also in State troops, and private in Continental army. Minue Du Bois, private Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion; pro.
Samuel Brown, sergeant Capt.
J.
; ;

John Swain, sergeant Capt.Duryea's company, First Battalion:


tenant.

pro. lieu-

to sergeant.

Manicus Duboys, sergeant Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company, Second


J.

John Ten Eyck, lieutenant; killed June 17, 1777, at Millstone, N. John Tharp, lieutenant; in service until close of war. John Todd, lieutenant. James Van Horn, lieutenant First Battalion.
Peter Welch, lieutenant.

Battalion.

Aaron Hageman, private;


ltolif

pro. to sergeant.

Hageman, sergeant

Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.

Garret Harris, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company; sergeant Minute


Christian Hoagland, private Capt. Vroom's

James Whalen, lieutenant


talion.

First Battalion.

company;

pro. to sergeant.

Stephen Whitaker, lieutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company, First Batfirst lieutenant Capt. Smalley's company, First Battallieutenant Capt. Outwater's company, and in Capt. Peter Ward's company, State troops. Joseph Catherland, first lioutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company, First Bat-

Joseph Kennan, private; pro. to corporal and sergeant. Elijah Leigh, sergeant Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.

Joseph Catterlin,
ion
;

Abraham

Messeroll, private; pro. to sergeant.


J.

Morris Miller, private Capt.

Ten Eyck's company;

pro. to sergeant;

also sergeant State troops.

talion,

Nov.

11, 1777.
first
8,

Abram Dumont,
talion,

lieutenant Capt.

Ten Eyck's company,

First Bat-

July

1776.
first

Aaron Longstreet,

lieutenant Capt. Houston's company, Second Batpro. first lieutenant


first

talion, Feb. 28, 1770.

David Neviii6, sergeant Capt. Stiyker's troop. John Perrine, sergeant Minute-men; sergeant Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company. Hendrick Post, private Capt. Vroom's company pro. to sergeant. John Powlson, sergeant Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion. John H. Schenck, private Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company pro. to ser;
;

Peter Low, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company

first

geant.
Capt. John Sebring's company. Benjamin Taylor, private Capt. Vroom's company pro. to sergeant. Conrad Ten Eyck, private Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company pro. to
;

lieutenant Capt. Stites' company, July 5, 1776;

lieutenant Col.
first

Thompson's

battalion, "

Detached Militia," July 18,1770; also

Thomas Sortore, sergeant Enoch Still well, sergeant

Capt. Duryea's company.

lieutenant Continental army.

James Stockton, ensign


28,
;

Capt. Houston's company, Second Battalion, Feb.

1776 first lieutenant Capt. Moore's company, April 28, 1777. Zebulon Barton, second lieutenant Capt. Houston's company, Feb. 28,
1776.

sergeant.

Hendrick Teplo, private Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company


geant.

pro. to ser-

John Bennett, second lieutenant


talion.

Capt.

Ten Eyck's company, Second Batpro. sergeant; pro. en-

John

Tilyer, sergeant Capt. Duryea's

company,

First Battalion.

Philip Folk, private Capt.

Ten Eyck's company;

George Todd, sergeant Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. John Van Arsdalen, sergeant Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.

sign, Aug. 20, 1777; pro. second lieutenant, Nov. 11, 1777. Derrick Lane.eecond lieutenant Capt. Stitea' company, July 5, 1770 captain Continental army.

Abraham Van
;

Arsdalen, private Capt. Vroom's company; pro. to ser-

also

geant.

Isaac Manning, second lieutenant Capt. Smalley's company, First Battalion.

Abraham Van Dora, sergeant Capt. Cornelius Van Dyke, private Capt.
geant.

C. J.

Ten Eyck's company. Ton Eyck's company

pro. to ser-

Iwaac Vanardsdaleu, second lieutenant Capt.


Battalion, July
8,

Ten Eyck's company,

First

Andrew Van Middlesworth,


sergeant.

private Capt. Vroom's

company;

pro. to

1770.

Peter Vaudevcnter, second lieutenant Capt, Porter's company, First Battalion,

John Van Nortwick, Borgeant

Capt, C.

Ten Eyck's company.


J.

March

7,

1777.

Abraham Van Voorhees,


Ten Eyck's company, First Batsergeant.

sergeant Capt. Sebring's company.

John Van

Neste, aecond lieutenant Capt.

Jacobus Van Voorhees, private Capt,

Ton Eyck's company;

pro. to

talion, Dec. 3, 1770.

Jasper Brokaw, private


April 28, 1777.

pro, U> ennigii.

Abraham Voorhees,
company, Second Battalion,
talion.

sergeant Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company, First Bat-

James Ilambloton, ensign

Capt. Moore's

Jacob Voorhees, private Capt.

J.

Ton Eyck's company,

First Battalion.

BUNTKKDOX AND
geant.

Si ).M

KltSi-T

CUl'XTIES IN

THE REVOLUTION.
;

93

Nathaniel Wbltaker, private Capt. J. Ten Byck's company; pro. to serCornelius Willet, sergeant militia.
leg
\ii..
'

Samuel, also In Continental army, Capt Martin's


transferred to Invalid corps, July 28, 177S

dbn b u

smputated,
Libert, Capt.
J:
. I

Ton KyukV company. ni-i in:ui. private Capl Vroom'a company pro. to corporal. Jacobus Uurgon, corporal Capt. Vroom's company. Abraham Bertron, corporal Capt. J. Ton Eyck'a company; pro. from
Joiuitliitii
I

Will.t, lergoant Capt. J.

rmai

I.
I,
I

md

Battalion.

',

.in

Amennan, David, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck'a company, Second Amerman, John, Capt S ro m\i company, Second Battalion,
bnerman, Powell, Copt Coonrad
Den
Eyi
1

Battalion.

private.

mi Bat-

James Boj
r.
1.
1

Ian, corpora]

lapt J,

Ten Eyck'a company;

pro.

from private

.i

m.

Brokaw, corporal Oapt Vroom'a company; pro from private.


Covert, corporal

Thomas

Cm ih'Uiib
Abram

Capt Vroom'a company. Coalmw. corporal (apt. Puryoa's ci.nipany,


corporal Capt. Jacob Ton

i'ii-l

Hattollon.

Amerman, Powell J. Aw. in kb, John, Oapt Jacob Ten Eyck'a company. mpany. Andrew ,W ron]
Andrews,
Bffi

Klchanl Davis, corporal Capt. Duryea's company,


ii.'froah,

First Battalion.

boel.
I

Eyok'd

company;

pro.

from

An. mi-, Michael,


1

lapt J.

Ten Eyck'a company.

private.

11. 1.

|i

Boboi

t.

Jobn Dumont,
talion.

Jr.,

corporal Capt. Jacob

Ten Eyck'a company,


Ten Eyck'

First Bat-

Anson, John.
kpploberry, Ambrose, Copt J. Ten Byck's company, ^pplebj mo Capt J.I en Byi h '- company. Appleman, David, Capt J, Ten Eyck's company. A her, John, Oapt J. Ten Eyck'a company.
,

Cornellti

Efraser, corporal

Capt

'

company;

pro.

from

private.

William Huls, corporal Capt Moore Benjamin [ngereoll, corporal Capt Jacob Ten
1

>nd Battalion,
J

.1

any, First
\
1

3tephen,
1
1 1 .

Battalion.

,
.

John

Capt Moore's company, Second Battalion. Azariah Parker, corporal Capt Jacob Tea Eyck'a company. Petal Post, corpora] Oapt Jacob Ten Eyck'a company; pro. from
1

ike, corporal

Armstrong, Tl
pri-

.1

-.

William.

Arrowsmith, Benjamin, Capt Coonrad Ten Eyck^a


Ai rowsmith, Nicholas.
'<..

.nip. my.

vate.
Ji.lin

Storms, corporal Capt. Jacob


;

Ton Eyck'a company

corpora]

State

mas,

troops also private Continental army. Bernard Striker, corporal Capt Jacob Ton Eyck'a company.
Qllles Sntphen, corporal
l

Mten, Joseph.

Anton, John

1 I

lyck'a

ipany.

apt Duryea's company.


1

Anton, Thomas, Capt John Sebring's company, Hrsl Battalion. Anton, Thomas, Capt Vroom'a company, Second Battalion.

Abraham Van Arsdolen, corporal Capt O rod Pen company. Philip Van Arsdolen, corporal lapt Jacob Ton Eyck'a company.
'

Ay ore,
\
..
.

David.
.1

uaao Van Clef


i*.t. r

mpany.
;

jili.
,

Vanderburgh,
;

coi porol Capt.

State broopa
B<

also private in

Jacob Ton Eyck'a company Continental army.

corporal

Bal
1.
LJ
1

William.
.1

l;

01

ojamln Van Dorn, corporal


:

militia.

Bakeman, M
pro.

in

({est,

corporal

Capt Jacob Ten Byck's company;

from

Bal er, Blias.

private.

Bollard, John,

Capt

Jaw

oh Ten Eyi

li

-t

Battalion.

Isaac Yoorhoos, corporal Capl. Jacob Ten Eyi k'a company, First Battalion.

Bollard, Nathaniel.

Abraham Vburhase, corporal Capt Coonrad Ton Eyck'a company, Socond Itattallon. Winter, corporal Capt Vroom'a company. John Wortman, corporal Capt Jacob a pro. from
Ja-'-'li
1

I l
:

Barkloy, George. Barkley, Bugh.

i.

Barkloy, John.
Joseph.
Bartloy, John,

private.

Philip Zoung, corporal


[agei

Capt Duryea's company,

First Battalion.

Gilbert
Ibi "ii

man, musician, militia. Lane, drumtn Capt Jacob Ten Byck's company.
11

\ .in

V001

hi

i,

di

did

'

Ja

>
1

impany.

David Bertram,
i>n\
ill

flfer
<

Oapt. Jacob Ten Byck's


' '
I

Hi Itton, Bfei

H Donald Campbell,
Stato troops; also
Btu
I

flfer

company. mpany. Capt Ooroy^ company, First Battalion: Bfer


Continent

John Sobrlng'a company. Beam, Henry, apt Jac h a ck\i company. Beam, Henry, Jr., Oapt J k'a company. Beard, Robert

Bel

Pi t-T.
1 1

mpany.

lifer In
i]
I .

Bod I nc (Bod I no), Nl


1

1
1

tovert, flier

John.
.

ii

ftilkerson,

flfer.

Ji

Sunt,

flfei

Oapt Ton

mpany.

Bookman, John,
I

First Battalion,

Copt

J.

Ten

Eyi k'a

company.

Abram

Lott, Bfer.
flfer

John Nortwlck,
Peter sir; ker,

Capl Jacob Ten Byck's company.


J

flfoi

Capl

uxibl

company.
I
I

Daniel.

.1

Andreas Ten Eyck, teamster Capt Ja < !- Ton! Capt Jacob Ten
ii"

mpany.
mpany.

Bell,

William.
.1

Mi, Second Battalion,

Oapt Vi
1

m'-

mj any,

10

Byck, tonmster Capt J

O01 aellus.

company. William Hoy, wn fen Eyck'a company. tithard, wagoner Capt Jo bTon mpany. Jamc Voorlu n Martin Vo Capt Dury< mpany, James \\ tnt< it d, J b mp inj
1

H irthongh,

wagoner Capt. Jn

:ob

Ten

Byi k'a

Bennett, John,

Oapt Coonrad Ton : Ten Kyok's oompany,


j

"iy.
I

1 i

my.

'

Berkley, Hugh.

Berkley, John.
ntr.
I
: I

Berry, Potar,

Aldhood, John,

Ml

in,

David,

Capt

Ja
I

bTenBycl

Bishop, U

Ton

.'>

inpauy.

Allan, Jo

Battalion,

Blackford, Benjamin.

Blow, William.
it.

94
Blew, Abram. Blew, Frederick.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Campbell, John.
Carbon, Christopher, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company,
ens,

Blew, Isaac, Capt. Duryea's company. Blew, John. Blew, William, Capt, Duryea's company.
Bloodgood, Phineas.
Bloodgood, Phenice.

John.
T., Capt. Baird's

Carle,

Ephraim

company;

also State troops,

and Conti-

nental army.

Carman, John, Capt. Duryea's company,


mer, John, militia.
Castner, James, Capt. Jacob

Blow

(or Blue),

Michael.

Ten Eyck's company.

Blue, Cornelius.

Catalyou, Henry.
Catolin, Joseph.

Ten Eyck's company. Blue, Hendrick, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Board, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Bookman, George, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Bock man, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Blue, Daniel, Capt. Coonrad

Cavaleer, John.

Chambers, John, Capt. Moore's company. Chambers, Roland, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Chandler, John.

Bodewine, Peter, Capt. Jones' company, Second Battalion.

Chandler, Peter.

Bodewine, William. Bodley, Nathan, Capt. Parker's company; also State troops; and Continental army, Capt. Ballard's company, Third Bultalion, Second Establishment.

Chapman, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Chapman, William. Charles, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Christopher, John. Clark, James, Capt.
Cleare, Godfrey, Capt. Jacob

Bolmer, Garret.

Bond, Benjamin. Bond, Jacob.


Bonnel, Jacob.

John Sebring's company. Ten Eyck's company.

Clendenning, Isaac.
Cloason, Ebenezer.

Boorum, Jacob.
Bours, James.

Cluson, Josiah.

Coach, Jacob. Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.


Cobb, Mathias, Capt. Parker's company; also State troops; and sergeant
in Continental army, Capt. Coxe's

Bowers, William. Boyd, Alexander. Boyd, William.


Boylan, Aaron, Capt. Parker's company; also State troops; and Continental army, Capt. Piatt's company.

company.

Cock, Henry.
Cock, Jacob, Capt. Yroom's company. Cock, Jacob W., Capt. Vroom's company.

Boylan, John.
Boyles, Jonathan.

Cock, William.
Cocke, William, First Battalion, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's
Coe, Jacob.
Collins,

company

Bracket, Nathaniel.

Brady, James.
Breese, Garret, also captain and conductor of Breese, John.
Bress, Cornelius, Capt. Jacob

Abraham.

Team

Brigade.

Colter, Alexander, Capt. Jacob Colter, John, Capt. Jacob

Ten Eyck's company. Ten Eyck's company.

Ten Eyck's company. Brewer, George, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion. Brewer, George, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company, Second Battalion.
Brewer, John.

Colwell, John.

Col well, William.


Colyer, Moses, First Battalion.

Brickman, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.


Bright, Philip.

Thomas. Combs, Charles, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Combs. Samuel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Colyer,

Brinson, John.
Britt, Philip.

Jacob Ten Eyck's company; State troops; and sergeant in Continental army, in Capt. Piatt's company. Britton, Abraham, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Brittain, Jeremiah, Capt.

Compton, Compton, Compton, Conaway,

Jacob, Capt. Quick's

company

also in State troops.

Joseph, troop light-horse.

Richard, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Brocaw, Adam, Capt. Porter's company also Continental army. Brocaw, Benj., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
;

John, Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion. Conelyou, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Conelyou, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Conk ling,

Josiah.

Brockover, Peter.

Conover, David, Capt. Duryea's company. Conover, John, Capt. Moore's company.

Brockaw, Abraham, Capt. Yroom's company. Brockaw, Caspams, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Brockaw, George, Capt. V room's company. Brockaw, Isaac. Brockaw, Richard. Brookhead, Benj., Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company.
Brooks, Isaac.
'

Cook, George, First Battalion; also in State troops; and Continental

army, in companies of Capts. Piatt and


Cook, Jacob.
Cool, David, Capt. Moore's

Phillips.

Cook, Henry, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

company.

Coole, Peter.

Brown, Adam,

First Battalion; also State troops;

and Continental army,

Coon, Aaron. Coon, Abijah. Coon, Daniel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, and Capt. Corey's company also in State troops, and Continental army.
;

Capt. Piatt's company.

Brown, George. Brown, Gilliam. Brown, John.


Bruner, Jacob.
Bullae,

Coon, Ebenezer.

Coon, Folty.
Capt. Coonrad

Adam,

Ten Eyck's company.

Coon, Levi, First Battalion. Coon, Peter. Coon, Runy.


Cooper, John.
Cooper, Thomas. Copton, Richard, Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company.

Burdine, Wilson.
liurgie,

Thomas. Burkfleld, Thomas. Bushficld, Thomas.


Butler, James.
Jtutterfoss,

Andrew,

also In Continental

army, Capt. Martin's company.

Corlow, Benjamin.
Cornelison, Garret, Capt. Jacob

Buys, Jacob.

Ten Eyck's company.

