The world by income

Low income Afghanistan Angola Azerbaijan Bangladesh Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Comoros Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Côte d'Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia, The Georgia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti India Indonesia Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda São Tomé and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Sudan Tajikistan Tanzania Timor-Leste Togo Uganda Uzbekistan

Vietnam Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe Lower middle income Albania Algeria Armenia Belarus Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Cape Verde China Colombia Cuba Djibouti Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Fiji Guatemala Guyana Honduras Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Macedonia, FYR Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia, Fed. Sts. Morocco Namibia Paraguay Peru Philippines Romania Russian Federation Samoa Serbia and Montenegro South Africa Sri Lanka St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Swaziland Syrian Arab Republic Thailand Tonga Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine Vanuatu West Bank and Gaza

Upper middle income American Samoa Argentina Belize Botswana Chile Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Dominica Estonia Gabon Grenada Hungary Latvia Lebanon Libya Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Northern Mariana Islands Oman Palau Panama Poland Saudi Arabia Seychelles Slovak Republic St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela, RB High income Andorra Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Australia Austria Bahamas, The Bahrain Barbados Belgium Bermuda Brunei Canada Cayman Islands Channel Islands Cyprus Denmark Faeroe Islands Finland France French Polynesia Germany Greece Greenland Guam

Hong Kong, China Iceland Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Japan Korea, Rep. Kuwait Liechtenstein Luxembourg Macao, China Malta Monaco Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Norway Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar San Marino Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Virgin Islands (U.S.)

INCOME MAP

The world by income Low ($735 or less) Lower middle ($736–2,935) Upper middle ($2,936–9,075) High ($9,076 or more) No data

Classified according to World Bank estimates of 2002 GNI per capita

Designed, edited, and produced by Communications Development Incorporated, Washington, DC, with Grundy & Northedge, London

2004

WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

Copyright 2004 by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA

All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing March 2004

This volume is a product of the staff of the Development Data Group of the World Bank’s Development Economics Vice Presidency, and the judgments herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent.

The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank any judgment on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. This publication uses the Robinson projection for maps, which represents both area and shape reasonably well for most of the earth’s surface. Nevertheless, some distortions of area, shape, distance, and direction remain.

The material in this publication is copyrighted. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to the Office of the Publisher at the address in the copyright notice above. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally give permission promptly and, when reproduction is for noncommercial purposes, without asking a fee. Permission to photocopy portions for classroom use is granted through the Copyright Center, Inc., Suite 910, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923, USA.

Photo credits: Front cover, from top to bottom and left to right, Mark Hakansson/Panos Pictures, Photodisc, Photodisc, Photodisc, Alex Baluyut/World Bank; Back cover, Curt Carnemark/World Bank; Page 251, Curt Carnemark/World Bank.

If you have questions or comments about this product, please contact:

Development Data Center The World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Room MC2-812, Washington, DC 20433, USA Hotline: 800 590 1906 or 202 473 7824; fax 202 522 1498 Email: data@worldbank.org Web site: www.worldbank.org or www.worldbank.org/data

ISBN 0-8213-5729-8

2004

WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

The World Bank

“When we read statistics, we must see real people. When we confront problems, we must cast them as oppor tunities. When we doubt our energy or question our faith in development, we must take fresh resolve from the reality that on our work depends the fate of millions.”

Barber Conable, 1922–2003 President, World Bank, 1986–91

FOREWORD
Development is about people. But to measure development and see its effect on people, we need good statistics. Statistics that tell us that life expectancy in the last 40 years has gone up 20 years in developing countries, more than in all the time before that. That literacy has improved. That infant mortality and maternal mortality have decreased. And that fewer people are living in extreme poverty. However, the statistics also tell us that malnutrition and disease still claim the lives of millions of young children. That millions more never receive a primary education. And that in countries at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, life expectancy has been falling. Of the 6 billion people on the planet today, 5 billion live in developing countries. But in the next 30 years the world’s population will grow by 2 billion—from 6 billion to 8 billion—and all but 50 million of them will live in today’s developing countries. What will their lives be like? We hope, much better than today.

The Millennium Development Goals set specific targets for improving people’s lives. They were proposed and adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations—not as vague and lofty statements of our good intentions, but as a practical guide to what can and should be accomplished by the international community in the opening quarter of the 21st century. That is why they were presented so clearly, with precise, quantified targets, based on widely accepted statistical indicators. Setting goals and measuring progress toward them in a transparent process is a proven management technique for holding our focus, avoiding wasteful diversions of effort, and encouraging robust public discussion of both means and ends.

Since the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals another important step in deepening the international consensus on development was the Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development. At Monterrey developing countries recognized the need to put reducing poverty and achieving the human and environmental goals of the Millennium Declaration at the center of their development programs. Developed countries accepted an obligation to uphold their share of a partnership for development by providing resources, opening trade, and relieving the burden of debt on the poorest countries. That consensus requires monitoring not only the outcomes in developing countries—but also the policies and actions of rich countries and development agencies to meet their commitments.

A comprehensive development strategy calls for a comprehensive set of statistics. Any user of World Development Indicators recognizes the many gaps in sound, available information. At the World Bank we are committed to working with our partners to improve the quality and availability of development statistics. This effort starts with strengthening national statistical systems in developing countries. But it must be matched by a commitment of the international community to provide the necessary technical and financial support.

The World Bank’s mission statement asks us to “fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results.” Ultimately, it is the results that count. If we act now with realism and foresight based on good information, if we think globally and allocate our resources accordingly, we can make a lasting difference in people’s lives.

James D. Wolfensohn President The World Bank Group

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This book and its companion volumes, The World Bank Atlas and The Little Data Book, are prepared by a team coordinated by David Cieslikowski. Team members are Mehdi Akhlaghi, Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary, Richard Fix, Amy Heyman, Masako Hiraga, M. H. Saeed Ordoubadi, Sulekha Patel, Eric Swanson, K. M. Vijayalakshmi, Vivienne Wang, and Estela Zamora, working closely with other teams in the Development Economics Vice Presidency’s Development Data Group. The CD-ROM development team included Azita Amjadi, Ramgopal Erobelly, Reza Farivari, and William Prince. The work was carried out under the management of Shaida Badiee. The choice of indicators and text content was shaped through close consultation with and substantial contributions from staff in the World Bank’s four thematic networks—Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development, Human Development, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management, and Private Sector Development and Infrastructure—and staff of the International Finance Corporation and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. Most important, the team received substantial help, guidance, and data from external partners. For individual acknowledgments of contributions to the book’s content, please see the Credits section. For a listing of our key partners, see the Partners section.

Communications Development Incorporated provided overall design direction, editing, and layout, led by Meta de Coquereaumont and Bruce Ross-Larson. The editing and production team consisted of Joseph Costello, Elizabeth McCrocklin, Christopher Trott, and Elaine Wilson. Communications Development’s London partner, Grundy & Northedge, provided art direction and design. Staff from External Affairs oversaw publication and dissemination of the book.

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PREFACE
Four years have passed since the Millennium Development Goals sharpened the focus on measuring the results of development—not the number of projects undertaken or the dollars spent, but the improvements in people’s lives. The emphasis on quantitative targets and the requirement for monitoring progress on country poverty reduction strategies have increased the demand for statistics. And that showed us how deficient the statistical systems are in many parts of the developing world. Good statistics are not just a technical issue— they are a development issue, requiring concerted action by the entire global community. As Trevor Manuel, South Africa’s minister of finance, has put it, “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it.” That is why data, statistics, and indicators are at the heart of the results agenda. Governments need them. Politicians need them. Managers of development programs need them. And citizens need them—to hold governments accountable for their actions and their results. The global effort to improve the quality of development statistics has three pillars: • • • Strengthening the capacity of developing countries to produce, analyze, and use reliable statistics. Providing financial support to countries expanding their statistical capacity. Improving the quality and availability of international statistics for monitoring global progress.

Much is already happening. Around the world, 37 developing countries have prepared strategic plans to guide their statistical development. The African Development Bank is systematically carrying out statistical assessments in 47 countries in that region, a key step in identifying shortcomings and constraints and in better targeting support. The Trust Fund for Statistical Capacity Building, managed by the World Bank, has provided grants to support statistical projects in more than 60 countries. Interagency cooperation is much stronger than it was even two years ago. Joint efforts have improved the measurement of such indicators as child mortality and immunizations. And the International Comparison Program is proceeding with an ambitious plan to measure purchasing power parities in more than 100 countries. Much has been achieved, but much remains to be done. The Second Roundtable on Development Results—held at Marrakech, Morocco, and sponsored by the multilateral development banks and the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development—identified six broad sets of actions to improve national and international statistics: • Mainstream the strategic planning of statistical systems and help all low-income countries prepare national statistical development strategies by 2006. • Strengthen preparations for the 2010 censuses. A core source of development statistics, censuses underpin the ability to monitor progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. • Increase financial support for statistical capacity building. Countries that adopt good policies for their statistical systems should receive the financial support they need for their statistics. • • • Set up an international household survey network to coordinate and improve the effectiveness of international survey programs. Undertake urgent improvements needed to monitor the Millennium Development Goals for 2005. Increase the accountability of the international statistical system.

Good quality information is not produced overnight. We plan today for better information tomorrow. In doing so, we must be careful not to overburden fragile national systems. We must also recognize that the cost of making mistakes and allocating resources inefficiently can dwarf the cost of producing good statistics. World Development Indicators reflects the strengths and weaknesses of the international statistical system. As development statistics improve, the results will appear here—as we continue striving to meet the needs of policymakers, researchers, commentators, and interested citizens. You can find out more about our products at http://www.worldbank.org/data. And you can send queries and comments to data@worldbank.org.

Shaida Badiee, Director Development Data Group

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
FRONT
Foreword Acknowledgments Preface Par tners Users guide v vi vii xiii xxvi

1. WORLD VIEW
Tables

Introduction Millennium Development Goals, targets, and indicators

1 12

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

Size of the economy Millennium Development Goals: eradicating poverty and improving lives Millennium Development Goals: protecting our common environment Millennium Development Goals: overcoming obstacles Women in development Key indicators for other economies

14 18 22 26 28 32

Text figures and boxes 1a Pover ty rates have been falling in all regions except Sub-Saharan Africa 1b But more than 1.1 billion people remain in extreme pover ty 1c Most regions are on a path to cut extreme pover ty by half by 2015 1d With continuing growth the number of people living in extreme pover ty will fall 1e And the propor tion of people in extreme pover ty will reach an all-time low 1f But more than 2 billion people will live on less than $2 a day 1g And more than half the population of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa will be ver y poor 1h The undernourished are ever ywhere 1i Malnourished children are among the most vulnerable

1 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 21 25 27 31

1j 1k 1l 1m 1n 1o 1p 1q 1r 1s 1t 1u 1v 1w 1x 1.2a 1.3a 1.4a 1.5a viii

Many girls still do not have equal access to education Literacy rates have been rising as more children remain in school, but girls lag behind boys Few countries are on track to meet the child mor tality target To reduce early childhood deaths, immunization programs must be extended and sustained Extreme risks of dying from pregnancy or childbir th in some regions The presence of skilled health staff lowers the risk of maternal death HIV strikes at youth—and women are par ticularly vulnerable Treated bednets are a proven way to combat malaria, but they are still not widely used Greenhouse gas emissions rise with income Access to water and sanitation ser vices will require large investments Slums are growing in newly urbanized areas Aid has increased, but not by as much as domestic subsidies to agriculture New commitments by donors, the first major increase in more than a decade, will still meet only a fraction of the need Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 1–5 Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 6–7 Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goal 8 Income and gender affect children’s access to basic health care

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2. PEOPLE
Introduction Tables

35 Tables

3. ENVIRONMENT
Introduction

113

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19

Population dynamics Labor force structure Employment by economic activity Unemployment Pover ty Social indicators of pover ty Distribution of income or consumption Assessing vulnerability Enhancing security Education inputs Par ticipation in education Education efficiency Education outcomes Health expenditure, ser vices, and use Disease prevention: coverage and quality Reproductive health Nutrition Health risk factors and future challenges Mor tality

38 42 46 50 54 58 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 104 108

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15

Rural environment and land use Agricultural inputs Agricultural output and productivity Deforestation and biodiversity Freshwater Water pollution Energy production and use Energy efficiency, dependency, and emissions Sources of electricity Urbanization Urban environment Traffic and congestion Air pollution Government commitment Toward a broader measure of savings

116 120 124 128 132 136 140 144 148 152 156 160 164 166 170

Text figures and boxes 2a Pover ty and illiteracy are related 2b Defining income pover ty 2c Why public ser vices fail poor people 2d Poor women are much less likely to receive exper t care in childbir th 2.3a Women tend to suffer dispropor tionately from underemployment 2.6a Education lowers bir th rates dramatically for rich women, but not for poor ones 2.10a Education suffers in primar y schools with high teacher absence rates 2.11a Girls from rural areas and poor households have the lowest attendance rates in Guinea 2.13a There is a strong positive relationship between primar y school enrollment ratios and literacy among youth 2.14a High health personnel absence rates lower the quality of health care 2.15a Children in rural households are less likely to use bednets 2.16a Does household wealth affect antenatal care? 2.18a HIV prevalence rates var y by method of data collection 2.18b In some countries men know more about preventing HIV than women do 2.19a Under-five mor tality rates are higher in poor households than in rich ones

35 36 37 37 49 59 75 79 87 91 95 99 107 107 111

Text figures and boxes 3a High-income countries use more than half the world’s energy 3b Emissions of carbon dioxide var y widely, even among the five largest producers of emissions 3c Emissions of some greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases have begun to fall or slow since Rio 3.1a All regions are becoming less rural 3.2a The 10 countries with the most arable land per person in 1999–2001—and the 10 with the least 3.3a The 15 countries with the highest cereal yield in 2001–03—and the 15 with the lowest 3.5a The distribution of freshwater resources is uneven 3.5b Latin America and the Caribbean has more than 20 times the freshwater resources per capita as the Middle East and Nor th Africa 3.6a High- and middle-income countries account for most water pollution from organic waste 3.7a Energy use varies by countr y, even among the five largest energy users 3.7b People in high-income countries use more than five times as much energy as do people in low-income countries 3.8a Per capita emissions of carbon dioxide var y, even among the five largest producers of emissions 3.9a Sources of electricity generation have shifted differently in different income groups 3.10a More people now live in urban areas in low-income countries than in high-income countries . . . 3.10b Latin America was as urban as the average high-income countr y in 2002 3.11a The use of public transpor tation for work trips varied widely across cities in 1998 3.12a The 10 countries with the most vehicles per 1,000 people in 2001—and the 10 with the fewest 3.14a The Kyoto Protocol on climate change 3.14b Global atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons have leveled off 3.14c Global focus on biodiversity and climate change

114 115 115 119 123 127 135

135 139 143 143 147 151 155 155 159 163 166 167 168

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
4. ECONOMY
Introduction Tables 175 Tables Growth of output Structure of output Structure of manufacturing Growth of merchandise trade Structure of merchandise expor ts Structure of merchandise impor ts Structure of ser vice expor ts Structure of ser vice impor ts Structure of demand Growth of consumption and investment Central government finances Central government expenditures Central government revenues Monetar y indicators and prices Balance of payments current account External debt External debt management 182 186 190 194 198 202 206 210 214 218 222 226 230 234 238 242 246

5. STATES AND MARKETS
Introduction

251

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12

Private sector investment Investment climate Business environment Stock markets Financial depth and efficiency Tax policies Relative prices and exchange rates Defense expenditures and arms transfers Transpor t infrastructure Power and communications The information age Science and technology

254 258 262 266 270 274 278 282 286 290 294 298

Text figures and boxes 4a Economic growth varies by region 4b With two decades of rapid growth, East Asia and Pacific has caught up with Latin America and the Caribbean 4.a Recent economic per formance 4.b Key macroeconomic indicators 4.3a Manufacturing continues to show strong growth in East Asia 4.5a Some developing countr y regions are increasing their share of merchandise expor ts 4.6a Top 10 developing countr y expor ters in 2002 4.7a Top 10 developing countr y expor ters of commercial ser vices in 2002 4.8a Developing economies are consuming less transport services 4.10a Per capita consumption has risen in Asia, fallen in Africa 4.11a Some developing economies spend a large par t of their current revenue on interest payments 4.12a Interest payments are a large par t of government expenditure for some developing economies 4.13a Poor countries rely more on indirect taxes 4.15a Worker remittances are an impor tant source of income for many developing economies 4.16a Since 2000, GDP has been larger than external debt for the heavily indebted poor countries 4.17a When the present value of a countr y’s external debt exceeds 220 percent of expor ts or 80 percent of GNI the World Bank classifies it as severely indebted

175 176 178 179 193 201 205 209 213 221 225 229 233 241 245

Text figures and boxes 5a Higher income economies often have less regulated labor markets than lower income economies 5.1a Foreign direct investment has expanded rapidly in many developing countries, contributing to increased productivity 5.10a Mobile phone subscribers are approaching (or surpassing) 500 per 1,000 people in some developing and transition economies

253 257

293

249

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6. GLOBAL LINKS
Introduction Tables

303

BACK

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14

Integration with the global economy Direction and growth of merchandise trade OECD trade with low- and middle-income economies Primar y commodity prices Regional trade blocs Tariff barriers Global private financial flows Net financial flows from Development Assistance Committee members Aid flows from Development Assistance Committee members Aid dependency Distribution of net aid by Development Assistance Committee members Net financial flows from multilateral institutions Foreign labor and population in selected OECD countries Travel and tourism

306 310 313 316 318 322 326 330 332 334 338 342 346 348

Primar y data documentation Acronyms and abbreviations Statistical methods Credits Bibliography Index of indicators

353 361 362 364 366 374

Text figures and boxes 6a More than half of world output is globally traded 6b Aid after Monterrey 6c Immigrant labor plays an impor tant role in some high-income economies 6.2a Rich markets for developing countr y expor ts 6.3a Manufactured goods from developing countries dominated impor ts by OECD countries in 2002 6.8a Who were the largest donors in 2002? 6.9a Official development assistance from selected non-DAC donors, 1998–2002 6.10a Where did aid go in 2002? 6.11a Top aid recipients from top DAC donors reflect historical alliances and geopolitical events 6.13a Migration to OECD countries is growing 6.14a Tourism is highest in high-income countries

303 304 305 312 315 331 333 337 341 347 351

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PARTNERS
Defining, gathering, and disseminating international statistics is a collective effort of many people and organizations. The indicators presented in World Development Indicators are the fruit of decades of work at many levels, from the field workers who administer censuses and household surveys to the committees and working parties of the national and international statistical agencies that develop the nomenclature, classifications, and standards fundamental to an international statistical system. Nongovernmental organizations and the private sector have also made important contributions, both in gathering primary data and in organizing and publishing their results. And academic researchers have played a crucial role in developing statistical methods and carrying on a continuing dialogue about the quality and interpretation of statistical indicators. All these contributors have a strong belief that available, accurate data will improve the quality of public and private decisionmaking. The organizations listed here have made World Development Indicators possible by sharing their data and their expertise with us. More important, their collaboration contributes to the World Bank’s efforts, and to those of many others, to improve the quality of life of the world’s people. We acknowledge our debt and gratitude to all who have helped to build a base of comprehensive, quantitative information about the world and its people. For easy reference, this section includes Web addresses for organizations that maintain Web sites. The addresses shown were active on 1 March 2004. Information about the World Bank is also provided.

International and government agencies Bureau of Verification and Compliance, U.S. Department of State The Bureau of Verification and Compliance, U.S. Department of State, is responsible for international agreements on conventional, chemical, and biological weapons and on strategic forces; treaty verification and compliance; and support to ongoing negotiations, policymaking, and interagency implementation efforts. For information, contact the Public Affairs Officer, Bureau of Verification and Compliance, U.S. Department of State, 2201 C Street NW, Washington, DC 20520, USA; telephone: 202 647 6946; Web site: www.state.gov/t/vc. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary global climate change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy. The CDIAC’s scope includes anything that would potentially be of value to those concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. For information, contact the CDIAC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 378316335, USA; telephone: 865 574 0390; fax: 865 574 2232; email: cdiac@ornl.gov; Web site: http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov.

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Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH is a German government–owned corporation for international cooperation with worldwide operations. GTZ’s aim is to positively shape political, economic, ecological, and social development in partner countries, thereby improving people’s living conditions and prospects. The organization has more than 10,000 employees in some 130 countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. For publications, contact Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Corporate Communications, Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5, 65760 Eschborn, Germany; telephone: 49 0 6196 79 1174; fax: 49 0 6196 79 6196; email: presse@gtz.de; Web site: www.gtz.de. Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, was founded in October 1945 with a mandate to raise nutrition levels and living standards, to increase agricultural productivity, and to better the condition of rural populations. The organization provides direct development assistance; collects, analyzes, and disseminates information; offers policy and planning advice to governments; and serves as an international forum for debate on food and agricultural issues. Statistical publications of the FAO include the Production Yearbook, Trade Yearbook, and Fertilizer Yearbook. The FAO makes much of its data available online through its FAOSTAT and AQUASTAT systems. FAO publications can be ordered from national sales agents or directly from the FAO Sales and Marketing Group, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy; telephone: 39 06 5705 5727; fax: 39 06 5705 3360; email: Publications-sales@fao.org; Web site: www.fao.org. International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, was founded on December 7, 1944. It is responsible for establishing international standards and recommended practices and procedures for the technical, economic, and legal aspects of international civil aviation operations. The ICAO works to achieve the highest practicable degree of uniformity worldwide in civil aviation issues whenever this will facilitate and improve air safety, efficiency, and regularity. To obtain ICAO publications, contact the ICAO, Document Sales Unit, 999 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3C 5H7, Canada; telephone: 514 954 8022; fax: 514 954 6769; email: sales_unit@icao.int; Web site: www.icao.int. International Labour Organization The International Labour Organization (ILO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labor rights. Founded in 1919, it is the only surviving major creation of the Treaty of Versailles, which brought the League of Nations into being. It became the first specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946. Unique within the United Nations system, the ILO’s tripartite structure has workers and employers participating as equal partners with governments in the work of its governing organs. As part of its mandate, the ILO maintains an extensive statistical publication program. The Yearbook of Labour Statistics is its most comprehensive collection of labor force data. Publications can be ordered from sales agents and major booksellers throughout the world and ILO offices in many countries or from ILO Publications, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland; telephone: 41 22 799 6111; fax: 41 22 798 8685; email: publns@ilo.org; Web site: www.ilo.org.

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International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established at a conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, on July 1–22, 1944. (The conference also established the World Bank.) The IMF came into official existence on December 27, 1945, and commenced financial operations on March 1, 1947. It currently has 184 member countries. The statutory purposes of the IMF are to promote international monetary cooperation, facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, promote exchange rate stability, help to establish a multilateral payments system, make the general resources of the IMF temporarily available to its members under adequate safeguards, and shorten the duration and lessen the degree of disequilibrium in the international balance of payments of members. The IMF maintains an extensive program for developing and compiling international statistics and is responsible for collecting and reporting statistics on international financial transactions and the balance of payments. In April 1996 it undertook an important initiative to improve the quality of international statistics, establishing the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) to guide members that have, or seek, access to international capital markets in providing economic and financial data to the public. In 1997 the IMF established the General Data Dissemination System (GDDS) to guide countries in providing the public with comprehensive, timely, accessible, and reliable economic, financial, and sociodemographic data. Building on this work, the IMF established the Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF) to assess data quality in subject areas such as debt and poverty. The DQAF comprises dimensions of data quality such as methodological soundness, accuracy, serviceability, and accessibility. In 1999 work began on Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC), which summarize the extent to which countries observe certain internationally recognized standards and codes in areas including data, monetary and financial policy transparency, fiscal transparency, banking supervision, securities, insurance, payments systems, corporate governance, accounting, auditing, and insolvency and creditor rights. The IMF’s major statistical publications include International Financial Statistics, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, and Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook. For more information on IMF statistical publications, contact the International Monetary Fund, Publications Services, Catalog Orders, 700 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20431, USA; telephone: 202 623 7430; fax: 202 623 7201; telex: RCA 248331 IMF UR; email: pub-web@imf.org; Web site: www.imf.org; SDDS and GDDS bulletin board: http://dsbb.imf.org. International Telecommunication Union Founded in Paris in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) took its current name in 1934 and became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947. The ITU is unique among international organizations in that it was founded on the principle of cooperation between governments and the private sector. With a membership encompassing telecommunication policymakers and regulators, network operators, equipment manufacturers, hardware and software developers, regional standards-making organizations, and financing institutions, ITU’s activities, policies, and strategic direction are determined and shaped by the industry it serves. The ITU’s standardization activities, which have already helped foster the growth of new technologies such as mobile telephony and the Internet, are now being put to use in defining the building blocks of the emerging global information infrastructure and in designing advanced multimedia systems that deftly handle a mix of voice, data, audio, and video signals. ITU’s continuing role in managing the radio-frequency spectrum ensures that radio-based systems such as cellular phones and pagers, aircraft and maritime navigation systems, scientific research stations, satellite communication systems, and radio and television broadcasting continue to
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function smoothly and provide reliable wireless services to the world’s inhabitants. And ITU’s increasingly important role as a catalyst for forging development partnerships between government and private industry is helping bring about rapid improvements in telecommunication infrastructure in the world’s developing economies. The ITU’s main statistical publications are the ITU Yearbook of Statistics and the World Telecommunication Development Report. Publications can be ordered from ITU Sales and Marketing Service, Web site: www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/ publications/index.htm; telephone: 41 22 730 6141 (English), 41 22 730 6142 (French), and 41 22 730 6143 (Spanish); fax: 41 22 730 5194; email: sales@itu.int; telex: 421 000 uit ch; telegram: ITU GENEVE; Web site: www.itu.int. National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent U.S. government agency whose mission is to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense. It is responsible for promoting science and engineering through almost 20,000 research and education projects. In addition, the NSF fosters the exchange of scientific information among scientists and engineers in the United States and other countries, supports programs to strengthen scientific and engineering research potential, and evaluates the impact of research on industrial development and general welfare. As part of its mandate, the NSF biennially publishes Science and Engineering Indicators, which tracks national and international trends in science and engineering research and education. Electronic copies of NSF documents can be obtained from the NSF’s online document system (www.nsf.gov/ pubsys/ods/index.html) or requested by email from its automated mailser ver (getpub@nsf.gov). Documents can also be requested from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse by mail, at PO Box 218, Jessup, MD 20794-0218, USA, or by telephone, at 301 947 2722. For more information, contact the National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230, USA; telephone: 703 292 5111; Web site: www.nsf.gov. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was set up in 1948 as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) to administer Marshall Plan funding in Europe. In 1960, when the Marshall Plan had completed its task, the OEEC’s member countries agreed to bring in Canada and the United States to form an organization to coordinate policy among industrial countries. The OECD is the international organization of the industrialized, market economy countries. Representatives of member countries meet at the OECD to exchange information and harmonize policy with a view to maximizing economic growth in member countries and helping nonmember countries develop more rapidly. The OECD has set up a number of specialized committees to further its aims. One of these is the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), whose members have agreed to coordinate their policies on assistance to developing and transition economies. Also associated with the OECD are several agencies or bodies that have their own governing statutes, including the International Energy Agency and the Centre for Co-operation with Economies in Transition. The OECD’s main statistical publications include Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Aid Recipients, National Accounts of OECD Countries, Labour Force Statistics, Revenue Statistics of OECD Member Countries, International Direct Investment Statistics Yearbook, Basic Science and Technology Statistics, Industrial Structure Statistics, Trends in International Migration, and Services: Statistics on International Transactions.

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For information on OECD publications, contact the OECD, 2, rue André Pascal, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16, France; telephone: 33 1 45 24 81 67; fax: 33 1 45 24 19 50; email: sales@oecd.org; Web sites: www.oecd.org and www.oecd.org/bookshop. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was established by the Swedish Parliament as an independent foundation in July 1966. SIPRI conducts research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security, with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solutions to international conflicts and for a stable peace. SIPRI’s research work is disseminated through books and reports as well as through symposia and seminars. SIPRI’s main publication, SIPRI Yearbook, serves as a single authoritative and independent source on armaments and arms control, armed conflicts and conflict resolution, security arrangements, and disarmament. SIPRI Yearbook provides an overview of developments in international security, weapons and technology, military expenditure, the arms trade and arms production, and armed conflicts, along with efforts to control conventional, nuclear, chemical, and biological armaments. For more information on SIPRI publications contact SIPRI at Signalistgatan 9, SE-169 70 Solna, Sweden; telephone: 46 8 655 97 00; fax:46 8 655 97 33; email: sipri@sipri.org; for book orders: http://home.sipri.se/publications.html; Web site: www.sipri.org. United Nations The United Nations and its specialized agencies maintain a number of programs for the collection of international statistics, some of which are described elsewhere in this book. At United Nations headquarters the Statistics Division provides a wide range of statistical outputs and services for producers and users of statistics worldwide. The Statistics Division publishes statistics on international trade, national accounts, demography and population, gender, industry, energy, environment, human settlements, and disability. Its major statistical publications include the International Trade Statistics Yearbook, Yearbook of National Accounts, and Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, along with general statistics compendiums such as the Statistical Yearbook and World Statistics Pocketbook. For publications, contact United Nations Publications, Room DC2-853, Department I004, 2 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA; telephone: 212 963 8302 or 800 253 9646 (toll free); fax: 212 963 3489; email: publications@un.org; Web site: www.un.org. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Global Urban Observatory The Urban Indicators Programme of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) was established to address the urgent global need to improve the urban knowledge base by helping countries and cities design, collect, and apply policy-oriented indicators related to development at the city level. In 1997 the Urban Indicators Programme was integrated into the Global Urban Observatory, the principal United Nations program for monitoring urban conditions and trends and for tracking progress in implementing the goals of the Habitat Agenda. With the Urban Indicators and Best Practices programs, the Global Urban Observatory is establishing a worldwide information, assessment, and capacity building network to help governments, local authorities, the private sector, and nongovernmental and other civil society organizations.

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Contact the Co-ordinator, Global Urban Observatory and Statistics, Urban Secretariat, UN-HABITAT, PO Box 30030, Nairobi, Kenya; telephone: 254 2 623119; fax: 254 2 623080; email: habitat.publications@ unhabitat.org or guo@unhabitat.org; Web site: www.unhabitat.org. United Nations Children’s Fund The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the only organization of the United Nations dedicated exclusively to children, works with other United Nations bodies and with governments and nongovernmental organizations to improve children’s lives in more than 140 developing countries through community-based services in primary health care, basic education, and safe water and sanitation. UNICEF’s major publications include The State of the World’s Children and The Progress of Nations. For information on UNICEF publications contact the Chief, EPS, Division of Communication, UNICEF, 3 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA; telephone: 212 326 7000; fax: 212 303 7985; email: pubdoc@unicef.org; Web site: www.unicef.org and www.un.org/Publications. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly in the field of trade and development. It was established as a permanent intergovernmental body in 1964 in Geneva with a view to accelerating economic growth and development, particularly in developing countries. UNCTAD discharges its mandate through policy analysis; intergovernmental deliberations, consensus building, and negotiation; monitoring, implementation, and follow-up; and technical cooperation. UNCTAD produces a number of publications containing trade and economic statistics, including the Handbook of International Trade and Development Statistics. For information, contact UNCTAD, Palais des Nations, 8-14, Avenue de la Paix, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland; telephone: 41 22 907 1234; fax: 41 22 907 0043; email: info@unctad.org; Web site: www.unctad.org. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Institute for Statistics The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945 to promote “collaboration among nations through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law, and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms . . . for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language, or religion.” The UNESCO Institute for Statistics’ principal statistical publications are the Global Education Digest (GED) and regional statistical reports, as well as the on-line database. For publications, contact the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada; telephone: 514 343 6880; fax: 514 343 6882; email: uis@unesco.org; Web site: www.unesco.org; and for the Institute for Statistics: www.uis.unesco.org. United Nations Environment Programme The mandate of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and people to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations. UNEP publications include Global Environment Outlook and Our Planet (a bimonthly magazine). For information, contact the UNEP, PO Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya; telephone: 254 2 621234; fax: 254 2 624489/90; email: eisinfo@unep.org; Web site: www.unep.org.

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United Nations Industrial Development Organization The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) was established in 1966 to act as the central coordinating body for industrial activities and to promote industrial development and cooperation at the global, regional, national, and sectoral levels. In 1985 UNIDO became the 16th specialized agency of the United Nations, with a mandate to help develop scientific and technological plans and programs for industrialization in the public, cooperative, and private sectors. UNIDO’s databases and information services include the Industrial Statistics Database (INDSTAT), Commodity Balance Statistics Database (COMBAL), Industrial Development Abstracts (IDA), and the International Referral System on Sources of Information. Among its publications is the International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. For information, contact UNIDO Public Information Section, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria; telephone: 43 1 26026 5031; fax: 43 1 21346 5031 or 26026 6843; email: publications@unido.org; Web site: www.unido.org. World Bank Group The World Bank Group is made up of five organizations: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Established in 1944 at a conference of world leaders in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, the World Bank is the world’s largest source of development assistance. In 2003 the World Bank provided $18.5 billion in development assistance and worked in more than 100 developing countries, bringing finance and technical expertise to help them reduce poverty. The World Bank Group’s mission is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It is a development bank, providing loans, policy advice, technical assistance, and knowledge sharing services to low- and middle-income countries to reduce poverty. The Bank promotes growth to create jobs and to empower poor people to take advantage of these opportunities. It uses its financial resources, trained staff, and extensive knowledge base to help each developing country onto a path of stable, sustainable, and equitable growth in the fight against poverty. The World Bank Group has 184 member countries. For information about the World Bank, visit its Web site at www.worldbank.org. For more information about development data, contact the Development Data Group, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; telephone: 800 590 1906 or 202 473 7824; fax: 202 522 1498; email: data@worldbank.org; Web site: www.worldbank.org/data. World Health Organization The constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) was adopted on July 22, 1946, by the International Health Conference, convened in New York by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The objective of the WHO, a specialized agency of the United Nations, is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health. The WHO carries out a wide range of functions, including coordinating international health work; helping governments strengthen health services; providing technical assistance and emergency aid; working for the prevention and control of disease; promoting improved nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation, and economic and working conditions; promoting and coordinating biomedical and health services research; promoting improved standards of teaching and training in health and medical professions; establishing international standards for biological, pharmaceutical, and similar products; and standardizing diagnostic procedures.
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The WHO publishes the World Health Statistics Annual and many other technical and statistical publications. For publications, contact the World Health Organization, Marketing and Dissemination, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland; telephone: 41 22 791 2476; fax: 41 22 791 4857; email: publications@who.int; Web site: www.who.int. World Intellectual Property Organization The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is an international organization dedicated to helping to ensure that the rights of creators and owners of intellectual property are protected worldwide and that inventors and authors are thus recognized and rewarded for their ingenuity. This international protection acts as a spur to human creativity, pushing forward the boundaries of science and technology and enriching the world of literature and the arts. By providing a stable environment for the marketing of intellectual property products, WIPO also oils the wheels of international trade. WIPO’s main tasks include harmonizing national intellectual property legislation and procedures, providing services for international applications for industrial property rights, exchanging intellectual property information, providing legal and technical assistance to developing and other countries facilitating the resolution of private intellectual property disputes, and marshalling information technology as a tool for storing, accessing, and using valuable intellectual property information. A substantial part of its activities and resources is devoted to development cooperation with developing countries. For information, contact the World Intellectual Property Organization, 34, chemin des Colombettes, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland; telephone: 41 22 338 9734; fax: 41 22 740 1812; email: ebookshop@wipo.int; Web site: www.wipo.int. World Tourism Organization The World Tourism Organization is an intergovernmental body entrusted by the United Nations with promoting and developing tourism. It serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and a source of tourism knowhow. The organization began as the International Union of Official Tourist Publicity Organizations, set up in 1925 in The Hague. Renamed the World Tourism Organization, it held its first general assembly in Madrid in May 1975. Its membership includes 141 countries, seven territories, and some 350 Affiliate Members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations, and local tourism authorities. The World Tourism Organization publishes the Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, Compendium of Tourism Statistics, and Travel and Tourism Barometer (triannual). For information, contact the World Tourism Organization, Calle Capitán Haya, 42, 28020 Madrid, Spain; telephone: 34 91 567 8100; fax: 34 91 571 3733; email: infoshop@world-tourism.org; Web site: www.world-tourism.org. World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO), established on January 1, 1995, is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO has 144 member countries and is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible. It does this by administering trade agreements, acting as a forum for trade negotiations, settling trade disputes, reviewing national trade policies, assisting developing countries in trade policy issues—through technical assistance and training programs—and cooperating with other international organizations. At the heart of the system—known as the multilateral

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trading system—are WTO’s agreements, negotiated and signed by a large majority of the world’s trading nations and ratified by their parliaments. The WTO’s International Trade Statistics is its main statistical publication, providing comprehensive, comparable, and up-to-date statistics on trade. For publications, contact the World Trade Organization, Publications Services, Centre William Rappard, rue de Lausanne 154, CH-1211, Geneva 21, Switzerland; telephone: 41 22 739 5208 or 5308; fax: 41 22 739 5792; email: publications@wto.org; Web site: www.wto.org.