Mathews, Capt. Moore's company State troops, and Continental army. Caldwell, John, Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck'a company.
Bu/,/,y,
;

Cornolison, John.
Cornell, Cornelius (1st).

Cornell, Cornelius (2d). Cornell, Joseph, Capt. Coonrad

Caldwell, William.

Ten Eyck's company.

Campbell, Alexander, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.


Campbell, Archibald, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Corrington, Archibald, First Battalion.

Corrington, Benjamin.

HUNTERDON AND
Conhon, Joseph.
I

SOMKI'.SKT COI'XTIKS IN TIIK

IlKVoLlTloN.

96

kn

il

Joshua,

Cortloyou, Hendiick.
Corwell, Cornelius.

Cohhuw, Abraham, dipt. C*unrad Ten

Ky.i;"rf

.mpany,

Downey, William, Capt. Mooro's company; 8tate troops, and Continental army. Drake, John, Oapt Jacob Tea Drew, Thomas. I'n Bols, s uolas, Capt Vroom'S company. Second Battalion.
I

'

Coshow, Goorgo.
CohIiow, Jacob,

Ducker, Peter,
DuniMii
i.or

Capt Vruom's company.

Dumotid), Hendrick, Capt Coonrad Ton Kyck's company.

Covenboven, Donico, Govenhoven,


I

Dumon
army.

(or

Dumond),
i

Peter,

Oapt Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

I),

Peter V.

Covert,

Bnrgnm,
i

also In Continental

lanlel.

Oovi

it,

Jacob.

Covert, John.

Capt bonrad T.-n Kyck's company. Covort, Tunis, Capt. Coonrad Ton Eyck's company.
Covert, Tl
'-,
I

Craig, Moses. Crane, Asa, First Battalion; also State troops, and Continental army.
,

Dnmont, Albert Oapt Jacob Ton Eyck's company. ib Ten Kyck's company. Dumoin, tnpany Dnmont, John, Oapt Jacob 3 inn i, John B., Capt Jacob Ten Byck'a company. Dnmont, Peter, Oapt Jacob Ten Byi k" company. i' company. I'liiinuil, l'.-!.-i .1. II., Capl. Vr Dn Mott, Abraham, Oapt Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
i
I

Du Mott, Barent Cent Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

James.

Crolus, John.
i

SamneL
I ;

Hu Du Dn

Mutt, Benjamin, Capt. Coonrad Too Byck'a company.

Mott, Dlrck. Mutt, Lawrence,

Capt Coonrad Ten Eyck's company,

Crow, Garret, 'apt. Moore's company, Socond Battalion also Stato troops, ami Continental army.
Cryer, John.

Cummins, Jacob.
(iiniiiiins,

Duncan, John. Dunham, Jokn. Dunning, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Dunn, Jonathan, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

John, also in Stato troops.

Cnmpton, John, First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Kyck's company, Cnnningfaam, Hatthew. Daley, Nicholas, Capt Jacob Ten Byck'a company, First Battalion.
Dan,
Willi, Lin,
I

Dunn, Bonbon. Dunn, William.


Inni-t.'i, .t.un.-s

Dunvier, Thomas.

'apt.

I)

iiipauy.

Danuldson, William,
Davis, James, Capt. Moore's company.

Dnrland, Linns. Hurling, Samuel.

Ton Eyck's company. .mi Eyck'a company. Davfs, Thomas, Capt Uaird's company; State troops;
Dai
]>u\
Is,
is,

John, Capt.
Saiiiu<'i,
i

0.

Duychinck, James, Copt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Dwire, Thomas, Capt. Vruom's company.
Edgar, Archibald.
also Continental
I

'

ui'i.

'

army, First Battalion, Second Establishment. Davison, William.


Deamell, Patrick.
Ds
I

Ellis,
I

John. Joseph, Lieut. Bergen's company.


.hiliH-.

.fii.'h-.

Kn
0.

Join

imp, John,

Capt

Decker, John, Capt. 0. Docker, Pater.

Ton Eyck'a a Ton Kyck's company.


i

Emmons, John.
Eoff, Cornelius.

Estle, William.

Defresh, Isaac, Capt J, Tea Kyck's company.

Do Hun, Hendrick
Demott, Peter,

(or

Henry).

Evans, William, Lieut. Bergen's company. Evans, William, Capt. Babcock's company also Stato troops; and Contineutal army, Firsl Battalion, Beoond EMabiishniont.
;

Damnnd, Tones
Denlante, John.

(or Tunis).

Exsen, Abnor.
Felrchild,

Henktan.

Dennis, Reuben, Capt

J.

Ten Eyck's compauy.


i

Bine.

Dennis, Bobart
Dli

Fayer, Christian, Capt. Jacob


m, John,

kson, Alexander.

Ton Eyck's company. Capt Jacob Ten Byck'a company.


M
ore^a

Dickson, William, First Battalion; also Stato troops, and Continental

Fine, Abram.
i

army.
Dildine, John.
Dillen, Peter.

,ii,

,01

company.

Fisher, Henry, Capt. Jacob

Ton Eyck's company.

Fisher, John.
Fiskar, Benry,

Disbrow Joseph, Llont Bergen1! company.


,

Oapt Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Dltmars, Johannos.
DitrnarB, Peter, Capt.

Kurd, Charles.

Vruom's company.
Jacob Ton Byok*a company,
Fort,

VI

alter.

Ditmoa, Frederick,
DJtmos, John.

('apt.

Benjamin.
ads.

Ditmoa, Peter.
1

Fort,

Henry.

Joseph.
(or

Fort, Joseph.
,

Damn

Doran

Cornelius.

Fort,

Thomas.

Dortan, William.
Doty, Jeremiah, Capt Jacob Ten Cycle's company.
Doty, John,

Forth, Frai
Forth, Phineas.

Doty, John, Jr.,


Doty, Peter,

Capt Jacob Ten ByoVa ompany. nipany. Capt Jacob Ten i\yi.">
i i

arisOan, Capt Jacob

Ten Eyck's company.

Firs!

Battalion; also State troops;

and Continental army,

I".

'

Bonbon.
David.

Capt. Piatt's

company.

Doty, Skillman.

Fran

b,

Joseph, Oapt Coonrad Tan Byok'i con

Doty, Zebulon,

French,

WUUam, Oapt
Peter,

Jai oh
i

>

ipany.

Doty, William.

Oapt Jacob

ipany.

Dougherty, John.

Fulkorwon, Cornelius,
Fulkerson, Fnlkert, dipt. Oooni
Fulkorson,

Doughty,

ii

ompany.

Doughty, Jeremiah, Capt. J, Ten Byok'i d imp toy. Doughty, Johu, Capl J. Ten By h company. Doughty Dow, John, Capt. J, Ton Byck'a company. Dow, John, Jr., Ospt. J. Ten Ey< k'> company. Dowelson, John, apt. '. Ton Byck'a company.
, t

H
i>,

Fnlkarson, Hans.
the Continental army.

i.

William.
1
-

Furmau,

yea's

company.

96
Fnrman, Waters,

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Capt. Duryea's company.

HUNTERDON AND SOMEUSKT (OINTIKS


.Klrkpatrlck, William.

IX

THE REVOLUTION.

07

Martin, James, Oapt Jacob Ten Kyck's company.


.;
. |

Kllcknor, George.

...

J,
i

Emanuel. La Fever, Allnert La Fever, Myndert, Oapt Stoat's company, Second Battalion; troops, and Continental army.
I

Mashat, Peter,

apt Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Mawe, Rynear.
*J

Haxfleld, David.

tfaybeck, John, Capt Jacob


Bfi
I

Ten Eyck'a compej


and Jacob Ten Eyck's companies; Army, in Capt. Bollard's company,

Lafferty, Denlce (or Dennis).


Littler,
Eiaflei
i
.

terron,

Hugh.
hn
'

Coonrad.

John. John.
n't, ''.[|it.

State

Continental

i:

Third Battalion, Second Establishment.

Moore\
trad

.'->i,i].

.m

v.

Bfct (lean,

John.
Daniel, Oapt Porter's

Dane, Gilbert, Capt C


Lane, Gnl beri

Ten Kyck's company.


Piatt's

company;
service.

also In Stato troops

aud Oapt

oompany, Continental

Lane, Henry, Oapt. Duryou's company, First Battalion.

McClow, Cornelius.
If,
i
i

Lane, Jacob.
Lane, Jobn, Oapt Jacob

..,

HcC

Horn),

Hugh, Capt Vroom's company

Ton Eyck's company.

Lane, Mathlas.

McCollom, John. M< r.,i,n.-n, Kohnt, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's oompany,
McCoy, Gavin. HcCray, James.
racob

Lane, Reuben, Bint Battalion, en Lauo, TmiM, 'apt. J


i

..

company.

Lane, William, Oapt Jacob Ten Cycle's company.


Lnnge, William, Oapt Jacob Ten E$yck's company.

Ten Eyck's company.

McDowell, Ephroim, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.


McDuffoo, Daniel.
McEiratii,

Lany,
i

llllam, Oapt.

Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

." , John. Lasender, Jacob, Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company.

Thomas.

Latham, James.
Latmi, TliomiiH,

McEowon, William. HcEwen, Daniel, Oapt Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. pt Porter's company; also in Continental army, Oapt
1 Piatt ! company. McGHl.John, Capt Porter's company;

Langbhead, 3 Langbhead, William.


i
' '

also in Continental

army, Capt.

PI

Oapt Coonrad Ten Eyck'a company.

Piatt'e

'

lompany.
rt,C
u

Lawrence, Ibram.
Laj ton,

Mi Gill, Sol Mi Kenney,

ipl

-i

ty

k"

ompany.

Thomas,

aellns.

Daniel.
n.ii.-i.
!

McKennoy, William.
Mi Kej
.

Joseph.

imas, First Battalion; also State troops,

and Continental army.

ETerty,

Leigh, Klijuli,
i

Henry 0., First Battalion also Stato Capt Duryea's company.


;
.

troops.

McKlo, Andrew, Capt Moore's company, Second Battalion. First Battalion; HcKinney, Joseph, Capt Core: troops; and Continental army, Oapt Piatt's oompany.
Hi U
v

a]

terah, Ooi aeliu

kin,

kndi w.

Lewis, Barnett,

llllam, Capt.

Jacob Ton Eyck's oompany.

Lew
L< p
i

Is,
i ,

Barnej

Edward.
I

a; also Continental

army.

Thomas, Capt, Coonrad Ten Kyck's com] Limbergh, John.


Light,

McMortry, Robert McMurtry, Thomas, First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company. HcWilliams, John. Heallgu, John, Capt Jacob Ten Kyck's company. Heculick, Rob
1

Liinhargor, Gabriel.

li-n

also in Stato troops.

Uner,

William.
Merrill,

l,ilM,,.l U

Linn, Joseph.

Andrew, Messerol, Abrnm.


-..

also in Continental

army.

Linn, Robert
l.i-!,, Aln.itii.

melius, Capt. Coonrad Ton Eyck's company.


Midi
I i

Link, John,
i

Capt Vrooni's company,


le

Mencow), Conrad,

First Battalion; also Capt. Tiatt's

company,

iub

ic,

lhai

ontlnontal army.
i

Luflor, Jacob,
Lofler, Philip.

Capt Vroom's

bn. Hllburn, John, Capt Jac


Miller, John.
Miller, Jonathan.
Miller,

' Ten

Byi k'- com]

Logan, Hugh.
melius.

Mai

ion, First Battalion;

wonnded and taken


3,

prisoner; died while

i.

y,

John, Jobn.

Lorey, John,
i ,

Jr.,

hpt tooni Oapt C


I

id T< n

k'
I

impany.
vi
i-'

New

fork, Dec.

1777.

irad

Ten
i

ompany.
Miller,
nip

my. mpany.
.

my.

Mllllgan, James.

Low ibrah an, Capt Low, Ai'i aham, lapt


.

mrod
\

impany.

Minor, William,
nftaket, P

room

company.

''

.i

In

HUS.

MIt> hell,

Benjamin.
'

.Johi

mpany.
ary.)

Lowry, Thomas. Lowsadder, Benjamin.


i

MolTutt,

Wl
Pi

upai

lu

William.

Monfbrt,

Ln\

iter, Peter,

Capt Vroonrt company.


s'

Montanye, abram,
atlnental

Firsrf

i'

v-k's

company.

Lyon, Qldeon, Capt Durj


i

imon,CaptJ
fflrsl

compel

Hon tanyo, fid ward, Jrn


M
I

First Battalion,

Oapt J obTen Eyck's

army,

Battalion,

mont

HaoGraw, Barnoy.
Mallck, John,
ol

tin C inttnontal army.

Manfoi

i,

Henry.
Clai

' I

M
I

ire,

Manning,

|j

Ten

k.*u

mpany. company,

Pi ine.
I

near.
Erst

Uartln, David.

Battalion,

98

HUNTEKDON AND SOMEKSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Pound, Cornelius.
Pound, John. Pound, Jonathan.
Powelson, Abram.
Powelson, Cornelius. Powelson, Hendrick (or Henry).

Morris, States, First Battalion, Capt. Duryea's company. Morris, Sylvester.

Mount, Matthew, Second Battalion, Capt. Moore's company.


Muler, Frederick.

Mullen, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Mulloner, Joseph, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Murphy, Thomas. Murphy, William.


Myers, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Nail, John, Capt. John Sebring's company.
Naphis, Peter. Navius * Christopher, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Navius,* David, Capt. Stryker's troop light-horse.

Powelson, John, in companies of Capts. Coonrad and Jacob Ten Eyck. Powelson, Monah, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Probasco, Garret.
Probasco, Peter.
Pull, John, Capt.

Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Quick, Garret. Quick, Jacob. Quick, Peter, Quick, Tunis.


Sr.,

Nephies, John, Capt. Buryea's company. Nephies, Martin, Capt. Duryea's company.
Nevies,* Cornelius.

Capt. Vroom's

company.

Ralph, Leroy, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.


Rapalye, Jeromus.

Nevies,* Martinus.
Neville, John.

Nevins,* Joseph.

Reamer, George. Reamer, John. (See John Roomer.)


Redding, Chris.

Neweut, Daniel V.
Nivius,* Ruloff.

Reemer, Lewis, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.


Reepley, Baltis.

Nixon, John. Norris, Thomas, Capt. Moore's company.


Northall, William.

Reynearson, Garret.
Reynolds, Samuel.
Rich, Joseph, also in Continental army, in Capt. Martin's company.

Norton, Jacob,

Jr.,

Capt. Jacob

Ten Eyck's company.

Nortwick, John.
Nortwick, Simon, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Oake, Jacob.
O'Lefferty, Henry, Capt. Parker's

Richardson, Joseph, Capt. Staat's company

State troops,

and Continental

Army.
also Conti-

company, First Battalion;

nental army, in Capt. Ballard's company.

OH'

Jero

Oliver, Nicholas.

Rickey, Benjamin. Rickey, Cornelius, Capt, Parker's company State troops, and Continental army. Riggs, Jonathan. Riggs, Thomas.
;

(Jppey, Christopher, Capt.

Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Rockefellow, Peter.
Rodes, Allan.
Rogers, Henry.

Owens, James. Oyers, Benjamin.


Pack, William, also Continental army. Packer, Jacob, also Continental army, First Battalion, Second Establishment.
Packston, William (also given as William Paxon). Pain, Stephen.

Roland, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.


Rolde, John.

Rolph, Jonathan, First Battalion; State troops; and Continental army,


in Capt. Forman's company.

Rolph, Richard, First Battalion, Capt. Corey's company

State troops

Pangborn, Peter.
Parker, Azariah.

Parker, Jacob, Second Battalion, Capt. Staat's company and Continental army.
Parker, James.

State troops,

Parker, John.
Parker, Robort.

and Continental army, in Capt. Forman's company. Roomer, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Rosebroom, Garret. Rosebroom, Hendrick (Henry), Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Ross, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Rossburg, John, also in Continental army, Capt. Bond's company, Fourth Battalion, Second Establishment; Capt. Anderson's compauy, Third

Parkinson, Jonathan.

Regiment; disch, April 10, 1783, " worn out in the service." Rubart, John, Capt. Jones' company, Second Battalion; Continental
army, First Battalion, Second Establishment.
given as Matthew Pierson).

Parkinson, Sylvanus.
Peach, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion.
Pearson,

Matthew

(also

Ruckman, David. Ruckman, Samuel,

Perlee, Peter, Second Battalion, Capt. Vroom'a

company.

Perrine, James. Perrine, John. Perrine, Nicholas.


Perrine, Peter (also spelled Peryn), Capt. Coonrad
Persee, John.

Capt. Moore's company; also State troops; and Continental army, in First Battalion, Second Establishment. Runyan, Ricliard (1st). Runyan, Richard (2d), Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Runyan, Vinceu, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Ton Eyck's compauy.

Rush, Peter.
Russell, William, also in Continental army, in Capt. Martin's

company.

Peterson, Thomas, Capt, Coonrad


Pbilliower, Christian.
Piutt,

Ten Eyck's company.

Ryall, Isaac, Capt.

John Sebring's company,


Jr.

First Battalion.

Ryker, Cornelius,

Abram.

Pickens, Alexander, Capt. Corey's company; also in State troops, and

Rynearson, Isaac, Capt. Lott's company, Second Battalion State troops and in Continental Army, in First Battalion, Second Establishment.
;

Continental army.

Rynearson, Rynier B.
Salter,

Pitman, Jonathan.
Pittenger,

Henry.

Abram.

Sanders, Israel.
Sandors, John, Capt. Baird's company, Second Battalion; also State
troops.

Pittenger, John.
Pitts,

William.

Plum, Samuel.
Poke, John. Pope, Birney.
Post,
Post,

Sanders, Thomas, Capt. Staat's company, Second Battalion

State troops,

and Continental army. Saums, John, Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion.
Saunders, John, Saunders, Timothy, First Battalion; also Continental army, in Capt.
Piatt's

Abraham, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.


Henry, also in the Continental army.

Post, Tunis.
Post, William, also In the Continental

company.

army.

Scbanck, Abram, troop light-horse. Schanck, Abraham, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion.

* So spelled in Adjutant-General's Reports, yet most or all

maybe

intended for NovIuh.

Scluuick, John. Schonck, Garret, Capt. Mooro's company, Second Battalion.

BUNTERDON AND 80MEBSET COUNTIES


Sclionck, Garret, Lieut. Bergen's company.

IN

THE REVOLUTION.
-

99

Stewart, David,
in

Oapt Corey's '-.mpany;


mi

State troops; Continental army,

Schenek, Jacob, Capt Duryea


Bchenck, Peter F.
s llman,

company.

Oapt
i

rum
;

company.
intJnantel

I.

army, Fourth Battalion, Second Es-i,

Thomas, Oapt Moore's company. Tan By - ompany alao Suite troops. 'e company, ETirsI Battalion; alao Continental nt army, in Fourth Battalion, Second Establish ompany, Flirt Battalion. SfbriiiK, Abrani, 'apt. John Sebrlng bring, tornellus, Capt John Scoring's company, Flirt Battalion,
Sears, Samuel, Capt. .Iamb
i,
1 ;

tabllshmenl
atlllwell,

Bean, Samuel, Capt Corej


<

Btlllwell, Garret, stillw.il,

killed at the battle of Gannantown, Oct Pariah "1 Uriah"). Capt Jacob Ten Kyck's company. John, Oapt Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

1777.

Btlllwell, Bias. Stoll (or Stall), Joseph,

Oapt Jacob Ten Eyck's company


company.

in Continental

Souring, Jacob,
Sabring, Rodlf, Capt Coonrad Ten Eyck's company, Socond Battalion. Sebrlng, Thomas, Oapt. John Sebring's company.

army,

In

Oapt

Piatt's

Stofun, John, Capt, Jacob


Stotehoff, Albert, Oapt.

Ton Eyck's company,

First Battalion.

Vroom's company.

Smlam Sedam
ft
i

(or Suy'lanu,

'

liai U

-.

Btotehoff,
StotoiiolT,

<

oi

nelius, also oxpress-rlder.

(or Suydtim), Petor.


i

John.

in

Snyilam), Kick.

Stout, Benjamin. Stout, Jam.


S.

S<>.

lay,

Jacob.

Shafer, Peter.

Stout, John, Capt. Duryea's

company.
Statu troops;
liment.

Slmukler, Andrew.
Sharp, Jonathan, Capt Jacob Ten Eyck's com] ill Zachorlah, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck'a company.
,

Stout, William.

Btryker, Aluam,

Oapt Quick's .ompany;


i

and Continental

army,
Str
\

in First Battalion

Silcock, Yalontlno, alao Continental army.

Slmeruon, John. Simon*. m, Abraham (or Ahram).


n,

.'mpany, See..nd Battalion. Btryker, Barnet, Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.
ker,

Abraham, Capt.

Vrooui'.-

Strykor, Dominions.
Strykor, l-aa<
,

John,

apt Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.


ra

n,

Samuel,
in Capt.

First

Battalion;

ids..

State troops;

ami Continental

Btryker, James, troop light-horse.

army,

Anderson's company.

Strykor, John,

Oapt C

Ten Kyck's company.

Simpson, Allen. Simpson, ]<a<- ill, Simpson, William.


Blolley,

Btryker, Peter, troop light-horse.


Btryker, Peter, Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.

Btryker, Peter, Br.

John.

Strykor, BanO, Capt. Duryea's company. Btryker, Simon.


Stuart, James.

Thomas, Capt. Moore's company. Skill man, Gorardus, troop Hghf-horse also oxpresa-rider. Bklllmon, Thomas, In Capt. Vroom's ami Capt. 0. Tun Eyck's companies. Binder, Thomas. Sloan, James, Oapt Fulkerson's company, Second Battalion; State troops; Continental army, in First Battalion, Second Establishment.
Bk< Iton,
;

Smart, John, Onpt Jacob Ton Eyck's company.


Bunderlin, Pater.

Bntphen, Arthur, Capt. Duryeafr company, Sutphen, Derrick. Sutphon, Gilbert.

Bloat, William.

Slover, Isaac,
Blover, Jacob.

Sutphen, Gulsbert, Capt. Duryea's company. Sutphen, John, Capt. Duryea's company.
Sutphen, Pater. sutphen,
Sutton,
also corporal in Continental
Kutinr.

Smalley, Jonas, Capt. Jacob Ton Kyck's company.


8
M.

Rooard.

Smith, A. lam, Oapt Coonrad Ten Kyck's company. Smith, Ethan,


Bmith, Jeremy,

Sutphen, Samuel.

Amos.

Sutton, John.

Smith,

.Mm.
\t

army.

Sutton, Peter.
Sutton, Zebalon.

Smith, William.
ram, Capt. Jncob Ton Eyck's company.
Smo.-k, John,

Bwalm

(or

Swain), Isaac, Capt. Duryea's company.

Capt Jacob Ten Eyck'a company.

Robert Snowdon, John, Capt Duryea's company.


Ph
as.

Mm ley,

Bwalm, John. s ini, [soac


Sylvester, Peter.

Sympeen, Cornelius.

Boper, Thomas, also in Continental army, in Capt. Martin's


ire,
.

company.

Tappan, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.


Taylor, Isaac.
Taylor, Wlllot, Capt. Vroom's. company.
Teep]
,

Benry, Oapt Durj en's company. Jai ob, !apt Duryea's company.
I

Southard, Richard.
Spader, Bonjamln.
Bpader, Bergen.

i.eorge.

'If.pl.',

John, Oapts. Jacob Ten Eyck's and Sobrlng's companies.

Te. pie, Luke, Capt. Jaoob

Ten Eyck's company.

Jonathan, Capt Vroom's company, Second Battalion.


Bpador, WlUlom, sparks, Gabriel,
,

Oapt 1 m Capt J oh 1

mpany,
bo Byol
i

Bt

id

Battalion.

ompany.

James. 3p -I spark-, John, Oapt Jacob Ton


Squire,
Si

By

k*i

company.

Ten Byck, ibram. Ten Eyck, Andreas, Capt. Jacob Ten Kyck's company. in \. k, Andrew J, Andrioa, Capt. Coonra'l Ten Kyck's company, Ten 'apt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company. mpany. Ton Byt k, J
I I i
'

<

Stoats, Peter.

John,

Staal

Rynanr,Capt Vroom's company,

Stftploton, Etlohard.
Steal,

steel,

Steele,

Uoxandor, Capt John Sebring's company. Jonathan, Jr., Oapt Js impany. John.

Ton Byck, Matthias, Oapt Jaoob Ton By< k*i .ompany. Tan Byck, Peter, Oapt Jaoob Ten Eyck's company. Ten Byck, with, n, mpany.
> I
I

Terhuna,
rlder.

inyj also express-

Steele, John, Jr.,

Capt Jacob Can Eyck's company.

Stephens, Peter,

Terhuna, Btophen. Tennay), John.


i

Stephen) m, John.
J

Tl

as,

Darid.

oph,
Ihoi le
i

Capt Jacob Tan Byok*s company.


Thomson,
I

Steward,

Steward, David, Capt. Jacob Tan


Steward, John, Oapt Jai ob
Stewart, Uexandar, also In
I

'><
j

k^s
i.'

mpany.
Ttnglay,

John.
anali.

mpany. Continental army.


an
I

100
Todd, David.

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Van Doren, William. Van Dorn, Chrystoyan, Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company. Van Dorn, Cornelius (1st), Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company. Van Dorn, Conu-lius (2d), Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company. Van Dorn, Jacob. Van Dorn, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Van Duyck, Cornelius, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Dyck, Frederick. Van Dyck, John. Capt. Vroom's company. Van Dyck, William, Capt. Vroom's company. Van Dyke, Hendrick. Van Dyne, Abram. Van Dyne, Cornelius. Van Dyne, John. Van Dyne, William. Van Harglen, Kynear. Van Harler, Edward, Capt. Duryea's company. Van Horn, Cornelius. Van Houten, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Van Lew, Cornelius. Van Lew, Denice (or Dennis). Van Lew, Frederick. Van Lew, Hendrick. Van Lew, Jeremiah. Van Lew, John. Van Lew, Peter. Van Lew, Kichard. Van Middleswart, Tunis, Sr., Capt. Vroom's company. Van Middleswart, Tunis, Jr., Capt. Vroom's company. Van Middlesworth, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Van Middlesworth, Thomas, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Van Muler, Cornelius. Van Nest, Abram. Van Nest, Bernard, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Nest, Cornelius. Van Nest, George, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Nest, Jacobus, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Nest, Jeromus. Van Nest, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Nest, Ruliff. Van Nest, Tunis, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Netten, John, First Battalion also in State troops, and Continental
;

Todd, James. Todd, William.

To land, John.
Tone, John.
Traner, Simon.

Tunison, Derrick, in companies of Capts. Jacob Ten Eyck and John


Sebring.

Tunison, Fulkert, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Tunison, Henry, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Tunison, James. Tunison, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.


TJbdike (Updyke), Lawrence, Capt. Duryea's company.

TJbdike (Updyke), Kolif, Capt. Duryea's company.

Updyke, Brogan.
Valentine, Borne.

Valentine, Jacob, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Tan Allen, Derrick, Capt. Lott's company; also State troops, and Conti-

nental army.

Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van

Arsdalen, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Arsdalen, Caleb.
Arsdalen, Capture, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Arsdalen, Christian, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Arsdalen, Christopher, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Arsdalen, Cornelius, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Arsdalen, Donald, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Arsdalen, Garret, Capt. Vroom's company. Arsdalen, Harmon.


Arsdalen, Hendrick,
Jr.,

Capt. Jacob

Ten Eyck's company.

Arsdalen, Henry, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Arsdalen, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Arsdalen, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company and Continental army, in Capt. Piatt's company.

also State troops;

Van Arsdalen, John, Capt. Vroom's company. Van Arsdalen, Noah, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Arsdalen, Philip, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Arsdalen, Stuffel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Arsdalen, Wilhelmua. Van Asdalen, Jacob, Capt. Duryea's company. Van Asdol, Hermanus. Van Asdol, Isaac. Van Audler, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Ausdaul, Jacob. Van Beuren, Abram. Van Beuren, John. Van Beuren, William. Van Brunt, Nicholas. Van Clafe, Puryas, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Van Cleaf, Garret, also dragoon. Van Cleaf, Isaac. Van Corte (Van Court), John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Court, Michael. Van Dabecke, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Vanderbeak, Andrew.
Vanderbilt, Cornelius.
Vanderbilt, Jacob, Capt. Coonrad

Ten Eyck's company.

Vanderbilt, Peter.

Vanderdunk, Henry.
Vanderveer, John, Capt. Duryea's company. Vanderveer, Matthew. Vanderveer, Peter. Vandorventcr, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Vandervoort, Gabriel.

Vandewater, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Dike, Inaac, Capt. Moore's company.

Van Van Van Van

Diko, Jacob, troop light-horse.

Dike, Jacob, Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.


Dike, John, troop light-horse.

Diko, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Vandino, John, Capt. Stryker's Troop Light-Horse.

Van Doren, Abram. Van Doren, Benjamin, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Van Doren, Burgam, Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company. Van Doren, Christian, Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company. Van Doren, Isaac.
Van Doren, Jacob. Van Doren, Peter.

Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van Van

army, Capt. Piatt's company. Norden, Daniel. Norden, David.


Norden, Michael. Norden, Tobias.
Norsdaleu, Philip.

Nortwick, Hendrick, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.


Nostrand, CrispariuB. Nostrand, George, also in Continental army.

Nostrand

(or

Van

Ostrand), Jacob.

Nowdent, Michael. Nuys, Jacobus, in companies of Capts. Vroom and


Ostrand, John.
Ostrand, Matthew, Capt. Jacob
Pelt,

C.

Ten Eyck.

Ten Eyck's company.

Abram.
Duryea's company.

Pelt, Christian. Pelt, Christopher, Capt.


Pelt, Garret.

Pelt, Kurlif, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. Pelt, Teras, Capt. Duryea's company. Pelt, Tunis, Capt.

Sant, John, Capt. Coonrad


Sickle, John.

Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Ton Eyck's company.

Sickle,

Thomas.

Sickle, Zachariah.

Tine, Rynear.
Tyle,

Abram.

Tyle, John, Capt. Tyle, Orto, Capt.

John Sebring's company. John Sebring's company.


;

Voorhoese, Abram, First Battalion


Piatt's

also in Continental

army, Capt.

company.
Jr., First

Voorheese, Abram,

Battalion

also in State troops.

Van Voorheese,

Court, Capt. Vroom's compuny.

Van Voorheese, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Van Wagonen, C, Cupt. Vr n's company.

SLAVERY AND SERVITUDE


0.

IX
'

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET.


Wlnans, William,
i

101

Ten Eyck, Jacob

k's

company.

Byck, and

Id Btrj ker'i

light-bone,
i i

Vim Zandt, John, Capt Daryi Van Zandt, Peter.


\ N
I

mpany, First Battalion.


Winter, Jao
b,

Ten] Capt Coonrad Ten


laoob
ental

;n

mon, Nehemiah..
1 1

companj

and Copt Quick's army, First Battalion, Beeond BatabliahI

.1,1..

.HI

meut
Winter, Joseph.
Winter, Pater, Capt Vi
'-

bai
, ,

,0
.

Vbruham, Copl Jacob Ton Eyok'e company. i. Be! gon'a company,


..!,,
I. Ill

company.
1

h.

.nipauy.

Gilbert, Capt.
....
I i..
.

Duryoa's company.
i

Jacob Ten Eyek'e company.

Grndea, Capt. Duryea'a company.

oorb
bee

Gulsbort

Wortman, Andrew. .mini, Capt M


l

lire's

company, Second Battalion.

Voorl

i,

mpany. Jeremiah, Capt Duryea'a company. John, Capt Stryker's troop light-hone.
,

Eyck's company. Young, John, Copt Dnryea'a company. Young, Philip, Capt Coonrad Ten Kyck's company.
T,ii

ttartlnes,

bean,

Hinnah.
i

A
apl

"census of pensioners

for

Revolutionary and

Duryea'a company.

S,

William.
David.
rot,
i.

military services, with their names, ages, and places of residence, Is Id," >]iu\vs thai there were living at
that 'late in
hi BeVilehem Toicmltip.
' .

Voorl
\
\

'",

oorbeete, Gai
> .

Lieut. Borgen'e
I

company.

II. ii.Ii

Henry).

i.i

..'

ul'XTY:
;

Vu

.1
' , i . ; .

mpany, and Capt.

Jacob Johnston, 87
;

John Head, 83; John


Peter

Bigler,

C.
1

.i

Martin, 64

John

II

impany.
[
,

AmiMll
army.
c

TnmuMp.Jacob
Sr., 82;

Willlanu

nu.ee
ni.

John Abbott,
Iiariian

Amos

Paten, 81

Williamson, 77; Jacob Williamson, 80.