Private and nongovernmental organizations Containerisation International Containerisation International Yearbook is one of the most authoritative reference books on the container industry. It has more than 850 pages of data, including detailed information on more than 560 container ports in more than 150 countries and a review section that features two-year rankings for 350 ports. The information can be accessed on the Web at www.ci-online.co.uk, which also provides a comprehensive online daily business news and information service for the container industry. For more information, contact Informa UK at 69-77 Paul Street, London, EC2A 4LQ, UK; telephone: 44 1206 772061; fax: 44 1206 772563; email: webtechhelp@informa.com. Euromoney Publications PLC Euromoney Publications PLC provides a wide range of financial, legal, and general business information. The monthly magazine Euromoney is an authoritative source of detailed yet concise information on the trends and developments in international banking and capital markets and carries a semiannual rating of country creditworthiness. For information, contact Euromoney Publications PLC, Nestor House, Playhouse Yard, London EC4V 5EX, UK; telephone: 44 870 90 62 600; email: customerservice@euromoney.com; Web site: www.euromoney.com. Institutional Investor, Inc. Institutional Investor, Inc., develops country credit ratings every six months based on information provided by leading international banks. It publishes the monthly magazine Institutional Investor, and InstitutionalInvestor.com strives to be the gateway to all Institutional Investor publications online, offering selected articles from its 40 publications. For information, contact Institutional Investor, Inc., 225 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10003, USA; telephone: 212 224 3800; email: info@iiplatinum.com; Web site: www.institutionalinvestor.com. International Data Corporation International Data Corporation (IDC) is a premier global market intelligence and advisory firm in the information technology and telecommunications industries. IDC analyzes and predicts technology trends to enable clients to make strategic, fact-based decisions on information technology purchases and business strategy. More than 700 IDC analysts in 50 countries have provided local expertise and insights on technology markets for 40 years. For further information on IDC’s products and services, contact IDC, Corporate Headquarters, 5 Speen Street, Framingham, MA 01701 USA; telephone: 508 872 8200; Web site: www.idc.com.
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International Road Federation The International Road Federation (IRF) is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization with public and private sector members in some 70 countries. The IRF’s mission is to encourage and promote development and maintenance of better and safer roads and road networks. It helps put in place technological solutions and management practices that provide maximum economic and social returns from national road investments. The IRF believes that rationally planned, efficiently managed and well-maintained road networks offer high levels of user safety and have a significant impact on sustainable economic growth, prosperity, social well-being, and human development. The IRF has a major role to play in all aspects of road policy and development worldwide. For governments and financial institutions, the IRF provides a wide base of expertise for planning road development strategy and policy. For its members, the IRF is a business network, a link to external institutions and agencies and a business card of introduction to government officials and decisionmakers. For the community of road professionals, the IRF is a source of support and information for national road associations, advocacy groups, companies, and institutions dedicated to the development of road infrastructure. The IRF publishes World Road Statistics. Contact the Geneva office at chemin de Blandonnet 2, CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland; telephone: 41 22 306 0260; fax: 41 22 306 0270; or the Washington, DC, office at 1010 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 410, Washington, DC 20001, USA; telephone: 202 371 5544; fax: 202 371 5565; email: info@irfnet.com; Web site: www.irfnet.org. Moody’s Investors Service Moody’s Investors Service is a global credit analysis and financial opinion firm. It provides the international investment community with globally consistent credit ratings on debt and other securities issued by North American state and regional government entities, by corporations worldwide, and by some sovereign issuers. It also publishes extensive financial data in both print and electronic form. Its clients include investment banks, brokerage firms, insurance companies, public utilities, research libraries, manufacturers, and government agencies and departments. Moody’s publishes Sovereign, Subnational and Sovereign-Guaranteed Issuers. For information, contact Moody’s Investors Service, 99 Church Street, New York, NY 10007, USA; telephone: 212 553 0377; fax: 212 553 0882; Web site: www.moodys.com. Netcraft Netcraft is an Internet services company based in Bath, United Kingdom. Netcraft’s work includes the provision of network security services and research data and analysis of the Internet. It is an authority on the market share of Web servers, operating systems, hosting providers, Internet service providers, encrypted transactions, electronic commerce, scripting languages, and content technologies on the Internet. For information, visit www.netcraft.com. PricewaterhouseCoopers Drawing on the talents of 120,000 people in 139 countries, PricewaterhouseCoopers provides industryfocused assurance, tax, and advisory services for public and private clients in corporate accountability, risk management, structuring and mergers and acquisitions, and performance and process improvement. PricewaterhouseCoopers publishes Corporate Taxes: Worldwide Summaries and Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries.

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For information, contact PricewaterhouseCoopers, 1177 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036, USA; telephone: 646 471 4000; fax: 646 471 3188; Web site: www.pwcglobal.com. The PRS Group, Inc. The PRS Group, Inc., is a global leader in political and economic risk forecasting and market analysis and has served international companies large and small for more than 20 years. The data it contributed to this year’s World Development Indicators come from the International Country Risk Guide, a monthly publication that monitors and rates political, financial, and economic risk in 140 countries. The guide’s data series and commitment to independent and unbiased analysis make it the standard for any organization practicing effective risk management. For information, contact The PRS Group, Inc., 6320 Fly Road, Suite 102, East Syracuse, NY 13057-9358, USA; telephone: 315 431 0511; fax: 315 431 0200; email: custser v@PRSgroup.com; Web site: www.prsgroup.com or www.ICRGOnline.com. Standard & Poor’s Equity Indexes and Rating Services For more than 140 years Standard & Poor’s, a division of the McGraw-Hill Corporation, has been a preeminent global provider of independent highly valued investment data, valuation, analysis, and opinions and is still delivering on that original mission. The S&P 500 index, one of its most popular products, is calculated and maintained by Standard & Poor’s Index Services, a leading provider of equity indexes. Standard & Poor’s indexes are used by investors around the world for measuring investment performance and as the basis for a wide range of financial instruments. Standard & Poor’s Sovereign Ratings provides issuer and local and foreign currency debt ratings for sovereign governments and for sovereign-supported and supranational issuers worldwide. Standard & Poor’s Rating Services monitors the credit quality of $1.5 trillion worth of bonds and other financial instruments and offers investors global coverage of debt issuers. Standard & Poor’s also has ratings on commercial paper, mutual funds, and the financial condition of insurance companies worldwide. For information on equity indexes, contact Standard & Poor’s Index Services, 55 Water Street, New York, NY 10041, USA; telephone: 212 438 1000; email: index_services@sandp.com; Web site: www.spglobal.com. For information on ratings contact the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Executive Offices, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, USA; telephone: 212 512 4105 or 800 352 3566 (toll free); fax: 212 512 4105; email: ratingsdirect@standardandpoors.com; Web site: www.ratingsdirect.com. Standard & Poor’s Emerging Markets Data Base Standard & Poor’s Emerging Markets Data Base (EMDB) is the world’s leading source for information and indices on stock markets in developing countries. The EMDB was the first database to track emerging stock markets. It currently covers 53 markets and more than 2,200 stocks. Drawing a sample of stocks in each EMDB market, Standard & Poor’s calculates indices to serve as benchmarks that are consistent across national boundaries. Standard & Poor’s calculates one index, the S&P/IFCG (Global) index, that reflects the perspective of local investors and those interested in broad trends in emerging markets and another, the S&P/IFCI (Investable) index, that provides a broad, neutral, and historically consistent benchmark for the growing emerging market investment community. For information on subscription rates, contact S&P Emerging Markets Data Base, 55 Water Street, 42nd Floor, New York, NY, 10041-0003; Telephone: 212 438 2046; Fax: 212 438 3429; Email: indexser vices@sandp.com; Web site: www.standardandpoors.com.
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World Conservation Monitoring Centre The World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) provides information on the conservation and sustainable use of the world’s living resources and helps others to develop information systems of their own. It works in close collaboration with a wide range of people and organizations to increase access to the information needed for wise management of the world’s living resources. Committed to the principle of data exchange with other centers and noncommercial users, the WCMC, whenever possible, places the data it manages in the public domain. For information, contact the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntington Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK; telephone: 44 12 2327 7314; fax: 44 12 2327 7136; email: info@unep-wcmc.org; Web site: www.unep-wcmc.org. World Information Technology and Services Alliance The World Information Technology and Services Alliance (WITSA) is a consortium of 53 information technology industry associations from around the world. WITSA members represent more than 90 percent of the world information technology market. As the global voice of the information technology industry, WITSA is dedicated to advocating policies that advance the industry’s growth and development; facilitating international trade and investment in information technology products and services; strengthening WITSA’s national industry associations by sharing knowledge, experience, and information; providing members with a network of contacts in nearly every region; and hosting the World Congress on Information Technology. WITSA’s publication, Digital Planet 2002: The Global Information Economy, uses data provided by the International Data Corporation. For information, contact WITSA, 1401 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1100, Arlington, VA 22209, USA; telephone: 703 284 5333; fax: 617 687 6590; email: ahalvorsen@itaa.org; Web site: www.witsa.org. World Resources Institute The World Resources Institute is an independent center for policy research and technical assistance on global environmental and development issues. The institute provides—and helps other institutions provide— objective information and practical proposals for policy and institutional change that will foster environmentally sound, socially equitable development. The institute’s current areas of work include trade, forests, energy, economics, technology, biodiversity, human health, climate change, sustainable agriculture, resource and environmental information, and national strategies for environmental and resource management. For information, contact the World Resources Institute, Suite 800, 10 G Street NE, Washington, DC 20002, USA; telephone: 202 729 7600; fax: 202 729 7610; email: front@wri.org; Web site: www.wri.org.

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USERS GUIDE
Tables
The tables are numbered by section and display the identifying icon of the section. Countries and economies are listed alphabetically (except for Hong Kong, China, which appears after China). Data are shown for 152 economies with populations of more than 1 million, as well as for Taiwan, China, in selected tables. Table 1.6 presents selected indicators for 56 other economies—small economies with populations between 30,000 and 1 million and smaller economies if they are members of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or, as it is commonly known, the World Bank. The term country, used interchangeably with economy, does not imply political independence, but refers to any territory for which authorities report separate social or economic statistics. When available, aggregate measures for income and regional groups appear at the end of each table. Indicators are shown for the most recent year or period for which data are available and, in most tables, for an earlier year or period (usually 1990 in this edition). Time-series data are available on the World Development Indicators CD-ROM and in WDI Online. Known deviations from standard definitions or breaks in comparability over time or across countries are either footnoted in the tables or noted in About the data. When available data are deemed to be too weak to provide reliable measures of levels and trends or do not adequately adhere to international standards, the data are not shown. Data consistency and reliability Considerable effort has been made to standardize Aggregate measures for income groups The aggregate measures for income groups include 208 economies (the economies listed in the main tables plus those in table 1.6) wherever data are available. To maintain consistency in the aggregate measures over time and between tables, missing data are imputed where possible. The aggregates are totals (designated by a t if the aggregates include gap-filled estimates for missing data and by an s, for simple totals, where they do not), median values (m), weighted averages (w), or simple averages (u). Gap filling of amounts not allocated to countries may the data, but full comparability cannot be assured, and care must be taken in interpreting the indicators. Many factors affect data availability, comparability, and reliability: statistical systems in many developing economies are still weak; statistical methods, coverage, practices, and definitions differ widely; and cross-country and intertemporal comparisons involve complex technical and conceptual problems that cannot be unequivocally resolved. Data coverage may not be complete because of special circumstances or for economies experiencing problems (such as those stemming from conflicts) Czech Republic and Slovak Republic. Data are shown whenever possible for the individual countries formed from the former Czechoslovakia—the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Democratic Republic of Congo. Data for the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo, Dem. Rep., in the table listings) refer to the former Zaire. (The Republic of Congo is referred to as Congo, Rep., in the table listings.) Aggregate measures for regions The aggregate measures for regions include only lowand middle-income economies (note that these measures include developing economies with populations of less than 1 million, including those listed in table 1.6). The country composition of regions is based on the World Bank's analytical regions and may differ from common geographic usage. For regional classifications, see the map on the inside back cover and the list on the back cover flap. For further discussion of aggregation methods, see Statistical methods. result in discrepancies between subgroup aggregates and overall totals. For further discussion of aggregation methods, see Statistical methods. affecting the collection and reporting of data. For these reasons, although data are drawn from the sources thought to be most authoritative, they should be construed only as indicating trends and characterizing major differences among economies rather than offering precise quantitative measures of those differences. Discrepancies in data presented in different editions of the World Development Indicators reflect updates by countries as well as revisions to historical series and changes in methodology. Thus readers are advised not to compare data series between editions of the World Development Indicators or between different World Bank publications. Consistent time-series data for 1960–2002 are available on the World Development Indicators CD-ROM and in WDI Online. Except where otherwise noted, growth rates

Statistics
Data are shown for economies as they were constituted in 2002, and historical data are revised to reflect current political arrangements. Exceptions are noted throughout the tables. Additional information about the data is provided in Primary data documentation. That section summarizes national and international efforts to improve basic data collection and gives information on primary sources, census years, fiscal years, and other background. Statistical methods provides technical information on some of the general calculations and formulas used throughout the book.

are in real terms. (See Statistical methods for information on the methods used to calculate growth rates.) Data for some economic indicators for some economies are presented in fiscal years rather than calendar years; see Primary data documentation. All dollar figures are current U.S. dollars unless otherwise stated. The methods used for converting national currencies are described in Statistical methods.

Country notes

China. On July 1, 1997, China resumed its exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, and on December 20, 1999, it resumed its exercise of sovereignty over Macao. Unless otherwise noted, data for China do not include data for Hong Kong, China; Taiwan, China; or Macao, China.

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Eritrea. Data are shown for Eritrea whenever possible, but in most cases before 1992 Eritrea is included in the data for Ethiopia.

previous years refer to aggregated data for the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the former Yemen Arab Republic unless otherwise noted.

economies are those with a GNI per capita of more than $735 but less than $9,076. Lower-middleincome and upper-middle-income economies are separated at a GNI per capita of $2,935. High-

Germany. Data for Germany refer to the unified Germany unless otherwise noted.

Changes in the System of National Accounts World Development Indicators uses terminology in line with the 1993 United Nations System of

income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $9,076 or more. The 12 participating member countries of the European Monetary Union (EMU) are presented as a subgroup under high-income economies.

Jordan. Data for Jordan refer to the East Bank only unless otherwise noted.

National Accounts (SNA). For example, in the 1993 SNA gross national income (GNI) replaces gross national product (GNP). See About the data for

Serbia and Montenegro. On February 4, 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro.

tables 1.1 and 4.9. Most economies continue to compile their national accounts according to the 1968 SNA, but more and more are adopting the 1993 SNA.

Symbols
.. means that data are not available or that aggregates cannot be calculated because of missing data in the years shown.

Timor-Leste. On May 20, 2002, Timor-Leste became an independent country. Data for Indonesia include Timor-Leste through 1999 unless otherwise noted.

Economies that use the 1993 SNA are identified in Primar y data documentation. A few low-income economies still use concepts from older SNA guidelines, including valuations such as factor cost, in

0 or 0.0 means zero or less than half the unit shown.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In 1991 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics came to an end. Available data are shown for the individual countries now existing on its former territor y (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan). External debt data presented for the Russian Federation prior to 1992 are for the former Soviet Union. The debt of the former Soviet Union is included in the Russian Federation data after 1992 on the assumption that 100 percent of all outstanding external debt as of December 1991 has become a liability of the Russian Federation. Beginning in 1993 the data for the Russian Federation have been revised to include obligations to members of the former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and other countries in the form of trade-related credits amounting to $15.4 billion as of the end of 1996.

describing major economic aggregates. /

Classification of economies
For operational and analytical purposes the World Bank's main criterion for classifying economies is GNI per capita. Every economy is classified as low income, middle income (subdivided into lower middle and upper middle), or high income. For income classifications see the map on the inside front cover and the list on the front cover flap. Low- and middleincome economies are sometimes referred to as developing economies. The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Note that classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status. Because GNI per capita changes over time, the country composition of income groups may change from one edition of World Development

in dates, as in 1990/91, means that the period of time, usually 12 months, straddles two calendar years and refers to a crop year, a survey year, an academic year, or a fiscal year.

$ means current U.S. dollars unless otherwise noted.

> means more than.

< means less than.

Data presentation conventions
• A blank means not applicable or, for an aggregate, not analytically meaningful. • • • A billion is 1,000 million. A trillion is 1,000 billion. Figures in italics refer to years or periods other than those specified. • Data for years that are more than three years from the range shown are footnoted.

República Bolivariana de Venezuela. In December 1999 the official name of Venezuela was changed to República Bolivariana de Venezuela (Venezuela, RB, in the table listings).

Indicators to the next. Once the classification is fixed for an edition, based on GNI per capita in the most recent year for which data are available (2002 in this edition), all historical data presented are based on the same country grouping.

Republic of Yemen. Data for the Republic of Yemen refer to that country from 1990 onward; data for

Low-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $735 or less in 2002. Middle-income The cutoff date for data is February 1, 2004.

2004 World Development Indicators

xxvii

1 WORLD VIEW

T

he Millennium Development Goals put the world community on a time table. When 189 member states of the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration in September 2000, they looked backwards to 1990 and ahead to 2015 and gave themselves 25 years to produce substantial improvements in the lives of people. At the time, it was clear that in many places development progress had slowed and would have to be accelerated if the ambitious targets of the Millennium Development Goals were to be achieved.

As in the past four editions, this section of World Development Indicators reviews progress toward the major development goals. Until recently we have been gauging progress toward the Millennium Development Goals based on the record of the 1990s. Now, we are closer to 2015 than to 1990, and we are getting our first look at the record of the 21st century. There are hopeful signs. Global poverty rates continue to fall. Fewer people are living in extreme poverty, after an increase in the late 1990s. In countries that have laid a good foundation for growth, indicators of social development are also improving. But progress is uneven. Slow growth, low educational achievement, poor health, and civil disturbances remain obstacles for many. It is still too early to conclude that the world as a whole is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals—or that it is not. What is clear is that the goals remain a great challenge and that hard work lies ahead.

1a
Poverty rates have been falling in all regions except Sub-Saharan Africa
Share of people living on less than $1 a day (%) 70

1b
But more than 1.1 billion people remain in extreme poverty
Number of people living on less than $1 a day (millions) 1,500

60 1,200 50
Sub-Saharan Africa

40
South Asia

900

30
East Asia and Pacific

600
China Latin America and Caribbean

20

300
Europe and Central Asia

10
Middle East and North Africa

0 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2001

0 1981
South Asia Latin America & Caribbean

1984

1987

1990

1993

1996

1999

2001

Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East & North Africa

East Asia and Pacific Europe & Central Asia

Source: World Bank staff estimates.

Source: World Bank staff estimates.

2004 World Development Indicators

1

1 Eradicate extreme poverty . . . The first Millennium Development Goal calls for cutting in half the proportion of people living in extreme poverty—and those suffering from hunger—between 1990 and 2015. A poverty line of $1 a day ($1.08 in 1993 purchasing power parity terms) has been accepted as the working definition of extreme poverty in low-income countries. In middle-income countries a poverty line of $2 a day ($2.15 in 1993 purchasing power parity terms) is closer to a practical minimum, and national poverty lines may be set even higher. In 1990, 1,219 million people, 28 percent of the population of low- and middle-income countries, lived on less than $1 a day. Over the next 11 years gross domestic product (GDP) in low- and middle-income countries grew 31 percent, and by 2001 the poverty rate had fallen to 21 percent. During the same period population in those countries grew by 15 percent to 5 billion, leaving about 1,100 million people in extreme poverty. New estimates of poverty rates, based on reexamination of household survey data back to 1981, show that global trends in poverty reduction have been dominated by rapid growth in China and the East Asia and Pacific region. GDP per capita more than tripled while the proportion of people in extreme poverty fell from 56 percent to 16 percent. Poverty also fell in South Asia over the past 20 years, and while the decline was not as rapid, almost 50 million fewer people were living in extreme poverty by 2001. But in Sub-Saharan Africa, where GDP per capita shrank 14 percent, poverty rose from 41 percent in 1981 to 46 percent in 2001, and an additional 140 million people were living in

extreme poverty. Other regions have seen little or no change. In the early 1990s the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia experienced a sharp drop in income. Poverty rates rose to 6 percent at the end of the decade before beginning to recede. Continued progress in poverty reduction depends on economic growth and the distribution of income. Growth without poverty reduction is at least a theoretical possibility, and in regions such as Latin America, where the distribution of income is less equitable, the poverty reducing effects of growth are weaker. In looking ahead, income distribution is assumed to remain unchanged on average. If projected growth remains on track through 2015, global poverty rates measured at $1 a day will fall to 12.7 percent—less than half the 1990 level of 28 percent—and 363 million fewer people will live in extreme poverty than at the beginning of the 21st century. Poverty rates will fall fastest in East Asia and Pacific outside of China, but the huge reduction in the number of people below the $1 a day poverty line in China will dominate global totals. In Europe and Central Asia and in the Middle East and North Africa, where poverty rates measured at $1 a day are low, a continuation of current trends will cut poverty rates to half their current levels. South Asia, led by continuing growth in India, is likely to reach or exceed the target. But growth and poverty reduction are proceeding more slowly in Latin America and the Caribbean, which will not reach the target unless growth picks up. The most difficult case is Sub-Saharan Africa, where poverty has increased since 1990 and will, on present trends, fall very slowly in the next 11 years, unless there is a major change in prospects.

1c
Most regions are on a path to cut extreme poverty by half by 2015
Share of people living on less than $1 (or $2) a day (%)

East Asia & Pacific
50 40
29.6

Europe & Central Asia

Latin America & the Caribbean

28.4 24.5 19.7 20.5 10.3 3.7 0.5 1.3 0.3 11.3

30 20 10 0
15.6 2.3

14.8

12.3

9.5

7.6

5.6

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Middle East & North Africa
50

South Asia
41.3

Sub-Saharan Africa
44.6 46.5 42.3

40 30
21.4 23.2

31.1 20.6

22.3

20
10.2 16.4

10
2.3 2.4

1.2 1.2

0

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

1990

1995

2000 Goal 2015

2005

2010

2015

1990 Actual Projected Path to goal

1995

2000

2005

2010 Actual

2015

Poverty rate at $1 a day

Poverty rate at $2 a day

1990 Source: World Bank staff estimates.

2001

Projected

2

2004 World Development Indicators

New poverty estimates trace the decline of global poverty levels over the last two decades

1d
With continuing growth the number of people living in extreme poverty will fall People living on less than $1 a day (millions) Region East Asia & Pacific China Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa South Asia India Sub-Saharan Africa Total 1981 796 634 1 36 9 475 382 164 1,480 1984 562 425 1 46 8 460 374 198 1,276 1987 426 308 2 45 7 473 370 219 1,171 1990 472 375 2 49 6 462 357 227 1,219 1993 415 334 17 52 4 476 380 241 1,206 1996 287 212 20 52 6 461 400 270 1,095 1999 282 223 30 54 8 453 352 292 1,117 2001 284 212 18 50 7 428 359 314 1,101

1e
And the proportion of people in extreme poverty will reach an all-time low in 2015 Share of people living on less than $1 a day (%) Region East Asia & Pacific China Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa South Asia India Sub-Saharan Africa Total 1981 57.7 63.8 0.3 9.7 5.1 51.5 54.4 41.6 40.3 1984 38.9 41.0 0.3 11.8 3.8 46.8 49.8 46.3 32.8 1987 28 28.5 0.4 10.9 3.2 45 46.3 46.8 28.4 1990 29.6 33.0 0.5 11.3 2.3 41.3 42.1 44.6 27.9 1993 24.9 28.4 3.7 11.3 1.6 40.1 42.3 43.7 26.2 1996 16.6 17.4 4.2 10.7 2.0 36.6 42.2 45.3 22.7 1999 15.7 17.8 6.2 10.5 2.6 34.0 35.3 45.4 22.2 2001 15.6 16.6 3.7 9.5 2.4 31.1 34.7 46.5 21.3

1f
But more than 2 billion people will live on less than $2 a day People living on less than $2 a day (millions) Region East Asia & Pacific China Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa South Asia India Sub-Saharan Africa Total 1981 1,170 876 8 99 52 821 630 288 2,438 1984 1,109 814 9 119 50 859 661 326 2,471 1987 1,028 731 8 115 53 911 697 355 2,470 1990 1,116 825 58 125 51 958 731 382 2,689 1993 1,079 803 78 136 52 1,005 770 409 2,759 1996 922 650 97 117 61 1,029 806 445 2,672 1999 900 628 112 127 70 1,034 804 487 2,730 2001 868 594 94 128 70 1,059 826 514 2,733

1g
And more than half the population of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa will be very poor Share of people living on less than $2 a day (%) Region East Asia & Pacific China Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa South Asia India Sub-Saharan Africa Total
Source: World Bank staff estimates. 2004 World Development Indicators

1981 84.8 88.1 1.9 26.9 28.9 89.1 89.6 73.3 66.4

1984 76.6 78.5 2.0 30.4 25.2 87.2 88.2 76.1 63.5

1987 67.7 67.4 1.7 27.8 24.2 86.7 87.3 76.1 59.9

1990 69.9 72.6 12.3 28.4 21.4 85.5 86.1 75.0 61.6

1993 64.8 68.1 16.6 29.5 20.2 84.5 85.7 74.3 60.0

1996 53.3 53.4 20.6 24.1 22.3 81.7 85.2 74.8 55.5

1999 50.3 50.1 23.5 25.1 24.3 77.7 80.6 75.7 54.2

2001 47.6 46.7 19.7 24.5 23.2 76.9 79.9 76.3 52.8

3

1 . . . and reduce hunger and malnutrition The world produces enough food to feed everyone, but hunger remains a persistent problem. Although famines and droughts cause terrible short-term crises and grab most of the headlines, the root cause of hunger is poverty. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that worldwide there are more than 840 million people who are chronically undernourished, most of them living in low-income countries. But there are hungry people everywhere, including 10 million undernourished people living in industrial countries. Undernourishment means consuming too little food to maintain normal levels of activity. The FAO sets the average requirement at 1,900 calories a day. Among the less severely affected the average daily shortfall is less than 200 calories a person. In the FAO’s estimation extreme hunger occurs with a shortfall of more than 300 calories, but the needs of individuals vary with age, sex, and height. Adding to the problems of undernourishment are diets that lack essential nutrients and illnesses that deplete nutrients. The Millennium Development Goals call for cutting the prevalence of hunger to half of its 1990 levels by 2015. Prevalence rates have been falling in most regions, but too slowly to achieve the 2015 target, and in many regions the number of hungry people continues to grow. By 2001 only the East Asia and Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean regions had

fewer undernourished people than 10 years earlier. Countries that have succeeded in reducing hunger had higher economic growth, especially in their agricultural sector and rural regions. They have also had lower population growth and lower rates of HIV infection. Malnutrition in children often begins at birth, when poorly nourished mothers give birth to underweight babies. Improper feeding and child care practices contribute to the harm done by an inadequate diet, putting poor children at a permanent disadvantage. Malnourished children develop more slowly, enter school later, and perform less well. And malnutrition is an underlying factor in more than half the deaths of children under age five. Progress in reducing child malnutrition has been fastest in East Asia and Pacific. where child malnutrition rates declined by 33 percent, and South Asia, where rates declined 25 percent. But many countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, lag far behind. In many others data are inadequate for tracking progress. In the 74 countries with two or more observations since 1988, only 29 are currently on track to achieve the target by 2015. But faster progress is possible. Programs to encourage breastfeeding and to improve the diets of pregnant and lactating mothers along with micronutrient supplementation help to prevent malnutrition. Appropriate care and feeding of sick children, oral rehydration therapy, control and treatment of parasitic diseases, and programs to treat vitamin A deficiency have all been shown to reduce malnutrition rates.

1h
The undernourished are everywhere
Prevalence of undernourishment (%) 40
1990–92 1995–97 1999–2001

1i
Malnourished children are among the most vulnerable
Prevalence of underweight children (%) 60
Around 1990 Around 1992

50

30 40

Millennium Development Goal target

20

30

20 10 10
1993–95

0
Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia East Asia & Pacific

0
South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific Latin America Middle East & Low- and & Caribbean North Africa middle-income economies

Latin America Europe & Middle East & Caribbean Central Asia & North Africa

Source: FAO 2003, The State of Food Insecurity in the World.

Source: WHO and World Bank staff estimates.

4

2004 World Development Indicators

2 Achieve universal primary education Education is the foundation of democratic societies and globally competitive economies. It is the basis for reducing poverty and inequality, increasing productivity, enabling the use of new technologies, and creating and spreading knowledge. In an increasingly complex, knowledge-dependent world, primary education, as the gateway to higher levels of education, must be the first priority. The Millennium Development Goals call on the world to ensure that by 2015 all children are able to complete a course of primary education. This target can be achieved—and it must be, if all developing countries are to compete in the global economy. Progress toward this target is commonly measured by the net enrollment ratio—the ratio of enrolled children of official school age to the number of children of that age in the population. Ratios at or near 100 percent imply that all children will receive a full primary education. But lower ratios are ambiguous. Schools may fail to enroll all students in the first grade, or many students may drop out in later grades. Chad, for example, reports a net enrollment rate of almost 60 percent, but barely 20 percent complete the final year of primary education. Primary completion rates—the proportion of each age group finishing primary school—directly measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal. To achieve 100 percent completion rates, school systems must enroll all children in first grade and keep them in school throughout the primary cycle. To reach the target of universal primary education by 2015, school systems with low completion rates will need to start now to train teachers, build classrooms, and improve the quality of education. Three regions—East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean—are on track to achieve the

goal. Many countries in these regions have already reached the target. China, Mexico, and Russia are at or near full enrollment. Others, such as Brazil, Bulgaria, and Laos made rapid progress in the 1990s and are likely to reach the target by 2015. But three regions, with 150 million primary school-age children, are in danger of falling short. Sub-Saharan Africa lags farthest behind, with little progress since 1990. South Asia has chronically low enrollment and completion rates. And completion rates in the Middle East and North Africa stagnated in the 1990s. But even in these regions some countries have made large gains. Removing impediments and reducing costs can boost enrollments. Malawi and Uganda lowered school fees but could not provide spaces for all the new students. Many countries face the challenge of improving school quality while attracting and keeping more children in school. If current trends persist, children in more than half of developing countries will not complete a full course of primary education in 2015. But faster progress is possible, and successful countries have set an example by: • Committing a higher share of their budgets to public education. • Managing to efficiently control costs. • Providing an adequate level of complementary inputs. • Keeping pupil-teacher ratios around 40 and repetition rates below 10 percent. Many poor countries cannot afford the cost of expanding their education systems to reach the goal. They will need help from donors that are prepared to make long-term commitments to supporting education. The World Bank estimates the financing gap in low-income countries at $2.4–3.7 billion a year (Bruns, Mingat, and Rakotomalala 2003, p. 13).

1j
To reach the goal, all children need to complete primary school
Average primary school completion rate, 2000–02 (%) 100
Upper-middle-income average Lower-middle-income average Low-income average

1k
Schools need to do more to lower costs and attract students
Reasons for leaving primary school

Mali 1995/96

80

Other 15% Pregnancy or marriage 11% Failed exams 12% Did not like school 42%

60

Zambia 1996

40

Family needed labor or money 20%

Other 16% Pregnancy or marriage 12% Did not like school 16% School fees 37%

20

0
East Asia & Pacific Europe & Latin America Middle East Central Asia & Caribbean & North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

Failed exams 19%

Source: World Bank staff estimates.

Source: Demographic and Health Survey EdData Education Profiles (www.dhseddata.com).

2004 World Development Indicators

5

3 Promote gender equality and empower women Gender disparities exist everywhere in the world. Women are underrepresented in local and national decisionmaking bodies. They earn less than men and are less likely to participate in wage employment. And in many low-income countries girls are less likely to attend school. Evidence from around the world shows that eliminating gender disparities in education is one of the most effective development actions a country can take. When a country educates both its boys and its girls, economic productivity tends to rise, maternal and infant mortality rates usually fall, fertility rates decline, and the health and educational prospects of the next generation improve. With this in mind, the Millennium Development Goals call for eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary school by 2005 and at all levels by 2015. But all regions except Latin America are still short of the first target. The differences between boys' and girls' schooling are greatest in regions with the lowest primary school completion rates and the lowest average incomes. In South Asia girls’ enrollment in primary schools is 12 points lower than boys’, and only 61 percent of girls complete primary school compared with 86 percent of boys. One consequence is that illiteracy rates among young women ages 15–24 are almost 40 percent in South Asia and 26 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in both regions they are more than half again as high as those of young men. The disparities are even greater in the Middle East and North Africa, a region of higher average incomes but a long history of neglecting female education. The failure to educate women has consequences for development. A recent study (Klasen 1999) estimates that if countries in

South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East and North Africa had closed the gender gap in schooling between 1960 and 1992 as quickly as East Asia did, their income would have grown by an additional 0.5 to 0.9 percentage point per year. In Africa this would have meant close to doubling per capita income growth. What does improving girls’ enrollments require? Mainly overcoming the social and economic obstacles that stop parents from sending their daughters to school. For many poor families the economic value of girls’ work at home exceeds the perceived returns to schooling. Improving the quality and affordability of schools is a first step. The World Bank's Girls' Education Initiative outlines many gender-sensitive strategies and interventions, including construction of toilet blocks and water sources in schools, provision of nursery and preschool centers where girls can leave younger siblings, abolition of school fees and uniforms, and provision of free or subsidized textbooks. Overcoming women’s disadvantages in the labor force and increasing their representation in public life will also help encourage girls to attend and stay in school. Progress is possible. Over the past decade gender differences at the primary level have been eliminated or greatly reduced in Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, China, the Arab Republic of Egypt, and The Gambia. Because the Millennium Development Goals are mutually reinforcing, progress toward one goal affects progress toward all the others. Success in many of the goals will have positive impacts on gender equality, just as progress toward gender equality will further other goals. Increasing opportunities for women will also contribute toward the goal of reducing poverty, educating children, improving health, and better managing environmental resources.

1l
Many girls still do not have equal access to education
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) 120
1990 2000

1m
Literacy rates have been rising as more children remain in school, but girls lag behind boys
Youth literacy rate, ages 15–24 (%) 100
Female 1990 Male 1990 Female 2002 Male 2002

100

80

80 60 60 40 40

20 20
1997 1998 1998

0
East Asia & Pacific Europe & Latin America Middle East Central Asia & Caribbean & North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

0
East Asia & Pacific Europe & Latin America Middle East Central Asia & Caribbean & North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

Source: United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization and World Bank staff estimates.

Source: United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization and World Bank staff estimates.

6

2004 World Development Indicators

4 Reduce child mortality Every year more than 10 million children in developing countries die before the age of five. Rapid improvements before 1990 gave hope that mortality rates for infants and children under five could be cut by two-thirds in the following 25 years. But progress slowed almost everywhere in the 1990s. And no region, except possibly Latin America and the Caribbean, is on track to achieve the target. Progress has been particularly slow in Sub-Saharan Africa, where civil disturbances and the HIV/AIDS epidemic have driven up rates of infant and child mortality in several countries. For the region the under-five mortality rate stands at 171 deaths per 1,000 live births. Child mortality is closely linked to poverty. In 2002 the average under-five mortality rate was 122 deaths per 1,000 live births in low-income countries, 42 in lower-middle-income countries, and 21 in upper-middle-income countries. In high-income countries the rate was less than 7. For 70 percent of the deaths the cause is a disease or a combination of diseases and malnutrition that would be preventable in a high-income country: acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, measles, and malaria. Improvements in infant and child mortality have come slowly in low-income countries, where mortality rates have fallen by only 12 percent since 1990. Upper-middle-income countries have made the greatest improvement, reducing average mortality rates by 36 percent. But even this rate of improvement

falls short of that needed to reach the target. There is evidence that improvements in child mortality have been greatest among the better-off. In 20 developing countries with disaggregated data, child mortality rates fell only half as fast for the poorest 20 percent of the population as for the whole population. In Bolivia, which is nearly on track to achieve the target, under-five mortality rates fell 34 percent among the wealthiest 20 percent but only 8 percent among the poorest. In Vietnam mortality rates also fell among the better-off but scarcely changed for the poor. But in Egypt in the late 1990s under-five mortality fell faster among the poor than among the general population. In the effort to reach the Millennium Development Goals, the poor do not need to be left behind. Just as child deaths are the result of many causes, reducing child mortality will require multiple, complementary interventions. Raising incomes will help. So will increasing public spending on health services. But a greater effort is needed to ensure that health care and other public services reach the poor. Access to safe water, better sanitation facilities, and improvements in education, especially for girls and mothers, are closely linked to reduced mortality. Also needed are roads to improve access to health facilities and modern forms of energy to reduce dependence on traditional fuels, which cause damaging indoor air pollution. The Millennium Development Goals remind us of the need to look at health and health care from the broadest possible perspective.

1n
Few countries are on track to meet the child mortality target
Under-five mortality rate, 2001 (deaths per 1,000 live births) 350

1o
To reduce early childhood deaths, immunization programs must be extended and sustained
Measles immunization, 2001 (% of children under 12 months) 100
Middle-income economies average

300 80 250
Countries above the line are progressing too slowly to meet the target

Low-income economies average

60

200

150

Iraq

40

100

Bhutan

20 50
Egypt Countries below the line are on track to achieve a two-thirds reduction in mortality rates

0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

0
East Asia & Pacific Europe & Latin America Middle East Central Asia & Caribbean & North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

Under-five mortality rate, 1990
Source: World Bank staff estimates.

Source: WHO, UNICEF, and World Bank staff estimates.

2004 World Development Indicators

7

5 Improve the health of mothers In rich countries 13 women die in childbirth for every 100,000 live births. In some poor countries 100 times more women die. Overall, more than 500,000 women die each year in childbirth, most of them in developing countries. What makes maternal mortality such a compelling problem is that it strikes young women undergoing what should be a normal function. They die because they are poor. Malnourished. Weakened by disease. Exposed to multiple pregnancies. And they die because they lack access to trained health care workers and modern medical facilities. The Millennium Development Goals call for reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015, or an average of 5.4 percent a year. Maternal mortality is difficult to measure accurately. Deaths from pregnancy or childbirth are relatively rare and may not be captured in general-purpose surveys or surveys with small sample sizes. Maternal deaths may be underreported in countries that lack good administrative statistics or where many women give birth outside the formal health system. For these reasons, efforts to monitor maternal mortality often rely on proxy indicators or statistical models. The share of births attended by skilled health staff is frequently used to identify where the need for intervention is greatest. Only 56 percent of women in developing countries are attended in childbirth by a trained midwife or doctor. In Latin America, where the share of births attended by skilled health personnel is high, maternal mortality is relatively low. But in Africa, where skilled attendants and health facilities are not readily available, it is very high. The maternal mortality ratio measures the risk of a woman dying once she becomes pregnant. Women who have more preg-

nancies are exposed more often to the risk of maternal death and thus face a higher lifetime risk of death due to pregnancy or childbirth. The greatest number of maternal deaths each year occur in populous India, which has a maternal mortality ratio of 540 per 100,000 and a lifetime risk of maternal death of 1 in 48. But in little Togo, with a similar maternal mortality ratio but higher fertility rate, women are exposed to almost twice the risk of death (AbouZhar and Wardlaw 2003). New estimates of trends in maternal mortality suggest that all regions, except possibly the Middle East and North Africa, will fall short of the 2015 target (World Bank 2003). Across the developing world 17 percent of countries, with almost a third of the population of developing countries, are on track to achieve the maternal mortality target. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where maternal mortality ratios are on average the highest, the rate of improvement is expected to be less than in any region except Europe and Central Asia. Significant progress in reducing maternal mortality will require a comprehensive approach to providing health services: deaths in childbirth often involve complications, such as hemorrhaging, that require fully equipped medical facilities, accessible roads, and emergency transportation. Causes of complications during pregnancy and childbirth include inadequate nutrition, unsafe sex, and poor health care. Gender inequality in controlling household resources and making decisions also contributes to poor maternal health. Early childbearing and closely spaced pregnancies increase the risks for mothers and children. Access to family planning services helps women plan whether and when to have children. Fewer pregnancies means a lower lifetime exposure to the risk of maternal mortality.

1p
Extreme risks of dying from pregnancy or childbirth in some regions
Lifetime risk of maternal death, 2000

1q
The presence of skilled health staff lowers the risk of maternal death
Births attended by skilled health staff, 1995–2000 (% of total) 100
1 in 16 Middle-income economies average

80

60
Low-income economies average

1 in 46

40
1 in 120

1 in 140

1 in 160

1 in 210 1 in 840 1 in 2,800

20

Sub-Saharan SouthAfrica Central Asia

Western Asia

SouthLatin Eastern America & Asia Caribbean

North Africa

Eastern Developed Asia countries

0
The lifetime risk of maternal death is the risk of an individual woman dying from pregnancy or childbirth during her lifetime. A 1 in 3,000 lifetime risk represents a low risk of dying from pregnancy or childbirth, while a 1 in 100 lifetime risk is a high risk of dying. a. Excludes Australia, Japan, and New Zealand. Source: AbouZhar and Wardlaw 2003. East Asia & Pacific Europe & Latin America Middle East Central Asia & Caribbean & North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

Source: World Bank staff estimates.

8

2004 World Development Indicators

6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases Epidemic diseases exact a huge toll in human suffering and lost opportunities for development. Poverty, civil disturbances, and natural disasters all contribute to, and are made worse by, the spread of disease. In Africa the spread of HIV/AIDS has reversed decades of improvements in life expectancy and left millions of children orphaned. It is draining the supply of teachers and eroding the quality of education. HIV has infected more than 60 million people worldwide. Each day 14,000 people are newly infected, more than half of them below age 25. The Millennium Development Goals have set the target of reducing prevalence among 15–24 year olds by 25 percent by 2005 in the most severely affected countries and by 2010 globally. At the end of 2002, 42 million adults and 5 million children were living with HIV/AIDS—more than 95 percent of them in developing countries and 70 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. There were almost a million new cases in South and East Asia, where more than 7 million people now live with HIV/AIDS. Projections suggest that by 2010, 45 million more people in low- and middleincome countries will become infected unless the world mounts an effective campaign to halt the disease’s spread. But there are success stories: Brazil, Thailand, and Uganda are controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. Thailand has reduced the number of new infections from 140,000 a decade ago to 30,000 in 2001. The World Health Organization (WHO 2002) estimates that 300–500 million cases of malaria occur each year, leading to 1.1 million deaths. Almost 90 percent of cases occur in SubSaharan Africa, and most deaths are among children younger than five. Malaria is a disease of poverty: almost 60 percent of

deaths occur among the poorest 20 percent of the population. The disease is estimated to have slowed economic growth in African countries by 1.3 percent a year (World Bank 2001). Because children bear the greatest burden of the disease, the Millennium Development Goals call for monitoring efforts focusing on children under five. An effective means of preventing new infections is the use of insecticide-treated bednets. Vietnam, where 16 percent of children sleep under treated bednets, has made significant strides in controlling malaria. But in Africa only 7 of 27 countries with survey data reported rates of bednet use of 5 percent or more. The emergence of drugresistant strains of malaria has increased the urgency of finding new means of treatment and prevention. Tuberculosis kills some 2 million people a year, most of them 15–45 years old. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis; the spread of HIV/AIDS, which reduces resistance to tuberculosis; and the growing number of refugees and displaced persons have allowed the disease to spread more rapidly. Each year there are 8 million new cases—2 million in SubSaharan Africa, 3 million in Southeast Asia, and more than a quarter million in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Poorly managed tuberculosis programs allow drug-resistant strains to spread. WHO has developed a treatment strategy—directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS)—that emphasizes positive diagnosis followed by a course of treatment and follow-up care. DOTS produces cure rates of up to 95 percent, even in poor countries. While some countries have made rapid progress in DOTS detection rates, those with high tuberculosis burdens are not increasing detection rates toward the 70 percent target.

1r
HIV strikes at youth—and women are particularly vulnerable
Youth ages 15–24 living with HIV/AIDS, end 2001 (%)
15 Women Men 12

1s
Treated bednets are a proven way to combat malaria, but they are still not widely used
Children under age five sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets, 2000 (%) 25

20

9

15

6

10

3

5

0 SubEastern & Southern Saharan Africa Africa West & Central Africa Latin Europe & Central America & Caribbean Asia South Asia Middle East East & Asia & Pacific North Africa

0
Swaziland Sudan Niger Burundi Tanzania Rwanda The Vietnam São Tomé Gambia & Principe

Source: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

Source: World Health Organization.

2004 World Development Indicators

9

7 Ensure environmental sustainability Sustainable development can be ensured only by protecting the environment and using its resources wisely. Because poor people are often dependent on environmental resources for their livelihood, they are most affected by environmental degradation and by natural disasters, such as fires, storms, and earthquakes, whose effects are worsened by environmental mismanagement. The Millennium Development Goals draw attention to some of the environmental conditions that need to be closely monitored—changes in forest coverage and biological diversity, energy use and the emission of greenhouse gases, the availability of adequate water and sanitation services, and the plight of slum dwellers in rapidly growing cities. As a result of economic and demographic growth most developing regions have increased their carbon dioxide emissions, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas, and land-use practices. In the last decade carbon dioxide emissions have increased by 25 percent in low-income countries, though from a significantly lower level than in other income groups. Globally, the increase in carbon dioxide emissions has slowed in the last decade, and annual emissions per capita have declined from 4.1 metric tons to 3.8 a year. Still, greenhouse gases accumulate and increase the risk of climate changes, which will affect all of us for generations to come. Lack of clean water and basic sanitation is the main reason that diseases transmitted by feces are so common in developing countries. In 1990 diarrhea resulted in 3 million deaths, 85 percent of them among children. In 2000, 1.2 billion people still lacked access to a reliable source of water that was reasonably

protected from contamination, 40 percent of them in East Asia and Pacific and 25 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation services and good hygiene practices are also needed to reduce the risk of disease. A basic sanitation system provides disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Such systems do not, however, ensure that effluents are treated to remove harmful substances before they are released into the environment. Meeting the Millennium Development Goals will require providing about 1.5 billion people with access to safe water and 2 billion with access to basic sanitation facilities between 2000 and 2015. The world is rapidly urbanizing. While the movement of people to cities may reduce immediate pressure on the rural environment, it increases people’s exposure to other environmental hazards. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN Habitat 2003) estimates that in 2001, 924 million people lived in slums, where they lack basic services, live in overcrowded and substandard housing, and are exposed to unhealthy living conditions and hazardous locations. The Millennium Development Goals call for improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. Polluted air is one of many hazards faced by urban dwellers. Poor people, who live in crowded neighborhoods close to traffic corridors and industrial plants, are likely to suffer the most. Every year an estimated 0.5–1.0 million people die prematurely from respiratory and other illnesses associated with urban air pollution (World Bank 2002i). Much can be done to improve the lives of slum dwellers by improving basic infrastructure, mitigating environmental hazards, increasing access to education and health services, and empowering them to control and manage their own lives.

1t
Greenhouse gas emissions rise with income
Per capita emissions of carbon dioxide (metric tons)
15 1990 2000 12

1u
Access to water and sanitation services will require large investments
Share of population with access to an improved source, 2000 (%)
100 Water Sanitation 80

1v
Slums are growing in newly urbanized areas
Number of urban residents (millions)
1,000 Non-slum population Slum dwellers

800

9

60

600

6

40

400

3

20

200

0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income

0 East Europe & Latin Middle Asia & Central America East & Pacific Asia & North Caribbean Africa South SubAsia Saharan Africa

0
Eastern Asia Latin American & Caribbean South-Eastern Asia Developed economies South-Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Western Asia North Africa

Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre and World Bank staff estimates.

Source: World Health Organization, UNICEF, and World Bank staff estimates.

Note: United Nations–defined regions. Source: UN Habitat 2003.

10

2004 World Development Indicators

8 Develop a global partnership for development The eighth and final goal complements the first seven. It commits wealthy countries to work with developing countries to create an environment in which rapid, sustainable development is possible. It calls for an open, rule-based trading and financial system, more generous aid to countries committed to poverty reduction, and relief for the debt problems of developing countries. It draws attention to the problems of the least developed countries and of landlocked countries and small island developing states, which have greater difficulty competing in the global economy. And it calls for cooperation with the private sector to address youth unemployment, ensure access to affordable, essential drugs, and make available the benefits of new technologies. Important steps toward implementing the global partnership envisioned in the Millennium Declaration were taken at international meetings held in 2001 in Doha, which launched a new “development round” of trade negotiations, and in 2002 at the International Conference on Financing for Development held in Monterrey, Mexico, where developed and developing countries reached a new consensus stressing mutual responsibilities for reaching the Millennium Development Goals. The Monterrey Consensus calls for developing countries to improve their policies and governance aimed at increasing economic growth and reducing poverty and for developed countries to increase their support, especially by providing more and better aid and greater access to their markets. What is at stake? Greater access to markets in rich countries for the exports of developing country goods and services could generate substantial gains in real incomes and reduce the

number of people living in poverty in 2015 by 140 million more than in current projections. But progress on trade issues has slowed since the Doha meetings, and the subsequent World Trade Organization meetings at Cancun failed to reach agreement on outstanding issues, particularly the agricultural policies of highincome economies. Subsidies to agriculture by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development members were greater than $300 billion in 2002. By distorting world prices and restricting access to markets, subsidies hurt growth in the agricultural sector, where many of the poorest people work. Trade in manufactured goods faces fewer barriers. But tariff peaks are used selectively to keep out exports of developing countries. The force of the Monterrey Consensus is that more aid should go to countries with good track records and to support reform programs that produce results. After falling throughout most of the last decade, aid levels rose in 2002, and commitments made during or following the Monterrey Conference would increase the real level of aid by $18.6 billion dollars more in 2006. This is a substantial increase, but it will fall short of the $30–50 billion extra needed to meet the identified needs of the poorest countries to set them on the path to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The quality of aid is important as well. Aid is most effective in reducing poverty when it goes to poor countries with good economic policies and sound governance and advances country-owned poverty reduction programs. But about a third of official development assistance goes to middle-income economies. And when aid flows are affected by geopolitical considerations, donors may overlook weaknesses in the recipient country’s policies and institutions.

1w
Aid has increased, but not by as much as domestic subsidies to agriculture
$ billions 120
Total agricultural support 1986–88 Total agricultural support 2000–02

1x
New commitments by donors, the first major increase in more than a decade, will still meet only a fraction of the need
Net official development assistance ($ billions) 120

100

Net official development assistance 1986–88 Net official development assistance 2000–02

With an additional $50 billion, aid would be equal to 0.35 percent of donors’ GNI, about what it was in the early 1990s

100

80

60

80

40 60 20

Monterrey commitments of $18.6 billion

0
European Union United States Japan

40 1990 1995 2000 2006

Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Development Assistance Committee, and World Bank staff estimates.

Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Development Assistance Committee, and World Bank staff estimates.

2004 World Development Indicators

11

Goals, targets, and indicators
Goals and targets from the Millennium Declaration
Goal 1 Target 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day

Indicators for monitoring progress
1 1a 2 3 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) a day a Poverty headcount ratio (percentage of population below the national poverty line) Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] Share of poorest quintile in national consumption Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Net enrollment ratio in primary education Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 b Literacy rate of 15- to 24-year-olds Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education Ratio of literate women to men ages 15–24 Share of women in wage employment in the nonagricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments Under-five mortality rate Infant mortality rate Proportion of one-year-old children immunized against measles Maternal mortality ratio Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Target 2

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

4 5

Goal 2 Target 3

Goal 3 Target 4

Achieve universal primary education Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Promote gender equality and empower women Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Goal 4 Target 5

Reduce child mortality Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

13 14 15

Goal 5 Target 6

Improve maternal health Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

16 17

Goal 6 Target 7

Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread 18 of HIV/AIDS 19 19a 19b

HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–24 Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate c Condom use at last high-risk sex Percentage of 15- to 24-year-olds with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS d 19c Contraceptive prevalence rate 20 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of nonorphans ages 10–14 Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures e Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) Proportion of land area covered by forest Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area Energy use (kilograms of oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (ODP tons) Proportion of population using solid fuels Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural

Target 8

Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

21 22 23 24

Goal 7 Target 9

Ensure environmental sustainability Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources

25 26 27 28 29

Target 10 Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

30 31

12

2004 World Development Indicators

Goals and targets from the Millennium Declaration
Target 11 By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Goal 8 Develop a global partnership for development Target 12 Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction—both nationally and internationally

Indicators for monitoring progress
32 Proportion of households with access to secure tenure

Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked countries and small island developing states. Official development assistance (ODA) 33 Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as a percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income 34 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) 35 Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied 36 ODA received in landlocked countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes 37 ODA received in small island developing states as proportion of their gross national incomes Market access 38 Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from the least developed countries, admitted free of duty 39 Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries 40 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product 41 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity Debt sustainability 42 Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) 43 Debt relief committed under HIPC Debt Initiative 44 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services 45 Unemployment rate of 15- to 24-year-olds, male and female and total f Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis

Target 13 Address the special needs of the least developed countries Includes tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction

Target 14 Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the 22nd special session of the General Assembly)

Target 15 Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term

Target 16 In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth Target 17 In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries Target 18 In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

46

47 Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 people 48a Personal computers in use per 100 people 48b Internet users per 100 people

Note: Goals, targets, and indicators effective September 8, 2003. a. For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used, where available. b. An alternative indicator under development is “primary completion rate.” c. Among contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in preventing HIV transmission. Since the condom use rate is only measured among women in union, it is supplemented by an indicator on condom use in high-risk situations (indicator 19a) and an indicator on HIV/AIDS knowledge (indicator 19b). Indicator 19c (contraceptive prevalence rate) is also useful in tracking progress in other health, gender, and poverty goals. d. This indicator is defined as the percentage of 15- to 24-year-olds who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner), who reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission, and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. However, since there are currently not a sufficient number of surveys to be able to calculate the indicator as defined above, UNICEF, in collaboration with UNAIDS and WHO, produced two proxy indicators that represent two components of the actual indicator. They are the percentage of women and men ages 15–24 who know that a person can protect herself from HIV infection by “consistent use of condom,” and the percentage of women and men ages 15–24 who know a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. e. Prevention to be measured by the percentage of children under age five sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets; treatment to be measured by percentage of children under age five who are appropriately treated. f. An improved measure of the target for future years is under development by the International Labour Organization.

2004 World Development Indicators

13

1.1
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Size of the economy
Population Surface area Population density Gross national income Gross national income per capita PPP gross national income a Gross domestic product

Per thousand millions 2002 sq. km 2002 people per sq. km 2002 $ billions 2002 b rank 2002 $ 2002 b rank 2002 $ billions 2002 capita $ 2002 rank 2002 % growth 2001–02

Per capita % growth 2001–02

28 c 3 31 13 36 3 20 8 8 136 10 10 7 9 4 2 174 8 12 7 12 16 31 4 8 16 1,280 7 44 52 4 4 17 4 11 10 5 9 13 66 6 4 1 67 5 59 1 1 5 82 20 11 12 8 1 8

652 29 2,382 1,247 2,780 30 7,741 84 87 144 208 31 113 1,099 51 582 8,547 111 274 28 181 475 9,971 623 1,284 757 9,598 f .. 1,139 2,345 342 51 322 57 111 79 43 49 284 1,001 21 118 45 1,104 338 552 268 11 70 357 239 132 109 246 36 28

43 115 13 11 13 109 3 97 94 1,042 48 315 59 8 81 3 21 72 43 275 71 34 3 6 7 21 137 .. 42 23 11 77 52 80 103 132 127 178 46 67 310 43 32 67 17 108 5 139 74 236 89 82 111 32 51 301

.. 4.6 53.8 9.3 154.0 2.4 384.1 192.1 5.8 51.1 13.5 237.1 2.5 7.9 5.4 5.1 494.5 14.1 2.9 0.7 3.8 8.7 702.0 1.0 1.8 66.3 1,234.2 167.6 79.6 5.0 2.2 16.1 10.2 20.3 .. 56.0 162.6 .. 19.1 97.6 13.6 0.8 5.7 6.5 124.2 1,362.1 i 4.0 0.4 3.4 1,876.3 5.5 123.9 21.0 3.2 0.2 3.6

.. 120 48 89 27 145 14 20 108 51 80 18 144 96 112 114 12 78 139 179 126 94 8 171 151 43 6 25 42 115 147 75 87 66 .. 46 26 .. 70 37 79 173 109 102 29 5 123 193 135 3 111 30 64 137 203 129

.. d 1,450 1,720 710 4,220 790 19,530 23,860 710 380 1,360 22,940 380 900 1,310 3,010 2,830 1,770 250 100 300 550 22,390 250 210 4,250 960 24,690 1,820 100 610 4,070 620 4,540 .. h 5,480 30,260 .. h 1,490 1,470 2,110 190 4,190 100 23,890 22,240 i 3,060 270 650 22,740 270 11,660 1,760 410 130 440

.. 120 114 146 74 144 29 18 146 171 124 21 171 140 125 88 91 111 187 206 178 156 23 187 194 73 136 16 109 206 153 77 152 71 .. 68 9 .. 118 119 101 196 75 206 17 24 87 184 151 22 184 48 112 169 205 165

.. 16 173 e 24 e 387 10 539 233 25 241 55 291 7 21 .. 13 1,300 56 13 e 4e 25 e 30 907 4e 8 147 5,792 g 187 269 e 32 e 3 34 e 24 45 .. 152 164 54 e 43 253 31 e 4e 16 52 e 136 1,609 7 2e 12 e 2,226 42 e 200 48 e 16 1e 13 e

.. 4,960 5,530 e 1,840 e 10,190 3,230 27,440 28,910 3,010 1,770 5,500 28,130 1,060 2,390 .. 7,740 7,450 7,030 1,090 e 630 e 1,970 e 1,910 28,930 1,170 e 1,010 9,420 4,520 g 27,490 6,150 e 630 e 710 8,560 e 1,450 10,000 .. 14,920 30,600 6,270 e 3,340 3,810 4,790 e 1,040 e 11,630 780 e 26,160 27,040 5,530 1,660 e 2,270 e 26,980 2,080 e 18,770 4,030 e 2,060 680 e 1,610 e

.. 112 103 163 72 139 19 12 142 165 105 16 185 149 .. 84 86 87 184 204 159 162 11 183 187 76 125 18 98 204 202 81 177 74 .. 55 8 97 138 132 120 186 63 200 25 21 103 169 152 22 156 43 129 157 203 172

.. 4.7 4.1 15.3 –10.9 12.9 2.7 1.0 10.6 4.4 4.7 0.7 6.0 2.8 3.9 3.1 1.5 4.8 4.6 3.6 5.5 4.4 3.3 –0.8 9.9 2.1 8.0 2.3 1.6 3.0 3.5 3.0 –1.8 5.2 .. 2.0 2.1 4.1 3.4 3.0 2.1 1.8 6.0 2.7 1.6 1.2 3.0 –3.1 5.6 0.2 4.5 4.0 2.2 4.2 –7.2 –0.9

.. 4.1 2.5 12.0 –12.0 13.6 1.4 0.8 9.8 2.6 5.2 0.2 3.3 0.5 2.5 2.1 0.3 5.5 2.1 1.7 3.6 2.3 2.3 –2.2 6.7 0.9 7.3 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.2 –3.8 5.2 .. 2.1 1.8 2.5 1.8 1.1 0.4 –0.5 6.5 0.5 1.4 0.7 0.8 –5.7 6.6 0.0 2.7 3.6 –0.4 2.0 –9.8 –2.7

14

2004 World Development Indicators

Size of the economy
Population Surface area Population density Gross national income Gross national income per capita PPP gross national income a

1.1
Gross domestic product
Per capita % growth 2001–02 % growth 2001–02

WORLD VIEW

Per thousand millions 2002 sq. km 2002 people per sq. km 2002 $ billions 2002 b rank 2002 $ 2002 b rank 2002 $ billions 2002 capita $ 2002 rank 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

7 10 1,049 212 66 24 4 7 58 3 127 5 15 31 22 48 2 5 6 2 4 2 3 5 3 2 16 11 24 11 3 1 101 4 2 30 18 49 2 24 16 4 5 11 133 5 3 145 3 5 6 27 80 39 10 4

112 93 3,287 1,905 1,648 438 70 21 301 11 378 89 2,725 580 121 99 18 200 237 65 10 30 111 1,760 65 26 587 118 330 1,240 1,026 2 1,958 34 1,567 447 802 677 824 147 42 271 130 1,267 924 324 310 796 76 463 407 1,285 300 313 92 9

61 110 353 117 40 55 57 318 196 242 349 58 6 55 187 483 131 26 24 38 434 59 34 3 54 80 28 114 74 9 3 597 53 129 2 66 24 74 2 169 477 15 44 9 146 15 8 188 40 12 14 21 268 127 111 436

6.3 53.7 494.8 149.9 112.9 .. 90.3 105.2 1,100.7 7.0 4,323.9 9.1 22.6 11.2 .. 473.0 38.0 1.4 1.7 8.1 17.7 1.0 0.5 .. 12.7 3.5 3.8 1.7 86.1 2.7 0.8 4.7 597.0 1.7 1.1 34.7 3.6 .. 3.5 5.5 377.6 52.2 3.8 2.0 39.5 175.8 19.9 60.9 11.8 2.8 6.4 54.0 82.4 176.6 109.1 ..

105 49 11 28 33 .. 38 35 7 100 2 92 62 85 .. 13 55 158 153 95 72 170 190 .. 81 132 124 154 40 142 175 118 9 155 167 58 128 .. 131 110 15 50 125 149 54 23 67 45 83 140 103 47 41 22 34 ..

930 5,290 470 710 1,720 .. h 23,030 16,020 19,080 2,690 34,010 1,760 1,520 360 .. d 9,930 16,340 290 310 3,480 3,990 550 140 .. j 3,670 1,710 230 160 3,540 240 280 3,860 5,920 460 430 1,170 200 .. d 1,790 230 23,390 13,260 710 180 300 38,730 7,830 420 4,020 530 1,170 2,020 1,030 4,570 10,720 .. k

138 69 161 146 114 .. 20 37 30 93 7 112 117 174 .. 53 36 181 176 86 79 156 201 .. 83 116 191 200 84 189 183 81 66 164 166 128 195 .. 110 191 19 44 146 197 178 3 59 168 78 158 128 103 134 70 50 ..

17 e 133 2,778 e 650 438 .. 116 125 1,510 10 3,481 22 84 32 .. 808 41 e 8 9 21 20 5e .. .. 35 13 12 6 207 10 5e 13 887 7 4 111 18 e .. 14 e 33 458 81 13 e 9e 106 166 33 284 18 e 12 e 25 e 130 356 404 181 ..

2,540 e 13,070 2,650 e 3,070 6,690 .. 29,570 19,000 26,170 3,680 27,380 4,180 5,630 1,010 .. 16,960 17,780 e 1,560 1,660 9,190 4,600 2,970 e .. .. 10,190 6,420 730 570 8,500 860 1,790 e 10,820 8,800 1,600 1,710 3,730 990 e .. 6,880 e 1,370 28,350 20,550 2,350 e 800 e 800 36,690 13,000 1,960 6,060 e 2,180 e 4,590 e 4,880 4,450 10,450 17,820 ..

147 58 146 141 91 .. 9 41 24 134 20 127 101 187 .. 51 47 175 169 77 123 143 .. .. 72 95 201 207 82 192 164 67 80 173 167 133 189 .. 89 179 15 39 150 195 195 3 59 160 99 153 124 117 126 70 46 ..

2.5 3.3 4.6 3.7 6.7 .. 6.9 –0.8 0.4 1.1 0.3 4.9 9.8 1.0 .. 6.3 –1.0 –0.5 5.0 6.1 1.0 3.8 3.3 .. 6.7 0.7 –12.7 1.8 4.1 4.4 3.3 4.4 0.9 7.2 4.0 3.2 7.7 .. 2.7 –0.5 0.2 4.3 1.0 3.0 –0.9 1.0 0.0 2.8 0.8 –0.5 –2.3 4.9 4.4 1.4 0.4 ..

0.0 3.6 3.0 2.3 5.1 .. 5.4 –2.7 0.4 0.3 0.2 2.0 10.1 –0.9 .. 5.7 –3.3 –1.5 2.6 7.0 –0.3 2.8 0.8 .. 7.1 0.6 –15.2 –0.2 1.9 1.9 0.8 3.4 –0.5 7.6 2.8 1.6 5.6 .. 0.6 –2.7 –0.4 2.8 –1.6 –0.1 –3.1 0.4 –2.3 0.4 –0.7 –2.8 –4.4 3.3 2.3 1.4 0.2 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

15

1.1
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Size of the economy
Population Surface area Population density Gross national income Gross national income per capita PPP gross national income a Gross domestic product

Per thousand millions 2002 sq. km 2002 people per sq. km 2002 $ billions 2002 b rank 2002 $ 2002 b rank 2002 $ billions 2002 capita $ 2002 rank 2002 % growth 2001–02

Per capita % growth 2001–02

22 238 144 17,075 8 26 22 2,150 10 197 8l 102 5 72 4 1 5 49 2 20 9 638 45 1,221 41 506 19 66 33 2,506 1 17 9 450 7 41 17 185 6 143 35 945 62 513 5 57 1 5 10 164 70 775 5 488 25 241 49 604 3 84 59 243 288 9,629 3 176 25 447 25 912 80 332 3 .. 19 528 10 753 13 391 6,199 s 133,895 s 2,495 33,612 2,738 67,886 2,408 54,969 329 12,917 5,232 101,498 1,838 16,301 473 24,206 525 20,450 306 11,135 1,401 5,140 689 24,267 966 32,397 305 2,474

97 41.7 9 306.6 331 1.8 10 186.8 52 4.6 .. 11.6 l 73 0.7 6,826 86.1 .. 21.3 98 20.4 15 .. 37 113.4 82 596.5 293 16.1 14 12.2 63 1.4 22 231.8 184 263.7 92 19.1 45 1.1 40 9.7 m 121 123.3 88 1.3 254 8.8 63 19.5 90 173.3 10 .. 125 5.9 84 37.9 38 .. 246 1,510.8 31 10,207.0 19 14.6 61 7.8 28 102.3 247 34.8 .. 3.6 35 9.1 14 3.5 34 .. 48 w 31,720 t 77 1,070 41 5,056 45 3,372 26 1,682 53 6,123 116 1,768 20 1,023 26 1,721 28 685 293 638 29 311 31 25,596 125 6,207

53 16 150 21 119 84 177 39 63 65 .. 32 10 74 82 159 19 17 69 164 88 31 161 93 68 24 .. 107 56 .. 4 1 77 98 36 57 130 91 133 ..

1,870 2,130 230 8,530 470 1,400 l 140 20,690 3,970 10,370 .. d 2,500 14,580 850 370 1,240 25,970 36,170 1,130 180 290 m 2,000 270 6,750 1,990 2,490 .. h 240 780 .. k 25,510 35,400 4,340 310 4,080 430 1,110 490 340 .. d 5,120 w 430 1,850 1,400 5,110 1,170 960 2,160 3,280 2,240 460 450 26,490 20,320

108 99 191 57 161 123 201 27 80 52 .. 94 40 142 173 127 12 4 130 197 181 104 184 63 105 95 .. 189 145 .. 13 6 72 176 76 166 131 160 175 ..

145 1,165 10 e 277 e 15 e .. 3 99 68 36 .. 445 e 868 67 57 e 5 230 232 59 6 20 425 7e 12 63 438 23 33 e 234 77 e 1,574 10,414 26 41 131 185 .. 15 8 28 48,462 t 5,269 15,884 12,749 3,145 21,105 7,874 3,263 3,650 1,733 3,453 1,174 27,516 7,850

6,490 8,080 1,260 e 12,660 e 1,540 e .. 500 23,730 12,590 18,480 .. 9,810 e 21,210 3,510 1,740 e 4,730 25,820 31,840 3,470 930 580 6,890 1,450 e 9,000 6,440 6,300 4,780 1,360 e 4,800 24,030 e 26,580 36,110 7,710 1,640 5,220 2,300 .. 800 800 2,180 7,820 w 2,110 5,800 5,290 9,550 4,030 4,280 6,900 6,950 5,670 2,460 1,700 28,480 25,700

93 83 182 60 176 .. 208 31 61 45 .. 75 36 135 166 122 26 7 136 191 206 88 177 79 94 96 121 180 119 30 23 4 85 171 110 151 .. 195 195 153

4.3 4.3 9.4 1.0 1.1 4.0 6.3 2.2 4.4 2.9 .. 3.0 2.0 4.0 5.5 3.6 1.9 0.1 2.7 9.1 6.3 5.4 4.6 2.7 1.7 7.8 14.9 6.7 4.8 1.8 1.8 2.4 –10.8 4.2 –8.9 7.0 –19.1 3.6 3.3 –5.6 1.9 w 4.0 3.1 4.9 –1.2 3.3 6.7 4.6 –0.8 3.0 4.3 2.8 1.6 0.8

4.8 4.8 6.3 –1.8 –1.2 35.7 4.2 1.4 4.4 3.6 .. 1.8 1.6 2.7 3.3 1.7 1.5 –0.7 0.3 8.5 4.1 4.7 2.4 2.1 0.6 6.1 13.1 3.8 5.6 –5.0 1.5 1.4 –11.3 2.9 –10.5 5.8 –22.5 0.5 1.6 –6.7 0.7 w 2.1 2.3 4.1 –2.4 2.0 5.8 5.1 –2.2 1.0 2.6 0.5 1.0 0.5

a. PPP is purchasing power parity; see Definitions. b. Calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. c. Estimate does not account for recent refugee flows. d. Estimated to be low income ($735 or less). e. The estimate is based on regression; others are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Programme benchmark estimates. f. Includes Taiwan, China; Macao, China; and Hong Kong, China. g. Estimate based on bilateral comparison between China and the United States (Ruoen and Kai, 1995). h. Estimated to be lower middle income ($736–$2,935). i. GNI and GNI per capita estimates include the French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Réunion. j. Estimated to be upper middle income ($2,936–$9,075). k. Estimated to be high income ($9,076 or more). l. Excludes data for Kosovo. m. Data refer to mainland Tanzania only.

16

2004 World Development Indicators

Size of the economy
About the data Definitions Population, land area, income, and output are basic measures of the size of an economy. They also provide a broad indication of actual and potential resources. Population, land area, income—as measured by gross national income (GNI)—and output— as measured by gross domestic product (GDP)—are therefore used throughout World Development Indicators to normalize other indicators. Population estimates are generally based on extrapolations from the most recent national census. For further discussion of the measurement of population and population growth, see About the data for table 2.1 and Statistical methods. The surface area of a country or economy includes inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways. Surface area thus differs from land area, which excludes bodies of water, and from gross area, which may include offshore territorial waters. Land area is particularly important for understanding the agricultural capacity of an economy and the effects of human activity on the environment. (For measures of land area and data on rural population density, land use, and agricultural productivity, see tables 3.1–3.3.) Recent innovations in satellite mapping techniques and computer databases have resulted in more precise measurements of land and water areas. GNI (or gross national product in the terminology of the 1968 United Nations System of National Accounts) measures the total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents. GNI comprises GDP plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from nonresident sources. The World Bank uses GNI per capita in U.S. dollars to classify countries for analytical purposes and to determine borrowing eligibility. See the Users guide for definitions of the income groups used in World Development Indicators. For further discussion of the usefulness of national income as a measure of productivity or welfare, see About the data for tables 4.1 and 4.2. When calculating GNI in U.S. dollars from GNI reported in national currencies, the World Bank follows its Atlas conversion method. This involves using a three-year average of exchange rates to smooth the effects of transitory exchange rate fluctuations. (For fur ther discussion of the Atlas method, see Statistical methods.) Note that growth rates are calculated from data in constant prices and national currency units, not from the Atlas estimates. Because exchange rates do not always reflect international differences in relative prices, this table also shows GNI and GNI per capita estimates converted into international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates. PPP rates provide a standard measure allowing comparison of real price levels between countries, just as conventional price indexes allow comparison of real values over time. The PPP conversion factors used here are derived from price surveys covering 118 countries conducted by the International Comparison Program. For Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries data come from the most recent round of surveys, completed in 1999; the rest are either from the 1996 survey, or data from the 1993 or earlier round and extrapolated to the 1996 benchmark. Estimates for countries not included in the surveys are derived from statistical models using available data. All economies shown in World Development Indicators are ranked by size, including those that appear in table 1.6. The ranks are shown only in table 1.1. (World Bank Atlas includes a table comparing the GNI per capita rankings based on the Atlas method with those based on the PPP method for all economies with available data.) No rank is shown for economies for which numerical estimates of GNI per capita are not published. Economies with missing data are included in the ranking process at their approximate level, so that the relative order of other economies remains consistent. Where available, rankings for small economies are shown in World Bank Atlas. Growth in GDP and growth in GDP per capita are based on GDP measured in constant prices. Growth in GDP is considered a broad measure of the growth of an economy, as GDP in constant prices can be estimated by measuring the total quantity of goods and services produced in a period, valuing them at an agreed set of base year prices, and subtracting the cost of intermediate inputs, also in constant prices. For further discussion of the measurement of economic growth, see About the data for table 4.1. Data sources

1.1

WORLD VIEW

• Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship—except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates for 2002. See also table 2.1. • Surface area is a country’s total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal water ways. • Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. • Gross national

income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars converted using the World Bank Atlas method (see Statistical methods). • GNI per capita is gross national income divided by midyear population. GNI per capita in U.S. dollars is converted using the World Bank Atlas method. • PPP GNI is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. • Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output. Growth is calculated from constant price GDP data in local currency. • GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population.

Population estimates are prepared by World Bank staff from a variety of sources (see Data sources for table 2.1). The data on surface and land area are from the Food and Agriculture Organization (see Data sources for table 3.1). GNI, GNI per capita, GDP growth, and GDP per capita growth are estimated by World Bank staff based on national accounts data collected by Bank staff during economic missions or reported by national statistical offices to other international organizations such as the OECD. Purchasing power parity conversion factors are estimates by World Bank staff based on data collected by the International Comparison Program.

2004 World Development Indicators

17

1.2
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Millennium Development Goals: eradicating pover ty and improving lives
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption or income % 1990–2002 b, c Prevalence of child malnutrition Weight for age % of children under age 5 1990 2002

Achieve universal primary education
Primary completion rate % 2000/01–2002/03 b, d

Promote gender equality
Ratio of female to male enrollments in primary and secondary school a % 1990/91 2001/02 d

Reduce child mortality

Improve maternal health
Maternal mortality ratio

Under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births 1990 2002

per 100,000 live births Modeled estimates 2000

Births attended by skilled health staff % of total 1990 1995–2000 b

.. 9.1 7.0 .. 3.1 e 6.7 5.9 8.1 7.4 9.0 8.4 8.3 .. 4.0 9.5 2.2 2.0 6.7 4.5 5.1 6.9 5.6 7.0 2.0 .. 3.3 4.7 5.3 2.7 .. .. 4.2 5.5 8.3 .. 10.3 8.3 5.1 3.3 8.6 2.9 .. 6.1 9.1 9.6 7.2 .. 4.0 6.4 8.5 5.6 7.1 2.6 6.4 5.2 ..

.. .. 9 20 .. .. .. .. .. 66 .. .. .. 11 .. .. 7 .. .. .. .. 15 .. .. .. .. 17 .. 10 .. .. 3 .. .. .. 1 .. 10 .. 10 15 .. .. 48 .. .. .. .. .. .. 30 .. .. .. .. 27

.. 14 6 31 .. 3 .. .. 17 48 .. .. 23 .. 4 13 .. .. .. 45 45 .. .. .. 28 1 10 .. 7 31 .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. 5 .. 4 .. 40 .. 47 .. .. 12 17 .. .. .. .. .. 33 25 17

.. 100 96 .. 100 74 .. .. 100 77 131 .. 45 89 77 91 82 94 29 27 71 57 .. .. 22 96 102 .. 90 .. 58 90 48 90 100 .. .. 95 99 91 86 33 103 18 .. .. 92 69 92 .. 59 .. 59 .. .. ..

50 90 80 .. .. .. 96 90 94 72 .. 97 .. 89 .. 107 .. 94 61 82 .. 82 94 61 .. 98 81 .. 104 69 88 96 .. 97 101 94 96 .. 97 78 100 82 99 68 105 98 .. 64 94 94 .. 93 .. 43 .. ..

.. 102 99 .. 103 104 99 97 98 105 102 106 65 98 .. 102 103 98 70 78 84 85 100 .. 55 100 .. .. 103 .. 87 101 69 101 97 101 102 109 100 93 97 75 99 69 106 100 96 86 105 99 89 101 93 .. 65 ..