Sr.,

-.-,

'n

Hi-, in tin- (.mill.. mill

Peter,

Capt Vn
i

>m

mpany, and Conrad Ten Eyck's

ZbimtAJp. Martin Smith, 84; Joseph Gray,


Qolius
1

81;

John Besson,

OU; John Howe, 86.


Iicadingtii
I

pany.
i:

Latourotte,

s.';

,i,

apt

Duryea'a company.
'I
'
i

.i.

Iiolns,

Vorlous, Peter,
\
\

Capt Capt U
i

Cornelius Header, 81; 1, 85 ; Delaware ZbiouA(p.WllUam Dills, so; Elijah Hummell, 84; Tat
79;

Adrian Johnson, 85; Peter Shirts, E

impany.

,m
.

,i
,,

Andrew
Daniel]
3

Butterfoss, 81

James

aderwood,77; WiUtam
.in Dalryiuple, 88

i.

Ton Eyok'e company.

B rber, 84.
;

..

.n.i,
Her,

JacobTen Byck's company. ompany. as, Capt Jacob Ton Eyi k'a i.ii.. Copt JacobTen Eyi k' ompany. laoob Ten Byck'a company.
, i

i.

Alczan<lr,>

i. ii.

John WitJug, 77. Lebanon Township. Jacob Kinijwood Townthip. John

Jiircs,

John Blnno, 82. 81; John Dray, 85; Richard Heath,


,

<;..<>rie'-

Vi
.

ii.iin.

in]. i.
l

.in.
\

'I

mpany.

84; Christy Little, 77. Tewksbunj Zbwwnlp.Christopher Philhowor, 80.

Petei

lapl

impany.

Wade, Thomas, Capt. Jacob Ton lock's company.


Wuldron, Benjamin, Wuldron, Cornelias,

SOHEBS)
Field, 88.

I'

ul'XTY:
Tl>
;

...William Todd,
J
I

.1

ph

Am. in,

89; Hondrick

Wuldron, William, Copt


w.iii

Con Eyek'e company.

Barnard

Tburosafr).

Henry
><<;
1
1

Southard,

'.'-;

Hanuali Van Sickel, 84; Na.

1111
i

thonlel Whlttoker,

Mary Kennan,

71

Webb, Matthew, Capt Jacob Ten Eyi k'a ompany. u hoavour, odolpbua, Capt rad Ten Kick's company.

T Him, Wyi

9;

Joseph Kennan,
Ellon Van

68.

w
\'.

Franklin Iwon
koOT, B8;

I'.i.-kuw,
1

James D. Porrlou,
;

John

C,

lei ,1

aarli
i.

I..

ler, si
Vi
i

\\

hllsou,
I',
,

llllam, Capt.
I'1,1

CoounidTou Eyck'a company.


i.

Warren Townthip. Jnhn Coddlngton, 78 John Pennington, 78. TbwRfftfp.Jacob Degroot, 90; Bobart Little, 86;
(

John
VosAutiu,

Steele, Br., 86;


l,il.

nun;

(ol

liil"

I.

I,

\"

-ii.
7>.

i.

Henry Vi,. 83; Paul Voorl


'

S3; Richai

ius
v.

Whitonaught, John,
Wnitlook, Jomee, also
\\

in

the Continental army, in

Capt Bond's

pany taken prii hortman, John.


;

rFeb. 16,1777, neai

His 91;
-,

George

X.

Bchamn,
;

89;

u.iiilgo.

-I; Peter J. Quick, -1

Wlllet

Taylor, 81.

Wlckoff, Oorni Una


Wlol

i" Wyckod), John,


,

Capt Jacob Ton Ej


mpany.

ik's

company.

W M
Vi

lllot,

UUams,
llllam
.

'

...

nollu

ipl

Jai oh

en Eyek'e

u
\\

Somuol, Copt. Jo
in,

bTonl

company, mpany.

ii

EB VIII.

llllums, Stophon.

William

Co
i

Ilu

,Capt Jacob Ten Eyck's company.


U
impany.

SLAVERY AND SERVITUDE IN HUNTERDON

w
VI

AND SOMERSET.

.ii .ii

mil

a,

John,
J
|.ii

Uliamton,

Mar Institution'' in the SeTentaanth Century


Colonial Days

Barrai

Williamson, Nicholas. Williamson, William.


Wil.iui, Jacob.

Indian Slaves Redemption!


111

i.ingSlav

rlmoaoonimlttad

H u
VI
ii

;. 1734

lauios.
.

Flnley and the "American Colonization

Wilson, John,
on,

Km,
si
i

i.

,i

Wilson,
ii

.I.

m,

ii

,\\ in

,Capl Jacob

Ton Eyok'

ptStrykert

Lived

A faithful ami correct historj of those who have here before us, must contain some mention of

102

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


he says " Dear Brother. ... I stand in need of forty pound value of goods and some Servants."! In 1684, Thomas Rudyard, first representative of Gov. Barclay in the province, claimed "head-lands" for his two daughters and six servants, and received a warrant for two hundred and thirty acres of land, to be surveyed for him on South River. Many of the early settlers were sent out, in the emsey,"
: ||

the "peculiar institution" which is happily now no more. One hundred and eighty years ago, and dur-

ing

the.

century succeeding that time, the inhabit-

ants of

New

Jersey, in

common with

those of other
at that early

States, considered slavery

no crime, and

had become one of her institutions. Even the Quaker settlers at Burlington owned negroes, and the Dutch, who came up the valley of the Raritan, brought servants with them so that in 1740 three-fourths of all the corn that was planted and hoed, flax raised and dressed, and other work done, was performed by negro
day
it
;

ploy of the different proprietaries and landholders, under such agreements as would afford them the
benefits of the head-land grants for each individual

slaves.

The

records in the clerks' offices of both

Hun-

terdon and Somerset Counties show that in the first ten years of the present century a large number of the
old families
still

held slaves upon their farms.

Under the

proprietors persons were imported into

the province, as "servants," to occupy and improve the land and perform other labors.

While these

ser-

vants did not absolutely forfeit their personal liberty

by their engagements with their masters, they were still, in all essential particulars, bondmen, held in servitude, and entirely controlled by those who had brought them into the province for their own profit. It was slavery in everything save the name, a species of white slavery, for the servitude was for life, and in some instances included their children also.

brought into the province, fifty acres being allowed to each master of a family, and twenty-five acres for each person composing it, whether wife, child, or servant, each servant to be found three years, at the end of which time he or she was to be allowed to take up thirty acres on separate account. Under this plan there was a shipment from Scotland in 1682, brought out by Rudyard and Groom, and another the following year, on board the " Exchange," Capt. Peacock, which brought thirty-one men- and women-servants under two overseers. This was but the beginning of an extensive traffic in servants, as the records of East Jersey show. Among the names mentioned as figuring in these importations

we

find

Gawen

Lawrie,

The

constitution of
S.),

New

Jersey, signed Feb. 10,


Sir

1664 (O.
teret,* to

by Lord Berkeley and

George Car-

encourage planters, promised every freeman who should embark with the first Governor or meet him on his arrival, provided with a "good musket, bore twelve bullets to the pound, with bandeliers and match convenient, and with six months' provi-

William Haige, Thomas Pearson, William Dockwra, John Barclay, Robert Fullerton, John Campbell, Capt. Alexander Hamilton, David Mudie, Lord Neill Campbell, John Forbes, James Johnstone, George Keith, Charles Gordon, the Scotch proprietaries, etc. If
It
is

a fact not generally

known

at the present

day

that native Indians as well as negroes were at one

sions for himself,"

one

hundred and

fifty

acres of

land,

and the

like

slavef brought with


cessaries.

number for every man-servant or him provided with the same neand a similar number

To

females over the age of fourteen sev-

enty-five acres were promised,

to every Christian servant at the expiration of his or

proved time held in slavery in New by occasional references to "Indian slaves" found in ancient records. Such an instance is found in the " Journal of the House of Representatives for the Province of Nova Cesarea, in the Second General Assembly and 1st Sessions, begun at Burlington this 13th day of Nov
Jersey.

This

is

',

her term of service.

Those going before the 1st of January, 1665-66, were to receive one hundred and
twenty acres, if master, mistress, or able man-servant and weaker servants, male or female, sixty or slave, acres those going during the third year three- fourths, and during the fourth year one-half of these quanti-

1704," under date 1704," as follows:


" Ordered,

"Die Veneris, A.M.

24

tai

',

& Regulating
a Clock."

&c. do prepare

That a Bill be Prepared & brought in for y> Speedy trying r Hartshorn, Capt. Buwu of Negro & Indian Slaves & y' and bring in y u same; And then The II 3 Adjourned till 1
;

ties.!

And
"

in the afternoon session of the

same day

In a letter from James Johnston, of Spottswood, dated Feb. ]">, 16Sf>, " from Piscattaway, in East Jer-

Mr. Hartshorn also (according to Order) presented to y" II" a tituled an Act for Regulating Negro, Indian & Molatto Slaves
also read the first time."

Bill F.n-

w*

was

Province of

"The Concessions and Agreement New Csosarea, to and with


all
i.

of the Lords Proprietors of tho


all

On
"The

the 28th of the same month,


Hill

and every of tho udventurers,


See Appendix to Smith's
also, Bancroft's

and
in

Kind as ahull settle or plant there."


ninth

Entituledan Act
2<i

for

of the Colony of Nova-Cajsaria," pp. 512-521;

Slaves was read y

Time & Committed

Regulating of Negro, Indian & Molatto r to Gordon, M* Wheeler,

" Hist.

United States" (vol.

ii.

p. 316,

ml.).

Laurence &

Smith."

"East Jersey under the Proprietary Governments," pp. In a foot-note he says, "Whether any slaves with actually 38, 39. brought t.j Now Jersoj undor the Concessions in uncortaln; but if so, they must, have been very few in number, and probably none were <iirectly imported from Africa fur some years thereafter." in tin- "Concessions" of the West Jorsoy proprietors, which woro similarly worded, the words "or slave" are omitted.J7u. Coll. A'. ./., p.
t Whitehead's
\

" East Jersey undor the Proprietors," p. '144, In Hie I Whitehead's work (pp. 138-440) is an interesting letter " writ by I'otor Watson (who went over a Servant with David Barclay, in tho year 1083) to John Watson, Messenger, in Selkirk." The letter is dated "New Perth, tho

sa

2111I1
||

of August, 1084."
p.

Whitehead,

100.

:;x. 1T

Ibid., p. 130.

SLAVEBY AND SERVIT1 DE


On
fur

IN

BUNTERDON AND SOMERSET.


" In acconlanco with the custom of thai
of a sea-captain the service of a
perl
f.-r

103
bought
a term

the 29th,
Beported from

German emigrant

"M> Gordon

Cora

towh

>

Bill

Entltuled an Act
jr1

Inorder

Regulating of Nogro, Indian and Uolatto Blare* wae Committed

admenta then they bad gone thro' y* -' BUI A made aov' A fable read In bis place, & afterwardi delivered It at 3
1

xpensesof in- passage t" New fork. became known that this emigrant was an excellent mason by trade, and being ;i shrewd man as well as a good mechanic, he entered into a l>argoln with bis employers to build them three mono house* lu threi isuoto defray
ti

were read a Li ..i That


11

w tt
v
1 '

some hirtber Amendments, Agreed


Hill w"' y

to

by

House.

ceasive seasons (sum


in lieu of
fulfill. ..I

-''

Amendment be]

hlsterm of

On
'Tin'

the 80th,

hi

tinAi
1

afternoon session,
1

his contract^

seasons in whil h he
Hill K11iitnl.il

aU to be built within the sami service, which was not tees than three years, lie and claimed alt the time as lib) own during tlieao llj engaged ujiou these three Luild-

mi

Be
ol

nlatlc

ol

'

jo, Indian

and Mo-

logs."*

lattu Slaves
I;.

w*ln this Province

N. Jersej was also read

y Idumo.

..u.i that
In'

Hill

do pass."

council

proposed -hum-

which were concurred in 10, and approved bj the Governor Dec. 12, L704. The above, ami some oilier similar fragmentary allusions to the subjeet, -how thai Imlian slavery existed ami was legally recognized in New Jersey
bill,
;

amendments to the by tin' Souse December

One of the stone houses referred to as built by the redemptioner (whose nam.' was ('a-par Herder wa.

the old

Van Hom

house, bearing the date

l;:,;

ami

the initial- "i'. Y. II.." ami standing about half a mile west of While House Station, a little north of the railroad-track.

Another

is

the house

now

or re-

but,
'

beyond
it-

this fact,

nothing has been found in


tin- [irri.nl

ref-

erence to

extent or

of

ii-

duration.

cently occupied by William Picket, and tin- third is said to have been the ..Id stone house demolished a f.-w year- sinee b\ G. 0. Gearhart to make room for
his

new

There

also prevailed in

New

Jersey ami adjoining

last
It

Concerning the identity of residence. named, however, there is some doubt.

this

provinces another species of servitude besides negro

has been stated that the ancestors of the Il-lv

ami Imlian -lavery, the Subjects


redemptionere,"a class
"!'

ol'

it

bring tnO\l

n as

persons

who

sold them-

family who first came to America were indentured under ihi- system a- servants to farmers
ln-lie.'

selves lor a term of years to pay the price of their

in

the vicinity of Woodbridge, or rather that the

These emigrants on embark ing signed a bond to the master of the vesel authorizing him, on arrival here, to sell them into Ben itude for a term sufficient to pay the price agreed on for passage. After gaining their Freedom many of them succeeded in placing themselves in comfortable circumstances, and some even became wealthy men.
Servants of this class were Srsl found along the Delaware River about 1662, and for a quarter of a century after that time domestic or mechanical labor was seldom employed for wages. .Many of the redempti rs who si rved in New Jersej were from the Palatinate ami other parts of Germany, but a few were Irish. Redemptioners from German and Dutch l>oris were frequently brought over on speculation,

passage to the shores of America.

master of the ship on which they came attempted to Bell them, Inn failed to carry hi- project through.
"There
over in
ii..

is

tradition,

which may

or

may not be true,


il

thai

tl

whicb

for

manj

the shore at Forth


is

Amboy by Borne wl
icuti

living,

it

said time
to
ll.-e

the llslys, with othei D


I

compelled

from their homes, which were either in En] the north part of Scotland, and wore allowed bj theli nibarked on tho u aworthy 'Caledonia,' which was oonfldenUy expei engulf the sturdj
I

lint, lo:
.

thoy can
led to

Dutchcap

B however, bind them over as sorvants to the planters


.

or fancied debts In

the old country

hod been discharged.


-to-

sirs. Il-ly, filled wll


il

loUl i-Iiiii-

..\..

declared, with emphasis, thai

and the
ledom.

real
'

had

fled

from tyranny at

-he Would not submit I"

and when they landed were


purchaser had the right
r
I

sold at public sale.


re-sell

The

cowed

bj
ore "iili.

doughty captain was man, and saved bis head by


'ih..
I

to
I

the services of the

an

tin-

Indentures having

redemptioners, ami

(ten passed

through sevexistence for

eral

hands before he had served out his term. The paid for them was uauallj verj low. In the
ITl'l',

year

at

Philadelphia,
fur

German redemptioners
live

sold ai ten

pound- each
h
i-

years of servitude,

"redemptioners" system had been in year- prior to L725, yet by far the greater number of these unfortunates were sold to -. rvice during the twenty-live years which BUI
tin-

Although

many

but in

some

cases they brought

more than that sum


to this

im

single year,

related that, in the year 1728,


lad.

Lord

Aliliam, then

came

country un-

After the middle of the eighteenth cenit gradually died out. ami finally disappeared entirely, though there wer icasional inthat

time.

tury, however,

known, and was vania, working


I

sold as a iv.h nipt ioner in

out

hi-

Pennsyltime with a farmer on the

stances

"I'

iN practi

lown

to,

and even

after, the

of tin- Revolution.

iancaster turnpike.

This form oi servitude prevailed most along the lower Delaware River and in adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and \. w Jersey, but it existed, to a less extent, in

The earliest instance of the holding of negro -laves New Jersey which i- found recorded is thai
i

in

both
is

account
vants bj

n erd.. N and Somerset Counties. An given of the purchase of one of these ser1
1

ii

Richard Morris, of sinew-bury, who had as early as e slaves about his mill and plantaiv or
i

member

ol

the

Van

torn fainih

"Our

iiom.-." 1-:

Lngton township, Hunterdon

'....

as follows:

10-i

HUNTEEDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


The
inhabitants of the Raritan valley all had

tion.*

slaves as early as 16S5 or 1690.