260 42 69 260 28 60 10 9 106 144 21 9 185 122 22 58 60 16 210 184 115 139 9 180 203 19 49 .. 36 205 110 17 157 13 13 11 9 65 57 104 60 147 17 204 7 9 96 154 29 9 125 11 82 240 253 150

257 24 49 260 19 35 6 5 96 73 20 6 151 71 18 110 37 16 207 208 138 166 7 180 200 12 38 .. 23 205 108 11 191 8 9 5 4 38 29 39 39 80 12 171 5 6 85 126 29 5 97 5 49 165 211 123

1,900 55 140 1,700 82 55 8 4 94 380 35 10 850 420 31 100 260 32 1,000 1,000 450 730 6 1,100 1,100 31 56 .. 130 990 510 43 690 8 33 9 5 150 130 84 150 630 63 850 6 17 420 540 32 8 540 9 240 740 1,100 680

.. .. 77 .. 96 .. 100 .. .. .. .. .. .. 38 97 .. 76 .. .. .. .. 58 .. .. .. .. 50 .. 76 .. .. 98 45 .. .. .. .. 92 66 37 52 .. .. .. .. .. .. 44 .. .. 40 .. .. 31 .. 23

12 99 92 45 98 97 100 100 f 84 12 100 100 f 66 69 100 94 88 .. 31 25 32 60 98 44 16 100 76 .. 86 61 .. 98 63 100 100 99 100 f 98 69 61 90 21 .. 6 100 f 99 f 86 55 96 100 f 44 .. 41 35 35 24

18

2004 World Development Indicators

Millennium Development Goals: eradicating pover ty and improving lives
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption or income % 1990–2002 b, c Prevalence of child malnutrition Weight for age % of children under age 5 1990 2002

1.2
Improve maternal health
Births attended by skilled health staff % of total 1990

WORLD VIEW

Achieve universal primary education
Primary completion rate % 2000/01–2002/03 b, d

Promote gender equality
Ratio of female to male enrollments in primary and secondary school a % 1990/91 2001/02 d

Reduce child mortality

Maternal mortality ratio Under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births 1990 2002 per 100,000 live births Modeled estimates 2000

1995–2000 b

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

2.7 7.7 8.9 8.4 5.1 .. 7.1 6.9 6.5 6.7 10.6 7.6 8.2 5.6 .. 7.9 .. 9.1 7.6 7.6 .. 1.5 .. .. 7.9 8.4 4.9 4.9 4.4 4.6 6.2 .. 3.1 7.1 5.6 6.5 6.5 .. 1.4 7.6 7.3 6.4 3.6 2.6 4.4 9.6 .. 8.8 2.4 4.5 2.2 2.9 5.4 7.3 5.8 ..

18 2 64 .. .. 12 .. .. .. 5 .. 6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16 .. .. .. .. 41 28 25 .. 48 .. 17 .. 12 10 .. 32 26 .. .. .. .. 43 35 .. 24 40 6 .. 4 11 34 .. .. ..

17 .. .. 25 .. 16 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28 .. .. 6 40 .. .. 18 27 .. .. .. 33 25 .. 33 32 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 48 .. .. 10 40 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7 .. .. .. ..

70 .. 77 107 123 .. .. .. .. 90 .. 98 99 56 .. .. .. 94 73 90 68 65 .. .. 106 95 41 55 .. 39 46 108 96 80 107 68 22 71 95 73 .. .. 75 21 .. .. 72 .. 86 59 89 98 90 95 .. ..

103 96 68 91 80 75 99 99 95 97 96 93 .. .. .. 93 97 100 75 96 .. 124 .. .. 93 94 .. 79 98 57 67 98 96 103 107 67 73 95 111 53 93 96 .. 54 76 97 86 47 96 77 95 93 .. 96 99 ..

.. 100 79 98 96 76 .. 100 98 101 100 101 98 97 .. .. 104 99 83 101 102 105 .. 103 99 98 .. .. 104 .. 92 98 101 .. 112 85 77 98 104 83 97 104 105 67 .. 101 98 .. 101 97 98 .. 102 98 102 ..

61 16 123 91 72 50 9 12 10 20 6 43 52 97 55 9 16 83 163 20 37 148 235 42 13 41 168 241 21 250 183 25 46 37 107 85 240 130 84 143 8 11 66 320 235 9 30 138 34 101 37 80 63 19 15 ..

42 9 90 43 41 125 6 6 6 20 5 33 99 122 55 5 10 61 100 21 32 132 235 19 9 26 135 182 8 222 183 19 29 32 71 43 205 108 67 83 5 6 41 264 201 4 13 101 25 94 30 39 37 9 6 ..

110 16 540 230 76 250 5 17 5 87 10 41 210 1,000 67 20 5 110 650 42 150 550 760 97 13 23 550 1,800 41 1,200 1,000 24 83 36 110 220 1,000 360 300 740 16 7 230 1,600 800 16 87 500 160 300 170 410 200 13 5 25

45 .. .. 32 .. 54 .. .. .. 79 100 87 .. 50 .. 98 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 57 55 .. .. 40 .. .. .. .. 31 .. .. 68 7 .. .. .. 15 31 100 .. 19 .. .. 53 46 .. .. 98 ..

56 .. 43 64 90 72 100 99 f .. 95 100 97 99 44 97 100 98 98 19 100 89 60 51 94 .. 97 46 56 97 41 57 99 86 99 97 40 44 56 78 11 100 100 67 16 42 100 f 95 20 90 53 71 59 58 99 f 100 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

19

1.2
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Millennium Development Goals: eradicating pover ty and improving lives
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption or income % 1990–2002 b, c Prevalence of child malnutrition Weight for age % of children under age 5 1990 2002

Achieve universal primary education
Primary completion rate % 2000/01–2002/03 b, d

Promote gender equality
Ratio of female to male enrollments in primary and secondary school a % 1990/91 2001/02 d

Reduce child mortality

Improve maternal health
Maternal mortality ratio

Under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births 1990 2002

per 100,000 live births Modeled estimates 2000

Births attended by skilled health staff % of total 1990 1995–2000 b

8.2 4.9 .. .. 6.4 .. .. 5.0 8.8 9.1 .. 2.0 7.5 8.0 .. 2.7 9.1 6.9 .. 8.0 6.8 6.1 .. 5.5 6.0 6.1 6.1 5.9 8.8 .. 6.1 5.4 4.8 e 9.2 3.0 8.0 .. 7.4 3.3 4.6

6 .. 29 .. 22 .. 29 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 29 .. 25 .. 10 .. .. 23 .. .. .. .. 6 .. 8 45 .. 30 25 12 .. w .. .. .. .. .. 19 .. .. .. 64 .. .. ..

3 6 24 .. 23 2 27 .. .. .. 26 .. .. 33 11 10 .. .. 7 .. .. .. .. 6 4 .. 12 23 3 .. .. .. .. .. 4 34 .. .. 28 .. .. w .. .. 9 .. .. 15 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

94 99 25 66 49 .. .. .. .. 96 .. 90 .. 108 .. 74 .. .. 89 101 58 91 84 108 98 95 .. 67 98 .. .. .. 95 98 58 104 66 68 59 .. .. w 74 98 97 89 86 100 97 87 91 78 48 g .. ..

95 .. 98 82 69 96 67 89 98 97 .. 103 99 99 75 .. 97 92 82 .. 97 94 59 98 82 77 .. .. .. 96 97 95 .. .. 101 .. .. .. .. 96 84 w 74 84 82 96 80 83 .. .. 79 68 79 96 97

100 100 94 94 85 101 .. .. 101 101 .. 101 102 .. 86 93 115 96 92 88 100 95 69 101 100 85 .. .. 100 100 110 100 105 98 104 93 .. 56 .. 95 .. w 84 .. .. 101 .. .. 97 102 91 81 .. 101 100

32 21 173 44 148 30 302 8 15 9 225 60 9 26 120 110 6 8 44 127 163 40 152 24 52 78 98 160 22 14 10 10 24 65 27 53 .. 142 180 80 95 w 144 51 54 34 103 59 44 53 77 130 187 9 9

21 21 203 28 138 19 284 4 9 5 225 65 6 19 94 149 3 6 28 116 165 28 140 20 26 41 86 141 20 9 7 8 15 65 22 26 .. 114 182 123 81 w 121 37 40 22 88 42 37 34 54 95 174 7 6

49 67 1,400 23 690 11 2,000 30 3 17 1,100 230 4 92 590 370 2 7 160 100 1,500 44 570 160 120 70 31 880 35 54 13 17 27 24 96 130 .. 570 750 1,100 403 w 657 106 112 67 440 115 58 193 165 566 917 13 10

.. .. 26 .. .. .. .. .. .. 100 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 44 .. 31 .. 69 .. .. 38 .. .. .. 99 .. .. .. .. .. 16 51 70 .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

98 99 31 91 58 99 42 100 .. 100 f 34 84 .. 97 86 f 70 100 f .. 76 f 71 36 99 49 96 90 81 97 39 100 96 99 99 100 96 94 70 .. 22 43 73 60 w 41 80 78 92 56 72 93 82 70 35 44 99 ..

a. Break in series between 1997 and 1998 due to change from International Standard Classification of Education 1976 (ISCED76) to ISCED97. For information on ISCED, see About the data for table 2.10. b. Data are for the most recent year available. c. See table 2.7 for survey year and whether share is based on income or consumption expenditure. d. Data are preliminary. e. Urban data. f. Data refer to period other than specified, differ from the standard definition, or refer to only part of a country. g. Represent only 60% of the population.

20

2004 World Development Indicators

Millennium Development Goals: eradicating pover ty and improving lives
About the data This table and the following two present indicators for 17 of the 18 targets specified by the Millennium Development Goals. Each of the eight goals comprises one or more targets, and each target has associated with it several indicators for monitoring progress toward the target. Most of the targets are set as a value of a specific indicator to be attained by a certain date. In some cases the target value is set relative to a level in 1990. In others it is set at an absolute level. Some of the targets for goals 7 and 8 have not yet been quantified. The indicators in this table relate to goals 1–5. Goal 1 has two targets between 1990 and 2015: to reduce by half the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day and to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Estimates of poverty rates can be found in table 2.5. The indicator shown here, the share of the poorest quintile in national consumption, is a distributional measure. Countries with less equal distributions of consumption (or income) will have a higher rate of poverty for a given average income. No single indicator captures the concept of suffering from hunger. Child malnutrition is a symptom of inadequate food supply, lack of essential nutrients, illnesses that deplete these nutrients, and undernourished mothers who give birth to underweight children. Progress toward achieving universal primary education is measured by primary school completion rates. Before last year’s World Development Indicators, progress was measured by net enrollment ratios. But official enrollments sometimes differ significantly from actual attendance, and even school systems with high average enrollment ratios may have poor completion rates. Estimates of primary school completion rates have been calculated by World Bank staff using data provided by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and national sources. Eliminating gender disparities in education would help to increase the status and capabilities of women. The ratio of girls’ to boys’ enrollments in primary and secondary school provides an imperfect measure of the relative accessibility of schooling for girls. With a target date of 2005, this is the first of the goals to fall due. The targets for reducing underfive and maternal mortality are among the most challenging. Although estimates of under-five mortality rates are available at regular intervals for most countries, maternal mortality is difficult to measure, in part because it is relatively rare. Most of the 48 indicators relating to the Millennium Development Goals can be found in the World Development Indicators. Table 1.2a shows where to find the indicators for the first five goals. For more information about data collection methods and limitations, see About the data for the tables listed there. For information about the indicators for goals 6, 7, and 8, see About the data for tables 1.3 and 1.4. Definitions

1.2

WORLD VIEW

• Share of poorest quintile in national consumption or income is the share of consumption or, in some cases, income that accrues to the poorest 20 percent of the population. • Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children under age five whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0–59 months. The reference population, adopted by the World Health Organization in 1983, is based on children from the United States, who are assumed to be well nourished. • Primary completion rate is the number of students successfully completing (or graduating from) the last year of primary school in a given year, divided by the number of children of official graduation age in the population. • Ratio of female to male enrollments in primary and secondary school is the ratio of female students enrolled in primary and secondary school to male students. • Under-five mortality rate is the probability that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mor tality rates. The probability is expressed as a rate per 1,000. • Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die from pregnancy-related causes during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data shown here have been collected in various years and adjusted to a common 1995 base year. The values are modeled estimates (see About the data for table 2.17). • Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns.

1.2a
Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 1–5 Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 1. Proportion of population below $1 a day (table 2.5) 2. Poverty gap ratio (table 2.5) 3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption (tables 1.2 and 2.7) 4. Prevalence of underweight in children under five (tables 1.2 and 2.17) 5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (table 2.17) Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education 6. Net enrollment ratio (table 2.11) 7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 (table 2.12) 8. Literacy rate of 15- to 24-year-olds (table 2.13) Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education (see ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education in table 1.2) 10. Ratio of literate females to males among 15- to 24-year-olds (tables 1.5 and 2.12) 11. Share of women in wage employment in the nonagricultural sector (table 1.5) 12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament (table 1.5) Goal 4. Reduce child mortality 13. Under-five mortality rate (tables 1.2 and 2.19) 14. Infant mortality rate (table 2.19) 15. Proportion of one-year-old children immunized against measles (table 2.15) Goal 5. Improve maternal health 16. Maternal mortality ratio (tables 1.2 and 2.16) 17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel (tables 1.2 and 2.16)

Data sources The indicators here and throughout this book have been compiled by World Bank staff from primary and secondary sources. Efforts have been made to harmonize these data series with those published by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals Web site (www.un.org/millenniumgoals), but some differences in timing, sources, and definitions remain.

2004 World Development Indicators

21

1.3
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Millennium Development Goals: protecting our common environment
Combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability
Access to improved sanitation facilities % of population 1990 2000

Develop a global partnership for development
Fixed line and mobile phone subscribers per 1,000 people b 2002

HIV prevalence % ages 15–24 a Male Female 2001 2001

Incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 people 2002

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita metric tons 1990 2000

Access to an improved water source % of population 1990 2000

Unemployment % ages 15–24 2002

.. .. .. 2.2 0.9 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 c 0.6 0.1 1.2 0.1 .. 16.1 0.6 .. 4.0 5.0 1.0 5.4 0.3 5.8 2.4 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.9 2.9 3.3 0.6 2.9 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 2.1 0.3 .. 0.8 2.8 2.5 4.4 0.0 c 0.3 2.3 0.5 0.1 0.1 1.4 0.1 0.9 0.6 1.1 4.1

.. .. .. 5.7 0.3 0.1 0.0 c 0.1 0.0 c 0.0 c 0.2 0.1 3.7 0.1 .. 37.5 0.5 .. 9.7 11.0 2.5 12.7 0.2 13.5 4.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 5.9 7.8 0.3 8.3 0.0 0.0 c 0.0 0.1 2.8 0.2 .. 0.4 4.3 0.6 7.8 0.0 c 0.2 4.7 1.4 0.0 c 0.0 c 3.0 0.1 0.8 1.4 3.0 5.0

333 27 52 335 46 77 6 15 82 221 83 14 86 234 60 657 62 48 157 359 549 188 6 338 222 18 113 93 45 383 395 15 412 47 12 13 13 95 137 29 60 268 55 370 10 14 248 230 85 10 211 20 77 215 196 319

0.1 2.2 3.2 0.5 3.4 1.1 15.6 7.4 6.4 0.1 9.3 10.1 0.1 0.8 1.1 1.7 1.4 8.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 15.4 0.1 0.0 2.7 2.1 4.6 1.6 0.1 0.8 1.0 1.0 3.5 3.0 13.4 9.9 1.3 1.6 1.4 0.5 .. 16.2 0.1 10.6 6.3 7.0 0.2 2.8 11.1 0.2 7.1 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.2

0.0 0.9 2.9 0.5 3.9 1.1 18.0 7.6 3.6 0.2 5.9 10.0 0.3 1.3 4.8 2.3 1.8 5.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 14.2 0.1 0.0 3.9 2.2 5.0 1.4 0.1 0.5 1.4 0.7 4.4 2.8 11.6 8.4 3.0 2.0 2.2 1.1 0.1 11.7 0.1 10.3 6.2 2.8 0.2 1.2 9.6 0.3 8.5 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.2

.. .. .. .. 94 .. 100 100 .. 94 .. .. .. 71 .. 93 83 .. .. 69 .. 51 100 48 .. 90 71 .. 94 .. .. .. 80 .. .. .. .. 83 71 94 66 .. .. 25 100 .. .. .. .. .. 53 .. 76 45 .. 53

13 97 89 38 .. .. 100 100 78 97 100 .. 63 83 .. 95 87 100 42 78 30 58 100 70 27 93 75 .. 91 45 51 95 81 .. 91 .. 100 86 85 97 77 46 .. 24 100 .. 86 62 79 .. 73 .. 92 48 56 46

.. .. .. .. 82 .. 100 100 .. 41 .. .. 20 52 .. 60 71 .. .. 87 .. 77 100 24 18 97 29 .. 83 .. .. .. 46 .. .. .. .. 66 70 87 73 .. .. 8 100 .. .. .. .. .. 61 .. 70 55 44 23

12 91 92 44 .. .. 100 100 81 48 .. .. 23 70 .. 66 76 100 29 88 17 79 100 25 29 96 40 .. 86 21 .. 93 52 .. 98 .. .. 67 86 98 82 13 .. 12 100 .. 53 37 100 .. 72 .. 81 58 56 28

.. .. .. .. 32 .. 12 5 .. 11 .. 16 .. 9 .. .. 18 38 .. .. .. .. 14 .. .. 19 3 11 36 .. .. 13 .. 37 .. 16 7 23 15 .. 11 .. 22 .. 21 20 .. .. 20 10 .. 26 .. .. .. ..

2 348 74 15 396 162 1,178 1,275 220 13 346 1,280 41 172 433 328 424 701 13 11 30 50 1,013 5 6 659 328 1,507 286 11 74 362 83 952 52 1,211 1,522 317 231 177 241 9 1,001 6 1,391 1,216 240 101 234 1,378 33 1,337 202 15 9 33

22

2004 World Development Indicators

Millennium Development Goals: protecting our common environment
Combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability
Access to improved sanitation facilities % of population 1990 2000

1.3
Develop a global partnership for development
Fixed line and mobile phone subscribers per 1,000 people b 2002

WORLD VIEW

HIV prevalence % ages 15–24 a Male Female 2001 2001

Incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 people 2002

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita metric tons 1990 2000

Access to an improved water source % of population 1990 2000

Unemployment % ages 15–24 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

1.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 c .. 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.0 c .. 0.1 6.0 .. 0.0 c .. 0.0 0.0 c 0.9 .. 17.4 .. .. 0.2 0.0 0.1 6.3 0.7 1.4 0.4 0.0 c 0.4 0.5 .. .. 6.1 1.0 11.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.9 3.0 0.1 .. 0.1 1.9 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.0 c 0.1 0.4 ..

1.5 0.0 c 0.7 0.1 0.0 c .. 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.9 0.0 c .. 0.0 c 15.6 .. 0.0 c .. 0.0 0.0 c 0.2 .. 38.1 .. .. 0.0 c 0.0 0.2 14.9 0.1 2.1 0.6 0.0 c 0.1 0.1 .. .. 14.7 1.7 24.3 0.3 0.1 0.0 c 0.1 1.5 5.8 0.0 c .. 0.1 1.3 0.4 0.0 c 0.2 0.0 c 0.0 c 0.2 ..

86 32 168 256 29 167 13 10 8 8 33 5 146 540 160 91 26 142 170 78 14 726 247 21 66 41 234 431 95 334 188 64 33 154 209 114 436 154 751 190 8 11 64 193 304 6 11 181 47 254 70 202 320 32 47 7

0.5 5.6 0.8 0.9 3.9 2.7 8.5 7.4 7.0 3.3 8.7 3.2 15.3 0.2 12.3 5.6 19.9 2.4 0.1 4.8 2.5 .. 0.2 8.8 5.8 5.5 0.1 0.1 3.0 0.0 1.3 1.1 3.7 4.8 4.7 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 10.0 6.8 0.7 0.1 0.9 7.5 7.1 0.6 1.3 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.7 9.1 4.3 3.3

0.7 5.4 1.1 1.3 4.9 3.3 11.1 10.0 7.4 4.2 9.3 3.2 8.1 0.3 8.5 9.1 21.9 0.9 0.1 2.5 3.5 .. 0.1 10.9 3.4 5.5 0.1 0.1 6.2 0.1 1.2 2.4 4.3 1.5 3.1 1.3 0.1 0.2 1.0 0.1 8.7 8.3 0.7 0.1 0.3 11.1 8.2 0.8 2.2 0.5 0.7 1.1 1.0 7.8 5.9 2.3

83 99 68 71 .. .. .. .. .. 93 .. 97 .. 45 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 71 .. .. 44 49 .. 55 37 100 80 .. .. 75 .. .. 72 67 100 .. 70 53 53 100 37 83 .. 40 63 74 87 .. .. ..

88 99 84 78 92 85 .. .. .. 92 .. 96 91 57 100 92 .. 77 37 .. 100 78 .. 72 67 .. 47 57 .. 65 37 100 88 92 60 80 57 72 77 88 100 .. 77 59 62 100 39 90 90 42 78 80 86 .. .. ..

61 99 16 47 .. .. .. .. .. 99 .. 98 .. 80 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 97 .. .. 36 73 .. 70 30 100 70 .. .. 58 .. .. 33 20 100 .. 76 15 53 .. 84 36 .. 82 93 60 74 .. .. ..

75 99 28 55 83 79 .. .. .. 99 .. 99 99 87 99 63 .. 100 30 .. 99 49 .. 97 67 .. 42 76 .. 69 33 99 74 99 30 68 43 64 41 28 100 .. 85 20 54 .. 92 62 92 82 94 71 83 .. .. ..

6 13 .. .. .. .. 8 19 26 .. 10 .. .. .. .. 8 .. .. .. 21 .. .. .. .. 29 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 .. .. .. .. .. 11 .. 6 11 20 .. .. 11 .. 13 29 .. 14 15 19 44 12 21

97 1,037 .. 92 220 29 1,266 1,422 1,419 704 1,195 355 195 52 21 1,168 723 88 21 695 426 56 3 127 746 448 14 15 567 10 104 559 401 238 142 247 19 8 145 15 1,362 1,070 70 3 19 1,578 255 34 311 14 336 152 233 554 1,247 662

2004 World Development Indicators

23

1.3
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Millennium Development Goals: protecting our common environment
Combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability
Access to improved sanitation facilities % of population 1990 2000

Develop a global partnership for development
Fixed line and mobile phone subscribers per 1,000 people b 2002

HIV prevalence % ages 15–24 a Male Female 2001 2001

Incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 people 2002

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita metric tons 1990 2000

Access to an improved water source % of population 1990 2000

Unemployment % ages 15–24 2002

0.0 c 1.9 4.9 .. 0.2 .. 2.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 .. 10.7 0.5 0.0 c 1.1 15.2 0.1 0.5 .. 0.0 3.5 1.1 2.0 2.4 .. .. 0.0 2.0 2.0 .. 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.0 c 0.7 0.3 .. .. 8.1 12.4 0.8 w 1.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.2 1.1 0.7 .. 0.3 4.1 0.3 0.2

0.0 c 0.7 11.2 .. 0.5 .. 7.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 .. 25.6 0.2 0.0 c 3.1 39.5 0.0 c 0.4 .. 0.0 8.1 1.7 5.9 3.2 .. .. 0.0 4.6 0.9 .. 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 .. .. 21.0 33.0 1.3 w 2.4 0.8 0.8 0.4 1.6 0.2 0.4 0.5 .. 0.6 9.3 0.1 0.1

148 126 389 42 242 38 405 43 24 21 405 558 30 54 217 1,067 5 8 44 109 363 128 361 13 23 32 94 377 95 18 12 5 29 101 42 192 27 92 668 683 142 w 226 108 116 43 164 147 88 67 57 176 358 18 15

6.7 13.3 0.1 11.3 0.4 12.4 0.1 13.8 8.4 6.2 0.0 8.3 5.5 0.2 0.1 0.6 5.7 6.4 3.0 3.7 0.1 1.7 0.2 13.9 1.6 2.6 7.2 0.0 11.5 33.0 9.9 19.3 1.3 5.3 5.8 0.3 .. 0.7 0.3 1.6 4.1 w 0.8 3.8 3.6 5.7 2.5 1.9 10.3 2.2 3.3 0.7 0.9 11.8 8.4

3.8 9.9 0.1 18.1 0.4 3.7 0.1 14.7 6.6 7.3 .. 7.4 7.0 0.6 0.2 0.4 5.3 5.4 3.3 0.6 0.1 3.3 0.4 20.5 1.9 3.3 7.5 0.1 6.9 21.0 9.6 19.8 1.6 4.8 6.5 0.7 .. 0.5 0.2 1.2 3.8 w 0.9 3.4 3.0 6.2 2.2 2.1 6.7 2.7 4.2 0.9 0.7 12.4 8.0

.. .. .. .. 72 .. .. 100 .. 100 .. 86 .. 68 67 .. 100 100 .. .. 38 80 51 91 75 79 .. 45 .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. 55 .. .. 52 78 74 w 66 76 75 .. 71 71 .. 82 .. 72 53 .. ..

58 99 41 95 78 98 57 100 100 100 .. 86 .. 77 75 .. 100 100 80 60 68 84 54 90 80 82 .. 52 98 .. 100 100 98 85 83 77 .. 69 64 83 81 w 76 82 81 .. 79 76 91 86 88 84 58 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 57 .. .. 100 .. .. .. 86 .. 85 58 .. 100 100 .. .. 84 79 37 99 76 87 .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. 29 .. 32 63 56 45 w 30 47 45 .. 39 35 .. 72 .. 22 54 .. ..

53 .. 8 100 70 100 66 100 100 .. .. 87 .. 94 62 .. 100 100 90 90 90 96 34 99 84 90 .. 79 99 .. 100 100 94 89 68 47 .. 38 78 62 56 w 43 61 59 .. 52 47 .. 77 85 34 54 .. ..

18 .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 37 16 .. 56 22 24 .. .. 13 6 .. .. .. 6 .. .. .. 20 .. .. 24 .. 11 12 34 .. 23 .. .. .. .. ..

430 362 16 361 77 489 18 1,258 812 1,341 13 410 1,330 96 27 95 1,625 1,534 147 39 24 365 45 528 169 629 79 18 300 1,010 1,431 1,134 472 74 369 72 180 49 21 55 286 w 40 316 263 431 162 155 424 294 159 42 31 1,283 1,360

a. Data are an average of high and low estimates. b. Data are from the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) World Telecommunication Development Report 2003. Please cite the ITU for third-party use of these data. c. Less than 0.05.

24

2004 World Development Indicators

Millennium Development Goals: protecting our common environment
About the data The Millennium Development Goals address issues of common concern to people of all nations. Diseases and environmental degradation do not respect national boundaries. Epidemic diseases, wherever they persist, pose a threat to people everywhere. And damage done to the environment in one location may affect the well-being of plants, animals, and human beings in distant locations. The indicators in the table relate to goals 6 and 7 and the targets of goal 8 that address youth employment and access to new technologies. For the other targets of goal 8, see table 1.4. Measuring the prevalence or incidence of a disease can be difficult. Much of the developing world lacks reporting systems needed for monitoring the course of a disease. Estimates are often derived from surveys and reports from sentinel sites that must be extrapolated to the general population. Tracking diseases such as HIV/AIDS, which has a long latency between contraction of the virus and the appearance of outward symptoms, or malaria, which has periods of dormancy, can be particularly difficult. For some of the most serious illnesses international organizations have formed coalitions such as the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Roll Back Malaria campaign to gather information and coordinate global efforts to treat victims and prevent the spread of disease. Antenatal care clinics are a key site for monitoring sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and syphilis. The prevalence of HIV in young people provides an indicator of the spread of the epidemic. Prevalence rates in the older population can be affected by life-prolonging treatment. The table shows the estimated prevalence among men and women ages 15–24. The incidence of tuberculosis is based on data on case notifications and estimates of the proportion of cases detected in the population. Carbon dioxide emissions are the primary source of greenhouse gases, which are believed to contribute to global warming. Access to reliable supplies of safe drinking water and sanitary disposal of excreta are two of the most important means of improving human health and protecting the environment. There is no widespread program for testing the quality of water. The indicator shown here measures the proportion of households with access to an improved source, such as piped water or protected wells. Improved sanitation facilities prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta but do not include treatment to render sewage outflows innocuous. The eighth goal—to develop a global partnership for development—takes note of the need for decent and productive work for youth. Labor market information, such as unemployment rates, is still generally unavailable for most low- and middle-income Definitions

1.3

WORLD VIEW

economies. Fixed telephone lines and mobile phones are among the telecommunications technologies that are changing the way the global economy works. For more information on goal 8, see table 1.4.

• Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people ages 15–24 who are infected with HIV. • Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new tuberculosis cases (pulmonar y, smear positive, extrapulmonary). • Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. • Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, or rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within 1 kilometer of the dwelling. • Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with access to at least adequate excreta disposal facilities (private or shared but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. • Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. • Fixed line and mobile phone subscribers are telephone mainlines connecting a customer’s equipment to the public switched telephone network, and users of portable telephones subscribing to an automatic public mobile telephone ser vice using cellular technology that provides access to the public switched telephone network.

1.3a
Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 6–7 Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 18. HIV prevalence among 15- to 24-year-old pregnant women (tables 1.3 and 2.18) 19. Knowledge and use of methods to prevent HIV transmission* 20. School attendance of orphans and nonorphans* 21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria* 22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures* (see children sleeping under treated bednets in table 2.15) 23. Tuberculosis prevalence and death rates (see incidence of tuberculosis in tables 1.3 and 2.18) 24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment, shortcourse (table 2.15) Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 25. Proportion of land area covered by forest (table 3.4) 26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area (table 3.4) 27. Energy use (kilograms of oil equivalent) per $1 of GDP (PPP) (see GDP per unit of energy use in table 3.8) 28. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (table 3.8) and consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons* 29. Proportion of population using solid fuels (see combustible renewables and waste as a percentage of total energy use in table 3.7) 30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source (tables 2.15 and 3.5) 31. Proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation (table 2.15) 32. Proportion of population with access to secure tenure (table 3.11)
* No data available in the World Development Indicators database.

Data sources The indicators here throughout this book have been compiled by World Bank staff from primary and secondary sources. Efforts have been made to harmonize these data series with those published on the United Nations Millennium

Development Goals Web site (http://www.un.org/ millenniumgoals), but some differences in timing, sources, and definitions remain.

2004 World Development Indicators

25

1.4
Australia Canada European Union Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom Japan New Zealand Norway Switzerland United States

Millennium Development Goals: overcoming obstacles
Official development assistance (ODA) by donor
ODA for basic social services a % of total Net ODA % of donor GNI 2002 sector-allocatable ODA 2000–02 1996 Goods (excluding arms) admitted free of tariffs % 2002 1996 Average tariff on exports of least developed countries Agricultural products % 2002 1996 Textiles % 2002 1996 Clothing % 2002 % of GDP 2002

Development Assistance Committee members Market access to high-income countries Support to agriculture

0.26 0.28 0.26 0.43 0.96 0.35 0.38 0.27 0.21 0.40 0.20 0.77 0.81 0.27 0.26 0.83 0.31 0.23 0.22 0.89 0.32 0.13

17.7 22.4 14.7 20.4 7.8 14.3 .. 10.3 3.9 30.8 10.7 19.8 26.7 3.1 11.5 11.8 29.9 4.8 8.3 15.1 19.8 27.0

98.3 78.3 94.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 57.0 .. .. 50.8 22.6

96.1 64.5 99.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 85.7 .. .. 93.3 51.2

0.5 3.5 3.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10.1 .. .. 8.5 5.3

0.2 2.9 0.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12.0 .. .. 5.8 3.1

10.0 10.9 0.0

6.2 7.4 0.2

1.7

0.7

0.0 7.2

0.0 6.3

31.2 22.4 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.0 .. .. 0.0 15.5

19.6 17.9 0.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.0 .. .. 0.0 14.6

0.4 0.8 1.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.4 0.3 1.5 2.0 0.9

Heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) HIPC decision point b HIPC completion point c Estimated total nominal debt service relief
$ millions

HIPC decision point b

HIPC completion point c

Estimated total nominal debt service relief
$ millions

Benin Bolivia Burkina Faso Cameroon Chad Congo, Dem. Republic Côte d’Ivoire Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Honduras Madagascar

Jul. 2000 Feb. 2000 Jul. 2000 Oct. 2000 May 2001 Jul. 2003 Mar. 1998 Nov. 2001 Dec. 2000 Feb. 2002 Dec. 2000 Dec. 2000 Nov. 2000 Jul. 2000 Dec. 2000

Mar. 2003 Jun. 2001 Apr. 2002 Floating Floating Floating .. Floating Floating Floating Floating Floating Dec. 2003 Floating Floating

460 2,060 930 2,000 260 10,389 800 1,930 90 3,700 800 790 877 900 1,500

Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mozambique Nicaragua Niger Rwanda São Tomé & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Tanzania Uganda Zambia

Dec. 2000 Dec. 2000 Sep. 2000 Feb. 2000 Apr. 2000 Dec. 2000 Dec. 2000 Dec. 2000 Dec. 2000 Jun. 2000 Mar. 2002 Apr. 2000 Feb. 2000 Dec. 2000

Floating Floating Mar. 2003 Jun. 2002 Sep. 2001 Jan. 2004 Floating Floating Floating Floating Floating Nov. 2001 May. 2000 Floating

1,500 1,000 895 1,100 4,300 4,500 900 800 200 850 950 3,000 1,950 3,850

a. Includes basic health, education, nutrition, and water and sanitation services. b. Except for Côte d’Ivoire the date refers to the HIPC enhanced framework. The following countries also reached decision points under the original framework: Bolivia in September 1997, Burkina Faso in September 1997, Côte d’Ivoire in March 1998, Guyana in December 1997, Mali in September 1998, Mozambique in April 1998, and Uganda in April 1997. c. Except for Côte d’Ivoire the date refers to the HIPC enhanced framework. The following countries also reached completion points under the original framework: Bolivia in September 1998, Burkina Faso in July 2000, Guyana in May 1999, Mali in September 2000, Mozambique in July 1999, and Uganda in April 1998.

26

2004 World Development Indicators

Millennium Development Goals: overcoming obstacles
About the data Achieving the Millennium Development Goals will require an open, rule-based global economy in which all countries, rich and poor, participate. Many poor countries, lacking the resources to finance their development, burdened by unsustainable levels of debt, and unable to compete in the global marketplace, need assistance from rich countries. For goal 8— develop a global partnership for development—many of the indicators therefore monitor the actions of members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Official development assistance (ODA) has declined in recent years as a share of donor countries’ gross national income (GNI). The poorest countries will need additional assistance to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Recent estimates suggest that $30–60 billion more a year would allow most of them to achieve the goals, if the aid goes to countries with good policies. At the United Nations International Conference on Financing for Development in 2002 many donor countries made new commitments that, if fulfilled, would add $18.6 billion to ODA. One of the most important actions that high-income economies can take to help is to reduce barriers to the exports of low- and middle-income economies. The European Union has announced a program to eliminate tariffs on developing country exports of “everything but arms,” and the United States has launched a special program of concessions to exports from Sub-Saharan Africa. The average tariffs in the table were calculated by the World Trade Organization (WTO). They reflect the tariff schedules applied by high-income OECD members to exports of countries designated “least developed countries” (LDCs) by the United Nations. Agricultural commodities and textiles and clothing are three of the most important categories of goods exported by developing economies. Although average tariffs have been falling, averages may disguise high tariffs targeted at specific goods (see table 6.6 for estimates of the share of tariff lines with “international peaks” in each country’s tariff schedule). The averages in the table include ad valorem duties and ad valorem equivalents of non-ad valorem duties. Subsidies to agricultural producers and exporters in OECD countries are another form of barrier to developing economies’ exports. The table shows the value of total support to agriculture as a share of the economy’s gross domestic product (GDP). Agricultural subsidies in OECD economies are estimated at $318 billion in 2002. The Debt Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) is the first comprehensive approach to reducing the external debt of the world’s poorest, most heavily indebted countries. It represents an important step forward in placing debt relief within an overall framework of poverty reduction. While the Definitions

1.4

WORLD VIEW

initiative yielded significant early progress, multilateral organizations, bilateral creditors, HIPC governments, and civil society have engaged in an intensive dialogue about its strengths and weaknesses. A major review in 1999 led to an enhancement of the original framework.

• Net official development assistance (ODA) comprises grants and loans (net of repayments of principal) that meet the DAC definition of ODA and are made to countries and territories in part I of the DAC list of recipient countries. • ODA for basic social services is aid reported by DAC donors for basic health, education, nutrition, and water and sanitation services. • Goods admitted free of tariffs are the value of exports of goods (excluding arms) from least developed countries admitted without tariff, as a share of total exports from LDCs. • Average tariff is the simple mean tariff, the unweighted average of the effectively applied rates for all products subject to tariffs. • Agricultural products comprise plant and animal products, including tree crops but excluding timber and fish products. • Textiles and clothing include natural and synthetic fibers and fabrics and articles of clothing made from them. • Support to agriculture is the value of subsidies to the agricultural sector. • HIPC decision point is the date at which a heavily indebted poor country with an established track record of good performance under adjustment programs supported by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank commits to undertake additional reforms and to develop and implement a poverty reduction strategy. • HIPC completion point is the date at which the country successfully completes the key structural reforms agreed on at the decision point, including developing and implementing its poverty reduction strategy. The country then receives the bulk of debt relief under the HIPC Debt Initiative without further policy conditions. • Estimated total nominal debt service relief is the amount of debt service relief, calculated at the decision point, that will allow the country to achieve debt sustainability at the completion point.

1.4a
Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goal 8 Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for development 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. Net ODA as a percentage of DAC donors’ gross national income (table 6.9) Proportion of ODA for basic social services (table 1.4) Proportion of ODA that is untied (table 6.9) Proportion of ODA received in landlocked countries as a percentage of GNI* Proportion of ODA received in small island developing states as a percentage of GNI* Proportion of total developed country imports (by value, excluding arms) from developing countries admitted free of duty (table 1.4) 39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries (see related indicators in table 6.6) 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of GDP (table 1.4) Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity* Number of countries reaching HIPC decision and completion points (table 1.4) Debt relief committed under new HIPC initiative (table 1.4) Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services (table 4.17) Unemployment rate of 15- to 24-year-olds (see tables 2.4 and 2.8 for related indicators) Proportion of population with access to affordable, essential drugs on a sustainable basis* Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 people (tables 1.3 and 5.10)

Data sources The indicators here, and where they appear throughout the rest of the book, have been compiled by World Bank staff from primary and secondary sources. The WTO, in collaboration with the UN Conference on Trade and Development and the International Trade Centre, provided the estimates of goods admitted free of tariffs and average tariffs. Subsidies to agriculture are compiled by the OECD.

48a. Personal computers in use per 100 people (table 5.10) 48b. Internet users per 100 people (table 5.10)
* No data available in the World Development Indicators database.

2004 World Development Indicators

27

1.5
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Women in development
Female population Life expectancy at birth Pregnant women receiving prenatal care Teenage mothers Literacy gender parity index Labor force gender parity index Women in nonagricultural sector Unpaid family workers Women in parliaments

% of total 2002

years Male Female 2002 2002

% 1995–2002 a

% of women ages 15–19 1995–2002 a

ages 15–24 2002

1990

2002

% of total 2000–02 a

Male Female % of male % of female employment employment 2000–02 a 2000–02 a

% of total seats 2003

49.0 48.9 49.4 50.5 50.9 51.4 50.1 51.3 50.9 49.7 53.1 50.9 50.7 50.2 50.5 50.2 50.7 51.4 50.4 51.0 51.2 50.0 50.5 51.2 50.5 50.5 48.4 50.9 50.5 50.4 51.0 50.1 49.2 51.7 50.0 51.2 50.5 49.3 49.8 49.1 50.9 50.4 53.5 49.8 51.2 51.4 50.4 50.5 52.5 50.9 50.2 50.8 49.6 49.7 50.6 50.9

43 72 69 45 71 71 76 76 62 62 63 75 51 62 71 38 65 69 42 42 53 48 76 42 47 73 69 78 69 45 50 75 45 70 75 72 75 64 69 67 67 50 65 41 75 76 52 52 69 75 54 75 63 46 44 50

44 76 72 48 78 79 82 82 69 63 74 82 55 65 77 38 73 75 44 42 56 49 82 43 50 79 72 83 75 46 54 80 46 78 79 79 79 70 72 71 73 52 77 43 82 83 54 55 78 81 56 81 69 47 47 54

37 95 79 66 95 b 92 100 b 100 b 66 40 100 .. 81 83 99 91 86 .. 61 78 38 75 .. 62 42 95 b 90 .. 91 68 .. 70 88 .. 100 99 b .. 98 69 53 76 49 .. 27 100 b 99 b 94 91 95 .. 88 .. 60 71 62 79

.. .. .. .. .. 6 .. .. .. 35 .. .. 22 14 .. .. 18 .. 25 .. 8 31 .. 36 39 .. .. .. 19 .. .. .. 31 .. .. .. .. 21 .. 9 .. 23 .. 16 .. .. 33 .. .. .. 14 .. 22 37 .. 18

.. 1.0 0.9 .. 1.0 1.0 .. .. .. 0.7 1.0 .. 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.9 .. .. 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.0 .. 1.0 .. 1.0 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.0 .. .. 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 .. 1.0 0.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.0 1.0 0.9 .. .. 1.0

0.5 0.7 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.6 0.8 .. 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.8

0.6 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.9 .. 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.7 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.7 0.7

.. 41.1 12.2 .. 42.9 .. 48.1 43.5 45.4 22.9 56.0 44.8 .. 36.4 .. 44.8 45.7 50.2 .. .. 51.7 .. 48.8 .. .. 36.6 39.2 45.5 49.1 .. .. 40.1 .. 45.9 37.8 46.6 48.9 34.3 41.4 19.6 31.2 .. 51.7 .. 50.2 46.3 .. .. 48.6 45.5 .. 40.5 39.2 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 0.7 1.1 0.4 1.4 .. 10.1 .. .. .. 5.2 .. 16.9 .. .. .. .. 31.6 .. 0.1 .. .. .. .. .. 5.1 .. .. 2.5 .. 2.4 .. 0.2 .. .. 4.4 8.2 .. .. 0.8 .. 0.6 .. .. .. 23.2 0.5 .. 4.2 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 1.8 0.8 0.7 3.7 .. 73.2 .. .. .. 11.1 .. 17.4 .. .. .. .. 53.3 .. 0.3 .. .. .. .. .. 7.1 .. .. 3.6 .. 7.8 .. 1.1 .. .. 10.2 26.0 .. .. 0.9 .. 0.4 .. .. .. 40.2 2.1 .. 14.7 .. .. .. ..

.. 6 6 16 31 5 25 34 11 2 10 35 6 19 17 17 9 26 12 18 7 9 21 7 6 13 22 .. 12 .. 9 35 9 21 36 17 38 17 16 2 11 22 19 8 38 12 9 13 7 32 9 9 9 19 8 4

28

2004 World Development Indicators

Women in development
Female population Life expectancy at birth Pregnant women receiving prenatal care Teenage mothers Literacy gender parity index Labor force gender parity index Women in nonagricultural sector

1.5
% of total seats 2003

WORLD VIEW

Unpaid family workers

Women in parliaments

% of total 2002

years Male Female 2002 2002

% 1995–2002 a

% of women ages 15–19 1995–2002 a

ages 15–24 2002

1990

2002

% of total 2000–02 a

Male Female % of male % of female employment employment 2000–02 a 2000–02 a

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

49.7 52.3 48.4 50.1 49.8 49.2 50.5 50.3 51.5 50.8 51.1 48.3 51.6 49.8 49.7 49.7 46.7 51.1 50.0 54.1 50.8 50.3 49.7 48.3 52.9 50.0 50.1 50.8 49.4 50.9 50.4 50.5 51.4 52.4 50.3 50.0 51.4 50.3 50.5 48.7 50.5 51.1 50.2 50.6 50.6 50.4 47.4 48.3 49.6 48.5 49.6 49.7 49.6 51.4 52.0 51.9

63 68 63 65 68 61 74 77 75 74 78 70 57 45 61 71 75 61 53 65 69 37 46 70 68 71 54 37 70 40 49 69 71 63 64 66 40 55 42 60 76 76 67 46 45 76 73 63 73 56 69 68 68 70 73 72

69 77 64 69 70 64 80 81 82 78 85 74 67 46 64 78 79 70 56 76 73 39 48 75 78 76 57 38 75 42 53 76 77 71 67 70 42 60 41 60 81 81 71 47 46 82 76 65 77 58 73 72 72 78 79 81

83 .. 60 89 77 77 .. .. .. 99 .. 96 91 76 .. .. 95 97 27 .. 87 85 85 81 .. 100 71 91 .. 57 64 .. 86 99 97 42 76 76 91 28 .. 95 b 86 41 64 .. 100 43 72 78 89 84 86 .. .. ..

.. .. 21 12 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 7 21 .. .. .. 9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36 33 .. 40 16 .. .. .. .. .. 40 .. .. 21 .. .. 27 43 22 .. .. .. .. .. .. 13 7 .. .. ..

1.0 1.0 .. 1.0 .. .. .. 1.0 1.0 1.1 .. 1.0 1.0 1.0 .. .. 1.0 .. 0.8 1.0 .. 0.6 0.6 0.9 1.0 .. .. 0.8 1.0 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.6 .. .. 1.1 0.4 1.0 .. 1.0 0.6 1.0 .. 1.0 1.0 1.0 .. 1.0 1.0

0.4 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.9 .. 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.9 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.5

0.5 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.3 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.9 .. 1.0 0.4 .. 0.7 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.6

51.7 46.1 17.1 29.7 .. .. 46.5 48.5 40.6 45.8 40.4 20.8 .. 37.8 .. 41.5 .. 44.8 .. 52.7 .. .. .. .. 51.3 41.9 .. 12.2 36.5 .. .. 39.0 37.2 52.7 .. 26.6 .. .. 48.8 .. 44.3 50.9 .. .. .. 48.3 25.3 7.9 41.7 .. 38.4 34.6 42.2 46.9 46.3 39.0

.. 0.4 .. .. .. .. 0.8 0.2 3.0 .. 1.6 .. .. .. .. 1.8 .. .. .. 4.2 .. .. .. .. 2.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6.8 4.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.2 0.6 .. .. .. 0.2 .. 16.7 .. .. .. 4.7 .. 4.0 1.1 0.2

.. 1.0 .. .. .. .. 1.5 0.7 6.0 .. 10.1 .. .. .. .. 19.5 .. .. .. 4.9 .. 12 .. .. 3.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12.5 10.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.1 1.2 .. .. .. 0.5 .. 50.1 .. .. .. 11.5 .. 6.8 3.2 1.0

6 10 9 8 4 8 13 15 12 12 7 6 10 7 20 6 0 10 23 21 2 8 .. 11 .. 4 9 10 10 4 6 23 13 11 11 30 .. 26 6 37 28 21 1 5 36 .. 22 10 1 9 18 18 20 19 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

29

1.5
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Women in development
Female population Life expectancy at birth Pregnant women receiving prenatal care Teenage mothers Literacy gender parity index Labor force gender parity index Women in nonagricultural sector Unpaid family workers Women in parliaments

% of total 2002

years Male Female 2002 2002

% 1995–2002 a

% of women ages 15–19 1995–2002 a

ages 15–24 2002

1990

2002

% of total 2000–02 a

Male Female % of male % of female employment employment 2000–02 a 2000–02 a

% of total seats 2003

51.1 53.3 50.4 45.9 50.2 50.2 50.9 48.7 51.4 51.3 50.4 51.7 51.1 50.6 49.7 51.7 50.3 50.4 49.5 50.1 50.4 50.8 50.3 50.1 49.5 49.5 50.5 50.0 53.5 34.4 50.8 51.1 51.5 50.3 49.7 50.6 49.3 49.0 50.2 49.9 49.6 w 49.2 49.6 49.5 50.8 49.5 48.9 52.0 50.7 49.2 48.5 50.2 50.6 51.0

66 60 39 71 51 70 36 76 69 72 46 46 75 72 57 44 78 77 68 64 43 67 49 70 71 68 61 43 63 74 75 75 71 64 71 67 71 57 37 39 65 w 58 68 67 70 63 68 64 68 67 62 45 75 75

74 72 40 75 54 75 39 80 77 80 49 48 82 76 60 44 82 83 73 70 44 72 51 75 75 73 68 44 74 77 80 80 79 70 77 72 75 58 37 39 69 w 60 72 72 77 66 71 73 74 70 64 47 81 82

.. .. 92 90 79 .. 68 .. 98 b 98 b 32 94 .. 98 60 87 .. .. 71 71 49 92 73 92 92 68 98 92 .. 97 .. 99 b 94 97 94 68 .. 34 93 93

.. .. 7 .. 22 .. .. .. .. .. .. 16 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. 19 .. .. 10 4 31 .. .. .. .. .. 10 .. 6 .. 16 32 21 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.7 .. .. 1.0 1.0 1.0 .. 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 .. .. 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.1 .. .. 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 .. 0.6 0.9 1.0 0.9 w 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 .. ..

0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.1 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.5 1.0 .. 0.4 0.8 0.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.8 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.4 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.2 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.5 1.0 .. 0.4 0.8 0.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

45.7 49.7 .. 14.2 .. .. .. 46.9 51.9 47.7 .. .. 39.3 46.6 .. 29.6 50.7 47.2 17.4 51.6 .. 46.8 .. 39.9 .. 18.9 .. .. 53.0 13.8 49.7 48.4 46.5 37.9 39.6 .. .. .. .. 20.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 42.8

10.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.3 0.1 3.8 .. 0.7 1.0 .. .. .. 0.3 .. .. .. .. 16.4 .. 1.0 .. 10.2 .. .. 0.8 .. 0.2 0.1 .. .. .. .. 6.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

29.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.7 0.2 7.0 .. 1.4 3.3 .. .. .. 0.4 .. .. .. .. 39.8 .. 0.6 .. 51.3 .. .. 1.7 .. 0.5 0.1 .. .. .. .. 27.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

11 8 49 0 19 8 15 16 19 12 .. 30 28 4 10 3 45 27 12 13 22 9 7 19 12 4 26 25 5 0 18 14 12 7 10 27 .. 0 12 10

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Data refer to a period other than specified, differ from the standard definition, or refer to only part of a country.

30

2004 World Development Indicators

Women in development
About the data
Despite much progress in recent decades, gender inequalities remain pervasive in many dimensions of life—worldwide. But while disparities exist throughout the world, they are most prevalent in poor developing countries. Gender inequalities in the allocation of such resources as education, health care, nutrition, and political voice matter because of the strong association with well-being, productivity, and economic growth. This pattern of inequality begins at an early age, with boys routinely receiving a larger share of education and health spending than do girls, for example. Because of biological differences girls are expected to experience lower infant and child mortality rates and to have a longer life expectancy than boys. This biological advantage, however, may be overshadowed by gender inequalities in nutrition and medical interventions, and by inadequate care during pregnancy and delivery, so that female rates of illness and death sometimes exceed male rates, particularly during early childhood and the reproductive years. In high-income countries women tend to outlive men by four to eight years on average, while in low-income countries the difference is narrower—about two to three years. The difference in child mortality rates (table 2.19) is another good indicator of female social disadvantage because nutrition and medical interventions are particularly important for the 1–5 age group. Female child mortality rates that are as high as or higher than male child mortality rates might be indicative of discrimination against girls. Having a child during the teenage years limits girls’ opportunities for better education, jobs, and income and increases the likelihood of divorce and separation. Pregnancy is more likely to be unintended during the teenage years, and births are more likely to be premature and are associated with greater risks of complications during delivery and of death. In many countries maternal mortality (tables 1.2 and 2.16) is a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. Most maternal deaths result from preventable causes—hemorrhage, infection, and complications from unsafe abortions. Prenatal care is essential for recognizing, diagnosing, and promptly treating complications that arise during pregnancy. In highincome countries most women have access to health care during pregnancy, but in developing countries an estimated 35 percent of pregnant women—some 45 million each year—receive no care at all (United Nations 2000b). This is reflected in the differences in maternal mortality ratios between high- and low-income countries. Women’s wage work is important for economic growth and the well-being of families. But restricted access to education and vocational training, heavy workloads at home and in nonpaid domestic activities, and labor market discrimination often limit women’s participation in paid economic activities, lower their productivity, and reduce their wages. A gender labor force parity index of less than 1.0 shows that women have lower activity rates than men. However, a gender labor force parity index of 1.0 or more does not necessarily imply equality in employment opportunities. Women’s unemployment rates tend to be higher than men’s (table 2.4), and in many countries a large proportion of women who are reported as employed are unpaid family workers. Women’s wage employment also tends to be concentrated in the agricultural sector. Nonsalaried men tend to be self-employed, while nonsalaried women tend to be unpaid family workers. There are several reasons for this. Most women have less access to credit markets, capital, land, training, and education, which may be required to start up a business. Cultural norms may prevent women from working on their own or from supervising other workers. Also, women may face time constraints due to their traditional family responsibilities. Because of biases and misclassification substantial numbers of employed women may be underestimated or reported as unpaid family workers even when they work in association or equally with their husbands in the family enterprise. Women are vastly underrepresented in decisionmaking positions in government, although there is some evidence of recent improvement. Gender parity in parliamentary representation is still far from being realized. In 2003 women represented 15 percent of parliamentarians worldwide, compared with 9 percent in 1987. Without representation at this level, it is difficult for women to influence policy.

1.5

WORLD VIEW

For information on other aspects of gender, see tables 1.2 (Millennium Development Goals: eradicating poverty and improving lives), 2.3 (employment by economic activity), 2.4 (unemployment), 2.12 (education efficiency), 2.13 (education outcomes), 2.16 (reproductive health), 2.18 (health risk factors and future challenges), and 2.19 (mortality).

Definitions
• Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. • Life expectancy at birth is the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. •Teenage mothers are the percentage of women ages 15–19 who already have children or are currently pregnant. • Pregnant women receiving prenatal care are the percentage of women attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel for reasons related to pregnancy. • Literacy gender parity index is the ratio of the female literacy rate to the male rate for ages 15–24. • Labor force gender parity index is the ratio of the percentage of women who are economically active to the percentage of men who are. According to the International Labour Organization’s (ILO) definition, the economically active population is all those who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. • Women in nonagricultural sector refer to women wage employees in the nonagricultural sector as a percentage of total nonagricultural employment. • Unpaid family workers are those who work without pay in a market-oriented establishment or activity operated by a related person living in the same household. • Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.

1.5a
Income and gender affect children’s access to basic health care
Medical treatment of fever, by income quintile and gender (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Poorest Richest Indonesia, 1997 Poorest Richest Haiti, 2000 Poorest Richest Ethiopia, 2000 Male Female

Data sources
The data on female population and life expectancy are from the World Bank’s population database. The data on pregnant women receiving prenatal care are from United Nations Children’s Fund’s (UNICEF) State of the World’s Children 2004. The data on teenage mothers are from Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro International. The data on the literacy gender parity index are from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. The data on the labor force gender parity index are from the ILO database Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950–2010. The data on unpaid family workers are from the ILO database Key Indicators of the Labour Market, third edition. The data on women in parliaments are from the United Nations’ World’s Women: Trends and Statistics 2000.

Boys are more likely to receive treatment for fever than girls. But poverty has a larger impact than gender on access to basic health care. Source: Demographic and Health Survey data.

2004 World Development Indicators

31

1.6
American Samoa Andorra Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Bahamas, The Bahrain Barbados Belize Bermuda Bhutan Brunei Cape Verde Cayman Islands Channel Islands Comoros Cyprus Djibouti Dominica Equatorial Guinea Faeroe Islands Fiji French Polynesia Greenland Grenada Guam Guyana Iceland Isle of Man

Key indicators for other economies
Population Surface area Population density Gross national income Gross domestic product Life Adult expectancy literacy at rate birth
% ages 15 and older 2002

Carbon dioxide emissions

PPP a thousand sq. km 2002 people per sq. km 2002 Per capita $ 2002 b Per capita $ 2002 Per capita % growth 2001–02 thousand metric tons 2000

thousands 2002

$ millions 2002 b

$ millions 2002

% growth 2001–02

years 2002

69 68 69 97 314 698 269 253 63 851 351 458 39 149 586 765 693 72 482 46 823 240 57 102 159 766 284 75

0.2 0.5 0.4 0.2 13.9 0.7 0.4 23.0 0.1 47.0 5.8 4.0 0.3 0.2 2.2 9.3 23.2 0.8 28.1 1.4 18.3 4.0 410.5 0.3 0.6 215.0 103.0 0.6

344 136 157 511 31 983 626 11 1,260 18 67 114 150 745 263 83 30 96 17 33 45 66 0 300 289 4 3 125

.. .. 671 .. .. 7,326 2,365 750 .. 512 .. 572 .. .. 228 9,372 590 216 437 .. 1,750 .. .. 361 .. 656 7,940 ..

.. c .. d 9,720 .. d .. d 10,500 8,790 e 2,970 .. d 600 .. d 1,250 .. d .. d 390 12,320 850 3,000 930 h .. d 2,130 .. d .. d 3,530 .. d 860 27,960 .. d

.. .. 717 .. .. 11,298 3,943 1,390 .. .. .. 2,252 g .. .. 990 14,201 g 1,412 357 4,390 .. 4,385 .. .. 673 .. 3,020 8,305 ..

.. .. 10,390 .. .. 16,190 14,660 5,490 .. .. .. 4,920 g .. .. 1,690 g 18,560 g 2,040 g 4,960 9,110 g .. 5,330 g .. .. 6,600 .. 3,940 g 29,240 ..

.. .. 2.9 .. .. 3.5 –2.1 3.7 .. 7.7 .. 4.6 .. .. 3.0 2.0 1.6 –5.2 16.2 .. 4.1 .. .. 1.2 .. –1.1 –0.5 ..

.. .. 1.5 .. .. 1.4 –2.4 1.3 .. 4.8 .. 1.9 .. .. 0.5 1.5 –0.3 –5.2 13.3 .. 3.3 .. .. –0.8 .. –1.6 –1.2 ..

.. .. 75 .. 70 73 75 74 .. 63 77 69 .. 79 61 78 44 77 52 .. 70 74 69 73 78 62 80 ..

.. .. .. .. .. 89 100 77 f .. .. 94 f 76 .. .. 56 97 f .. .. .. .. 93 f .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

286 .. 352 1,924 1,795 19,500 1,176 780 462 396 4,668 139 286 .. 81 6,423 385 103 205 649 725 542 557 213 4,071 1,598 2,158 ..

About the data

Definitions

The table shows data for 56 economies with populations from 30,000 to 1 million and smaller economies if they are members of the World Bank. Where data on gross national income (GNI) per capita are not available, an estimated range is given. For more information on the calculation of GNI (or gross national product in the 1968 System of National Accounts) and purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors, see About the data for table 1.1. Since 2000 this table has excluded France’s overseas depar tments—French Guiana, Guadeloupe,

• Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship—except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their countr y of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates for 2002. See also table 2.1. • Surface area is a country’s total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways. • Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. • Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income)

from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars converted using the World Bank Atlas method (see Statistical methods). • GNI per capita is gross national income divided by midyear population. GNI per capita in U.S. dollars is converted using the World Bank Atlas method. • PPP GNI is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. • Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output. Growth is calculated from constant price GDP data in local currency. • Life expectancy at birth is the number of years a newborn infant would live if

Martinique, and Réunion—for which GNI and other economic measures are now included in the French national accounts.

32

2004 World Development Indicators

Key indicators for other economies
Population Surface area Population density Gross national income Gross domestic product

1.6
Carbon dioxide emissions
% ages 15 and older 2002 thousand metric tons 2000

WORLD VIEW

Life Adult expectancy literacy at rate birth

PPP a thousand sq. km 2002 people per sq. km 2002 Per capita $ 2002 b Per capita $ 2002 Per capita % growth 2001–02

thousands 2002

$ millions 2002 b

$ millions 2002

% growth 2001–02

years 2002

Kiribati Liechtenstein Luxembourg Macao, China Maldives Malta Marshall Islands Mayotte Micronesia, Fed. Sts. Monaco Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia Northern Mariana Islands Palau Qatar Samoa São Tomé and Principe Seychelles Solomon Islands San Marino St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Timor-Leste Tonga Vanuatu Virgin Islands (U.S.)

95 33 444 439 287 397 53 160 122 32 219 220 76 20 610 176 154 84 443 28 46 160 117 433 780 101 206 110

0.7 0.2 2.6 .. 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.0 0.8 18.6 0.5 0.5 11.0 2.8 1.0 0.5 28.9 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.4 163.3 14.9 0.8 12.2 0.3

130 205 171 .. 957 1,241 265 400 174 16,842 274 12 159 43 55 62 160 187 16 277 128 262 300 3 52 140 17 324

91 .. 17,523 6,335 i 622 3,678 126 .. 240 .. .. .. .. 136 .. 251 46 569 256 .. 301 600 330 841 402 146 221 ..

960 .. d 39,470 14,600 i 2,170 9,260 2,380 .. c 1,970 .. d .. d .. d .. c 6,820 .. d 1,430 300 6,780 580 .. d 6,540 3,750 2,820 1,940 520 1,440 1,070 .. d

.. .. 23,659 9,618 .. 7,030 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 981 .. .. 705 g .. 494 793 607 .. .. 689 587 ..

.. .. 53,290 21,910 g .. 17,710 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5,570 g .. .. 1,590 g .. 10,750 4,950 5,190 .. .. 6,820 g 2,850 g ..

2.8 .. 1.1 10.1 5.6 1.5 4.0 .. 0.8 .. .. .. .. 3.0 .. 1.9 4.1 0.3 –2.7 .. 2.1 0.0 1.1 3.0 .. 1.6 –0.3 ..

0.6 .. 0.2 8.9 3.0 1.0 4.0 .. –0.8 .. .. .. .. 3.0 .. 0.7 2.1 –2.1 –5.3 .. –0.1 –1.2 0.2 2.1 .. 1.6 –2.7 ..

63 .. 78 79 69 78 .. 60 69 .. 76 74 .. .. 75 69 66 73 69 .. 71 74 73 70 .. 71 69 78

.. .. .. 91 f 97 93 .. .. .. .. 97 97 f .. .. 84 f 99 .. 92 f .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 99 f .. ..

26 .. 8,482 1,634 498 2,814 .. .. .. .. 9,929 1,667 .. 242 40,685 139 88 227 165 .. 103 322 161 2,118 .. 121 81 13,106

a. PPP is purchasing power parity; see Definitions. b. Calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. c. Estimated to be upper middle income ($2,936–$9,075). d. Estimated to be high income ($9,076 or more). e. Included in the aggregates for high-income economies on the basis of earlier data. f. Census data. g. The estimate is based on regression; others are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Programme benchmark estimates. h. Included in the aggregates for low-income economies on the basis of earlier data. i. Refers to GDP and GDP per capita.

prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. • Adult literacy rate is the percentage of adults ages 15 and older who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement about their everyday life. • Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Data sources The indicators here and throughout the book were compiled by World Bank Group staff from primary and secondary sources. More information about the indicators and their sources can be found in the About the data, Definitions, and Data sources entries that accompany each table in subsequent sections.

2004 World Development Indicators

33

2 PEOPLE

T

he ultimate aim of development is to improve human welfare in a substantial way. But

development has often bypassed the poor, and so attacking poverty directly through its many dimensions has become an urgent global priority.

To accelerate progress in human development, economic growth is, of course, necessary. But it is not enough. Because the most significant asset of people poor is their labor, the most effective way to improve their welfare is to increase their employment opportunities and the productivity of their labor through investments in human capital—the product of education and improvements in health and nutrition. Thus freedom from illiteracy (figure 2a) and freedom from illness are two of the most important ways that poor people can escape poverty. But although developing countries have made large investments in human capital, assisted by the private sector and official development agencies, good health and basic education remain elusive to many. To reinforce this paramount task of development, the Millennium Development Goals set specific targets for poverty reduction, education, status of women, and health, among others, in order to measure improvements in people’s lives (see section 1 for a fuller discussion of the Millennium Development Goals).

2a
Poverty and illiteracy are related
Population under $1 a day, latest available data (%) 100

The challenge for governments is
80

formidable. They need to provide not only services that are linked to human development, but also effective mechanisms that reduce vulnerability to economic shocks, ill health, and disability. This section tracks the progress
0 0 20 40 60 80 100 20 40 60

countries have made in developing their human capital and in reducing the vulnerability of their people.

Illiteracy rate (%)

Source: World Bank data files.

2004 World Development Indicators

35

Population in sustainable development In the second half of the 20th century the world population underwent unprecedented growth—from 2.5 billion in 1950 to 6 billion in 1999—even as the population growth rate was declining. The decline was triggered largely by a drop in fer tility rates. Between 1950–55 and 2002 fer tility rates halved, from 5.1 to 2.6 births per woman. Thus while the world population grew at 1.5 percent a year during 1980–2002, it is expected to grow more slowly, at 1 percent a year, during 2002–15, benefiting from continuing fertility declines (table 2.1). But most developing countries will not benefit from this decline. Between 2002 and 2015 roughly 1 billion people will be added to the world, and most (95 percent) will be born in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the increase in mortality rates brought on by AIDS, the fastest growing region will be Sub-Saharan Africa, and the largest number of people will be added in Asia. And the populations of some high-income and Eastern European countries will continue their decline. Research shows that changes in population growth, age structure, and spatial distribution interact closely with development. Fertility decline in high-fertility countries, by slowing population growth, can have important economic benefits by reducing the number of children relative to the working age population. This can create a unique opportunity to increase investments in health, education, and infrastructure. Unfortunately, in many of the poorest countries that most need such a break, high levels of unwanted fertility and the pervasive HIV/AIDS pandemic are prematurely curtailing such opportunity. Together, the continuing dependency of youthful populations and the premature deaths of young adults prevent countries from benefiting from their demographic transition. Enabling poverty reduction In many developing countries agriculture is still the main economic activity for both men and women (table 2.3). But as economies grow, more people work for wages. The enlarged proportion of working-age populations in countries undergoing fertility decline provides for increased labor force participation (table 2.2). This contributes to economic growth, especially when it occurs in the formal sector. In developing countries gross domestic product (GDP) grew 4.3 percent a year in the 1990s, and the share of people living on less than $1 a day fell from 28.3 percent to 21.6 percent. By 2000, 137 million fewer people were living in extreme poverty (table 2.5). And if projected growth remains on track, global poverty rates will fall to 12.5 percent by 2015, meeting the global Millennium Development Goal target of halving the 1990 poverty rate. Progress in reducing poverty has been uneven. But because many poor people continue to be excluded from all but the lowest level of economic activity, there are large gaps

2b
Defining income poverty
The most familiar definition of poverty uses a composite measure of total household consumption per member (with adjustments for household size and composition), derived from household surveys. Poor people are then defined as living in households below a particular threshold of this measure of consumption. But many surveys do not include consumption data, which are difficult to collect. Another approach, used by the World Bank, is to aggregate indicators of a household’s asset ownership and housing characteristics into an index and then rank households into quintiles according to this index. These are typically referred to as asset or wealth quintiles.
Source: World Bank data files.

in social indicators between the rich and poor, confirming the persistence of deprivation (box 2b; table 2.6). Globally, much of the decline in income poverty took place in East Asia, where sustained growth in China has lifted more than 150 million people out of poverty since 1990. And faster growth in India has led to a modest decline in the number of poor people in South Asia. But in other regions the number of poor people has increased even as their share in the population has declined—and in Europe and Central Asia both the number and the share of poor people have risen. Unemployment is high in many of the formerly centrally planned economies, with long-term unemployment hovering around 40–50 percent of total unemployment in Croatia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary in 2002 (table 2.4). Enhancing security for poor people Poor people face many risks. They face labor market risks, often having to take precarious jobs in the informal sector and to put their children to work to increase household income. In Sub-Saharan Africa one in four children ages 10–14 was in the labor force in 2002 (table 2.8). Poor people also face health risks, with illness and injury having both direct and opportunity costs. In South Asia nearly 80 percent of all spending on health comes from private sources, much of it out of pocket, exposing many poor households to the impoverishing effects of needed health care (table 2.8). Enhancing security for poor people means reducing their vulnerability to ill health and economic shocks. Marketbased insurance and pension schemes can reduce risk significantly, but they play only a minor role in many developing countries. In 16 developing countries public spending on pensions amounted to less than 0.5 percent of GDP in the 1990s (table 2.9). To increase the security of poor people, national poverty reduction strategies must support their immediate consumption needs and protect their assets by ensuring access to basic services. Education, health, and

36

2004 World Development Indicators

2c
Why public services fail poor people
Public services are failing the poor in four ways: • Public spending on health and education is typically enjoyed by people who are not poor. In Nepal the richest 20 percent of the population benefits from 46 percent of education spending, while the poorest 20 percent gets just 11 percent. • Even when public spending is reallocated to the poor, very little of it reaches frontline public service providers. In Uganda in the early 1990s primary schools received an average of just 13 percent of nonsalary spending allocations intended for them, and poorer schools received much less. • There is a high degree of absenteeism among teachers, doctors, and nurses in public sector facilities. A survey of primary health care in Bangladesh found a 74 percent absentee rate among doctors. • The poor quality of service, opportunity costs of travel time to schools or health facilities, and cultural factors create lack of demand or weak demand for services.
Source: World Bank, World Development Report 2004.

immunization, sanitation, access to safe drinking water, and safe motherhood initiatives (tables 2.15 and 2.16). But the Millennium Development Goals remain unattainable for many countries. Some 20 countries have rates of child malnutrition greater than 30 percent (table 2.17). An estimated 40 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, an unprecedented public health challenge (table 2.18), and more than half a million women in developing countries die each year during childbirth, often because births are not attended by trained personnel (figure 2d). And the reemergence of old diseases such as tuberculosis in Europe and Central Asia and parts of South and East Asia has put severe strains on health budgets. A high prevalence of disease puts a brake on poverty reduction. Beyond its direct impact on a household’s living standards through out-of-pocket spending, illhealth has an indirect impact on labor productivity and the number of hours people can work. * * *

nutrition services are often the most needed and most valued by poor people. Yet many governments fail the poor in the provision of these services (box 2c). Remaining and emerging challenges in building human capital Investments in education widen horizons, making it easier for people to take advantage of new opportunities and helping them to participate in social and economic life. But despite increased spending on education, particularly primary education (table 2.10), enrollment rates remain low in many countries (table 2.11), and primary completion rates are even lower (table 2.12), hampering achievement of the Millennium Development Goal target of universal primary education by 2015. Most children who do not attend primary school, or who drop out early, live in poor households and in poor countries (table 2.12). But in many poor countries there is also a gender dimension to school attendance, reflecting traditional biases against girls’ education and reliance on girls’ contributions to the household. One consequence of this imbalance: higher rates of illiteracy among women. In 2002, 33 developing countries had female literacy rates of 60 percent or lower (table 2.13). And in predominantly illiterate societies there is likely to be less pressure for those who cannot read or write to achieve literacy. The Millennium Development Goals for health cover health status, nutritional status, illness, mortality rates, and reproductive health. The public sector is the main provider of health care in developing countries—training medical personnel, investing in hospitals, and directly providing medical care (table 2.14). To reduce inequities, many countries have emphasized primary health care, including

There are many ways to measure poverty and its effects on people’s lives. The indicators reported here suffer from many shortcomings, noted in About the data for each table. But taken together, the indicators provide a broad picture of how well different economies are doing in reducing poverty, enhancing human security, and building human capital—and how large a task still lies ahead.