In 1790 there were

passing over the colored burying-ground

eleven thousand four hundred and twenty-three slaves

which number about two thousand were in Hunterdon and Somerset they had increased to twelve thousand four hundred and twenty-two in 1800, after which the number very rapidly declined. Between 1700 and 1800 the traffic was largely carried on, and records of the sale of Africans are frequently found. In the Woodbridge town records is the folin

New

Jersey, of

between the turnpike and the Middlebush road, it was objected to and opposed on account of its nevertheless, it was laid there. On each side of the line between the Stryker and Stothoff farms, near Franklin Park, is another, which was established for burying the colored
laid out at that place

about

fifty

years ago,

dead of their families."!

In 1709 an act of Assembly forbade persons trading with slaves, except by consent of their owners, under
penalty of twenty shillings for the first and forty shillings for the second offense, one-half to go to the informer. negro, if found five miles from his home, was taken up and whipped by the party apprehending him, five shillings being paid for the services. If

lowing
" Know

all

men by
sum

these presents yt J, Shobalt Smith, of Woodbridge,

Jn y c County

of Sliddx of

sideration of y c

Jn y e provence New East Jersey, for and Jn Confifty pound Currant Silver money, of y s d prov-

the negro was from another province, the informer received ten shillings and the negro was whipped by
the nearest constable.

ince, to me Jn hand paid by Samuel Smith of y same place yeoman of ye town and provence afores d do bargain, sell, allineat, and Deliver, one

For conspiracy

to kill a white

Negro woman Named Phebe


assigns," etc.f

to s d

Sam

11

Smith, for him, his heirs and

person, for rape, murder, or arson, the negro was to

be wondered at that the introduction of negro slavery into New Jersey was coeval with its settlement, when it is remembered that the mothercountry not only recognized their existence as property, but also engaged in the slave trade, and that the
It is not to

be taken before three justices of the peace and five freeholders, without a grand jury, and if convicted was compelled to suffer death in such manner as the enormity of the crime, in the judgment of the justices

and

freeholders,

slave,

seemed meet. The owner of the however, had a right to appeal and have a jury

-adjoining provinces possessed

them

not even Puri-

appointed, with liberty to


other cases.Tf

make
is

challenges as in
:

The " Royal African Company" was particularly commended to the Governor of New Jersey (Cornbury) by Queen
tanic

New England

being exempt.!

The same

act sets forth

" Whereas such negro so put to death


therefore, to prevent said

a great

loss to his

owner,
of

owner from being under the temptation


slave, it is provided
lie

Anne
"

withdrawing and secreting said


for each

shall receive

as deserving of

encouragement.

This was in

man

slave executed thirty pounds,


to be collected in

the year 1702.


The
early settlers, in clearing the forests, were

twenty pounds,**

and for each woman slave maimer and form to wit: The con-

stables to deliver a list of all negro, Indian, or mulatto slaves in their

much

assisted

by their

slaves.

ers depended

In some families they were numerous. The success of the farmon the rapid clearing of the forests, in which they rendered
of the Vleet families (in Somerset County),
it

important assistance.

fifty years, at the May and June terms of the Court of Quarter Sessions. When a slave is executed these lists to be taken by the justices of the peace, or any three of them, and the damage

district,

between the ages of fourteen and

"One

was

said,

owned

seventeen slaves, composed of different ages and both sexes.

Cornelius

DeHart purchased from a slave-vessel a uegro girl named Phillis who had been kidnapped, and who was a daughter of one of the kings of Africa. .She related that on the voyage to America she was often terribly frightened by some of the crew attempting to feel of her hands, she supposing that it was done for the purpose of ascertaining whether she was in good
condition for slaughtering and her carcass to be eaten, as the neighboring
tribes of cannibals did in Africa, to avoid
ness, so as to disappoint

The public whipper was the township constable. The newspapers of those times frequently contained advertisements of negroes "strayed" or "ran away
from the subscriber,'' etc., and in the county records are found registers of births, bills of sale, as well as of manumission of slaves. The Quakers early showed their hostility to the
tracts

which she

fasted to cause lean-

them

in their expectations,

and thereby preserve


to say that she, the

her

life.

She was a

faithful servant in the family,

but bad a great desire


of time waB granted.
also see
see.

that a time might

king's daughter, was tree.

come when she would be able Her desire in the course

importation of negro slaves: vide the following exfrom the Yearly Meeting's minutes for 1716,
J.
meeting pro.

Another of her desires was that before she died she might youngest son, Thomas, free, which she was also permitted to
old age

her

meeting held at Burlington, N.


"For the Quarterly Meeting

In her

at Shrewsberry, Chestor

Abraham Dehart built a house for her on his land, in which she enjoyed the freedum so earnestly coveted, and in which she lived and Her sou Thomas, who was also freed, lived therein with her until died.
she died.

poses their concern about the practice of buying negroes imported.

Urging that former minutes and orders are not sufficient to discourage their importation,-)- 1 and therefore requests that no Friends may buy any
11

Her remains

lie

buried with those of several of her children

bank of the Six-Milc-Run Van Cleef, and DoIIart colored families, located about two hundred yards east of the residence of Ralph Voorin a colored burying-ground on the south

Hon. Ralph Voorhees.


Act of 1714, Neville's Laws,
I. p. 19.

Brook, with others of the Vleet,

1[

bees, Jr. " Almost every family in former days had places on their farms where they buried their colored dead. About two hundred yards north of the house ol' Mrs, Peter Hagoman is a colored burying-ground where those

In the Governor's speech to the Assembly, read on the 24th of October, 1707, occurs the following: " Gentlemen, Since I wrote this one
:i:!:

thing more Occurs to


lent,

my

thoughts, which
the-

is

this: I

have Received Iu-

formation from very good hands that

Negroes are grown very Insoand Cominitt great Enormities, the best Expedient I can recom-

of the Wyckofl and

Uageman

families were buried.

Theie was another


the

near the tenant-house of Henry Cortleyou, on the south side of the line

between the lamlH of Van Oleef and Hageman.


* This

When

now road was


" Gazetteer")

seems

to conflict

with Cordon's statement

(p. 29,

to you in that case is the passing a law to Settle a price upon the head of ovory Negroe who Shall be put to deatli iu pursuance of the Law, to bo paid to the owner of every such Negro, this I hope will bo a means to frighten them from Committing any the like Enormities for the future." Journal and Votes of the House of Representatives of New

mend

that in the same year there were but one hundred and twenty negroes

Jersey, 1703, p. 128.

in bondage
t Liber

in the province.
folio 100.

li,

" ff The Yearly Meeting had, in 1G90, advised Friends not to encourage the bringing in of any more negroes/' and recommended that they

% Hist. Coll. N. J.,

pp. 88-89.

I Smith's Hist, of N. J., p. 254.

"bo careful of them, bring them them in their families."

to

meeting, and have meetings with

SLAVERY AND SKliVlTEDK


negro
for th<- future.

IX

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET.


ii

105

As totho proposal

ft

ting about
|

tin-.-

transactions
in

there being do

more

In

it

than was

plot'
".

"f

Ne York
in

1711.

ami tin- famous Another 'rising

l.at
.

VtaS

infirm theaomo.
It i-

Ami

feared

1772,

bul

precautionary

deaired that Friends generally

'I"

us

much

aa

may

be

to]

avoid buy-

adopted, ami the excitement passed

off."

lug bucIi nogroes as shall be hereafter brought In, ratln

blonds

%>

li" ;ir-

against It

Yetthl
,

Thai
the

Hi'-

conscience of this people was nol

at teat

following

from the

[bridge

meeting, June

17, 1738,

shows:
Hi" yearly meeting minutes

" \u art had been passed as early a- 171:; levying a duty on the importation of negroes, but it sei ms no It was forty sliillin.tu have been enforced. New Jersey, ami six pounds in West New hi inequality in the tax was obvi tted l.\ Bub
.'
I

enactments, which continued


at

in force until thi

Philadelphia consenting the Importation of negroes


j

.v

buying them

lution.
It

an- Imported Friends hare Inquired Into

it

a Do find that four


tnd that it hath bin
to

entleni as
intry, that
British
In
tl"

or five years agu Som hav<


;

[m
Ildg/f

a thai

1!,;

i.

and amenity of dom wore invited by the

when

tho slaves

For several years the holding of slaves agitated the A report to the Month!) Meeting at Plainsociety.

The Inrefuge in their at n dians were deceived Into activity and fought bravely for their natural
enemies, but
tin-

Blaves

remainod
Ui<

in quletni

Inst

ti-, ii

shows that at this time only one negro "fit for freedom" within the jurisdiction of the societj remained s\x\ '. li is noticeable facl that -" few crimes were comPilfering there always was, bul mitted bj the slaves. ii was of a pettj character, ami perpetrated generally
field in

A ugust, 177

1,

Bnerally entered
"

When
>

became members

of Christian

;i

'

But

in

iia-

"lit

church
At

:i

mber.

lommunion
s.it

camodowu

the galleries and

down
life

at

the tnble,spread then,

luring their
.

they mi

I.,

obtain some luxury nol


etc., n ere exl

allowed them.
n raely rare.

hi

.lii-.l

in tin- ho]

murder, arson,

But two inI


1 1

stances are known in

in

all

the territory of both Hunterdon


slaves

Feb. 24, 1821, dates the


for
ii

first

legislative action
li

and Somerset Counties where

murdered whites, tliut hi' .lain.- Guise, in 1828, who murdered his mistress, in Hunterdon County, and was hung at Flemington and the murder of Jacob Van Nest bj
;

having

abolition of slavery,
all
4,

provided thai the children of


irn

slaves in
1804,

New

Jer-

subsequent

t<>

.Inly

should have
es of

their freedom
five

Branchburg, Somerset '<>., for which the murderer was burned $ at Millstone, A mon extended account of ie county-seat. iliis affair will be found in the township histor}
liis

anil

slave, about

L753, in

upon twenty-one

attainii
for

twenty-

males and females

tively.

Under

the operations of this

humane
es

timi

slaverj gradually

expended

iis

people "T this


pation,

of Branchburg.

ami man) even anticipated


rslaves.

legislation
*

Notwithstanding these exceptional


able disposition of the negroes
is

Moore Furman in 1784,


<

the heirs of

casi

universally attested;

Opdyke
in

in 1796, the heirs of Richard

"and
in

yet," says Dr. Messier, " there

had been a
if

1798,

Joseph

lapner in 1799,

John Lambei

sort

of rebellion

among them
!
is

ritan in 1734,
at

consequence was hung. li

which one
called a
,

least,

not

more,

'rising,'

was

tn

obtain their freed


to

and the design kept from them, a- they


all

manumitted slavi a prior in any legislative action looking t" their liberation. i- an ii.. mi r in Somerset County that one of her citizens, Rev. Robert Finli y, >.l '.. was tin- pii
I

believed, contrarj

the express directions of the

efforts for the

formation of

tin-

"American Coloniza-

tnd the plan was to

murder

the whites and


in

iety,"

an

institution

which has doni

then join the Indians


Inn
it

in

the interest of the French,

the past for the amelioration of the condition of

do an) real harm or have an) results. There seems to be, and no doubt was, a conn
failed to

the colored race ami in christianizing Africa.

I'

D.

Daily's

.tan.

'..

1784, that
A.
'

ii

pit.
i

"
in-: ftul

Tu

Id

p.218.
not Hi
1>

of

punishment.
within two

linmaliilv

rathor than hail

umltted
mti

in

mod
time -ii tii> u Wohavo
|

-ii
t.. ni>',
i

my

I'

I-

The
"I
.
i

case
.

ara >n

hore

that

"t"

>

n.

lave -i

Mm

Mi,
In
I

Mud, found
i

guilty,

and buug

tuioutl

106

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.

CHAPTER
INTBEJSTAL
I.

IX.

IMPKOVEMENTS.

Burlington Path The " Upper Road" and " Lower Road" The Old " York Road" The New Jersey Turnpike Company New German town Turnpike Company, etc. II. Stages and Stage-Lines. Firet Public Conveyance previous to 1702 Stage-Line between Trenton and New Brunswick " The Swift-Sure Coach-Line" The Trenton and Flemington Mail-Coach Post-road from New Brunswick to Flemington Express Lines, etc. III. The Delaware and RarUan Canal. Its incipiency, Construction, and Completion Length, Cost, etc. IV. Railroads. The Central Railroad of New Jersey South Branch Railroad High Bridge Railroad The Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad The United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company "The Belvidere Delaware Railroad" The Easton and Amboy Railroad, etc.

Boa*. The Minisink Path The Old

HIGHWAYSSTAGE-ROUTES BRIDGES CANALSRAILROADS.


I .ROADS. highways in the State of New Jersey were the Indian paths. Mention is made of them in the early Indian title-deeds and old records of commissioners for laying out roads. The most noted of these was the " Minisink path," which extended from the highlands of the Navesink to the Raritan, cross-

The

earliest

ing at a place called Kent's Neck thence along the west side of the Rah way River to Springfield, whence it crossed the mountain and passed near Morristown thence to Minisink Island, on the Delaware, a dis;

tance of seventy-five miles. Besides this long path were many others. One ran from Perth Amboy to

New

Brunswick, where it crossed the Raritan from thence to Six-Mile Run, and on through the State westward to the Falls of the Delaware. The present road through Six-Mile Run, Kingston, and Princeton was laid out on this path. Another ran from Shrewsbury, through

from the Raritan, and arriving by a rather circuitous This road was called the "lower road."* These roads were at the first little more than footpaths, and the "upper" one was for most of its distance laid out on the old Indian path. " Even as late as 1716, when a ferry had been established at New Brunswick for twenty years,! provision was only made, in the rates allowed by Assembly, for horse and man' and single person.' The sum required annually to keep this road in repair was only ten pounds." The " Old York Road," which started in Philadelphia at a point near what is now known as Fourth and Vine Streets^ and ran to the Delaware, crossing at Lainbertville, thence through Mount Airy, Ringos, and Reaville to New Brunswick and Newark, was one of the first wagon-roads opened in the State, although it was never surveyed.^ In a deed for land at Ringos, dated Aug. 25, 1726, this road is described as " The King's Highway that is called the York Road." The first public measures for the improvement or establishment of roads seem to have been adopted in November, 1675, when it was enacted that two men in each town should be appointed "to lay out common highways." In March, 1683, commissioners were appointed "to lay out and appoint" in the different counties " all necessary highways, bridges, passages, landings, and ferries, fit and apt for traveling passages and landing of goods."1f These boards continued for several years, and under their direction the first system of intercommunication was established,
route at the site of the present Burlington.
' '
||

and the present generation laid out by them.**

travel

many

of the roads

Monmouth County, southerly, wards known as the " Old Burlington Path." paths were located with skill, much Indian These attention being given to a careful study of the natural advantages of the ground which they traversed. The the most hills were ascended by the easiest grade The solid ground was selected for crossing a marsh. streams were forded at a point where they were least liable to be affected by freshets, and in nearly every instance the Indian paths were followed in the location of the roads that are to-day the great thoroughafter;

The " New Jersey Turnpike Company" was incorporated by act of the Legislature in 1806, which act authorized certain persons, named therein, to construct a turnpike road

wick

lares of the State.

Previous to 1G75 the only road in the State


as roads)

(for

the Indian paths, just mentioned, cannot be classed

was that from Elizabethtown Point to where Brunswick now stands, and probably was the same one that now, widened and improved, is known

from the city of New Brunsthrough the counties of Somerset, Hunterdon, and Sussex (now Warren ).tf The road' was completed late in the year 1809, but that portion situated in Hunterdon and Warren Counties was never kept in sufficient repair to justify the company in collecting toll thereon, and in 1838 the company surrendered it "to the inhabitants of the several townships in said counties of Hunterdon and Warren through which the same passes," in accordance with a special enactment of the State Legislature
to Phillipsburg, passing
*

New

"Now
J.,
]).

Jersey under the Proprietors," Whitehead,


;

p.

236; Hist. Coll.

N.

41

Danker's and Shuyter's Journal,

etc.

This road as the "old road" between those places. continued almost in a straight line to the Delaware

"Inlands Ferry," from f Established in 1007, and subsequently called limlc during John liiiini, who wns the first grantee; the privilege t
the natural lives of himself and wife at five shillings sterling per a m still exists there (iMo), and is called " York Avenue." J The road
I

above where Trenton now stands. The Raritan and Delaware Rivers were both forded at low water,there being no bridges; bul later, ferries were established. This was called the "upper road," to distinguish it from another, which later was opened to Burlington,
branching
oil'

This was not necessary, as

it

was

laid

on the bed of the old Indian


p. 10.

path.
||

II, 'v.