2d
Poor women are much less likely to receive expert care in childbirth
Births attended by medically trained personnel, by income group (%) 100

80

60

40

20

0 Brazil Egypt Ghana Richest group
Source: World Bank data files.

India

Indonesia

Jordan

Poorest group

2004 World Development Indicators

37

2.1
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Population dynamics
Total population Average annual population growth rate Population age composition Dependency ratio
dependents as proportion of working-age population Young Old 2002 2002

Crude death rate

Crude birth rate

1980

millions 2002

% 2015 1980–2002 2002–15

Ages 0–14 2002

% Ages 15–64 2002

Ages 65+ 2002

per 1,000 people 2002

per 1,000 people 2002

16.0 2.7 18.7 7.0 28.1 3.1 14.7 7.6 6.2 85.4 9.6 9.8 3.5 5.4 4.1 0.9 121.6 8.9 7.0 4.1 6.8 8.8 24.6 2.3 4.5 11.1 981.2 5.0 28.4 27.9 1.8 2.3 8.2 4.6 9.7 10.2 5.1 5.7 8.0 40.9 4.6 2.4 1.5 37.7 4.8 53.9 0.7 0.6 5.1 78.3 11.0 9.6 6.8 4.5 0.8 5.4

28.0 a 3.2 31.3 13.1 36.5 3.1 19.7 8.0 8.2 135.7 9.9 10.3 6.6 8.8 4.1 1.7 174.5 8.0 11.8 7.1 12.5 15.8 31.4 3.8 8.3 15.6 1,280.4 6.8 43.7 51.6 3.7 3.9 16.5 4.5 11.3 10.2 5.4 8.6 12.8 66.4 6.4 4.3 1.4 67.2 5.2 59.5 1.3 1.4 5.2 82.5 20.3 10.6 12 7.7 1.4 8.3

38.8 3.5 38.3 18.9 42.9 3.0 21.7 8.0 9.0 166 9.3 10.4 9.0 10.9 4.2 1.8 201 7.3 15.6 8.8 15.1 19.7 33.5 4.6 12.1 17.8 1,389.5 7.0 51.4 75.2 5.2 4.7 20.2 4.3 11.7 9.9 5.4 10.1 15.4 80.9 7.9 5.6 1.3 87.3 5.3 61.8 1.7 1.8 4.7 80.3 25.2 11 16.3 9.8 2.0 10.3

2.6 0.7 2.4 2.8 1.2 0.0 1.3 0.3 1.3 2.1 0.1 0.2 2.9 2.3 0.0 2.9 1.6 –0.5 2.4 2.4 2.8 2.7 1.1 2.3 2.8 1.5 1.2 1.4 2.0 2.8 3.2 2.5 3.2 –0.1 0.7 0.0 0.2 1.9 2.2 2.2 1.5 2.7 –0.4 2.6 0.4 0.4 2.9 3.5 0.1 0.2 2.8 0.4 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.0

2.5 0.8 1.5 2.8 1.2 –0.1 0.8 –0.1 0.7 1.5 –0.5 0.1 2.4 1.7 0.2 0.4 1.1 –0.7 2.1 1.7 1.5 1.7 0.5 1.5 2.8 1.0 0.6 0.2 1.2 2.9 2.8 1.4 1.6 –0.3 0.3 –0.2 0.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.0 –0.6 2.0 0.1 0.3 2.2 1.9 –0.8 –0.2 1.7 0.3 2.3 1.8 2.6 1.7

43.8 28.0 34.6 47.6 27.3 21.6 20.2 16.2 27.7 36.2 17.4 17.1 45.4 38.7 17.8 41.8 27.9 14.8 47.0 45.7 42.0 41.3 18.4 42.1 48.8 27.4 24.2 16.2 31.9 47.8 46.7 30.5 41.8 16.4 20.7 15.8 18.5 32.5 33.2 34.1 35.0 44.7 16.5 45.7 17.8 18.7 40.4 40.4 19.2 15.1 42.5 14.8 42.9 44.0 44.2 39.6

53.4 64.9 61.4 49.5 63.0 68.7 67.4 67.9 65.0 60.5 68.8 66.2 51.9 56.9 71.7 56.0 66.8 68.9 50.3 51.8 55.1 55.0 68.8 54.4 48.3 65.3 68.6 72.3 63.3 49.6 50.2 63.8 55.6 68.1 69.0 70.4 66.6 63.0 62.0 61.6 60.1 52.7 68.4 51.5 67.0 65.2 54.1 56.3 67.1 68.1 53.0 66.8 53.7 53.4 52.3 56.9

2.8 7.1 4.0 2.9 9.8 9.7 12.4 15.9 7.3 3.3 13.8 16.7 2.7 4.4 10.6 2.2 5.3 16.3 2.7 2.6 2.8 3.7 12.8 3.5 2.9 7.3 7.2 11.4 4.8 2.6 3.2 5.8 2.6 15.5 10.3 13.8 14.9 4.5 4.8 4.2 5.0 2.6 15.1 2.8 15.2 16.1 5.6 3.3 13.8 16.9 4.5 18.4 3.5 2.6 3.5 3.5

0.8 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.8 1.0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.5 1.0 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1

21 6 5 19 8 8 7 10 7 8 14 10 13 8 8 23 7 14 19 20 12 16 7 20 16 5 8 5 6 18 14 4 17 12 8 11 11 7 6 6 6 13 14 20 10 10 15 14 10 10 13 11 7 17 20 14

49 17 22 50 19 9 13 9 16 28 9 11 38 29 12 30 19 9 43 39 27 36 11 36 45 17 15 7 21 45 44 20 37 10 12 9 12 23 23 24 26 38 9 40 11 13 35 37 8 9 29 9 33 38 49 32

38

2004 World Development Indicators

Population dynamics
Total population Average annual population growth rate Population age composition Dependency ratio
dependents as proportion of working-age population Young Old 2002 2002

2.1
Crude death rate Crude birth rate
per 1,000 people 2002 per 1,000 people 2002

PEOPLE

1980

millions 2002

% 2015 1980–2002 2002–15

Ages 0–14 2002

% Ages 15–64 2002

Ages 65+ 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

3.6 10.7 687.3 148.3 39.1 13.0 3.4 3.9 56.4 2.1 116.8 2.2 14.9 16.6 17.2 38.1 1.4 3.6 3.2 2.5 3.0 1.3 1.9 3.0 3.4 1.9 8.9 6.2 13.8 6.6 1.6 1.0 67.6 4.0 1.7 19.4 12.1 33.7 1.0 14.6 14.2 3.1 2.9 5.6 71.1 4.1 1.1 82.7 2.0 3.1 3.1 17.3 48.0 35.6 9.8 3.2

6.8 10.2 1,048.6 211.7 65.5 24.2 3.9 6.6 57.7 2.6 127.2 5.2 14.9 31.3 22.5 47.6 2.3 5.0 5.5 2.3 4.4 1.8 3.3 5.4 3.5 2.0 16.4 10.7 24.3 11.4 2.8 1.2 100.8 4.3 2.4 29.6 18.4 48.8 2.0 24.1 16.1 3.9 5.3 11.4 132.8 4.5 2.5 144.9 2.9 5.4 5.5 26.7 79.9 38.6 10.2 3.9

8.9 9.6 1,231.6 245.5 77.5 31.1 4.3 7.9 55.1 3.0 124.6 6.8 15.5 37.5 24.0 50.0 3.0 5.8 7.3 2.1 5.2 2.0 4.4 6.9 3.3 2.2 22.5 13.6 29.6 15.6 3.6 1.4 120.6 4.1 2.9 35.4 22.7 55.7 2.3 31.1 16.7 4.4 7.0 16.3 169.4 4.7 3.4 192.8 3.5 6.9 7.2 31.5 98.2 38.4 10.2 4.2

2.9 –0.2 1.9 1.6 2.3 2.8 0.6 2.4 0.1 0.9 0.4 3.9 0.0 2.9 1.2 1.0 2.4 1.5 2.5 –0.4 1.8 1.5 2.6 2.6 0.1 0.3 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.5 1.0 1.8 0.3 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.7 3.0 2.3 0.6 1.1 2.7 3.3 2.8 0.5 3.8 2.5 1.9 2.5 2.6 2.0 2.3 0.4 0.2 0.9

2.1 –0.4 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.9 0.8 1.4 –0.3 1.0 –0.2 2.2 0.3 1.4 0.5 0.4 1.9 1.1 2.1 –0.7 1.2 0.9 2.2 1.8 –0.4 0.5 2.4 1.8 1.5 2.4 2.0 0.9 1.4 –0.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.0 1.1 2.0 0.3 0.8 2.0 2.7 1.9 0.3 2.2 2.2 1.2 1.9 2.0 1.3 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.7

41.1 16.5 32.8 29.8 30.8 40.1 21.4 27.5 14.1 30.1 14.3 37.8 25.3 42.6 26.0 21.0 25.1 32.5 42.1 15.8 30.9 41.7 44.3 33.0 18.2 21.9 44.4 44.7 33.3 47.2 43.1 25.2 32.9 21.1 32.5 33.5 42.5 32.3 41.8 40.4 18.4 22.1 41.5 48.9 43.7 19.8 42.3 40.6 30.4 41.1 38.8 32.4 36.5 18.2 17.2 23.6

55.5 68.8 62.2 65.4 64.4 56.9 67.4 62.8 67.2 62.9 67.6 59.1 67.0 54.8 67.7 71.8 73.1 61.4 54.4 69.1 63.2 53.1 53.0 63.4 67.8 67.7 52.6 51.9 62.4 50.0 53.7 68.5 62.0 67.9 63.5 62.2 53.8 63.1 54.4 55.8 67.8 66.2 55.4 48.8 53.7 65.2 55.1 56.0 63.9 56.5 57.7 62.7 59.6 69.4 67.6 66.2

3.4 14.6 5.0 4.8 4.7 3.0 11.2 9.7 18.7 6.9 18.1 3.1 7.7 2.7 6.4 7.2 1.7 6.1 3.5 15.2 5.9 5.2 2.7 3.6 13.9 10.4 3.0 3.5 4.3 2.9 3.1 6.3 5.1 11.1 4.0 4.3 3.7 4.5 3.8 3.8 13.8 11.7 3.1 2.3 2.6 15 2.7 3.3 5.7 2.4 3.5 4.9 3.9 12.4 15.2 10.2

0.7 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.3 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.4

0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

6 13 9 7 6 8 8 6 11 6 8 4 12 16 11 7 3 7 12 14 6 23 20 4 12 9 12 25 5 22 15 7 4 13 6 6 21 12 21 10 9 7 5 20 17 10 3 8 5 10 5 6 6 9 11 8

30 10 24 20 18 29 15 20 9 20 9 28 15 35 17 12 20 20 36 8 19 33 43 27 9 14 39 45 22 48 35 17 20 11 23 21 40 23 35 32 12 14 29 49 39 12 26 33 20 33 30 22 26 9 12 15

2004 World Development Indicators

39

2.1
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Population dynamics
Total population Average annual population growth rate Population age composition Dependency ratio
dependents as proportion of working-age population Young Old 2002 2002

Crude death rate

Crude birth rate

1980

millions 2002

% 2015 1980–2002 2002–15

Ages 0–14 2002

% Ages 15–64 2002

Ages 65+ 2002

per 1,000 people 2002

per 1,000 people 2002

22.2 139.0 5.2 9.4 5.5 9.8 b 3.2 2.4 5.0 1.9 6.5 27.6 37.4 14.6 19.4 0.6 8.3 6.3 8.7 4.0 18.6 46.7 2.5 1.1 6.4 44.5 2.9 12.8 50.0 1.0 56.3 227.2 2.9 16.0 15.1 53.7 .. 8.5 5.7 7.1 4,430.1 s 1,561.8 2,038.1 1,801.0 237.0 3,599.8 1,359.4 425.8 356.4 173.7 901.3 383.2 830.2 285.5

22.3 21.4 144.1 134.5 8.2 10.0 21.9 30.8 10.0 12.8 8.2 10.7 5.2 6.7 4.2 4.8 5.4 5.4 2.0 1.9 9.3 14.0 45.3 47.0 40.9 41.5 19.0 21.9 32.8 42.6 1.1 1.3 8.9 9.0 7.3 7.5 17.0 22.0 6.3 7.2 35.2 43.9 61.6 66.3 4.8 6.2 1.3 1.4 9.8 11.5 69.6 81.3 4.8 5.7 24.6 33.6 48.7 44.7 3.2 3.7 59.2 59.6 288.4 319.9 3.4 3.6 25.3 30.0 25.1 30.3 80.4 92.4 3.2 4.9 18.6 27.3 10.2 11.9 13.0 14.1 6,198.5 s 7,090.7 s 2,494.6 3,044.0 2,737.8 3,039.0 2,408.5 2,658.4 329.3 380.6 5,232.4 6,083.0 1,838.3 2,036.9 472.9 478.2 524.9 619.4 305.8 382.7 1,401.5 1,683.7 688.9 882.1 966.2 1,007.7 305.5 305.2

0.0 0.2 2.1 3.9 2.7 0.4 c 2.2 2.5 0.3 0.1 1.6 2.3 0.4 1.2 2.4 3.0 0.3 0.6 3.0 2.1 2.9 1.3 2.9 0.8 1.9 2.0 2.3 3.0 –0.1 5.1 0.2 1.1 0.6 2.1 2.3 1.8 .. 3.5 2.6 2.7 1.5 w 2.1 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.4 0.5 1.8 2.6 2.0 2.7 0.7 0.3

–0.3 –0.5 1.6 2.6 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.1 0.0 –0.2 3.1 0.3 0.1 1.1 2.0 1.2 0.1 0.2 2.0 1.0 1.7 0.6 2.0 0.8 1.3 1.2 1.3 2.4 –0.7 1.1 0.0 0.8 0.6 1.3 1.4 1.1 3.2 2.9 1.2 0.6 1.0 w 1.5 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.2 0.8 0.1 1.3 1.7 1.4 1.9 0.3 0.0

17.2 16.9 46.6 40.4 44.0 19.8 44.1 21.1 18.8 15.2 47.9 32.1 15.0 25.6 39.7 42.2 17.7 16.7 39.0 37.6 45.0 23.2 43.6 24.3 28.2 28.4 34.7 49.0 16.5 25.5 18.4 21.1 24.5 35.4 33.0 31.4 45.8 45.7 44.9 44.0 29.2 w 36.5 26.4 26.1 28.9 31.2 26.3 20.9 30.9 35.3 34.2 43.8 18.3 16.0

69.1 70.2 50.3 56.6 53.3 66.3 53.3 71.4 69.8 70.4 49.7 63.4 68.0 67.8 56.8 55.0 64.8 67.8 57.8 57.9 52.6 70.3 53.3 69.3 65.8 65.8 60.9 49.1 68.8 71.6 65.6 66.4 62.9 60.0 62.5 63.3 50.9 51.6 52.9 52.8 63.7 w 59.3 66.5 66.9 63.7 63.1 67.2 67.9 63.6 60.7 61.2 53.3 67.3 67.2

13.7 12.9 3.1 2.9 2.7 13.9 2.6 7.5 11.4 14.4 2.4 4.5 17.0 6.5 3.5 2.9 17.5 15.5 3.1 4.6 2.4 6.4 3.2 6.4 6.0 5.9 4.4 1.9 14.7 2.9 16.1 12.5 12.6 4.6 4.5 5.3 3.2 2.7 2.2 3.1 7.1 w 4.2 7.1 7.0 7.4 5.7 6.5 11.2 5.5 4.0 4.6 3.0 14.4 16.8

0.2 0.2 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.3 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.2 1.0 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.3 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.5 w 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.2

0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 w 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2

13 15 22 4 13 12 25 5 10 10 18 20 9 6 10 18 11 9 4 7 18 8 15 7 6 7 8 18 15 4 10 9 10 6 5 6 4 10 23 21 9w 11 8 8 6 9 8 12 6 6 9 18 9 10

10 10 44 31 35 12 44 11 11 9 50 25 10 18 33 35 11 10 29 23 38 15 36 16 18 22 22 44 9 17 11 14 16 20 23 19 35 41 39 29 21 w 29 17 17 19 22 16 13 21 24 26 39 12 10

a. Estimate does not account for recent refugee flows. b. Includes population for Kosovo until 2001. c. Data are for 1980–2001.

40

2004 World Development Indicators

Population dynamics
About the data Definitions Population estimates are usually based on national population censuses, but the frequency and quality of these vary by country. Most countries conduct a complete enumeration no more than once a decade. Pre- and post-census estimates are interpolations or extrapolations based on demographic models. Errors and undercounting occur even in high-income countries; in developing countries such errors may be substantial because of limits in the transport, communications, and other resources required to conduct a full census. The quality and reliability of official demographic data are also affected by the public trust in the government, the government’s commitment to full and accurate enumeration, the confidentiality and protection against misuse accorded to census data, and the independence of census agencies from undue political influence. Moreover, the international comparability of population indicators is limited by differences in the concepts, definitions, data collection procedures, and estimation methods used by national statistical agencies and other organizations that collect population data. Of the 152 economies listed in the table, 125 (about 82 percent) conducted a census between 1995 and 2003. The currentness of a census, along with the availability of complementary data from surveys or registration systems, is one of many objective ways to judge the quality of demographic data. In some European countries registration systems offer complete information on population in the absence of a census. See Primary data documentation for the most recent census or survey year and for the completeness of registration. Current population estimates for developing countries that lack recent census-based data, and pre- and post-census estimates for countries with census data, are provided by national statistical offices, the United Nations Population Division, and other agencies. The standard estimation method requires fertility, mortality, and net migration data, which are often collected from sample surveys, some of which may be small or limited in coverage. The population estimates are the product of demographic modeling and so are susceptible to biases and errors because of shortcomings in the model as well as in the data. Population projections are made using the cohort component method. The growth rate of the total population conceals the fact that different age groups may grow at very different rates. In many developing countries the population under 15 was earlier growing rapidly but is now starting to shrink. Previously high fertility rates and declining mortality rates are now reflected in the larger share of the working-age population. Dependency ratios take into account the variations in the proportions of children, elderly people, and working-age people in the population. Separate calculations of young-age and old-age dependency suggest the burden of dependency that the working-age population must bear in relation to children and the elderly. But dependency ratios show the age composition of a population, not economic dependency. Some children and elderly people are part of the labor force, and many working-age people are not. The vital rates shown in the table are based on data derived from birth and death registration systems, censuses, and sample surveys conducted by national statistical offices, United Nations agencies, and other organizations. The estimates for 2002 for many countries are based on extrapolations of levels and trends measured in earlier years. Vital registers are the preferred source of these data, but in many developing countries systems for registering births and deaths do not exist or are incomplete because of deficiencies in the coverage of events or of geographic areas. Many developing countries carry out special household surveys that estimate vital rates by asking respondents about births and deaths in the recent past. Estimates derived in this way are subject to sampling errors as well as errors due to inaccurate recall by the respondents. The United Nations Statistics Division monitors the completeness of vital registration systems. The share of countries with at least 90 percent complete vital registration increased from 45 percent in 1988 to 55 percent in 2002. Still, some of the most populous developing countries—China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria—do not have complete vital registration systems. Fewer than 30 percent of births and 40 percent of deaths worldwide are thought to be registered and reported. International migration is the only other factor besides birth and death rates that directly determines a country’s population growth. From 1990 to 2000 the number of migrants in high-income countries increased by 23 million. About 175 million people currently live outside their home country, accounting for about 3 percent of the world’s population. Estimating international migration is difficult. At any time many people are located outside their home country as tourists, workers, or refugees or for other reasons. Standards relating to the duration and purpose of international moves that qualify as migration vary, and accurate estimates require information on flows into and out of countries that is difficult to collect. Data sources

2.1

PEOPLE

• Total population of an economy includes all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship— except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates for 1980 and 2002 and projections for 2015. • Average annual population growth rate is the exponential change for the period indicated. See Statistical methods for more information. • Population age composition refers to the percentage of the total population that is in specific age groups. • Dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents—people younger than 15 or older than 64—to the working-age population—those ages 15–64. • Crude death rate and crude birth rate are the number of deaths and the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the population growth rate in the absence of migration.

The World Bank’s population estimates are produced by its Human Development Network and Development Data Group in consultation with its operational staff and country offices. Important inputs to the World Bank’s demographic work come from the following sources: census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices; Demographic and Health Surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; United Nations Statistics Division, Population and Vital Statistics Report (quarterly); United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision; Eurostat, Demographic Statistics (various years); Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Boletín Demográfico (various years); and U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Database.

2004 World Development Indicators

41

2.2
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate Labor force

Average annual % ages 15–64 Male 1980 2002 1980 Female 2002 1980 Total millions 2002 growth rate % 1980–2002 1980 Female % of labor force 2002

89.3 86.1 80.4 91.7 86.4 77.4 86.6 84.9 77.8 90.9 83.4 79.8 86.9 85.9 77.8 84.9 89.4 82.7 94.2 93.9 85.9 89.8 86.0 .. 91.7 81.4 91.4 86.1 83.1 87.6 86.3 88.8 91.5 80.5 83.4 84.8 88.3 86.3 86.9 83.5 89.6 88.4 85.4 86.9 79.3 81.6 87.7 93.0 81.1 86.6 83.0 83.5 91.7 91.7 92.4 85.5

87.6 a 85.5 79.8 90.1 84.3 78.2 82.8 78.6 78.0 87.8 80.9 72.3 82.5 83.5 78.0 83.9 87.2 77.3 89.9 93.9 86.2 86.0 82.8 .. 89.1 81.9 89.2 85.0 83.5 84.7 83.4 84.3 87.3 75.2 85.1 82.6 84.4 86.7 85.6 82.3 87.2 86.6 81.7 85.6 75.6 75.2 85.3 90.0 79.2 81.0 82.4 78.3 88.3 87.0 90.6 82.4

49.8 60.6 19.1 77.8 32.6 68.1 52.0 54.4 67.4 70.2 74.3 41.3 77.8 39.6 37.0 72.2 35.7 70.4 82.8 86.9 85.2 49.6 57.3 .. 68.3 28.7 75.5 50.5 26.6 65.8 57.2 24.3 45.5 53.2 39.7 75.1 71.3 30.5 22.5 29.3 32.2 78.1 79.3 60.2 68.3 55.2 67.6 71.2 71.0 56.2 82.8 31.8 27.6 83.2 59.7 64.2

50.3 a 65.8 33.8 74.8 44.1 71.1 67.1 56.6 61.3 67.9 73.4 51.8 75.4 49.4 49.1 66.5 47.0 70.8 77.7 85.4 84.8 51.7 72.0 .. 70.6 43.8 79.5 56.3 52.2 62.5 58.7 40.9 45.5 59.7 57.4 74.5 76.7 44.0 35.7 38.3 50.7 76.6 74.1 58.6 71.7 62.3 66.5 70.7 66.6 62.8 81.0 48.7 39.9 79.6 59.5 58.1

6.8 1.2 4.8 3.5 10.7 1.4 6.7 3.4 2.7 40.3 5.1 3.9 1.7 2.0 1.6 0.4 47.7 4.6 3.8 2.3 3.7 3.7 12.2 1.2 2.2 3.8 538.7 2.5 9.4 12.4 0.8 0.8 3.3 2.2 3.7 5.3 2.7 2.1 2.5 14.3 1.6 1.2 0.8 16.9 2.4 23.8 0.4 0.3 2.6 37.5 5.2 3.8 2.3 2.3 0.4 2.5

11.7 a 1.6 11.0 6.1 15.7 1.6 10.0 3.8 3.7 72.4 5.3 4.3 3.0 3.6 1.9 0.8 81.7 4.1 5.8 3.9 6.6 6.5 16.8 1.8 4.0 6.5 769.3 3.6 19.4 21.4 1.5 1.6 6.7 2.1 5.6 5.7 2.9 3.9 5.1 25.9 2.8 2.2 0.8 28.9 2.6 27.0 0.6 0.7 2.6 41.1 9.7 4.6 4.5 3.7 0.7 3.6

2.4 1.3 3.7 2.5 1.8 0.4 1.8 0.5 1.4 2.7 0.2 0.4 2.7 2.7 0.8 3.0 2.5 –0.6 1.9 2.4 2.7 2.6 1.5 1.9 2.7 2.4 1.6 1.7 3.3 2.5 3.1 3.2 3.2 –0.1 1.9 0.3 0.3 2.8 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.6 –0.3 2.4 0.3 0.6 2.2 3.4 0.0 0.4 2.8 0.9 3.0 2.1 2.4 1.6

34.8 38.8 21.4 47.0 27.6 47.9 36.8 40.5 47.5 42.3 49.9 33.9 47.0 33.3 32.8 50.1 28.4 45.3 47.6 50.2 55.4 36.8 39.5 .. 43.4 26.3 43.2 34.3 26.2 44.5 42.4 20.8 32.2 40.2 31.4 47.1 44.0 24.7 20.1 26.5 26.5 47.4 50.6 42.3 46.5 40.1 45.0 44.8 49.3 40.1 51.0 27.9 22.4 47.1 39.9 44.6

35.8 a 41.5 29.0 46.2 34.4 48.6 44.0 40.4 44.7 42.5 48.9 41.1 48.3 38.0 38.2 45.1 35.5 48.0 46.5 48.6 51.5 38.2 46.0 .. 44.8 34.5 45.2 37.2 39.1 43.3 43.5 31.6 33.6 44.4 39.9 47.2 46.5 31.4 28.7 31.0 37.3 47.4 48.9 41.0 48.2 45.3 44.8 45.2 46.8 42.4 50.4 38.2 30.1 47.2 40.5 42.8

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2004 World Development Indicators

Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate Labor force

2.2
Female % of labor force 1980 2002

PEOPLE

Average annual % ages 15–64 Male 1980 2002 1980 Female 2002 1980 Total millions 2002 growth rate % 1980–2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

90.4 84.8 88.6 85.8 83.9 80.1 85.0 81.9 81.8 85.7 86.1 78.7 82.3 91.7 82.5 77.6 86.3 79.9 .. 84.8 77.7 87.8 87.3 85.6 83.2 80.2 91.3 89.6 84.6 92.3 91.4 85.2 85.8 82.8 90.4 84.6 92.6 90.4 87.7 90.6 81.0 85.8 88.6 95.2 89.1 83.5 88.3 88.2 82.4 90.2 91.9 82.0 84.5 84.2 88.5 72.5

87.1 78.2 86.8 84.7 79.8 76.3 79.4 79.2 78.7 83.8 84.9 79.3 79.9 89.2 84.5 79.8 79.8 77.7 .. 82.4 81.1 85.0 83.6 77.5 81.1 76.2 88.9 86.4 81.2 89.7 87.5 83.7 85.6 79.5 86.2 82.6 90.3 89.4 82.9 86.2 78.2 82.2 86.2 92.6 86.2 81.0 77.9 86.4 82.8 87.7 87.6 81.6 83.1 77.8 82.4 74.1

31.9 62.0 47.8 45.6 20.6 16.3 34.7 42.0 39.2 72.6 52.1 14.6 70.5 77.7 65.7 50.2 21.0 68.8 .. 77.9 21.4 50.0 55.7 23.3 74.7 46.8 72.5 81.4 42.8 75.9 71.5 28.5 31.1 74.6 75.7 38.1 86.8 69.7 55.2 58.6 38.2 46.0 34.8 73.6 50.0 59.8 7.4 27.7 37.3 71.2 34.1 25.8 46.0 67.7 53.4 31.3

43.6 61.1 45.0 59.1 32.8 20.4 44.7 57.5 50.3 74.8 62.4 29.4 68.9 76.8 66.8 59.1 43.9 68.1 .. 74.6 33.3 49.9 56.1 27.1 70.9 57.3 70.5 78.4 51.3 73.6 65.0 42.0 42.7 69.9 77.3 44.3 83.3 68.5 56.9 58.4 56.3 68.1 51.2 71.1 49.7 73.9 22.1 38.7 47.5 69.1 39.5 37.7 51.8 66.2 63.3 42.2

1.2 5.1 299.5 58.6 11.7 3.5 1.3 1.5 22.6 1.0 57.2 0.5 7.0 7.8 7.5 15.5 0.5 1.5 1.7 1.4 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.8 0.8 4.3 3.1 5.3 3.4 0.8 0.3 22.0 2.1 0.8 7.0 6.7 17.1 0.4 7.1 5.6 1.3 1.0 2.8 29.5 1.9 0.3 29.3 0.7 1.5 1.1 5.4 18.7 18.5 4.6 1.0

2.6 4.9 470.2 104.2 21.1 6.8 1.7 2.9 25.7 1.4 68.0 1.6 7.4 16.3 11.8 24.6 1.0 2.2 2.6 1.3 1.6 0.7 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.0 7.8 5.2 10.3 5.6 1.3 0.5 42.3 2.2 1.2 12.1 9.6 26.1 0.8 11.3 7.5 2.0 2.2 5.4 52.9 2.4 0.7 55.3 1.3 2.7 2.1 10.4 34.2 19.9 5.2 1.5

3.6 –0.2 2.0 2.6 2.7 3.0 1.3 3.1 0.6 1.7 0.8 5.0 0.2 3.3 2.1 2.1 3.1 1.6 2.1 –0.5 2.9 1.4 2.3 2.3 0.0 0.8 2.7 2.3 3.0 2.2 2.3 1.9 3.0 0.1 2.2 2.5 1.6 1.9 2.8 2.1 1.3 1.8 3.6 3.0 2.7 0.9 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.8 3.0 2.7 0.3 0.5 1.7

25.2 43.3 33.7 35.2 20.4 17.3 28.1 33.7 32.9 46.3 37.9 14.7 47.6 46.0 44.8 38.7 13.1 47.5 .. 50.8 22.6 37.9 38.4 18.6 49.7 36.1 45.2 50.6 33.7 46.7 45.0 25.7 26.9 50.3 45.7 33.5 49.0 43.7 40.1 38.8 31.5 34.3 27.6 44.6 36.2 40.5 6.2 22.7 29.9 41.7 26.7 23.9 35.0 45.3 38.7 31.8

32.6 44.8 32.5 41.2 28.4 20.4 35.0 41.7 38.7 46.2 41.7 25.6 47.1 46.1 43.3 41.8 32.1 47.2 .. 50.5 30.1 37.0 39.6 24.0 48.0 42.0 44.7 48.4 38.3 46.1 43.5 33.0 33.8 48.4 47.1 34.9 48.4 43.4 41.0 40.5 40.9 45.2 36.6 44.3 36.7 46.5 18.9 29.5 35.7 42.4 30.4 31.9 38.0 46.5 44.1 37.8

2004 World Development Indicators

43

2.2
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Labor force structure
Labor force participation rate Labor force

Average annual % ages 15–64 Male 1980 2002 1980 Female 2002 1980 Total millions 2002 growth rate % 1980–2002 1980 Female % of labor force 2002

83.6 84.3 95.1 86.3 88.9 81.4 86.8 84.7 83.5 81.9 89.6 85.1 84.5 83.7 88.6 86.4 85.4 89.9 82.1 79.6 89.9 89.3 89.9 85.6 84.8 87.5 81.4 93.4 82.7 94.9 89.2 83.8 85.3 78.6 83.9 89.9 .. 83.0 89.5 87.4 87.5 w 88.4 88.2 88.7 84.8 88.3 90.3 83.6 86.7 83.2 88.7 89.2 84.4 83.7

77.0 79.7 94.4 81.1 86.8 76.4 84.6 82.6 82.4 75.4 87.2 82.0 80.0 81.8 85.9 83.1 83.9 90.2 80.5 77.3 88.3 89.9 87.2 81.1 83.2 84.9 80.4 91.0 78.4 87.9 83.3 81.0 82.5 77.9 83.0 83.8 .. 84.1 87.2 86.3 85.3 w 86.4 85.9 86.3 82.5 86.1 88.1 79.8 85.4 80.8 86.7 86.6 81.1 78.7

69.1 74.7 87.4 9.6 63.2 50.5 44.6 47.4 69.4 67.0 66.2 46.5 32.5 32.3 30.8 41.5 69.3 51.9 23.6 68.3 86.0 79.7 54.7 39.7 34.5 47.8 69.9 83.3 73.7 16.0 57.0 58.2 37.3 70.4 32.3 74.9 .. 28.5 69.2 67.4 57.3 w 53.8 61.9 64.2 44.3 58.5 70.8 69.0 33.2 24.8 47.9 63.0 52.6 47.2

61.3 72.2 85.4 24.5 63.5 58.6 46.9 54.7 74.3 65.1 64.6 50.2 48.5 47.0 36.5 44.5 81.2 65.4 31.1 63.6 82.7 77.9 55.0 49.7 40.6 53.6 67.4 81.2 69.7 34.2 67.1 70.1 59.4 68.1 47.3 77.5 .. 31.9 66.8 67.0 60.8 w 54.4 65.1 67.2 49.0 60.3 75.1 66.7 46.0 33.8 47.1 62.2 63.5 56.9

10.9 76.0 2.6 2.8 2.5 4.5 b 1.2 1.1 2.5 1.0 3.0 10.3 14.0 5.4 7.1 0.2 4.2 3.1 2.5 1.5 9.5 24.4 1.1 0.4 2.2 18.7 1.2 6.6 26.4 0.6 26.9 110.1 1.2 6.5 5.2 25.6 .. 2.5 2.4 3.2 2,036.6 s 683.4 978.8 885.1 93.7 1,662.3 704.1 214.1 128.8 53.9 388.7 172.7 374.3 123.0

10.7 77.6 4.4 7.2 4.4 3.9 2.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 4.0 18.1 18.1 8.4 13.2 0.4 4.8 3.9 5.6 2.5 18.1 37.5 2.0 0.6 4.0 33.7 2.1 12.1 24.9 1.6 29.6 148.3 1.6 11.0 10.5 41.8 .. 5.9 4.4 6.1 3,028.6 s 1,138.6 1,419.4 1,276.7 142.7 2,558.0 1,049.3 239.3 229.6 105.0 629.8 305.1 470.6 141.6

–0.1 0.1 2.4 4.4 2.5 0.6 c 2.1 2.8 0.8 0.2 1.3 2.5 1.2 2.0 2.8 3.2 0.6 1.1 3.7 2.3 2.9 2.0 2.7 1.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 –0.3 4.7 0.4 1.4 1.3 2.4 3.2 2.2 .. 3.9 2.8 2.9 1.8 w 2.3 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.8 0.5 2.6 3.0 2.2 2.6 1.0 0.6

45.8 49.4 49.1 7.6 42.2 38.7 b 35.5 34.6 45.3 45.8 43.4 35.1 28.3 26.9 26.9 33.5 43.8 36.7 23.5 46.9 49.8 47.4 39.3 31.4 28.9 35.5 47.0 47.9 50.2 5.1 38.9 41.0 30.8 48.0 26.7 48.1 .. 32.5 45.4 44.4 39.1 w 37.4 40.5 41.2 34.2 39.2 42.6 46.7 27.8 23.8 33.8 42.0 38.4 36.4

44.5 49.2 48.7 17.7 42.6 43.1 37.1 39.2 47.7 46.6 43.4 37.9 37.5 36.9 30.0 37.8 48.1 40.8 27.6 45.2 49.0 46.2 40.0 34.9 32.1 38.1 45.9 47.6 48.8 15.9 44.3 46.2 42.2 46.9 35.4 48.7 .. 28.3 44.6 44.5 40.7 w 37.7 42.2 42.8 37.0 40.2 44.5 46.3 35.2 28.6 33.6 42.0 43.4 41.4

a. Estimate does not account for recent refugee flows. b. Includes labor force for Kosovo until 2001. c. Data are for 1980–2001.

44

2004 World Development Indicators

Labor force structure
About the data Definitions The labor force is the supply of labor available for the production of goods and services in an economy. It includes people who are currently employed and people who are unemployed but seeking work as well as first-time job-seekers. Not everyone who works is included, however. Unpaid workers, family workers, and students are among those usually omitted, and in some countries members of the military are not counted. The size of the labor force tends to vary during the year as seasonal workers enter and leave it. Data on the labor force are compiled by the International Labour Organization (ILO) from labor force surveys, censuses, establishment censuses and surveys, and various types of administrative records such as employment exchange registers and unemployment insurance schemes. For some countries a combination of sources is used. While the resulting statistics may provide rough estimates of the labor force, they are not comparable across countries because of the noncomparability of the original data and the different ways the original sources may be combined. For international comparisons the most comprehensive source is labor force surveys. Despite the ILO’s efforts to encourage the use of international standards, labor force data are not fully comparable because of differences among countries, and sometimes within countries, in their scope and coverage. In some countries data on the labor force refer to people above a specific age, while in others there is no specific age provision. The reference period of the census or survey is another important source of differences: in some countries data refer to people’s status on the day of the census or survey or during a specific period before the inquiry date, while in others the data are recorded without reference to any period. In developing countries, where the household is often the basic unit of production and all members contribute to output, but some at low intensity or irregular intervals, the estimated labor force may be significantly smaller than the numbers actually working (ILO, Yearbook of Labour Statistics 1997). The labor force estimates in the table were calculated by World Bank staff by applying labor force participation rates from the ILO database to World Bank population estimates to create a series consistent with these population estimates. This procedure sometimes results in estimates of labor force size that differ slightly from those in the ILO’s Yearbook of Labour Statistics. The labor force participation rate of the population ages 15–64 provides an indication of the relative size of the supply of labor. Data sources But in many developing countries children under 15 work full or part time. And in some high-income countries many workers postpone retirement past age 65. As a result, labor force participation rates calculated in this way may systematically over- or under-estimate actual rates. High participation rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where men and women cannot afford to forgo work, because of a lack of social protection. The largest gap between men and women in labor force participation is observed in the Middle East and North Africa, where low participation of women in the work force also brings down the overall labor force participation rate. In general, estimates of women in the labor force are lower than those of men and are not comparable internationally, reflecting the fact that for women, demographic, social, legal, and cultural trends and norms determine whether their activities are regarded as economic. In many countries large numbers of women work on farms or in other family enterprises without pay, while others work in or near their homes, mixing work and family activities during the day. Countries differ in the criteria used to determine the extent to which such workers are to be counted as part of the labor force. In most economies the gap between male and female labor force participation rates has been narrowing since 1980.

2.2

PEOPLE

• Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15–64 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. • Total labor force comprises people who meet the ILO definition of the economically active population. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, the labor force generally includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time jobseekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. • Average annual growth rate of the labor force is calculated using the exponential endpoint method (see Statistical methods for more information). • Females as a percentage of the labor force show the extent to which women are active in the labor force.

The labor force participation rates are from the ILO database Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950–2010. The ILO publishes estimates of the economically active population in its Yearbook of Labour Statistics.

2004 World Development Indicators

45

2.3
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Employment by economic activity
Agriculture a Industry a Services a

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

66 .. 27 67 .. .. 8 .. .. .. .. 4 66 .. 26 .. 34 .. 92 .. .. 65 7 79 82 22 .. 2 2 62 42 34 60 .. 30 13 .. .. .. 45 51 79 .. .. 15 10 59 78 .. .. .. 26 .. 86 81 ..

.. .. .. .. 1 .. 6 5 37 53 .. .. .. 6 .. 22 24 .. .. .. 71 .. 4 .. .. 18 .. 0c 33 .. .. 22 .. 16 .. 6 5 21 10 27 34 .. 10 .. 7 2 .. .. 53 3 .. 15 50 .. .. ..

86 .. 69 87 .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. 2 69 .. 38 .. 20 .. 93 .. .. 87 3 90 95 3 .. 1 1 84 81 6 75 .. 10 11 .. .. .. 10 10 88 .. .. 12 7 74 93 .. .. .. 42 .. 97 98 ..

.. .. .. .. 0c .. 3 6 43 77 .. .. .. 3 .. 17 16 .. .. .. 70 .. 2 .. .. 5 .. 0c 7 .. .. 4 .. 15 .. 3 2 2 4 39 4 .. 4 .. 4 1 .. .. 53 2 .. 18 18 .. .. ..

9 .. 33 13 .. .. 39 .. .. .. .. 44 10 .. 45 .. 30 .. 3 .. .. 11 37 5 6 27 .. 47 39 18 20 25 10 .. 32 57 .. .. .. 21 21 7 .. .. 45 45 18 10 .. .. .. 34 .. 2 3 ..

.. .. .. .. 30 .. 30 43 14 11 .. .. .. 39 .. 26 27 .. .. .. 9 .. 33 .. .. 29 .. 27 19 .. .. 27 .. 37 .. 50 36 26 30 25 25 .. 42 .. 40 34 .. .. 12 44 .. 30 18 .. .. ..

12 .. 6 1 .. .. 16 .. .. .. .. 18 4 .. 24 .. 13 .. 2 .. .. 2 16 1 0c 16 .. 56 26 4 2 20 5 .. 22 39 .. .. .. 13 21 2 .. .. 23 22 6 3 .. .. .. 18 .. 1 0 ..

.. .. .. .. 12 .. 10 14 7 9 .. .. .. 14 .. 14 10 .. .. .. 12 .. 11 .. .. 13 .. 10 17 .. .. 15 .. 21 .. 28 14 17 16 7 22 .. 23 .. 14 13 .. .. 6 18 .. 12 23 .. .. ..

26 .. 40 20 .. .. 53 .. .. .. .. 51 24 .. 30 .. 36 .. 5 .. .. 24 56 15 12 51 .. 52 59 20 38 40 30 .. 39 30 .. .. .. 33 28 14 .. .. 39 46 24 13 .. .. .. 40 .. 12 17 ..

.. .. .. .. 69 .. 64 52 49 30 .. .. .. 55 .. 51 49 .. .. .. 20 .. 64 .. .. 53 .. 73 48 .. .. 51 .. 47 .. 44 59 53 60 48 42 .. 48 .. 53 64 .. .. 35 52 .. 56 27 .. .. ..

2 .. 25 11 .. .. 80 .. .. .. .. 79 27 .. 39 .. 67 .. 5 .. .. 11 81 9 4 81 .. 43 74 12 17 74 20 .. 68 50 .. .. .. 69 69 11 .. .. 65 71 21 5 .. .. .. 40 .. 3 3 ..

.. .. .. .. 87 .. 87 80 50 12 .. .. .. 82 .. 67 74 .. .. .. 18 .. 87 .. .. 83 .. 90 76 .. .. 80 .. 63 .. 68 85 81 79 54 74 .. 73 .. 82 86 .. .. 41 80 .. 70 56 .. .. ..

46

2004 World Development Indicators

Employment by economic activity
Agriculture a Industry a

2.3
Services a
Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

PEOPLE

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

.. .. .. 57 .. 21 .. 8 13 .. 9 .. .. 23 39 .. 2 .. 77 .. 13 26 69 16 .. .. 73 .. 34 86 65 29 .. .. .. .. 72 .. 52 .. .. 13 .. .. .. 10 52 .. .. 76 2 .. 60 .. .. 8

.. 9 .. .. .. .. 11 3 6 .. 5 .. .. 20 .. 9 .. .. .. 18 .. .. .. .. 20 23 .. .. 21 .. .. .. 24 52 .. .. .. .. 33 .. 4 12 .. .. .. 6 .. 44 29 .. 39 11 45 19 12 3

.. .. .. 54 .. 62 .. 4 16 .. 13 .. .. 25 52 .. 0 .. 82 .. 20 64 89 63 .. .. 93 .. 44 92 79 30 .. .. .. .. 97 .. 42 .. .. 7 .. .. .. 6 24 .. .. 92 0c .. 37 .. .. 0c

.. 4 .. .. .. .. 2 1 5 .. 5 .. .. 16 .. 12 .. .. .. 12 .. .. .. .. 12 25 .. .. 14 .. .. .. 6 50 .. .. .. .. 29 .. 2 6 .. .. .. 2 .. 73 6 .. 20 6 25 19 14 0c

.. .. .. 13 .. 24 .. 39 43 .. 40 .. .. 24 37 .. 36 .. 7 .. 29 52 9 29 .. .. 9 .. 26 2 11 19 .. .. .. .. 14 .. 22 .. .. 38 .. .. .. 41 21 .. .. 8 35 .. 16 .. .. 27

.. 42 .. .. .. .. 39 34 39 .. 37 .. .. 24 .. 34 .. .. .. 35 .. .. .. .. 34 36 .. .. 34 .. .. .. 28 18 .. .. .. .. 17 .. 31 32 .. .. .. 33 .. 20 20 .. 21 24 18 40 44 27

.. .. .. 13 .. 11 .. 16 28 .. 28 .. .. 9 20 .. 3 .. 4 .. 21 5 1 3 .. .. 2 .. 20 1 2 40 .. .. .. .. 1 .. 10 .. .. 19 .. .. .. 13 33 .. .. 2 13 .. 15 .. .. 24

.. 26 .. .. .. .. 14 12 20 .. 21 .. .. 10 .. 19 .. .. .. 16 .. .. .. .. 21 30 .. .. 29 .. .. .. 22 10 .. .. .. .. 7 .. 9 12 .. .. .. 9 .. 9 10 .. 10 10 12 18 23 14

.. .. .. 29 .. 55 .. 52 44 .. 51 .. .. 53 24 .. 62 .. 16 .. 58 22 22 55 .. .. 19 .. 40 12 25 47 .. .. .. .. 14 .. 27 .. .. 48 .. .. .. 49 27 .. .. 16 63 .. 25 .. .. 65

.. 49 .. .. .. .. 50 62 55 .. 57 .. .. 57 .. 57 .. .. .. 47 .. .. .. .. 45 41 .. .. 45 .. .. .. 48 31 .. .. .. .. 49 .. 64 56 .. .. .. 58 .. 36 51 .. 40 65 37 40 44 69

.. .. .. 33 .. 28 .. 79 56 .. 58 .. .. 65 28 .. 97 .. 13 .. 59 31 10 34 .. .. 5 .. 36 7 19 31 .. .. .. .. 2 .. 47 .. .. 73 .. .. .. 81 43 .. .. 6 86 .. 48 .. .. 75

.. 71 .. .. .. .. 83 86 75 .. 73 .. .. 75 .. 70 .. .. .. 72 .. .. .. .. 67 46 .. .. 57 .. .. .. 72 40 .. .. .. .. 63 .. 86 82 .. .. .. 88 .. 18 85 .. 69 84 63 63 63 86

2004 World Development Indicators

47

2.3
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Employment by economic activity
Agriculture a Industry a Services a

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

Male % of male employment 1980 2000–02 b

Female % of female employment 1980 2000–02 b

22 .. 88 45 74 .. 63 2 .. .. 69 .. 20 44 66 .. 8 8 .. .. .. 68 70 .. 33 4 .. .. .. 5 4 5 .. .. 20 .. 22 60 69 .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8 ..

40 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0c 8 10 .. .. 8 .. .. .. 3 5 .. .. .. 50 .. .. .. 24 .. .. 22 9 2 3 6 .. 15 .. 9 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. 16 .. .. .. 21 .. .. .. 4 5

39 .. 98 25 90 .. 82 1 .. .. 90 .. 18 51 88 .. 3 5 .. .. .. 74 67 .. 53 9 .. .. .. 0c 1 2 .. .. 2 .. 25 98 85 .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 ..

45 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0c 4 10 .. .. 5 .. .. .. 1 3 .. .. .. 48 .. .. .. 56 .. .. 17 0c 1 1 2 .. 2 .. 26 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. 8 .. .. .. 9 .. .. .. 3 4

52 .. 5 17 9 .. 20 33 .. .. 12 .. 42 19 9 .. 45 47 .. .. .. 13 12 .. 30 36 .. .. .. 40 48 39 .. .. 31 .. 43 19 13 .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 41 ..

30 .. .. .. .. .. .. 31 48 46 .. .. 42 .. .. .. 36 36 .. .. .. 20 .. .. .. 28 .. .. 39 36 36 32 32 .. 28 .. 32 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. 32 .. .. .. 27 .. .. .. 35 40

34 .. 1 5 2 .. 4 40 .. .. 2 .. 21 18 4 .. 16 23 .. .. .. 8 7 .. 32 31 .. .. .. 7 23 19 .. .. 18 .. 25 1 3 .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22 ..

22 .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 26 29 .. .. 15 .. .. .. 11 13 .. .. .. 17 .. .. .. 15 .. .. 22 14 11 12 14 .. 12 .. 11 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. 19 .. .. .. 14 .. .. .. 15 16

26 .. 7 39 17 .. 17 65 .. .. 19 .. 38 30 24 .. 47 46 .. .. .. 20 19 .. 37 60 .. .. .. 55 49 56 .. .. 49 .. 36 21 19 .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 51 ..

30 .. .. .. .. .. .. 69 44 43 .. .. 51 .. .. .. 61 59 .. .. .. 30 .. .. .. 48 .. .. 33 55 62 65 62 .. 57 .. 58 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. 51 .. .. .. 52 .. .. .. 60 55

27 .. 1 70 8 .. 14 59 .. .. 8 .. 61 28 8 .. 81 72 .. .. .. 18 26 .. 16 60 .. .. .. 93 76 80 .. .. 79 .. 50 1 13 .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 72 ..

33 .. .. .. .. .. .. 81 71 61 .. .. 81 .. .. .. 88 84 .. .. .. 35 .. .. .. 29 .. .. 55 86 88 87 85 .. 86 .. 62 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. 73 .. .. .. 76 .. .. .. 82 80

a. Data may not add up to 100 because of workers not classified by sector. b. Data are for the most recent year available. c. Less than 0.5.

48

2004 World Development Indicators

Employment by economic activity
About the data The International Labour Organization (ILO) classifies economic activity on the basis of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Economic Activities. Because this classification is based on where work is performed (industry) rather than on what type of work is performed (occupation), all of an enterprise’s employees are classified under the same industry, regardless of their trade or occupation. The categories should add up to 100 percent. Where they do not, the differences arise because of workers who cannot be classified by economic activity. Data on employment are drawn from labor force surveys, household surveys, establishment censuses and surveys, administrative records of social insurance schemes, and official national estimates. The concept of employment generally refers to people above a certain age who worked, or who held a job, during a reference period. Employment data include both full-time and part-time workers. There are, however, many differences in how countries define and measure employment status, particularly for students, part-time workers, members of the armed forces, and household or contributing family workers. Where the armed forces are included, they are allocated to the service sector, causing that sector to be somewhat overstated relative to the service sector in economies where they are excluded. Where data are obtained from establishment surveys, they cover only employees; thus self-employed and contributing family workers are excluded. In such cases the employment share of the agricultural sector is severely underreported. Countries also take very different approaches to the treatment of unemployed people. In most countries unemployed people with previous job experience are classified according to their last job. But in some countries the unemployed and people seeking their first job are not classifiable by economic activity. Because of these differences, the size and distribution of employment by economic activity may not be fully comparable across countries (ILO, Yearbook of Labour Statistics 1996, p. 64). The ILO’s Yearbook of Labour Statistics and its database Key Indicators of the Labour Market report data by major divisions of the ISIC revision 2 or ISIC revision 3. In this table the reported divisions or categories are aggregated into three broad groups: agriculture, industry, and services. Classification into such broad groups may obscure fundamental shifts within countries’ industrial patterns. Most economies report economic activity according to the ISIC revision 2, although a group of economies moved to ISIC revision 3. The use of one classification or another should not have a significant impact on the information for the three broad sectors presented in this table. The distribution of economic activity by gender reveals some interesting patterns. Industry accounts for a larger share of male employment than female employment worldwide, whereas a higher proportion of women work in the services sector. Employment in agriculture is also male-dominated, although not as much as industry. Segregating one sex in a narrow range of occupations significantly reduces economic efficiency by reducing labor market flexibility and thus the economy’s ability to adapt to change. This segregation is particularly harmful for women, who have a much narrower range of labor market choices and lower levels of pay than men. But it is also detrimental to men when job losses are concentrated in industries dominated by men and job Definitions

2.3

PEOPLE

growth is centered in service occupations, where women often dominate, as has been the recent experience in many countries. There are several explanations for the rising importance of service jobs for women. Many service jobs—such as nursing and social and clerical work— are considered “feminine” because of a perceived similarity to women’s traditional roles. Women often do not receive the training needed to take advantage of changing employment opportunities. And the greater availability of part-time work in service industries may lure more women, although it is not clear whether this is a cause or an effect.

• Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. • Industry corresponds to divisions 2–5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C–F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). • Services correspond to divisions 6–9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G–P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services.

2.3a
Women tend to suffer disproportionately from underemployment
Underemployment as share of total employment (%) 15 12 9 6 3 0 Paraguay Namibia Pakistan Thailand Male Female

Time-related underemployment includes people who work less than the normal duration of work, as defined by national authorities, but who desire and seek to work additional hours. More women tend to be underemployed than men, as discrimination and women’s household responsibilities may make it more difficult for them to have stable and high-paid work. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market, third edition.

Data sources The employment data are from the ILO database Key Indicators of the Labour Market, third edition.

2004 World Development Indicators

49

2.4
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Unemployment
Unemployment Long-term unemployment Unemployment by level of educational attainment

Male % of male labor force 1980 2000–02 a

Female % of female labor force 1980 2000–02 a

Total % of total labor force 1980 2000–02 a % of total unemployment Male 2000–02 a Female 2000–02 a Total 2000–02 a

% of total unemployment Primary 1999– 2001 a Secondary 1999– 2001 a Tertiary 1999– 2001 a

.. .. .. .. .. .. 5.0 1.6 .. .. .. 5.5 .. .. .. .. 2.8 .. .. .. .. .. 7.0 .. .. 10.6 .. 3.9 7.5 .. .. 5.3 .. 3.4 .. .. 6.5 .. .. 3.9 .. .. .. .. 4.6 4.1 .. .. .. .. .. 3.3 .. .. .. ..

.. 18.8 33.9 .. 14.1 .. 6.2 3.5 1.1 3.2 1.9 6.2 .. 4.5 .. 14.7 7.5 20.2 .. .. 1.5 .. 8.1 .. .. 7.5 .. 8.4 11.6 .. .. 5.6 .. 13.4 .. 5.9 4.2 9.4 7.1 5.1 8.0 .. 12.9 .. 9.0 7.9 .. .. 11.6 8.7 .. 6.2 2.5 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 7.4 2.3 .. .. .. 15.0 .. .. .. .. 2.8 .. .. .. .. .. 8.2 .. .. 10.0 .. 3.4 11.5 .. .. 7.8 .. 8.2 .. .. 7.6 .. .. 19.2 .. .. .. .. 4.7 9.1 .. .. .. .. .. 5.7 .. .. .. ..

.. 28.4 29.7 .. 16.4 .. 5.8 3.8 1.5 3.3 2.6 7.8 .. 6.2 .. 17.2 11.9 18.4 .. .. 2.2 .. 7.1 .. .. 8.5 .. 6.0 19.1 .. .. 7.9 .. 18.5 .. 9.0 4.3 26.0 16.2 22.7 3.5 .. 12.2 .. 9.1 10.1 .. .. 10.7 8.3 .. 14.6 4.3 .. .. ..

.. 5.6 .. .. 2.3 .. 5.9 1.9 .. .. .. 9.1 .. .. .. .. 2.8 .. .. .. .. .. 7.5 .. .. 10.4 4.9 3.8 9.1 .. .. 5.9 .. 5.3 .. .. 7.0 .. .. 5.2 12.9 .. .. .. 4.7 6.1 .. .. .. .. .. 2.4 1.7 .. .. ..

.. 22.7 29.8 .. 17.8 .. 6.0 3.6 1.3 3.3 2.3 6.9 .. 5.2 .. 15.8 9.4 19.4 .. .. 1.8 .. 7.7 .. .. 7.8 3.1 7.3 17.9 .. .. 6.4 .. 15.2 3.3 7.3 4.3 15.6 11.0 9.0 6.2 .. 12.6 .. 9.0 8.9 .. .. 11.0 8.6 .. 9.6 3.1 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. 72.2 25.9 25.8 .. .. .. 45.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8.9 .. .. .. 50.2 17.1 2.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 30.0 30.2 .. .. .. 44.9 .. 47.1 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. 70.8 17.1 24.2 .. .. .. 53.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13.3 .. .. .. 51.0 22.1 1.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. 22.6 33.1 .. .. .. 48.7 .. 55.7 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. 71.6 22.1 25.1 .. .. .. 49.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10.9 .. 56.4 .. 50.6 19.5 1.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. 26.2 31.7 .. .. .. 46.6 .. 52.4 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 54.3 36.0 4.5 54.3 7.9 50.0 .. 60.2 .. .. 26.1 36.7 46.8 .. .. .. 30.7 .. .. 22.7 .. .. 22.8 .. .. 71.6 .. 19.1 .. 27.3 35.1 .. 26.8 .. .. .. 19.3 26.9 38.2 .. .. .. 5.5 26.8 .. 35.1 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 31.5 57.6 35.4 22.7 15.3 34.9 .. 32.5 .. .. 20.2 53.0 19.3 .. .. .. 30.3 .. .. 54.9 .. .. 57.2 .. .. 15.2 .. 71.3 .. 69.1 44.9 .. 50.8 .. .. .. 62.7 61.3 45.8 .. .. .. 33.1 60.4 .. 49.4 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 14.0 6.4 60.1 8.4 76.9 15.1 .. 4.4 .. .. 2.5 10.3 5.6 .. .. .. 39.0 .. .. 21.6 .. .. 17.2 .. .. 10.0 .. 9.1 .. 3.6 20.0 .. 20.2 .. .. .. 18.1 8.1 16.0 .. .. .. 61.4 12.8 .. 14.5 .. .. .. ..

50

2004 World Development Indicators

Unemployment
Unemployment Long-term unemployment

2.4
% of total unemployment Secondary 1999– 2001 a Tertiary 1999– 2001 a

PEOPLE

Unemployment by level of educational attainment

Male % of male labor force 1980 2000–02 a

Female % of female labor force 1980 2000–02 a

Total % of total labor force 1980 2000–02 a % of total unemployment Male 2000–02 a Female 2000–02 a Total 2000–02 a

Primary 1999– 2001 a

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

8.6 .. .. .. .. .. 11.4 4.1 4.8 16.3 2.0 .. .. .. .. 6.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4.3 .. .. .. .. 1.2 .. 3.0 6.3 .. 3.8 .. 3.2 .. 3.3 19.5

3.4 6.1 .. .. .. .. 4.6 10.1 6.9 .. 5.6 11.8 .. .. .. 3.5 0.8 .. .. 14.1 .. .. .. .. 19.7 31.7 .. .. .. .. .. 5.6 2.4 8.7 .. .. .. .. 28.3 .. 2.8 5.0 12.8 .. .. 4.1 .. 6.1 10.5 .. .. 7.5 9.4 19.1 4.2 13.0

6.0 .. .. .. .. .. 8.2 6.0 13.2 39.6 2.0 .. .. .. .. 3.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 32.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5.2 .. .. .. .. 2.1 .. 7.5 13.3 .. 4.8 .. 7.5 .. 12.1 12.3

4.7 5.4 .. .. .. .. 3.7 10.6 12.2 .. 5.1 20.7 .. .. .. 2.5 0.6 .. .. 11.5 .. .. .. .. 14.2 32.3 .. .. .. .. .. 12.6 2.4 5.9 .. .. .. .. 39.0 .. 3.6 5.3 9.4 .. .. 3.7 .. 17.3 18.2 .. .. 10.0 10.3 20.9 6.1 9.1

7.3 .. .. .. .. .. 10.5 4.8 7.6 27.3 2.0 .. .. .. .. 5.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4.6 .. .. .. .. 1.6 .. 3.6 8.4 .. 4.1 .. 4.8 .. 6.7 17.1

3.8 5.8 .. 6.1 .. .. 4.2 10.3 9.0 .. 5.4 13.2 .. .. .. 3.1 0.8 8.6 .. 12.8 .. .. .. .. 13.8 31.9 .. .. 3.9 .. .. 8.0 2.4 7.3 .. .. .. .. 33.8 .. 3.1 5.2 11.2 .. .. 3.9 .. 7.8 13.2 .. .. 8.7 9.8 19.9 5.1 11.4

.. 47.1 .. .. .. .. 35.9 .. 58.0 24.4 34.8 .. .. .. .. 3.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21.5 14.9 .. .. .. 8.1 .. .. 24.0 .. .. .. .. 45.1 31.9 ..

.. 41.7 .. .. .. .. 18.2 .. 61.6 36.2 21.6 .. .. .. .. 1.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20.7 10.0 .. .. .. 3.7 .. .. 35.7 .. .. .. .. 52.0 31.4 ..

.. 44.8 .. .. .. .. 29.4 .. 59.9 31.7 29.7 .. .. .. .. 2.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 57.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21.1 12.6 .. .. .. 6.2 .. .. 29.3 .. .. .. .. 48.4 31.6 ..

.. 35.4 29.0 46.0 .. .. 60.8 20.7 49.1 .. 21.5 .. 7.2 .. .. 26.1 .. 33.4 .. 24.6 .. .. .. .. 15.4 34.0 .. .. .. .. .. 35.5 51.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 49.5 0.5 56.3 .. .. 25.0 .. .. 47.0 .. .. 15.8 .. 19.1 73.3 ..

.. 60.5 40.3 36.6 .. .. 20.8 44.2 41.9 .. 53.4 .. 52.5 .. .. 51.0 11.9 55.7 .. 67.0 .. .. .. .. 55.8 52.1 .. .. .. .. .. 63.9 23.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 35.9 44.5 23.4 .. .. 50.0 .. .. 35.5 .. .. 54.9 .. 76.8 13.6 ..

.. 4.1 30.7 6.7 .. .. 16.1 34.1 7.2 .. 24.8 .. 40.3 .. .. 22.9 2.7 10.9 .. 8.2 .. .. .. .. 28.8 7.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. 22.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13.2 19.2 14.7 .. .. 22.6 .. .. 11.3 .. .. 28.3 .. 4.2 8.1 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

51

2.4
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Unemployment
Unemployment Long-term unemployment Unemployment by level of educational attainment

Male % of male labor force 1980 2000–02 a

Female % of female labor force 1980 2000–02 a

Total % of total labor force 1980 2000–02 a % of total unemployment Male 2000–02 a Female 2000–02 a Total 2000–02 a

% of total unemployment Primary 1999– 2001 a Secondary 1999– 2001 a Tertiary 1999– 2001 a

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.9 .. .. .. .. 10.4 .. .. .. 1.9 0.2 3.8 .. .. 1.0 .. 8.0 .. 9.0 .. .. .. .. 8.3 6.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. 32.7 .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5.5 5.5

7.1 9.3 .. .. .. 22.6 .. 3.5 18.6 5.6 .. 26.1 8.0 6.8 .. .. 5.6 2.8 8.0 .. .. 1.8 .. .. .. 10.9 .. .. 11.2 2.2 5.6 5.9 11.5 .. 11.6 .. 27.3 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. 11.3 .. .. .. .. 5.4 7.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.4 .. .. .. .. 13.1 .. .. .. 2.6 0.3 3.8 .. .. 0.7 .. 14.0 .. 23.0 .. .. .. .. 4.8 7.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. 59.0 .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7.0 10.8

5.9 8.5 .. .. .. 22.1 .. 3.4 18.7 6.3 .. 33.3 16.4 11.2 .. .. 4.7 3.1 23.9 .. .. 1.7 .. .. .. 9.9 .. .. 11.0 2.6 4.4 5.6 19.7 .. 14.6 .. 14.1 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. 11.1 .. .. .. .. 6.7 11.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.0 .. .. .. .. 11.1 .. .. .. 2.2 0.2 3.9 .. .. 0.8 .. 10.0 .. 10.9 .. .. .. .. 6.8 7.1 .. .. 5.9 .. .. .. 42.2 .. .. w .. 4.8 4.9 .. .. 4.7 .. .. .. .. .. 6.0 7.1

6.6 8.9 .. .. .. 22.3 .. 3.4 18.6 5.9 .. 29.5 11.4 8.2 .. .. 5.2 2.9 11.2 .. .. 1.8 .. .. .. 10.6 .. .. 11.1 2.3 5.1 5.8 17.2 .. 12.8 .. 25.5 .. .. .. .. w .. 4.9 4.3 9.0 .. 3.7 11.1 9.2 .. .. .. 6.2 9.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 58.6 .. .. 31.6 .. .. .. 23.0 19.0 .. .. .. .. .. 20.3 .. 26.4 .. .. .. .. 26.4 8.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 24.7 40.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 61.4 .. .. 41.8 .. .. .. 18.1 23.9 .. .. .. .. .. 34.7 .. 34.5 .. .. .. .. 17.0 8.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22.8 44.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 59.9 .. .. 37.5 .. .. .. 20.9 21.3 .. .. .. .. .. 27.6 .. 28.5 .. .. .. .. 22.8 8.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 24.1 42.8

20.6 16.8 60.7 .. .. .. .. 25.5 19.8 33.3 .. .. 57.1 41.0 .. .. 28.6 43.0 .. .. .. 70.6 .. 38.2 .. 60.1 .. .. 8.6 .. 33.7 20.3 50.7 .. 57.9 .. .. .. .. 16.4 30.0 w 30.0 .. .. 34.8 28.8 .. 21.3 31.3 .. 29.3 .. 31.1 42.1

72.7 41.6 24.1 .. .. .. .. 26.9 77.1 63.2 .. .. 19.7 .. .. .. 56.6 43.0 .. .. .. 7.2 .. 60.7 .. 29.0 .. .. 27.3 .. 44.4 35.3 21.2 .. 24.0 .. .. .. .. 81.8 40.2 w 41.4 .. .. 52.5 40.0 .. 45.8 28.3 .. 40.3 .. 41.8 43.7

5.5 41.6 5.9 .. .. .. .. 32.0 3.0 5.3 .. .. 22.2 56.1 .. .. 13.1 14.0 .. .. .. 19.2 .. 0.8 .. 8.4 .. .. 64.1 .. 12.7 44.4 27.8 .. 14.4 .. .. .. .. 0.8 25.2 w 27.9 .. .. 11.3 25.8 .. 32.6 9.6 .. 31.0 .. 25.9 13.3

a. Data are for the most recent year available.

52

2004 World Development Indicators

Unemployment
About the data Unemployment and total employment in an economy are the broadest indicators of economic activity as reflected by the labor market. The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines the unemployed as members of the economically active population who are without work but available for and seeking work, including people who have lost their jobs and those who have voluntarily left work. Some unemployment is unavoidable in all economies. At any time some workers are temporarily unemployed—between jobs as employers look for the right workers and workers search for better jobs. Such unemployment, often called frictional unemployment, results from the normal operation of labor markets. Changes in unemployment over time may reflect changes in the demand for and supply of labor, but they may also reflect changes in reporting practices. Ironically, low unemployment rates can often disguise substantial poverty in a country, while high unemployment rates can occur in countries with a high level of economic development and low incidence of poverty. In countries without unemployment or welfare benefits, people eke out a living in the informal sector. In countries with well-developed safety nets, workers can afford to wait for suitable or desirable jobs. But high and sustained unemployment indicates serious inefficiencies in the allocation of resources. The ILO definition of unemployment notwithstanding, reference periods, the criteria for those considered to be seeking work, and the treatment of people temporarily laid off and those seeking work for the first time vary across countries. In many developing countries it is especially difficult to measure employment and unemployment in agriculture. The timing of a survey, for example, can maximize the effects of seasonal unemployment in agriculture. And informal sector employment is difficult to quantify where informal activities are not registered and tracked. Data on unemployment are drawn from labor force sample surveys and general household sample surveys, censuses, and other administrative records such as social insurance statistics, employment office statistics, and official estimates, which are usually based on information drawn from one or more of the above sources. Labor force surveys generally yield the most comprehensive data because they include groups not covered in other unemployment statistics, particularly people seeking work for the first time. These surveys generally use a definition of unemployment that follows the international recommendations more closely than that used by other sources and therefore generate statistics that are more comparable internationally. In contrast, the quality and completeness of data from employment offices and social insurance programs vary widely. Where employment offices work closely with social insurance schemes and registration with such offices is a prerequisite for receipt of unemployment benefits, the two sets of unemployment estimates tend to be comparable. Where registration is voluntary and where employment offices function only in more populous areas, employment office statistics do not give a reliable indication of unemployment. Most commonly excluded from both these sources are discouraged workers who have given up their job search because they believe that no employment opportunities exist or do not register as unemployed after their benefits have been exhausted. Thus measured unemployment may be higher in countries that offer more or longer unemployment benefits. Women tend to be excluded from the unemployment count for various reasons. Women suffer more from discrimination and from structural, social, and cultural barriers that impede them from actively seeking work. Also, women are often responsible for the care of children and the elderly or for other household affairs. They may not be available for work during the short reference period, as they need to make arrangement before star ting work. Furthermore, women are considered to be employed when they are working part-time or in temporary jobs in the informal sector, despite the instability of these jobs and that they may be actively looking for more secure employment. Long-term unemployment is measured in terms of duration, that is, the length of time that an unemployed person has been without work and looking for a job. The underlying assumption is that shorter periods of joblessness are of less concern, especially when the unemployed are covered by unemployment benefits or similar forms of welfare support. The length of time a person has been unemployed is difficult to measure, because the ability to recall the length of that time diminishes as the period of joblessness extends. Women’s long-term unemployment is likely to be lower in countries where women constitute a large share of the unpaid family workforce. Women in such countries have more access than men to nonmarket work and are more likely to drop out of the labor force and not be counted as unemployed. Unemployment by level of educational attainment provide insights into the relationship between the educational attainment of workers and unemployment. Besides the limitations to comparability raised for measuring unemployment, the different ways of classifying the level of education across countries may also cause inconsistency. The level of education is supposed to be classified according to Data source International Standard Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED97). For more information on ISCED97, see About the data for table 2.10. Definitions

2.4

PEOPLE

• Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country (see About the data). •Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. • Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the total unemployed. The levels of educational attainment accord with the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 of the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (UNESCO).

The unemployment data are from the ILO database Key Indicators of the Labour Market, third edition.

2004 World Development Indicators

53

2.5
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau

Pover ty
National poverty line International poverty line

Population below the poverty line Survey year Rural % Urban % National % Survey year

Population below the poverty line Rural % Urban % National % Survey year

Population below $1 a day %

Poverty gap at $1 a day %

Population below $2 a day %

Poverty gap at $2 a day %

2002 1995 1995 1996

1995 1995–96 1998 1995 1997 2001–02 1990 1997 1994 1990 1993–94 1996

1995–96 1996 1996 1995

1992

1996 1992 1994 1995–96 1992 1993–94 1995 1995–96

1992 1997 1992 1989 1994 1991

.. 29.6 30.3 .. .. 48.0 .. .. .. 55.2 .. .. .. 77.3 19.9 .. 32.6 .. 51.0 36.0 43.1 59.6 .. .. 67.0 .. 7.9 .. 79.0 .. .. 25.5 .. .. .. .. .. 86.5 49.0 47.0 23.3 55.7 .. 14.7 47.0 .. .. .. .. 9.9 .. .. 71.9 .. ..

.. 14.7 .. 28.4 58.8 .. .. .. 29.4 .. .. .. 13.8 .. 13.1 .. 10.4 43.0 24.8 41.4 .. .. 63.0 .. <2 .. 48.0 .. .. 19.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 19.3 25.0 22.5 43.1 .. 6.8 33.3 .. .. .. .. 12.1 .. .. 33.7 .. ..

.. 25.4 22.6 .. 54.7 .. .. 68.1 51.0 33.0 .. 33.0 63.2 19.5 .. 17.4 36.0 44.5

1998 1998 1998–99

.. .. 16.6 .. 44.8 .. .. .. 53.0 .. .. .. 81.7 .. .. .. .. 51.0 .. 40.1 49.9 .. .. .. .. 4.6 .. 79.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 42.1 .. .. .. .. .. 45.0 .. .. .. 61.0 .. .. 49.9 .. 74.5 .. ..

2001 2000 2000

1999

2001 1998

39.0 1997 53.3 2001 .. .. 64.0 19.9 1998 6.0 1998 .. 60.0 1999 .. .. 22.0 .. .. .. .. .. 45.1 33.9 1998 35.0 22.9 1999–2000 48.3 53.0 8.9 45.5 1999–2000 .. .. .. 64.0 1998 11.1 .. 50.0 1998 .. 57.9 2000 40.0 48.7

.. .. 7.3 .. 29.9 60.4 .. .. .. 36.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16.5 .. 21.1 22.1 .. .. .. .. <2 .. 55.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20.5 .. .. .. .. .. 37.0 .. .. .. 48.0 .. .. 18.6 .. 27.1 .. ..

.. .. 12.2 .. 53.7 .. .. 49.6 49.8 41.9 .. .. 62.7 .. .. .. 12.8 45.3 .. 36.1 40.2 .. .. .. 17.0 4.6 .. 64.0 .. .. ..

2002 a 1995 a 2001 b 1998 a

2001 a 2000 a 2000 a

1999 a 1993 a 2001 b 2001 a 1998 a 1998 a 1997 a 2001 a 1993 a 2000 b 2001 a 1999 b

.. .. .. 1996 b .. .. 28.6 1998 b .. 1998 b 16.7 2000 a .. 2000 b .. .. 1998 a 44.2 1999–2000 a .. .. .. .. 1998 a .. 2001 a .. 39.5 1999 a .. 56.2 2000 b .. ..

2000 b 1998 a 2000 a

.. <2 <2 .. 3.3 12.8 .. .. 3.7 36.0 <2 .. .. 14.4 .. 23.5 8.2 4.7 44.9 58.4 34.1 17.1 .. 66.6 .. <2 16.6 .. 8.2 .. .. 2.0 15.5 <2 .. <2 .. .. <2 17.7 3.1 31.1 .. <2 26.3 .. .. .. 59.3 2.7 .. 44.8 .. 16.0 .. ..

.. <0.5 <0.5 .. 0.5 3.3 .. .. <1 8.1 <0.5 .. .. 5.4 .. 7.7 2.1 1.4 14.4 24.9 9.7 4.1 .. 38.1 .. <0.5 3.9 .. 2.2 .. .. 0.7 3.8 <0.5 .. <0.5 .. .. <0.5 7.1 <0.5 14.1 .. <0.5 5.7 .. .. .. 28.8 0.9 .. 17.3 .. 4.6 .. ..

.. 11.8 15.1 .. 14.3 49.0 .. .. 9.1 82.8 <2 .. .. 34.3 .. 50.1 22.4 16.2 81.0 89.2 77.7 50.6 .. 84.0 .. 9.6 46.7 .. 22.6 .. .. 9.5 50.4 <2 .. <2 .. .. <2 40.8 43.9 58.0 .. 5.2 80.7 .. .. .. 82.9 15.7 .. 78.5 .. 37.4 .. ..

.. 2.0 3.8 .. 4.7 17.3 .. .. 3.5 36.3 0.1 .. .. 14.9 .. 22.8 8.8 5.7 40.6 51.3 34.5 19.3 .. 58.4 .. 2.5 18.4 .. 8.8 .. .. 3.0 18.9 <0.5 .. <0.5 .. .. <0.5 17.7 11.3 29.7 .. 0.8 31.8 .. .. .. 51.1 4.6 .. 40.8 .. 16.0 .. ..

54

2004 World Development Indicators

Pover ty
National poverty line

2.5
Poverty gap at Population below $2 a day % Poverty gap at $2 a day % %

PEOPLE

International poverty line

Population below the poverty line Survey year Rural % Urban % National % Survey year

Population below the poverty line Rural % Urban % National % Survey year

Population below $1 a day %

$1 a day

Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland

1993 1987 1992 1993 1993–94 1996

.. .. 46.0 .. 37.3 .. .. .. .. .. 37.0 .. .. 39.0 47.0 .. .. .. 64.5 48.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 76.0 .. .. 75.9 65.5 .. .. 26.7 33.1 18.0 71.3 .. .. 44.0 .. .. 76.1 66.0 49.5 .. .. 33.4 64.9 41.3 28.5 67.0 53.1 ..

.. .. 56.0 .. 32.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 30.0 29.0 .. .. .. 28.5 33.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 63.2 .. .. 30.1 30.1 .. .. .. 38.5 7.6 62.0 .. .. 23.0 .. .. 31.9 52.0 31.7 .. .. 17.2 15.3 16.1 19.7 46.1 28.0 ..

1995 1991 1996 1994

1997 1993

1997 1990–91 1989 1998 1996 1988 1997 1995 1990–91 1996–97

1995–96

1993 1989–93 1985

1993 1997 1996 1991 1994 1994 1993

43.2 1998 65.0 1995 50.0 1993 14.5 1997 36.0 1999–2000 15.7 1999 .. .. .. .. .. 27.5 2000 .. 15.0 1997 34.6 40.0 1997 .. .. .. 51.0 1999 45.0 1997–98 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 73.3 1999 54.0 1997–98 15.5 63.8 50.0 2000 .. 10.1 23.3 36.3 13.1 1998–99 69.4 .. .. 42.0 .. .. 50.3 1998 63.0 43.0 1992–93 .. .. 28.6 1998–99 37.3 37.5 21.8 53.5 1997 40.6 1997 23.8

.. 66.0 51.0 .. 30.2 .. .. .. .. .. 25.1 .. .. .. 53.0 .. .. .. 69.7 41.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 76.7 66.5 .. .. 61.2 .. .. .. .. 27.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 68.5 .. 36.4 .. .. 35.9 .. .. .. 64.7 50.7 ..

.. .. 57.0 .. 24.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 49.0 .. .. .. 49.0 26.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 52.1 54.9 .. .. 25.4 .. .. .. .. 12.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 30.5 .. 30.4 .. .. 24.2 .. .. .. 40.4 21.5 ..

35.0 1998 b .. 53.0 1998 b 17.3 1998 b 28.6 1999–2000 a 27.1 2002 a .. 1998 a .. .. .. .. 18.7 2000 a .. 11.7 1997 a .. 2001 a 52.0 1997 a .. .. 1998 b .. 64.1 2001 a 38.6 1997–98 a .. 1998 a .. .. 1995 a .. .. .. 2000 a .. 1998 a 71.3 1999 a 65.3 1997–98 a .. 1997 b .. 1994 a 46.3 2000 a .. .. 2000 b .. 2001 a .. 1995 a 19.0 1999 a .. 1996 a .. .. 1993 b .. 1995 a .. .. 47.9 2001 a .. 1995 a 34.1 1997 a .. .. 32.6 1998 a .. 2000 b .. .. 1999 b 49.0 2000 b 36.8 2000 a .. 1999 b

<2 .. 23.8 <2 34.7 7.5 <2 .. .. .. .. <2 .. <2 <2 23.0 .. <2 .. <2 26.3 <2 .. 36.4 .. .. <2 <2 49.1 41.7 <2 72.8 25.9 .. 9.9 22.0 13.9 <2 37.9 .. 34.9 37.7 .. .. 45.1 61.4 70.2 .. .. 13.4 7.2 .. 14.9 18.1 14.6 <2

<0.5 .. 11.6 <0.5 8.2 0.9 <0.5 .. .. .. .. <0.5 .. <0.5 <0.5 6.0 .. <0.5 .. <0.5 6.3 <0.5 .. 19.0 .. .. <0.5 <0.5 18.3 14.8 <0.5 37.4 7.6 .. 3.7 5.8 3.1 <0.5 12.0 .. 14.0 9.7 .. .. 16.7 33.9 34.9 .. .. 2.4 2.3 .. 6.8 9.1 2.7 <0.5

6.1 .. 44.4 7.3 79.9 52.4 7.3 .. .. .. .. 13.3 .. 7.4 8.5 58.6 .. <2 .. 27.2 73.2 8.3 .. 56.1 .. .. 13.7 4.0 83.3 76.1 9.3 90.6 63.1 .. 26.3 63.7 50.0 14.3 78.4 .. 55.8 82.5 .. .. 79.9 85.3 90.8 .. .. 65.6 17.6 .. 30.3 37.7 46.4 <2

1.7 .. 23.1 1.7 35.3 15.7 1.5 .. .. .. .. 2.7 .. 1.4 1.4 24.1 .. <0.5 .. 5.9 29.6 2.0 .. 33.1 .. .. 4.2 0.6 44.0 38.3 2.0 60.5 26.8 .. 10.9 25.1 17.5 3.1 36.8 .. 30.4 37.5 .. .. 41.2 54.8 59.0 .. .. 22.0 7.4 .. 14.7 18.5 17.2 <0.5

2004 World Development Indicators

55

2.5
Portugal Puerto Rico Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe

Pover ty
National poverty line International poverty line

Population below the poverty line Survey year Rural % Urban % National % Survey year

Population below the poverty line Rural % Urban % National % Survey year

Population below $1 a day %

Poverty gap at $1 a day %

Population below $2 a day %

Poverty gap at $2 a day %

1994 1994 1993 1992 1989

1990–91 1995

1991 1990 1987–89 1992 1990

1993 1995

2000 1989 1993 1998 1996 1990–91

.. .. 27.9 .. .. .. 40.4 .. 76.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 22.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 40.8 .. .. 20.0 13.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 30.5 .. 57.2 .. 45.0 82.8 35.8

.. .. 20.4 .. .. .. .. .. 53.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 15.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 24.0 3.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22.5 .. 25.9 .. 30.8 46.0 3.4

.. .. 21.5 30.9 51.2 .. 33.4 .. 68.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 20.0 .. 40.0 .. .. .. .. 38.6 18.0 32.3 21.0 7.4 .. .. 55.0 31.7 .. .. .. .. 27.5 31.3 50.9 .. 41.8 69.2 25.8

1995–96

2000–01 1992

1995

1997

1998 1995–96

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 38.7 15.5 .. .. 13.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 83.1 48.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 10.2 .. .. 3.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 56.0 7.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 25.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 35.7 13.1 .. .. 7.6 .. .. 44.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 72.9 34.9

1994 b 2000 a 2000 a 1983–85 a 1995 a 1989 a 1996 b 1998 a 1995 a 1995–96 a

1998 a 1993 a 2000 a 1992 b 2000 a 2000 a 1998 a 1999 b

2000 b 2000 a 1998 b 1998 a 1998 a 1998 a 1990–91 a

<2 .. 2.1 6.1 35.7 .. 26.3 .. 57.0 .. <2 <2 .. 7.1 .. 6.6 .. .. .. .. .. 10.3 19.9 <2 .. 12.4 <2 <2 12.1 .. 2.9 .. .. .. <2 21.8 15.0 17.7 .. 15.7 63.7 36.0

<0.5 .. 0.6 1.2 7.7 .. 7.0 .. 39.5 .. <0.5 <0.5 .. 1.1 .. 1.0 .. .. .. .. .. 2.6 4.8 <0.5 .. 3.5 <0.5 <0.5 2.6 .. 0.6 .. .. .. <0.5 5.4 6.9 3.3 .. 4.5 32.7 9.6

<0.5 .. 20.5 23.8 84.6 .. 67.8 .. 74.5 .. 2.4 <2 .. 23.8 .. 45.4 .. .. .. .. .. 50.8 59.7 32.5 .. 39.0 6.6 10.3 44.0 .. 45.7 .. .. .. 3.9 77.5 32.0 63.7 .. 45.2 87.4 64.2

<0.5 .. 5.2 8.0 36.7 .. 28.2 .. 51.8 .. 0.7 <0.5 .. 8.6 .. 13.5 .. .. .. .. .. 16.3 23.0 9.0 .. 14.6 1.3 2.5 15.4 .. 16.3 .. .. .. 0.8 28.9 15.2 22.9 .. 15.0 55.4 29.4

a. Based on expenditure. b. Based on income.