Hi',

Mull's History of tluutoi'don County,

Grants and Concessions.


p. 230.

** Whitehead's Host Jersey and Prop.,

from

the'

old road

some

live or six miles

ff Session Laws of

New

Jersey, 18U0.

INTERNAL [IMPROVEMENTS.
passed Jan. 31, 1888.*

l(W

The indebtedness of the com1841, "r later,


first

panj had aot been extinguished, or any dividend paid


in
its

stockholders, until

over thirty

years after the road was


In the

opened.f
'

year 1818 the "

New lermantown Turnpike


<

From New Brunswick it continued east to Ajnboy, Crossing at the Narrows, and thence lo Flatbush ami New York. David Mizner, now eighty-two years old and still living at Kingston, was the driver of one of the stagi - of |{ohert Bailee lor twenty sucweek.
cessive
In

Company" was

It commenced at North Hrunch, Sninerscl '<., intersecting and branching off from tie' Easton and New Branswick turnpike, and ran through New Germantown to it- terminus al German Valley. James Honeyman was president, ami one of the principal stockholders.
i

chartered and organized.

1791

there

were only

six

post-offices

in

New

Jersey,

-Newark,
.

Kahway
I

Elizabethtown, Bridgetown Brunswick, I'rincetown, and Trenton.


to

Somerset seems
h

have had no mail

facilities at all.

Swift-Sure Coach-Line" was established very


the Revolution, and possibly as carin-

itlu-r

turnpikes, chartered by

tin-

State Legislature

early,

before

between the years lson and


cither

!-_'-,

running through

as the

Hunterdon or Somerset Counties, were the following: .March li\ lsoii, " lliintcplnii ami Sussex;"
Feb.
1818,
9,

New Brunswick line, ami ran between Philadelphia and New York, over the " Old York Road," by the way of New Hope. Flemip
Trenton and

1811,

Pluckamin,

to the

"Farmers'," from Springfield, through Jersey turnpike, near Potterstoti a

Somerville,
etc.

Bound Brook,
lir-1.

Plainfield, Elizabethtown,

At the

possibly, hut
later increased

one
to

trip a

week may
at least

"Spruce Run," from Clinton, Hunterdon Co., to the Washington turnpike, uear Sherrard's mill. (now) in Washington township, Warren Co.; ami in 1818 the "New Germantown," above menti
Gordon,
last

have been made,


as early a- 1826
a

two, ami

no doubt earlier, making three trips

wi ek.**

in

hi--

"

History of
in

New Jersey,"

gives the

The Trenton ami Flemington mail-coach commenced running about 1828 or 1829. From an advertisementff of this
line,

turnpike constructed

the State as the " Passaic,"


(li-

dated " Bloomsbury, Lug.


left

in

L828; a few years later the canal and railroads

17,1829," we learn that the coach

the

"Union

veried capital from turnpike- into other channels.

in another portion of
detailed
(

this

WOrkJ

will

he found a

account

of

the

earlj

roads

of

Somerset

lounty,

many

of which also extended across Ilunter-

'i

lounty.

Line office, Trenton," for Flemington, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and left Nathaniel Price's inn, Flemington, for Trenton ami Bloomsbury, every Thursday, and Saturday. The fare through Was one dollar, and we arc told that the line was well
,

II- -.STAGES AND STAGE- I.1M-. The only public conveyance through the province previous to the surrender to Queen Anne (170 which any knowledge ha- be< n obtained, was a wagon

patronized.
In 1882 the "Swift-Sure Mail-Line" was revived between Philadelphia and New York, and "splendid

on the
<

rover
.

Amlioy road, which, under authority from ami ton, ran :it irregular times and with:

Troj coaches" put on by the proprietors, George Carter i\: Co., Philadelphia, John A. Weart, Trenton,

ami Anderson
'
i

& McCutcheon, NewYork.


"John Mar-hall"
Ii

It

conEliz-

the steamboat

at

oui

stablished rale-,
to

in
\\

connection with the packethitehead remark- that this

boat
1 1
1 : i

New

York.;

abethtown Point for New York City. week each way were made.

have been "the Post" between East Jersey and Pennsylvania, several timi o in the Penn>
(

Three trips per mington, and


to

the tare was four dollars and twenty-tive cents.

sylvania

'olonial

I;

The
March,
" Tlii

earliest
in

mention of stages
as follows

vertisement
IT:;::,

an adthe Philadelphia Mercury, dated in


is

found

in

Flemington ami the "New Brunswick, Millstone, aud Flemington commenced running that year, making tri
tablished by Congress early in
|s.;s,
'
'

The post-road from

N, w

Brunswick

tO

1873.

travelers,

and
I

otlioi

Burling^

Hunterdon Gazelle,

ion

keopetli

two Stage
li

riemlnc
illll
]

Aliil"-\, mi.
81*01
ii

bacB
Bi

in

lu

Bu

that

About
wick,

thi-

lime, a line ran by waj of Nevi


first

Bruns-

Bordentown was established from South RivertoNevt York, "once a week, if wind and weather permit, and come to the old-slip." In i:ii the stage-line between Trenton ami New Brunswick was established, and ran twice a
in 1734 the line
via

and

YORK

PHILAD1
ria

Pill

HAIL

STAI

P.-.i
hi

as

ci

a. i. in,.- iii

Now-1

mbly, 1841, pp,


i

,.i,\.

tll'l
i

\.

.I,,.. >,

lil,

10S
trips

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


between Joline's
hotel, in

New

Brunswick, and

Mahlon

C. Hart's, in Fleming-ton, "via Millstone,

Flaggtown, Shannock, Clover Hill, and Greenville." This stage connected at New Brunswick with the cars for New York, and stages for Princeton, Trenton, and Philadelphia.* The proprietors were J. V. D. Joline and Frederick Ten Eyck. It seems essential to take this retrospective glance at the old coaching-times in order properly to understand the vast change which the iron rail and steam
propulsion hath wrought.
" Where

six horses, passed over the Amwell road to Brunswick, while those from Sussex and the north went principally by the way of Bound Brook.

drawn by

New
At a

certain time the keeper of the toll-gate at Middlebrook kept an account, and stated that five hundred vehicles of various kinds had passed through the

gate in one day on their

New

way to the " Landing" and In 1748 the Raritan Brunswick markets. Landing was described as "being a market for the most plentiful wheat country for its bigness in America.'^

where is the mail ? The coachman, where is he ? Where is the guard that used to blow
is

the coach

about 1808 until the railroads were built & Abbey ran goods across the State from Trenton to New Brunswick, from thence
Messrs. Fish, Hill
to

From

His horn so cheerily ?"

New York by

sloops,

and

later

by steamboats.

of course, understood that country stages have not altogether disappeared from our midst. They still exist in both Hunterdon and Somerset, yet essenIt
is,

This firm is said to have carried on even at that early date a very extensive transportation business.
III. THE

tially

changed from the old-time stage-coach de-

DELAWARE AND RARITAN UANAL.

scribed by Washington Irving in his "Sketch-Book," or by Dickens on the occasion of the journey of Pick-

The

project of a canal to connect the waters of the

Delaware and Raritan Rivers was earnestly considered


even as early as the year 1804. At that date a route was examined by a company of intelligent, experienced men, and a law was passed by the Legislature authorOf this izing its construction by a private company. the late Judge Morris was president, and the late Gen. Braley of Hunterdon, the late Mr. Garnett of Somerset, with others, were directors. But these gentlemen, with all their zeal, did not succeed in their project; the state of trade at that time, and inexperience with works of this character, prevented its
execution.
its

wick and his friends on the " Muggletown Telegraph," to spend Christmas with the Wardles at Dingley Dell. Such scenes, however, were daily enacted in this section less than half a century ago. Before the era of railroads, travel between New York and Philadelphia increased to such an extent that thirty-two stages were frequently run each way
per day to carry the passengers. On days of extraordinary travel the farmers in the neighborhood of places where horses were changed were in readiness to furnish additional vehicles and teams if circumstances required.
on the day Lafayette passed through the State to review the troops at Trenton, assembled to do him honor, there were one hundred and sixty-eight horses ready harnessed and exchanged at Kingston. The general passed through in a splendid barouche drawn by six gray

Nevertheless, in 1816, and again in 1823,

"In

was demonstrated by commissioners appointed by the Legislature to explore the route.


practicability
Its practical utility

1825,

was

also

realized

by many

as

horses, driven (says Mizuer) by

their

David Sanderson, now of White House, Hunterdon Co., thou a youtli of nineteen years of age. The stages, on way to New York, would often separate a short distance east of Kingston, some taking the Trenton turnpike, others crossing Rocky Hill to New Brunswick by the way of Six-Mile Eun."f

being one of the links of the great chain of internal navigation which would greatly foster the domestic trade of the country. With the completion of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, this one only was wanted to complete an entire inland navigation from Newbern, in North Carolina, to Providence, R. I.
Therefore another
stock

About this time there was also an express-line between New York and Washington whose route lay The through Somerset and Hunterdon Counties. express-rider found a fresh horse ready saddled and bridled as lie came to each of the stations, at short It was by this means that intervals, on the route.
papers published, in advance of the mail, the vote on Mr. Clay's tariff-bill the day following its passage in the House, at Washington. There was also an immense travel across the State
the
at this time
It

A second jointeffort was made. company was authorized to build this canal. It
;

paid to the State treasury the sum of one hundred thousand dollars for the privilege but, failing to obtain the sanction of the State of Pennsylvania to the
use of the waters of the Delaware River, it was compelled to abandon the enterprise. The State refunded
to
it

New York

the

premium which

it

had

paid.
at that time

This enterprise was by


visionary,? while

many

deemed

not a few rejoiced in this second

independent of stage- and express-lines.


t Ibid., p. 555.
(J

consisted principally in conveying produce to mar-

ket at

New
(

Somerset
flour,

lounties,

Brunswick from Hunterdon, Sussex, and Large wagons heavily laden wii h

II.

may sound strange

to the present generation,o familiarized with


it

railroads and " rapid transit," but of

is

a fact, Unit

many

of the people

flax,

He

eed,

or

other produce,
1,

frequently

Hunterdon and Somerset sent remonstrances in 18H9 b> the Legislature " against the passage of a law to authorize the formation of a canal along the South Branch of Raritan from Hunt's Mills in Hunterdon to
stroy,

* Advertisement in Hunterdon QagoUe, Aug. |


J
I

1838.

"The

Earitan and

its

Early Dutch Settlors," Voorhees, in

"Oar

-unc,"

l7.'i.

Perth Amboy," alleging that It "would not only injure, but entirely dethe many valuable mills located upon the Raritan, ami in injuring them would also injure us as citizens in the vicinity of said mills."

[NTERNAL [MPROVEMENTS
failure,

109

reverted to the State, thinking thai if

by which the power of constructing the canal it wen


it.

Roberts, Esq., dated Trenton, June 27, 1834, so neatly portrays the event of the opening of the canal that

she would soon build

The

friends of the

no

some extracts
I

are here given, by permission

were active.

Many

petitions were

presented to the
..in

tier

waiting for the packet on

my way hom

Legislature in L828 29, committees were appointed and reported, and there was much agitation of the subject and earnest efforts put forth to induce the id State to undertake its construction. A bill introd The State refused to for this purpose was defeated. build ii or incur obligation then b; Although abandoned as a State measure, its friends still were confident, .-in<l efforts were revived to pro-

colouration,
i

On Wi
iple,

with tho Governor, and sundr?


i

came up the
Ifamong

-and started fbrTront


boat,

ck at night

Trenton without

and

afl

for

Mow "The
i-

1'.,

canal-li inks for


I,,

the

vide for

its

erection as a private enterprise.


it

ihit
I

Bay, there

ruary, 1880,

was committed

to a joint-stock
to

com-

A more jolly parry tic seldom meet John 0. Stevens, Jnmee


tc.

were large collection! of them at the landing)*, irswns in it,-- aftern, 8. Qroen, and Thomu Biddlo
mlrably.
. .

panj
Tin
i I

with certain beneficial restrictions


bruarj
tth proi ided

the State.
ription-

^%" li-

acl of Fi
-

we arrived

at

Now Brunswick wo were


re

greeted "ill, a salute of twenty-

to

the

capital

stock

of the
I

'Delaware and
.1

wore

wived by the military with presented In, i- off while the mayi
until

Etaritan

Canal Company'
-

shall

pened, within six


im
wore
all

wa

months ami .In


-i
i

after the passing of this act, bj

hoarse, wore

Neilson of

Middlesex, John

Potter of
(

town
canal company.

I"

marched up and down thi Bumptuous dinner, provided


being

at

the expense of the

Thomllltarj
brollod), recaj' sd tlielr

I.

b
I

William Salsted of Hunterdon, and larret Wall of Burlington." The capital -tuck was "to one million dollars, divided into shares of one Ired dollars each, and when five thousand [bscribed the stockholders shall elecl by ballot
t.

under arm

The Delaware and Raritan Canal Company ami


tden and Amiiii) Railroad and Transportation

nine directors," and annually thereafter said directors


to elect
rights,
a

Company wereatthet
1

'

their u

"pciation

in

president.

The
.

act

gave them corporate

830, rival

and antagonistic corporations.


title

They were

powers, and

privileges,
. .

and

empowered the
15,

dated in interest by act of the Legislature, Feb.


1831,

company " to construct

a canal or artificial navi-

and assumed the

of the "Joint

Compalards of
1
I

gation from the waters of the Delaware Rivi waters of the Raritan, and to improve the n
hi'

nies," their affairs being controll


I,,.
i

the said rivers, respectively, as

may from time


j

March companies joined a- one bodj the "Joint Companies" ami the "Ne Jersey Railh
.

to

time become accessary below where the said canal shall empty into the said rivers, respectively which canal
shall be at least
fifty feet

ed Transportation Company" were, by act of the siate Legislature, merged into one corporation,

wide
least

at

the water-line, and

the waters therein beat


out
;

five feet

deep through>.
-

and the Baid company are hereby empowered to nsupply the said canal with water from the river ware by constructing a feeder, which -hall be so constructed a- to form a navigable canal not less than
I
1

thirty

feet

wide

four feet deep, to conduct the

Railroad ami a- the "United New Jersej Canal Company." [ts present management i- s " is * ta- t'ollow-: John G.Stevens, President; A. I,. Wolcotl Jackson, General nis, Vice-President; F. John Jacob Astor, John Direi tors Superintendent. c. Barron, William Bucknell, A. I.. Dennis, E. Green, Robert I.. Kennedy, Thomas McKean,

known

<

water from any part of the

m er
L880

1-aac
1
>

W.

Scudder, John

<

I.

Stevens. Robert F. Stock(


;

tlaw are."
to,,.

Ashlicl

The
I

first

directors were

Robert

Welch, Samuel Welsh

lharles A. Butts,

F. S

James Parker, James Neilson, William Balsted, John It. Thompson, .tames
D. Wall,

John

State Director.

Potter,

S.

Green, Joseph Mcllvaine, wl


-

hose

It.

F.

Stockton

town
I

This canal extends from the Delaware at Bordento Trenton, thence across the State to New
treitj

president of the board, Jt


.1.

Neilson treasurer, and

rnn-wrk wn

in- the

,r

tan passing thrcugh


I

R.

Th

the southwest

mnty, along

p ot

tary.

instruction of the canal wain

commenced

the east hank of the Millstone River and the south


late

the year 1830,


n

June, 1834.
i

was completed and in opcraentire work was under the White, oft lanvass chief engineer, who lived and
it

The

ml
se :tion

lis

after

it-

pletion.

Thi

hank of the Raritau. It is forty-four miles long, with a feeder, twenty-two mile- in length, which extends from Bull's Island, above Stockton, in Hunterdon County, southward to the main canal, with which it
unite- at Trenton. The canal crosses th< Vssanpink Creek. ea-I of Trenton, in a line -lone a,|iledm I. This canal is eighty feel wide and eighl feel deep,admit-

was built under the superintendence of John Hopkins; the middle section, George T. Olmsted; the western section and lower part of the feeder, Edward A. Douglas; and the upper part of the feeder under the directi Ashbel V\ elch, of Larubertville. The ll,,n. A-hin Welch, in a letter i" Solomon W.
i

Incorporated March
iswlok.

7.

City, thron

110

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


and
fifty

ting the passage of barges of two hundred tons burden,


dollars.

general superintendent since the

commencement

of

and

its

cost

is

not far from five million

the road.

In 1867 it passed into the hands of the United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company," by whom it was subsequently leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, at an annual rental of ten
"

In 1836 it was built as far as Plainfield, and the panic of 1837 told severely on the finances of the company but they still pressed onward, though slowly extending the road to Bound Brook, and finally
;

per centum per


all

annum upon

the capital stock, free of

taxes

and, in accordance with the lease, quarterly

dividends of two and one-half per cent., in cash, have

reached Somerville in 1839,J by a desperate effort which resulted in the failure of the company and the foreclosure of the mortgage upon the road. The road

been regularly paid.

was sold in 1846, the


of this canal for 1879

strap-rail taken

The receipts and expenditures


were
as follows

organization, the track relaid with heavy T-rail,

up by the new and

From
" "

tolls

on boats
lading

"

steam towing
miscellaneous

"

84,375.40 410,816.70 273,563.10 7,203.90

Working expenses
Net earnings

8695,959.10 326,924.85

$369,034.25*

IV RAILROADS.
The coach
of the sixteenth century, the stage of the

preparations made for a large business. Feb. 16, 1842, the State Legislature, by special enactment, extended the time for completing the road until July 4, 1856. A new company was chartered in 1847 (approved February 26th) to extend the road to Easton, under the name of " The Somerville and Easton Railroad Company." In the fall of 1848 the road was opened to White House the following year$ authority was given the above-named company to purchase the Elizabethtown and Somerville Railroad, and the name
;

seventeenth, and the mail of the eighteenth led step

by step to the locomotive of the nineteenth, the century marked by such giant strides in the matter of travel and transportation. In 1750 it took from five
to seven days to

of the consolidated

Central Railroad

company was changed to " The Company of New Jersey." This was

make

the trip from

New York

to

Philadelphia

in 1850,

two hours.f

THE CENTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY.

The
tral

principal east-and-west railroad line traversing


is

the counties of Somerset and Hunterdon

The Cen-

Railroad of New Jersey. This road, besides being one of the leading avenues for conveying the products
of Pennsylvania and the AVest to

New York

City,

is

carried into effect in 1850, the existing roads brought under one ownership, and immediately thereafter, in the spring of the same year, the remainder of the route to Phillipsburg was put under contract. The portion to Clinton was opened in May, 1852, and the cars made one round-trip per day from New York to Clinton, in Hunterdon County, from whence passengers reached Easton in stage. On the morning of the 1st of July, 1852, the last rail was laid, and the next day, in eight splendid cars (drawn by the gigantic

one of the most important routes from the Atlantic seaboard to the West. No road in the Union is so indispensable a link in the chain of communication between the East and West, and none can excel it in the picturesque attractions which it opens up to the
tourist.

engine " Pennsylvania," decorated with

flags),

the

directors of the road, with their invited guests

and

The

history of the road


it

is full

of interest, especially

as in its construction

acted as a pioneer and

made
lines.

the all-important preparation which led to the build-

ing of other and important connecting railroad

The road from


built

Elizabcthport to Somerville was

by the " Elizabethtown and Somerville Railroad Company," under a charter granted in 1831. The company was poor, and the road was opened first from Elizabethport to Elizabeth, two and one-half miles, and connected at the Point with New York and New Brunswick by boat. The route to Somerville was surveyed in 1835 by Col. James Moore, the present eh id' engineer, who has filled this office and that of
* Report Stato Comptroller, 1879. t in 1829, when Htoamboats wore running, ami the same journey was made in nine hours, it was cause of great rejoicing as the inauguration ,,t a new era in the history of traveling in the United States, and truly it Was a marvel when compared with the slow-moving stage-coach and

accompanied by Dodsworth's Band, sped through the Hunterdon and Warren, to the wonder of thousands of delighted inhabitants, who thronged to the stations and greeted the party with the firing of guns and the waving of handkerchiefs and banners. From this time that undeveloped country began to yield up its wealth. Iron-works that had lain in ruins for the want of fuel since the Revolution were rebuilt, and with the advent of the thundering coal-trains began the ring of tilt-hammers while the exchange of log cabins for beautiful dwellings, and
glorious landscapes of
;

the founding of churches, schools, etc., marked the succeeding years of the history of this road. For eight years more were passengers transferred

from Elizabethtown to New York by boat, but in 1860 authority was obtained to extend the Central Road to Jersey City, which was soon after accomplished. The most important feature in this extension is the Bay
} John 0. Stearns, who died in Elizaboth in November, 1862, commenced his connection with the road in 1834, the firm of Colkott &

Stearns having taken the contract for the construction of a part of


original Eli/abolhtown ami Somerville Railroad.

tlio

After

tile

foreclosure

canal-beat.

Hut the Hteam-cars soon

left

oven the steamboats in the

background.

and sale of tho road, in 1816, Mi-. Stearns was appointed superintendent, and retained the office until his death. g Act approved Fob. 22, 1849.

INTKKXAL
Bridge, nine thousand eight hundred
feel

l.Ml'KOYKMK.Yf.S.

Ill

in

length,

over Newark Baj


In L869-70 the Centra]

Railroad

Company made

improvements at points within Eunterdon County and in its immediate vicinage, calculated to contribute to the comfort and safety of They passengers, and of persons crossing the track. arc thus detailed by the Hunterdon Republican of March 10, 1870:
\i

many important

unbroken gauge, to Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, ami the West; ami it ha- direct control of and operates the mails in Pennsylvania extending from Easton, through Bethlehem, Mauch chunk, Whit.- Haven, ami Wilkes-Barre, to Carbondale, under the title of It also opertin Lehigh ami Susquehanna Division.
ates,

within

tin-

Stan- of

New

Jersey,

iln- "

New

York-

Phlllipeburg the for

complicated notwork "f tncki hatlx an

*n

iliuti^i-i! (lint tin- ruilti all ii"\v


iU1

run from

mi,.-

swltrli in tin,

iniiiii -tiv<-t.

'iii.

frelght-honae boa been re


At

bo

.i

passenger-car house.
I

rod t,> the main street and changed A new freight-house at the Bame plAce has
-i.ni
s

Inti'ly lici-ii fmirtlit'il.

'-I

Ipi

i<U'i-

another truck lnw

n laid,

en that danger from a single truck over

th.' In-M^re ii

tlm- uvni'lol.

At

Blgk
tii.it

Bridge the
itch

now

station has

i^ii.-.

in a style appropriate t" a


mil.- of

romantic growing town,


1.

Below the White House


Ini-

new
|nir-

trni

hi.I.. ,!'

tin-

mini

jn-t

I.e.

-n cnutpleteil (or

turn-out

thal freight-

and

coal-trains
i

may
,

lay over,
i

here.

A bridge has also just been

pleted by th
.1

making four tracks company oyer their

sin low White II e, to iii;,t x lee on the pnbll roadl are pnUrelj "nt ofdangor, This brltlg Is "in- hnndred and ouo foot
i,

ami Long Branch Railroad," from Perth Amboy to Long Branch tin- " New Egypt ami Farmingdale Railroad," from Long Branch to Ocean Beach; "The Long Branch ami Sea Girt Railroad," from Long Branch to Sea Girt, aggregating thirty-four miles, ami in tin- summer of 1880 extended tin- line t" Point Pleasant, under the name of "New York ami Long Branch Extension Railroad,"three miles; also the "Jersey Southern Railroad," from Sandy Hook to The l!a\ Side, -one hundred ami seventeen miles. Central Railroad, being in harmony ami acting in unison with tin- Philadelphia ami Reading Railroad,
;

long ami

t"

which
idi

i-

fifty-one feel long,

a mile

ol

makes connections with


ami
Philadelphia
at

tin-

various lines of
th.- "

tin-

latter

"i

the road from Clint

road, one important branch of w bich,

New York
with
the

rnwardsHlgh Bridge, making four tnick*


mile from

ments have

here, and three-quarters ol a ImproveTh tlampton Junction towards Spruce Run all d verj Judiciously made, and prove the good ludgmenl
I

New

Line,"

intersects

Central
n-al

Bound Brook, Somerset Co.

<

iM of

ill"

superlnl

lent.

11

'['lie

first

station-agenl

at

Bomerville was Bernard


a-

Stearns,
-I

with
i-

James Kreusen
I

helper;

tin'

last
at

now, ami has


tin'

for years, tin-

agent

Bomerville.

!enThese an- the immediate connections of tinRailroad of New Jersey," all of which an- of Certain it i- no road could have incalculable value. a geographical position more favorable tor numerous ami important connections than this one. Along tinline of the Central the beauties of nature and the
utilities

Railroad was opened AJlentown ami then to Mi Chunk, the centre of the Lehigh Vallej coal-region. During the same year, also, the Delaware, Lackawanna ami Western Railroad completed the line from
In

L8S6

Lehigh Vallej
to

of

man

vie with eaeh other for tin-

overmastin-

from Easton,

first

Ii

tering interest.

The trunk mute that


hence
its

i-,

that of

Central

mad

itself

extends across the central portion

of

New Jersey, and

name.

It-

termini are

New Hampton (its point of junction with the Central Railroad of New Jersey) to Scranton, the centre of
the

It traverses tin- fines! Jersey City and Easton, Pa. portion of the State, passing through a succession of alluvial valh-vs containing tin- very richest land in

Lackawanna

coal-region,

and

convenient depot

New

for iln- coal

transportation from

tin-

Wyoming

Valley

tility a- on,-

Jersey, and increasing both in beauty ami ferapproaches iln- borders of Pennsylvania.
that

eastward.
tlif

Through
ill't
<

these two roads the products of

Who

richest
i"

anthracite

mines of Pennsylvania were


Railr
I

Musconetcong

has looked from New Hampton upon the vallej of Hunterdon County, will ever
its

brought

Centra]
>

of

transportation

the metropolis.

Tin'

New Jersey for Lackawanna


I

forget tin- scene or

suggestions?

The
Isaac

first

president of this

company was Governor


Col.
officiated

connection
Railroad
i

requiring a six-foot

gauge, the

entral

II.

Williamson,

who was succeeded by

Company at

an earlj period anticipated this

John

Ki-an.

Stephen Vail followed, ami


Tin-

ssity by laying a third rail to

Hampton junction.
is

until the consolidation of tin- companies,

when John

The common gauge


eight

of the Central road

four feet

Taylor Johnston was elected.

last-named gen-

ami
"I'

hall' inches,

which

is

uniform with that


generally.

of

iln'

railroads

of

the

country

The

The

route beyond Baston affords an axteni and variety of scenery

value

these connecting lines


fact

may
first

be appreciated

from

ilir

that

during the
of
iln-

year after their

(bund mi few roads on this continent, mountaln-rangi - ,,f characteristic there by abrupt llatnirea to Iheit
t

completion

the

business

tin'

Central

Road was

through which stately


.i>
t->

rivers lead their

pomp

>>t

wal
withal, so pi
Alt
-

.!,.!.

nearly double.

During
ton-

second year the Lehigh

remind the

tmong the

Valley road brought eighty-sis thousand three hundred ami


the
fifty-five
<n

coal,

ami the Lackawanna


Iheit

primeval wllderneea, .ma rorn

tni

road two hundred ami twenty-four thousand ton-, to


i

ut feebly suggosta tin, reality ae

'entral road for transportation.

actually rldl

in

1858

iln-

Bast Pennsylvania

now Philadelphia
In-,

..

;.t

Delaware Water-Gap, must himself climb IbHaw tin- wtud


tin<i

th

up

tin- In-

ami Reading) Railroad was opened between Allentown ami Reading, establishing a direct line, with

cllned planes

Uount
,

Plagah,
it

musl ectuallj
I

r,-,

wn

oxporlc

for

i-

bej

>>

them.

112

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


fourth miles.
It is

tleman served for many years, and until recently, when the present incumbent was chosen. The present officers, 1880, are as follows E. C. Knight, President; John Kean, Vice-President; Sam:

contemplated to extend
River.

it

east-

ward

to the

Hudson

The

first

president of

uel Knox, Treasurer and Secretary; F. S. Lathrop, Receiver; James Moore, General Superintendent and

was Lewis H. Taylor, of High Bridge. This road has short branches to Chester, four and onehalf miles, and to Hacklebarney Mines, one and onefourth miles. The statistics of this road show Cost,
this corporation
:

Polhemus, Assistant Superintendents Jacob M. Clark, Engineer H. P. Baldwin, General Passenger Agent P. H. Wyckoff, General Freight Agent. The directors are E. C. Knight, F. S. Lathrop, F. A. Potts, J. J. Barnes, G. G. Haven, Edward Clark, Benjamin Williamson, John Kean, and F. T. Frelinghuysen.
;

Engiueer

W. W.
;

Stearns,

W.

S.

$972,830.03

capital stock, $850,000.

This line

is also-

operated by the Central Railroad of

New

Jersey.

THE DELAWARE AND BOUND BROOK RAILROAD.


THE NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA NEW
LINE.

The capital stock of the company is $18,563,200, while the value of the road and equipments is over
820,000,000.

one of unusual interest. In 1867, Henry M. Hamilton, Esq., of New York,, conceived the idea of building a new line of railroad from New York to Philadelphia. He removed to
history of this road
is

The

For the year ending Dec. 31, 1879, the balance net earnings was $1,371,579.64.

New

Jersey for that purpose and entered on the un-

dertaking,

which only succeeded

after a
it

tremendous

The stations upon this road within Somerset and Hunterdon Counties are Bound Brook (where connection is made with the " New York and Philadelphia

struggle between the popular will as

centred in

him

and the United Railroads of New Jersey, a struggle which will ever be memorable in the annals of the
history of this State.

New

Line," and with stages for New Brunswick), Finderne, Somervillc (connecting with the "South Branch Railroad," to Flemington), Raritan, North

From

the outset the

new

line,

Branch, White House, Lebanon, Annandale (ClinHigh Bridge (connecting with the " High Bridge Branch," to German Valley, Chester, and Port Oram,
ton),

Glen Gardner, Junction (where connection is the " Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad"), Asbury, and Valley. From the lastetc.),

made with

named station the road crosses the southern corner of Warren County to Phillipsburg and Easton, where the "Lehigh and Susquehanna division" of the road,
with
its

half-dozen branches, commences.

SOUTH BRANCH RAILROAD.


This road, a branch of the " Central Railroad of New Jersey," extends from Somerville to Flemington. It was chartered in 1870, and its construction completed soon thereafter. Its length is fifteen and a half miles, and its cost was $441,S68.87. Its capital
stock
is

which crosses the southern part of Somerset County, was a very popular undertaking, and its conflict enlisted general sympathy. Mr. Hamilton began with the Attleborough Railroad Company, a corporation chartered by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, April 2, 1860, its charter being renewed March 24, 1868. It was authorized to build a railroad from Philadelphia to the Delaware River above Trenton. In order to he able to withstand the opposition of the Camden and Amboy Railroad Company, which, with every resource of money and influence, he was well aware would throw its whole power against every step of his advance, he proceeded to procure amendments to the charter of the Attleborough Railroad Company from the Legislature of Pennsylvania, authorizing the increase of
its capital, so that it could hold sufficient to build the whole road from Philadelphia to New York, empowering it also to purchase

the stock of railroad corporations in

New

Jersey.

$438,300;
F.

its

floating debt, $3568.87.

O. D.

Thus authorized, he procured the


the Millstone and Trenton Railroad
corporate of the State of

jiurehase of con-

Hayne and W.

Rand
is

are the conductors

on

this

trolling interests in the Yardleyville Bridge

road; the former

a veteran in railroad service,

Company

Company, (a body

twenty-six years " on the rail," and mostly in the employ of the lentral.
(

The stations on this line are Somerville (connecting with the main line, east and west), Ricefield, Flaggtown, Neshanic, Three Bridges, and Flemington, within Somerset and Hunterdon Counties.

all

THE HIGH BRIDGE RAILROAD.


In 1873 a charter was procured
fur (lie

New Jersey under an act approved April 3, 1867), the Peapack and Plain lield Railroad Company (under acts approved March 30, 1855, and March 11, 1864), the Elizabeth and New Providence Railroad Company (under act approved March 22, 1867), and afterwards the Narrow Gauge Railway Company (under act approved March 22, 1871 ), these all being corporate bodies existing under
legal
full

construction

charters in

the State of
form,

New
when

Jersey,
roads,

with

ofa railroad from High Bridge, in Hunterdon County, i" Chester, in Morris County, and to connect with tin!

powers

to build

their respective

and so

situated as to connect and

built, a con-

Now Jersey Central at (lie lirst-name.d point. This was afterwards consolidated with the "Longwood Valley Railroad." Work was commenced on the High Bridge road in 1874, and completed in 1876 to Port Oram, in Morris County, twcnly-livo and one-

tinuous line from


(

New

York, with the Attleborough

lompany, to Philadelphia.

Another thing was necessary besides filling up the New York to Philadelphia, and that was the protection of the stock of this new
links in the chain from

INTERN

\l.

[MPROVEMENTS
have been carried through.

113
This arrangement has

enterprise from being bought up by the opposition "r controlled


in

any way

in it- interest.

To

this end,

he

opied by other corporations since, notably the

had the Attleborough Railroad Company made the parent company, with its name changed by law to ailv \ imparii and, pursuant to Actional
I

Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad ii for the sa purpose,I

Company, which
-to

protect
'

itself

I:

I.

<

from the control of the Pennsylvania Railroad


pany.

k>m-

authority granted by the Legislature of Penns;

he bad its stock arranged into two classes, common and preferred, each being equal in amount and having

The National Railway Company


power
to

still

lacked

the

equal privileges, except thai the preferred stock was


entitled to receive ten per cent, dividends out of the

mortgage on the whole line from Philadelphia to New York, and capitalists required that legislative authority to do this should be
execute
a single

mi earnings of
could
the

the road before the

common

stock

secured as a condition precedent


the

to

their putting in

receive anything.

granted bj

had authority the Legislature of Pennsylvania to place


also

He

money

to

build the road.

bill

was therefore
Jersey
in

introduced into the Legislature of

New

common
to vote

stock in trust,
ii

that

is,

to transfer the
trust,

power

to a trustee

by

deed of

the
i

conditions of the trust being such that no vot<


i

ii

in

the interest of
c

he

under) and

Am-

boy or any other opposition

pany.

This would
mtrol of

upplementary to the charter of the Millstone and Trenton Railroad Company, authorizing that lat with the National Railway e the required mortgage on the whole tine; but it was defeated by the powerful opi

hostile to the interests of the


its

one-half of

entire voting stock.


lould be sold in
It

new c pany The other half


at its

the prefi rred

any purchaser without

Camden and Amboy Railroad Comtwo months' contest in the Legislature. From 1870 to 1*7:? the time was Bpent in endeavoring to obviate the difficulty growing out of the inability
position of the

pany

after a

risk to the c mtrol.

could only be obtained


its

to

make

a consolidated

mortgage.

At length,
the

in

the

par value
t

in cash,

and

proceeds could be used only

iwards the building of the road.


or

The equitable
stock

in-

money value
iy.

of the

common

Stanhope charter was obtained, which was approved by the March 18, 1872, having passed both
session

of the

Legislature for

1872,

mveyed

to the trustee, beii

branches
stock was used in
i

of

the

Legislature
a

without

oppos

This

common
i
i

ii

contained

clause proi iding for this

buying up the control of he N n Ji sey corporations which were needed to make the line from the Delalr.< ihanged ware River to New York, for their stock. This had a twofold result: it comline, and ii was made full-paid by the exit
1

sity,

this

clause having
<

escaped the notice of the


<

agents of the !amden and Amboj Railr lad lompany, who ere guarding their interests in the Legislature.

This charter,
lawyerof

in

the opinion of

many

of the

first

change, so that

ii could be placed in trust. of trust provided thai an> attempt to vote

The
ii

in

the

of anj

competing
to
a

line
il

the holder of a single share of

should be void, and was given full, real.

and equitable power

enforce this provision as comparty t" the contract.

and other States, among them Hon. Cortlandt Parker, Attorney-General Robert Gilchrist, Judge William Strong of the United states Supreme Court, all of whom gave written Iharles ribbons and her with Hon. conMessrs. Bullitt and Dixon of Philadelphia, power to unite in one corporation
Jersey
i

New

<

The purpose of
at

this provision

was not

clear!

all

the franchises under which the


c

new

line
to

was

to

be

the time, even by the

members of

the legal pro-

constructed, rendering them

petent

execute a

time

in New Jersey, it being the first was ever introduced for the protection of a railroad company. Mr. Hamilton had worked out this application of the prim iple himself, after having exhausted all the possibilities of protection otherwise.

fession

generally

consolidated mortgage and to build and operate the


road.

it

The

different

New

Jersey

corporations

therefore merged into the Stanhope Railroad

ComRail-

pany, and that

company leased to the National impnny so much of the united (ranch


to Jersey
line.

He had consulted able lawyers, among them Prof. Theodore W. Dwight, of the Columbia Law School of
New York,
proxj
.

was necessary to extend it one mortgage on the whole


.i-

City and

make

as

in
\

the possibility of an
or
ot
; > i

irrevocable
n

Such eminent counsel ha\ ing approved the indenture


competent
to
t

and

liati

foi

of protection
:

for the

purpose, capitalists willingly en-

control could be suggested

and
tin

this plan

was
reli-

furnish

the

funds

for

building the road.


;

approved, and adopted as the only one


able and satisfactory.
greal
Ii

Contracts for construction

were

let

the grading of the

was made

casion of a

and much odium against Mr. Hamilton was raised in consequen f its misapprehension, it being made to appear to the pub Ii was in reality the key to the verj great bug-bear. whole position, and was a ential as n mi
cry of
fraud,
that
l>ut

the whole and a considerable portion of the earthwork and masonry done in a short time. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, which had then leased the work- of the Camden and Amboy

road-bed was vigorously

commenced along

line,

for

it

the enterprise could never

j unction

Railroad Company, applied to the courts for an inrestraining this new and competing line from

114

HUNTEKDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


railroad or railroads in this State for the transportation of passengers

completing their work. Judge Sharswood, before whom it came, notified counsel of the National Railway Company, after argument on both sides, that he intended to deny the injunction, suggesting, however,
that
it

and merchandise between


;

New

York and Philadelphia,

or to compete in business with

the railroads of the joint companies"

and

this act

would expedite a decision

in the

Supreme

Court if the company would accept an injunction pro forma, i.e., for the sake of form, and thus be

the joint companies formally accepted, April 17, 1854, having received in return certain advantages for which

up themselves, so as to secure a final decision at once. They accepted the injunction, and it was granted. While these proceedings were pendable to carry
it

they were willing to relinquish the monopoly. Nevertheless, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company,
as the successors of the joint companies, claimed be-

fore the chancellor that until the Legislature should

Pennsylvania Railroad Company applied to the Court of Chancery of New Jersey for an injunction against the National Railway Company in this State, on the ground of their still possessing the monopoly of all carrying between New York and Philadelphia.
ing, the

in express words authorize a

At the

original incorporation of the

Amboy

Railroad

monopoly of all and Philadelphia. The legislative enactment of March 2, 1832, by which this was accomplished, provides " that
it

Camden and had been secured the transportation between New York

Company

it

shall not be lawful at

any time during

to comhad exclusive right of transportation between New York and Philadelphia. The National Railway Company was defended by some of the ablest legal counsel in the State, Judge Robert S. Green, of Elizabeth, Hon. Cortlandt Parker, Hon. Robert Gilchrist, then attorney-general of the State, and Judge J. G. Shipman, who showed the clear right of the new company to compete yet Vice-Chancellor Amzi Dodd, before whom the application for an injunction came, granted it, Jan. 14,

new company
it

pete with the joint companies,

the charter of the

Camden and Amboy Railroad Com-

1873.

any other railroad in New Jersey, without its consent, which shall be intended or used for the transportation of passengers or merchandise between the cities of New York and Philadelphia, or to compete in business with the Camden and Amboy

pany

to construct

This decision practically ended the contest in the


courts

and
it

left

the

new company

powerless to pro-

aroused public indignation and organized a sentiment of opposition to the monopoly which grew in strength and boldness until it culminated in a free
ceed, but

Railroad."

railroad law.

This monopoly was complete, and in time made the Camden and Amboy overpowering in the State, and so strong as to be felt in the framing of the laws, in the choosing of the Governors and members of the

and even of the judges of the courts. This had at length become intolerable to such a degree that every effort had been made to shake off its tyranny, but in vain.* Henry C. Carey, the distinguished political economist of Philadelphia in those
Legislature,

When the Legislature of 1873 convened, it was found that the Lower House was largely in favor of a competing railroad, and of granting the National Railroad Company whatever legislation might be necessary to give it undoubted right to build a new railroad between the two great cities of the continent. The Senate was nearly equally divided, with the spirit of monopoly in the preponderance. The friends of the National Railway Company, finding special
legislation impossible in face of the opposition in the

days,

who had done

his

utmost to curb the power of

the monopoly and failed, said to Mr. Hamilton regarding his enterprise, " Young man, that is a noble
let me tell you that, however well you lay your plans, you will never get through. Any body of men you may gather around you will some day sell you out." It was to prevent this that Mr. Hamilton first began his search after a means of protection, which search ended in his deed of trust. As a means of ending this monopoly, however, a way was found in 1854 for securing a compact between the Legislature of New Jersey and the joint companies, whereby those exclusive privileges were to cease in 1869, and it was then enacted that no such

Senate, drafted a general railroad law and secured


passage.

its

thing to do; but

claim should ever be


lative act
after the first

made after that date. The legisrespecting this compact provided " that
day of January, 1809,
it

Immediately upon its approval, Aj^ril 2, 1873, the New York and Philadelphia Railroad Company was organized under its provisions, and began anew the effort to carry forward its work. But it was found that capital, which was willing to embark in the enterprise under a special charter, hesitated to take the risks under an untried general law. The panic of 1873 soon followed, and the company, discouraged by the difficulties still surrounding it, embarrassed by the expense of the long fight it had sustained, and depressed by the effect of the panic, sold its rights, property, and franchises, in May, 1874, to the Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad Company,
a new corporation organized in the same general interest, for the same purposes, to build over the same
ground, and including several of the same men. Most of these men were Philadelphia capitalists and connected with the North Pennsylvania Railroad
<

shall be lawful,

without the consent of the

Camden and Amboy and Delaware and Raritan Companies, to construct any
*
li

A more

full

account of

this

monopoly and \u imwor may bo

fuiuitl

the Nurth American Review of April, 1807.

other obstacles having

lompany, who were backed by that corporation. The all been removed, the work

INTERNAL IMPKOVEM ENTS.


was rapidly completed, and in May, 1876, the road was opened for travel in time for the Centennial Exposition Of
It
is

115

('anal.

It

with

its

includes the Camden and Amboy Railroad, many branches and connections, also the

lliat

year.

equipped and operated by the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad lompany, upon a lease of nine hundred and oinety years from May l, 1879, at an
<

"Millstone and New Brunswick," the " l'.elvidere Delaware," and the " FlemingtOn" Railroad-, all except the first named being wholly or in part within
the counties
id'

Hunterdon ami Somerset.

annual rental of the amount of interest on it- bonded and Boating debt, and a dividend on it- capital stock the first two ai the rate of six per cent, per annum
!'<>>

At the beginning of the year 1867, Hamilton Fish and Ashbel Welch, with others, effected the consolipany with the dation of the New Jersey Railroad
t
'

years, of Beven per cent, per

years,

thereafter. and of eight per rent, is due the credit of this whole undertaking, as it was by bis enterprise it was pro-

annum for per annum

the next two

"joint

To Mr. Hamilton

This consolidation was in the form of a contract, drawn up by Joseph I'. Bradley, panics, and was validated tl unsel of the joint c

companies."

jected, by- his foresight


it

it

was protected, by his

skill

was directed, and by hi* unflinching perseverance was carried through and the courage of its friends To rallied again and again after repeated defeats. him, indeed, is due the passage of the free railroad law of New Jersey, and the liberation of the state from the curse of special legislation, and from monopit

v 'o. by act of the Legislature approved Feb. 27, Although these road- were now operated hy a joint board, 'In- combination was at first rather that of an
i

association or partner-hip of the several roads

<

cerned than as a unit but in B72 March an act of th,' Legislature, they were merged
:

1th
int

i.

by

corporation,

"United N.w Jersey Railroad and Canal Company." Tin


henceforward
as

known

the

oly rule to a large extent.

Besides the legal gentleto wit,


-(

Pennsylvania Railroad

Company

subsequently took

men already mentioned,


(

lortlandt Parker, Attorney

Judge Green, Hon. leneral Gilchrist, Judge

possession of the road- under their lease, although


the stock remained in the hand- of the united John A. Anderson, of l.amliert ville. panies.

com-

Bhipman,

Judge Strong, Hon. Charles Gibbons, Messrs. Bullitt and Dixon, a number of other gentlemen associated with him deserve honorable menan be even named. Among tion, a few only of hi them are Hon. William M. Meredith, of Philadel-

who

had been assistant superintendent of the Belvidere Delaware Railroad, became superintendent of what
has since been
Division of the

known
1'nitcd
siill
l

as the "l'.elvidere

Delaware
Jersey."

Railroads of

New

Algernon S. ladwallader, of Yardleyville, Pa. Samuel K. Wil-on and Alfred S. Livingston, of Trenleni-v Lewis, Jacob Riegel, and James rowan, ton;
phia
;

This position he

holds.

The

I'.ch

idere

>elaware Railroad" was completed


I

to Lambertrville in L850,to

Esq., of

Philadelphia,

ill

of

si

bom

Btood manfully

and finished

by w hen the storm of obloquy was overwhelming and Edward the obstacles apparently insurmountable.
C. Knight, Esq., the president

Milford in February, S58, was Leased to the United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company, Feb. !"'. 1876, and assigned to the Pennsylvania Railroad Comin

L854.

It

of the Delaware and


his associates

Bound Brook Railroad Company, and


I

sixty-eight mil.-,

of that corporation, are deserving of great credit for heir BUCCeSS and the character of the work thej have achieved, which
in
is

surpassed by no other of the kind

the world, and

i-

an honor

to

any body of men.

This road, popularly known as the" Bound Brook" or "Air Line" Railroad, his a double track, is well
built,

pany March 7th of the same year. It has a length of ami extends from Trenton, N.T.to Maiiimka Chunk. N. .1.. where it intersects the DelaIt is laid ware. Lackawanna and Western Railroad. Upon the east hank of the Delaware River, whose windings it follows, ami gives the western part of Hunterdon County railroad communication from itBOUthern
paid
its

to il-

northern boundary.
it-

Itis

capital -tock.
1 1

and
it

is

finely outfitted in rolling Btock.

It ex-

in. is

$994,050,

bonded debt
and

$3,
is

1,500,

and

tends

from

Philadelphia

to

I',

mnd

Bro

ik,

J.,

floating debt (being special bonds]


cosl

$156,081.77.

where
cost

intersects with the Central Railroad of

New
The
debt,

Th,-

of

the

road

equipments
all

has

been

Jersey, continuing

thence
in,

to

New York

City.

$4,246,633.92.

The

receipt- from

sources forthe

of

th.'

mad and equipments was


paid

$8,138,056.64;

capital

stock

$1,584,400;

bonded

vear 1879 were $718,152.31, and the expenditures for the same time $454,900.11, leaving as net earnings
$268,252.20.
II.

$1,500,000;

Ii- receipts fi>r floating debt, $299,600. L879 were $310, 169.31, and expenditures for the same year were $167,213.88. E. 0. Knight is the present

Ashbel Welch

i- it-

president,

ami Hugh

Ely secretary and treasurer.


Fl.i:MIM.ToN RAILROAD

officiating president.

Tilt:

AND TRANSPORTATION COMnr.

The station- of this line within Somerset County are Bound Brook, Weston, Hamilton, Vim Aken,
Harlingen, Skillman, ami Stoutsburg.

PANY,
win:
ali
1:
i

part of the

ulw-.v chain ahove

ntimed

now operated hy the Pennsylvania Railroad ComIt runs from Flempany, was constructed in 1854
ington,
in

UNITED \i

JERSEY RAILROAD

IND CANAL OOMPANY.


a

southwest
it

direction,

to

Lambertville,
l'.elvidere

This corporation embraces quite


roads in this

network of railState, as also the Delaware and Raritan

twelve miles, where

Connects with tic Delaware Railroad both north and south.

This line

11(5

HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY.


Hunterdon County.
Its receipts for

is

"wholly within

in the interest of the bondholders

1879 were $10,593.08, and expenses $17,575.45. Ashbel Welch, of Lambertville, is president, and

rance for

fifty

thousand

dollars.

by G. Morris DorThe lessees have ter-

and secretary. The cost of the road and equipments was $290,653.87; capital stock paid in, $150,000 bonded debt, $250,000. TheBelvidere Delaware Railroad Company and the Flemington Railroad and Transportation Company still have their own officers and boards of directors, though those officers and directors have no control of the working of these roads. They have cognizance of all things that have not passed under the lease, for example, making loans secured by mortgage, and agreements of a permanent character.
B. Eljr treasurer
;

Hugh

minated the lease and ceased operating the road. Within a year past the rails have