56

2004 World Development Indicators

Pover ty
About the data International comparisons of poverty data entail both conceptual and practical problems. Different countries have different definitions of poverty, and consistent comparisons between countries can be difficult. Local pover ty lines tend to have higher purchasing power in rich countries, where more generous standards are used than in poor countries. Is it reasonable to treat two people with the same standard of living—in terms of their command over commodities—differently because one happens to live in a better-off country? Can we hold the real value of the poverty line constant across countries, just as we do when making comparisons over time? Poverty measures based on an international poverty line attempt to do this. The commonly used $1 a day standard, measured in 1985 international prices and adjusted to local currency using purchasing power parities (PPPs), was chosen for the World Bank’s World Development Report 1990: Poverty because it is typical of the poverty lines in low-income countries. PPP exchange rates, such as those from the Penn World Tables or the World Bank, are used because they take into account the local prices of goods and services not traded internationally. But PPP rates were designed not for making international poverty comparisons but for comparing aggregates from national accounts. Thus there is no certainty that an international poverty line measures the same degree of need or deprivation across countries. This year’s edition of the World Development Indicators (like those of the past four years) uses 1993 consumption PPP estimates produced by the World Bank. The international poverty line, set at $1 a day in 1985 PPP terms, has been recalculated in 1993 PPP terms at about $1.08 a day. Any revisions in the PPP of a country to incorporate better price indexes can produce dramatically different poverty lines in local currency. Problems also exist in comparing poverty measures within countries. For example, the cost of living is typically higher in urban than in rural areas. So the urban monetary poverty line should be higher than the rural poverty line. But it is not always clear that the difference between urban and rural poverty lines found in practice properly reflects the difference in the cost of living. In some countries the urban poverty line in common use has a higher real value than does the rural poverty line. Sometimes the difference has been so large as to imply that the incidence of poverty is greater in urban than in rural areas, even though the reverse is found when adjustments are made only for differences in the cost of living. As with international comparisons, when the real value of the poverty line varies, it is not clear how meaningful such urban-rural comparisons are. The problems of making poverty comparisons do not end there. More issues arise in measuring household living standards. The choice between income and consumption as a welfare indicator is one issue. Income is generally more difficult to measure accurately, and consumption accords better with the idea of the standard of living than does income, which can vary over time even if the standard of living does not. But consumption data are not always available, and when they are not there is little choice but to use income. There are still other problems. Household survey questionnaires can differ widely, for example, in the number of distinct categories of consumer goods they identify. Survey quality varies, and even similar surveys may not be strictly comparable. Comparisons across countries at different levels of development also pose a potential problem, because of differences in the relative importance of consumption of nonmarket goods. The local market value of all consumption in kind (including consumption from own production, particularly important in underdeveloped rural economies) should be included in the measure of total consumption expenditure. Similarly, the imputed profit from production of nonmarket goods should be included in income. This is not always done, though such omissions were a far bigger problem in surveys before the 1980s. Most survey data now include valuations for consumption or income from own production. Nonetheless, valuation methods vary. For example, some surveys use the price in the nearest market, while others use the average farm gate selling price. Wherever possible, consumption has been used as the welfare indicator for deciding who is poor. Where consumption data are unavailable, income data are used. Beginning with last year’s World Development Indicators, there has been a change in how income surveys are used. Before that, average income was adjusted to accord with consumption and income data from national accounts. This approach was tested using data for more than 20 countries for which the surveys provided both income and consumption expenditure data. Income gave a higher mean than consumption but also greater income inequality. These two effects roughly canceled each other out when poverty measures based on consumption were compared with those based on income from the same survey; statistically, there was no significant Data sources Definitions

2.5

PEOPLE

difference. So income data are used to estimate poverty directly, with no adjustment of the income mean. In all cases the measures of poverty have been calculated from primary data sources (tabulations or household data) rather than existing estimates. Estimation from tabulations requires an interpolation method; the method chosen was Lorenz curves with flexible functional forms, which have proved reliable in past work. Empirical Lorenz curves were weighted by household size, so they are based on percentiles of population, not households.

• Survey year is the year in which the underlying data were collected. • Rural poverty rate is the percentage of the rural population living below the national rural poverty line. • Urban poverty rate is the percentage of the urban population living below the national urban poverty line. • National poverty rate is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty line. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys. • Population below $1 a day and population below $2 a day are the percentages of the population living on less than $1.08 a day and $2.15 a day at 1993 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in previous editions for individual countries. • Poverty gap is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as its incidence.

The poverty measures are prepared by the World Bank’s Development Research Group. The national poverty lines are based on the World Bank’s country poverty assessments. The international poverty lines are based on nationally representative primary household surveys conducted by national statistical offices or by private agencies under the supervision of government or international agencies and obtained from government statistical offices and World Bank country departments. The World Bank has prepared an annual review of its poverty work since 1993. Partnerships in Development: Progress in the Fight against Poverty is forthcoming.

2004 World Development Indicators

57

2.6
Armenia Bangladesh Benin Bolivia Brazil Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Colombia Comoros Côte d’Ivoire Egypt, Arab Rep. Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Guatemala Guinea Haiti India Indonesia Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kyrgyz Republic Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Paraguay Peru Philippines Rwanda Senegal South Africa Tanzania Togo Turkey Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe

Social indicators of pover ty
Survey year Prevalence of child malnutrition
Weight for age % of children under age 5 Poorest quintile Richest quintile per 1,000 Poorest quintile Richest quintile

Under-five mortality rate

Child immunization rate
Measles % of children ages 12–23 months b Poorest quintile Richest quintile

Contraceptive prevalence

Births attended by skilled health staff a

% of women ages 15–49 Poorest quintile Richest quintile % of total Poorest quintile Richest quintile

2000 2000 1996 1998 1996 1998–99 2000 1998 1994–95 1996–97 2000 1996 1994 2000 1995 2000 2000 1998 1998 1999 2000 1999 1997 1997 1999 1998 1997 1997 2000 2001 2000–01 1992 1997 1992 2001 2001 1998 1990 1990 1990 2000 1998 2000 1997 1998 1999 1998 1998 2000–01 1996 1997 1997 2001 1999

3 60 37 14 12 38 52 33 37 50 9 36 31 7 51 49 19 33 34 29 24 61 .. 9 5 32 13 45 33 39 37 17 37 36 57 16 52 40 54 6 15 .. 27 .. .. 32 32 17 27 25 .. 56 33 18

2 29 19 3 3 26 34 9 20 29 3 18 13 2 25 37 8 12 10 17 8 26 .. 3 6 10 8 32 13 17 18 2 14 13 31 3 37 22 26 1 1 .. 14 .. .. 22 12 3 12 13 .. 30 20 6

61 140 208 147 99 239 155 199 193 171 39 129 190 98 152 159 93 139 78 230 164 141 109 42 82 136 96 195 231 248 98 112 278 110 130 64 282 240 125 57 93 80 246 181 87 160 168 85 192 70 63 163 192 100

30 72 110 32 33 155 64 87 98 172 20 87 c 97 34 104 147 55 52 39 133 109 46 29 25 45 61 49 101 149 148 78 39 145 76 68 19 184 120 74 20 18 29 154 70 22 135 97 33 106 50 23 73 92 62

68 59 49 58 78 33 44 37 31 12 74 51 31 95 37 18 34 61 80 33 43 28 59 90 74 64 82 32 80 40 42 62 33 69 61 76 23 35 28 48 81 68 84 .. 74 63 35 64 49 96 64 16 81 80

74 c 86 80 85 90 69 82 78 80 39 85 86 79 99 92 52 71 87 91 73 63 81 85 93 76 c 89 81 79 90 77 86 95 94 79 83 94 66 70 75 69 92 92 89 .. 85 89 63 89 65 93 88 73 88 86

16 37 1 7 56 2 13 1 1 0d 54 7 1 43 0d 3 6 8 5 1 17 29 46 28 49 13 44 2 20 4 0d 18 1 5 24 50 1 1 1 21 37 20 2 1 34 6 3 24 11 46 47 1 11 41

29 50 9 46 77 16 25 17 9 5 66 19 13 61 19 23 18 18 60 9 24 55 57 47 55 50 54 24 40 18 17 48 17 57 55 71 18 12 23 46 58 29 15 24 70 32 13 48 41 52 56 24 53 67

93 4 34 20 72 18 15 28 14 3 64 26 17 31 5 1 67 18 9 12 4 16 21 91 99 23 96 30 43 21 15 5 18 51 4 78 4 12 5 41 21 21 17 20 68 29 25 53 20 92 49 7 20 57

100 42 98 98 99 75 81 89 82 47 99 85 84 94 74 25 97 86 92 82 70 84 89 99 99 80 100 89 83 86 93 78 82 91 45 99 63 70 55 98 99 92 60 86 98 83 91 98 77 100 99 50 91 94

a. Based on births in the five years before the survey. b. Refers to children who were immunized before 12 months or, in some cases, at any time before the survey (between 12–23 months). c. The data contain large sampling errors because of the small number of cases. d. Less than 0.5.

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2004 World Development Indicators

Social indicators of pover ty
About the data Definitions The data in the table describe the health status and use of health services by individuals in different socioeconomic groups within countries. The data are from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted by Macro International with the support of the U.S. Agency for International Development. These large-scale household sample surveys, conducted periodically in developing countries, collect information on a large number of health, nutrition, and population measures as well as on respondents’ social, demographic, and economic characteristics using a standard set of questionnaires. The data presented here draw on responses to individual and household questionnaires. The table defines socioeconomic status in terms of a household’s assets, including ownership of consumer items, features of the household’s dwelling, and other characteristics related to wealth. Each household asset on which information was collected was assigned a weight generated through principal component analysis. The resulting scores were standardized in relation to a standard normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. The standardized scores were then used to create break points defining wealth quintiles, expressed as quintiles of individuals in the population rather than quintiles of individuals at risk with respect to any one health indicator. The choice of the asset index for defining socioeconomic status was based on pragmatic rather than conceptual considerations: Demographic and Health Surveys do not provide income or consumption data but do have detailed information on households’ ownership of consumer goods and access to a variety of goods and services. Like income or consumption, the asset index defines disparities in primarily economic terms. It therefore excludes other possibilities of disparities among groups, such as those based on gender, education, ethnic background, or other facets of social exclusion. To that extent the index provides only a partial view of the multidimensional concepts of poverty, inequality, and inequity. Creating one index that includes all asset indicators limits the types of analysis that can be performed. In particular, the use of a unified index does not permit a disaggregated analysis to examine which asset indicators have a more or less important association with health status or use of health services. In addition, some asset indicators may reflect household wealth better in some countries than in others—or reflect different degrees of wealth in different countries. Taking such information into account and creating country-specific asset indexes with country-specific choices of asset indicators might produce a more effective and accurate index for each country. The asset index used in the table does not have this flexibility. The analysis has been carried out for 54 countries, with the results issued in country reports. The table shows the estimates for the poorest and richest quintiles only; the full set of estimates for more than 70 indicators is available in the country reports (see Data sources).

2.6

PEOPLE

• Survey year is the year in which the underlying data were collected. • Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median reference standard for their age as established by the World Health Organization, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. The figures in the table are based on children under age three, four, or five years of age, depending on the country. • Under-five mortality rate is the probability that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. The probability is expressed as a rate per 1,000. Data in the table are based on births in the 10 years preceding the survey and may therefore differ from the estimates in table 2.19. • Child immunization rate is the percentage of children ages 12–23 months at the time of the survey who received a dose of measles vaccine by 12 months, or at any time before the interview date. These data may differ from those in table 2.15. • Contraceptive prevalence is the percentage of women who are practicing, or whose sexual partners are practicing, any modern method of contraception. It is usually measured for married women ages 15–49. • Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns. Skilled health staff include doctors, nurses, or trained midwives, but exclude trained or untrained traditional birth attendants. Data in the tables are based on births in the five years preceding the survey and may therefore differ from the estimates in table 2.16.

2.6a
Education lowers birth rates dramatically for rich women, but not for poor ones
Lowest wealth quintile Total fertility rate, 1995–2000 10 Highest wealth quintile Total fertility rate, 1995–2000 10

8

8

6

6

4

4

2

2

Data sources
0 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 100

The data are from an analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys by the World Bank and Macro International. Country reports are available at http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/health/data/ index.htm.

Women completing grade 5 (%)

Women completing grade 5 (%)

It is well known that women’s education strongly affects the number of children they bear. But the effect varies with the wealth of the household. Education greatly reduces fertility rates among wealthy women, but the effect is very weak among poor women. Source: Demographic and Health Survey data.

2004 World Development Indicators

59

2.7
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina c Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti

Distribution of income or consumption
Survey year Gini Index Percentage share of income or consumption

Lowest 10%

Lowest 20%

Second 20%

Third 20%

Fourth 20%

Highest 20%

Highest 10%

2002 1995 2001 1998 1994 1997 2001 2000 2000 1996 1999 2001 1993 1998 2001 1998 1998 1997 2001 1998 1993 2000 2001 1996 1999

a,b a,b

d,e a,b d,e d,e a,b a,b a,b d,e

a,b a,b a,b d,e d,e a,b a,b a,b a,b d,e a,b

d,e a,b d,e d,e

2000 1998 2001 1996 1997 1998 1998 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 1995 1998 2001 2000 1999 1998 2000 1994 1993 1999

d,e a,b a,b

d,e d,e d,e a,b a,b d,e

d,e a,b d,e d,e

a,b a,b d,e a,b d,e d,e a,b a,b a,b

.. 28.2 35.3 .. 52.2 37.9 35.2 30.0 36.5 31.8 30.4 25.0 .. 44.7 26.2 63.0 59.1 31.9 48.2 33.3 40.4 44.6 33.1 61.3 .. 57.1 44.7 43.4 57.6 .. .. 46.5 45.2 29.0 .. 25.4 24.7 47.4 43.7 34.4 53.2 .. 37.2 30.0 26.9 32.7 .. 38.0 36.9 28.3 30.0 35.4 48.3 40.3 47.0 43.2 ..

.. 3.8 2.8 .. 1.0 2.6 2.0 3.1 3.1 3.9 3.5 2.9 .. 1.3 3.9 0.7 0.5 2.4 1.8 1.7 2.9 2.3 2.5 0.7 .. 1.2 1.8 2.0 0.8 .. .. 1.4 2.2 3.4 .. 4.3 2.6 2.1 0.9 3.7 0.9 .. 1.9 3.9 4.0 2.8 .. 1.5 2.3 3.2 2.1 2.9 0.9 2.6 2.1 1.3 ..

.. 9.1 7.0 .. 3.1 6.7 5.9 8.1 7.4 9.0 8.4 8.3 .. 4.0 9.5 2.2 2.0 6.7 4.5 5.1 6.9 5.6 7.0 2.0 .. 3.3 4.7 5.3 2.7 .. .. 4.2 5.5 8.3 .. 10.3 8.3 5.1 3.3 8.6 2.9 .. 6.1 9.1 9.6 7.2 .. 4.0 6.4 8.5 5.6 7.1 2.6 6.4 5.2 4.5 ..

.. 13.5 11.6 .. 7.2 11.3 12.0 13.2 11.5 12.5 13.0 14.1 .. 9.2 14.2 4.9 5.7 13.1 7.4 10.3 10.7 9.3 12.7 4.9 .. 6.6 9.0 9.4 6.6 .. .. 8.9 9.6 12.8 .. 14.5 14.7 8.6 7.5 12.1 7.4 .. 12.1 13.2 14.1 12.6 .. 7.6 11.4 13.7 10.1 11.4 5.9 10.4 8.8 9.9 ..

.. 17.3 16.1 .. 12.3 15.4 17.2 17.3 15.3 15.9 17.0 17.7 .. 14.8 17.9 8.2 10.0 17.9 10.6 15.1 14.7 13.7 17.0 9.6 .. 10.5 14.2 13.9 10.8 .. .. 13.7 13.6 16.8 .. 17.7 18.2 13.0 11.7 15.4 12.4 .. 15.9 16.8 17.5 17.2 .. 12.3 16.1 17.8 14.9 15.8 9.8 14.8 13.1 14.5 ..

.. 22.8 22.7 .. 21.0 21.6 23.6 22.9 21.2 21.2 22.5 22.7 .. 22.9 22.6 14.4 18.0 23.4 16.7 21.5 20.1 20.4 22.9 18.5 .. 17.4 22.1 20.7 18.0 .. .. 21.7 20.1 22.6 .. 21.7 22.9 20.0 19.4 20.4 20.2 .. 22.0 21.5 22.1 22.8 .. 20.8 22.6 23.1 22.8 22.0 17.6 21.2 19.4 21.4 ..

.. 37.4 42.6 .. 56.4 45.1 41.3 38.5 44.5 41.3 39.1 37.3 .. 49.1 35.8 70.3 64.4 38.9 60.7 48.0 47.6 50.9 40.4 65.0 .. 62.2 50.0 50.7 61.9 .. .. 51.5 51.1 39.6 .. 35.9 35.8 53.3 58.0 43.6 57.1 .. 44.0 39.4 36.7 40.2 .. 55.2 43.6 36.9 46.6 43.6 64.1 47.2 53.4 49.7 ..

.. 22.4 26.8 .. 38.9 29.7 25.4 23.5 29.5 26.7 24.1 22.6 .. 32.0 21.4 56.6 46.7 23.7 46.3 32.8 33.8 35.4 25.0 47.7 .. 47.0 33.1 34.9 46.5 .. .. 34.8 35.9 24.5 .. 22.4 21.3 37.9 41.6 29.5 40.6 .. 28.5 25.5 22.6 25.1 .. 38.0 27.9 22.1 30.0 28.5 48.3 32.0 39.3 33.8 ..

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2004 World Development Indicators

Distribution of income or consumption
Survey year Gini Index Percentage share of income or consumption

2.7
Highest 20% Highest 10%

PEOPLE

Lowest 10%

Lowest 20%

Second 20%

Third 20%

Fourth 20%

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

1999 1999 1999–2000 2002 1998 1996 1997 2000 2000 1993 1997 2001 1997 1998 2001 1997 1998 1995

d,e a,b a,b a,b a,b

d,e d,e d,e a,b d,e a,b a,b a,b

d,e

a,b a,b d,e

a,b

2000 2000 1998 2001 1997 1997 1994 2000 2000 2001 1998 1998–99 1996–97 1993 1995–96 1994 1997 2001 1995 1996–97 2000 1998–99 2000 1996 1999 2000 2000 1999 1997

a,b d,e a,b a,b a,b d,e a,b a,b

d,e a,b a,b a,b a,b

d,e a,b d,e d,e d,e a,b a,b d,e

a,b d,e a,b d,e d,e a,b a,b d,e

55.0 24.4 32.5 34.3 43.0 .. 35.9 35.5 36.0 37.9 24.9 36.4 31.3 44.5 .. 31.6 .. 29.0 37.0 32.4 .. 63.2 .. .. 31.9 30.8 28.2 47.5 50.3 49.2 50.5 39.0 .. 54.6 36.2 44.0 39.5 39.6 .. 70.7 36.7 32.6 36.2 55.1 50.5 50.6 25.8 .. 33.0 56.4 50.9 56.8 49.8 46.1 31.6 38.5 ..

0.9 2.6 3.9 3.6 2.0 .. 2.8 2.4 2.3 2.7 4.8 3.3 3.4 2.3 .. 2.9 .. 3.9 3.2 2.9 .. 0.5 .. .. 3.2 3.5 3.3 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.8 2.5 .. 1.0 2.8 2.1 2.6 2.5 .. 0.5 3.2 2.8 2.2 1.2 0.8 1.6 3.9 .. 3.7 0.7 1.7 0.6 0.7 2.2 2.9 2.0 ..

2.7 7.7 8.9 8.4 5.1 .. 7.1 6.9 6.5 6.7 10.6 7.6 8.2 5.6 .. 7.9 .. 9.1 7.6 7.6 .. 1.5 .. .. 7.9 8.4 8.4 4.9 4.9 4.4 4.6 6.2 .. 3.1 7.1 5.6 6.5 6.5 .. 1.4 7.6 7.3 6.4 3.6 2.6 4.4 9.6 .. 8.8 2.4 4.5 2.2 2.9 5.4 7.3 5.8 ..

6.7 13.4 12.3 11.9 9.4 .. 11.8 11.4 12.0 10.7 14.2 11.4 12.5 9.3 .. 13.6 .. 13.2 11.4 12.9 .. 4.3 .. .. 12.7 12.9 14.0 8.5 8.5 8.1 8.0 10.6 .. 7.2 11.5 10.0 10.6 10.8 .. 3.0 11.5 12.7 11.4 7.2 7.1 8.2 14.0 .. 12.5 6.5 7.9 6.5 8.3 8.8 11.8 11.0 ..

11.8 18.0 16.0 15.4 14.1 .. 15.8 16.3 16.8 15.0 17.6 15.5 16.8 13.6 .. 18.0 .. 16.9 15.3 17.1 .. 8.9 .. .. 16.9 17.1 17.7 12.7 12.3 12.9 11.9 15.2 .. 11.7 15.8 13.8 14.8 15.1 .. 5.4 15.1 17.2 15.8 11.3 13.9 12.5 17.2 .. 15.9 11.2 11.9 11.5 14.1 13.1 16.2 15.5 ..

19.9 23.4 21.2 21.0 21.5 .. 22.0 22.9 22.8 21.7 22.0 21.1 22.9 20.2 .. 23.1 .. 22.5 20.8 22.1 .. 18.8 .. .. 22.6 22.7 23.1 20.4 18.3 20.3 19.3 22.3 .. 19.0 22.0 19.4 21.3 21.1 .. 11.5 21.0 22.8 22.6 18.3 23.1 19.3 22.0 .. 20.6 19.6 19.2 19.5 21.5 20.5 22.2 21.9 ..

58.9 37.5 41.6 43.3 49.9 .. 43.3 44.3 42.0 46.0 35.7 44.4 39.6 51.2 .. 37.5 .. 38.3 45.0 40.3 .. 66.5 .. .. 40.0 38.9 36.7 53.5 56.1 54.3 56.2 45.7 .. 59.1 43.7 51.2 46.6 46.5 .. 78.7 44.8 40.1 43.8 59.7 53.3 55.7 37.2 .. 42.3 60.3 56.5 60.2 53.2 52.3 42.5 45.9 ..

42.2 22.8 27.4 28.5 33.7 .. 27.6 28.2 26.8 30.3 21.7 29.8 24.2 36.1 .. 22.5 .. 23.3 30.6 25.9 .. 48.3 .. .. 24.9 23.8 22.1 36.6 42.2 38.4 40.4 29.5 .. 43.1 28.4 37.0 30.9 31.7 .. 64.5 29.8 25.1 27.8 45.0 35.4 40.8 23.4 .. 28.3 43.3 40.5 43.6 37.2 36.3 27.4 29.8 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

61

2.7
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka St. Lucia Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay c Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe

Distribution of income or consumption
Survey year Gini Index Percentage share of income or consumption

Lowest 10%

Lowest 20%

Second 20%

Third 20%

Fourth 20%

Highest 20%

Highest 10%

2000 2000 1983–85 1995 1989 1998 1996 1998–99 1995 1990 1995 1995 1994 2000 1992 1998 1993 2000 1992 2000 2000 1998 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 1998 1998 1998 1998 1995

a,b a,b a,b

a,b

a,b d,e d,e d,e

a,b d,e a,b d,e

d,e d,e d,e

a,b a,b a,b

d,e a,b a,b a,b a,b a,b

d,e d,e d,e a,b d,e a,b

a,b a,b a,b

30.3 45.6 28.9 .. 41.3 .. 62.9 42.5 25.8 28.4 .. 59.3 32.5 34.4 42.6 .. 60.9 25.0 33.1 .. 34.7 38.2 43.2 .. 40.3 39.8 40.0 40.8 43.0 29.0 .. 36.0 40.8 44.6 26.8 49.1 36.1 .. 33.4 52.6 56.8

3.3 1.8 4.2 .. 2.6 .. 0.5 1.9 3.1 3.6 .. 0.7 2.8 3.5 2.0 .. 1.0 3.6 2.6 .. 3.2 2.8 2.5 .. 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.3 3.7 .. 2.1 1.9 1.8 3.6 0.6 3.6 .. 3.0 1.1 1.8

8.2 4.9 9.7 .. 6.4 .. 1.1 5.0 8.8 9.1 .. 2.0 7.5 8.0 5.2 .. 2.7 9.1 6.9 .. 8.0 6.8 6.1 .. 5.5 6.0 6.1 6.1 5.9 8.8 .. 6.1 5.4 4.8 9.2 3.0 8.0 .. 7.4 3.3 4.6

13.1 9.5 13.2 .. 10.3 .. 2.0 9.4 14.9 14.2 .. 4.3 12.6 11.8 9.9 .. 5.8 14.0 12.7 .. 12.9 11.0 9.5 .. 10.3 10.3 10.6 10.2 10.0 13.3 .. 11.4 10.7 9.3 14.1 8.4 11.4 .. 12.2 7.6 8.1

17.4 14.1 16.5 .. 14.5 .. 9.8 14.6 18.7 18.1 .. 8.3 17.0 15.8 14.8 .. 10.0 17.6 17.3 .. 17.0 15.1 13.5 .. 15.5 14.8 14.9 14.7 14.0 17.4 .. 16.0 15.7 14.2 17.9 13.7 15.2 .. 16.7 12.5 12.2

22.9 20.3 21.6 .. 20.6 .. 23.7 22.0 22.8 22.9 .. 18.9 22.6 21.5 21.8 .. 17.1 22.7 22.9 .. 22.1 21.6 20.9 .. 22.7 21.7 21.8 21.5 20.3 22.7 .. 22.5 22.4 21.6 22.6 21.6 20.9 .. 22.5 20.0 19.3

38.4 51.3 39.1 .. 48.2 .. 63.4 49.0 34.8 35.7 .. 66.5 40.3 42.8 48.3 .. 64.4 36.6 40.3 .. 40.0 45.5 50.0 .. 45.9 47.3 46.7 47.5 49.7 37.8 .. 44.0 45.8 50.1 36.3 53.4 44.5 .. 41.2 56.6 55.7

23.6 36.0 24.2 .. 33.5 .. 43.6 32.8 20.9 21.4 .. 46.9 25.2 28.0 32.5 .. 50.2 22.2 25.2 .. 25.2 30.1 33.8 .. 29.9 31.5 30.7 31.7 34.9 23.2 .. 28.5 29.9 33.5 22.0 36.3 29.9 .. 25.9 41.0 40.3

a. Data refer to consumption shares by percentiles of population. b. Ranked by per capita consumption. c. Urban data. d. Data refer to income shares by percentiles of population. e. Ranked by per capita income.

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2004 World Development Indicators

Distribution of income or consumption
About the data Definitions Inequality in the distribution of income is reflected in the percentage shares of income or consumption accruing to segments of the population ranked by income or consumption levels. The segments ranked lowest by personal income receive the smallest shares of total income. The Gini index provides a convenient summary measure of the degree of inequality. Data on personal or household income or consumption come from nationally representative household surveys. The data in the table refer to different years between 1989 and 2002. Footnotes to the survey year indicate whether the rankings are based on per capita income or consumption. Each distribution is based on percentiles of population— rather than of households—with households ranked by income or expenditure per person. Where the original data from the household survey were available, they have been used to directly calculate the income (or consumption) shares by quintile. Otherwise shares have been estimated from the best available grouped data. The distribution data have been adjusted for household size, providing a more consistent measure of per capita income or consumption. No adjustment has been made for spatial differences in cost of living within countries, because the data needed for such calculations are generally unavailable. For further details on the estimation method for low- and middleincome economies, see Ravallion and Chen (1996). Because the underlying household surveys differ in method and type of data collected, the distribution data are not strictly comparable across countries. These problems are diminishing as survey methods improve and become more standardized, but achieving strict comparability is still impossible (see About the data for table 2.5). Two sources of noncomparability should be noted in particular. First, the surveys can differ in many respects, including whether they use income or consumption expenditure as the living standard indicator. The distribution of income is typically more unequal than the distribution of consumption. In addition, the definitions of income used usually differ among surveys. Consumption is usually a much better welfare indicator, par ticularly in developing countries. Second, households differ in size (number of members) and in the extent of income sharing among members. And individuals differ in age and consumption needs. Differences among countries in these respects may bias comparisons of distribution. World Bank staff have made an effort to ensure that the data are as comparable as possible. Data sources Wherever possible, consumption has been used rather than income. Income distribution and Gini indexes for high-income countries are calculated directly from the Luxembourg Income Study database, using an estimation method consistent with that applied for developing countries.

2.7

PEOPLE

• Survey year is the year in which the underlying data were collected. • Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality. • Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.

The data on distribution are compiled by the World Bank’s Development Research Group using primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. The data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database.

2004 World Development Indicators

63

2.8
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Assessing vulnerability
Urban informal sector employment Youth unemployment
Male % of urban employment Male 1995–2001 a Female 1995–2001 a % of male labor force ages 15–24 1995–2002 a Female % of female labor force ages 15–24 1995–2002 a % ages 10–14 1980 2002 Year % of total Year % of labor force % of working-age population % of total 2001

Children in the labor force

Female-headed households

Pension contributors

Private health expenditure

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 50 .. .. .. 27 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 39 .. .. .. .. 21 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 41 .. .. .. 27 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 65 .. .. .. .. 7 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 31 .. 13 5 .. 11 .. 16 .. 7 .. 38 15 42 .. .. .. .. 15 .. .. 17 .. 14 32 .. .. 12 .. 35 .. 15 9 16 11 14 14 .. 19 .. 21 18 .. .. 20 11 .. 19 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 33 .. 12 6 .. 10 .. 15 .. 10 .. 47 22 35 .. .. .. .. 12 .. .. 22 .. 9 41 .. .. 16 .. 40 .. 17 5 34 20 37 10 .. 26 .. 20 23 .. .. 20 8 .. 34 .. .. .. ..

28 4 7 30 8 0 0 0 0 35 0 0 30 19 1 26 19 0 71 50 27 34 0 .. 42 0 30 6 12 33 27 10 28 0 0 0 0 25 9 18 17 44 0 46 0 0 29 44 0 0 16 5 19 41 43 33

24 0 0 26 2 0 2000 0 0 0 27 1999–2000 0 0 26 2001 10 1998 0 14 14 1996 0 40 1998–99 48 23 2000 22 1998 0 .. 1994–95 36 1996–97 0 6 0 6 2000 28 25 4 18 1998–99 0 0 0 0 12 1999 4 8 2000 13 38 1995 0 41 2000 0 0 12 2000 33 0 0 11 0 13 1998–99 30 1999 36 22 2000

.. .. .. .. .. 28 .. .. .. 8 .. .. 20 19 .. .. 20 .. 6 .. 25 22 .. 21 21 .. .. .. 27 .. .. .. 14 .. .. .. .. 32 .. 11 .. 30 .. 23 .. .. 25 .. .. .. .. .. 19 12 .. 42

1995 1997 1995 2002 1993 1996 1993 1992 1995 1996 1999

1996 1994 1993 1993 1993 1992 1990 2001 1994 1999 1992 1998 1997 2001 1995 1993 2001 2002 1994 1996 1995 1993 1993 1995 2000 1995 1993 1996 1999 1993

.. 32.0 31.0 .. 53.0 64.4 .. 95.8 52.0 3.5 97.0 86.2 4.8 14.8 .. .. 36.0 64.0 3.1 3.3 .. 13.7 91.9 .. 1.1 54.8 17.6 .. 35.0 .. 5.8 50.6 9.3 67.0 .. 85.0 89.6 26.8 23.2 50.0 26.2 .. 76.0 .. 90.3 88.4 15.0 .. 41.7 94.2 7.2 88.0 22.8 1.5 .. ..

.. 31.0 23.0 .. 39.0 48.3 .. 76.6 46.0 2.6 94.0 65.9 .. 13.3 .. .. 31.0 63.0 3.0 3.0 .. 11.5 80.2 .. 1.0 34.9 17.4 .. 29.3 .. 5.6 38.5 9.1 57.0 .. 67.2 88.0 17.7 14.9 34.2 25.0 .. 67.0 .. 83.6 74.6 14.0 .. 40.2 82.3 9.0 73.0 19.3 1.8 .. ..

47.4 35.4 25.0 36.9 46.6 58.8 32.1 30.7 24.9 55.8 13.3 28.3 53.1 33.7 63.2 33.8 58.4 17.9 .. 41.0 85.1 62.9 29.2 48.8 24.0 56.0 62.8 .. 34.3 55.6 36.2 31.5 84.0 18.2 13.8 8.6 17.6 63.9 49.7 51.1 53.3 34.9 22.2 59.5 24.4 24.0 52.1 50.6 62.2 25.1 40.4 44.0 51.7 45.9 46.2 46.6

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2004 World Development Indicators

Assessing vulnerability
Urban informal sector employment Youth unemployment
Male % of urban employment Male 1995–2001 a Female 1995–2001 a % of male labor force ages 15–24 1995–2002 a Female % of female labor force ages 15–24 1995–2002 a % ages 10–14 1980 2002 Year % of total Year % of labor force

2.8
% of working-age population % of total 2001

PEOPLE

Children in the labor force

Female-headed households

Pension contributors

Private health expenditure

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

.. .. 54 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 33 .. .. .. .. .. .. 50 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 .. .. .. .. .. .. 60 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 64 .. .. .. .. 16 .. .. ..

.. .. 41 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. .. .. .. .. .. 27 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22 .. .. .. .. .. .. 76 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 61 .. .. .. .. 19 .. .. ..

7 13 .. 12 .. .. 9 19 23 24 11 .. .. .. .. 10 .. .. .. 20 .. 38 .. .. 31 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 .. .. 16 .. .. 33 .. 6 12 20 .. .. 12 .. 11 25 .. 12 13 17 44 10 23

8 12 .. 15 .. .. 7 18 31 46 9 .. .. .. .. 7 .. .. .. 21 .. 59 .. .. 26 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 .. .. 15 .. .. 41 .. 6 11 20 .. .. 11 .. 29 37 .. 17 14 23 44 14 16

14 0 21 13 14 11 1 0 2 0 0 4 0 45 3 0 0 0 31 0 5 28 26 9 0 1 40 45 8 61 30 5 9 3 4 21 39 28 34 56 0 0 19 48 29 0 6 23 6 28 15 4 14 0 8 0

7 0 11 7 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 20 14 0 0 0 33 30 2 50 21 1 4 0 1 0 32 22 16 41 0 0 11 43 23 0 0 14 2 16 5 2 4 0 1 0

1998–99 1997

1997 1999 1998

1997

1997 2000 2001 2000–01

1992 1997 1992 2001

1997–98 1998 1999

1991

1990 2000 1998

.. .. 10 12 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 33 31 .. .. .. 26 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21 26 .. 11 29 .. .. .. .. 16 26 .. 30 16 .. .. 30 13 16 .. .. 7 .. .. 16 19 14 .. .. ..

1999 1996 1992 1995 2000 1992 1992 1997 1999 1994 1995 2001 1995 1996 1997 1995

2002 1995 1993 1993 1990 1995 1995 1997 2002 2000 1995

1993 1999 1992 1993 1993 1993 1998 2001 2001 1996 1996 1996

20.6 77.0 10.6 8.0 30.0 .. 79.3 82.0 87.0 44.4 97.5 40.0 38.0 18.0 .. 58.0 .. 44.0 .. 60.5 .. .. .. .. 77.0 49.0 5.4 .. 48.7 2.5 5.0 60.0 30.0 .. 61.4 17.3 2.0 .. .. .. 91.7 .. 14.3 1.3 1.3 94.0 .. 3.5 51.6 .. 18.0 31.0 28.3 68.0 84.3 ..

17.7 65.0 7.9 7.0 15.9 .. 64.7 63.0 68.0 45.8 92.3 25.0 28.3 24.0 .. 43.0 .. 42.0 .. 52.3 .. .. .. .. 60.0 47.0 4.8 .. 37.8 2.0 4.0 57.0 31.0 .. 49.1 11.3 2.1 .. .. .. 75.4 .. 13.3 1.5 1.3 85.8 .. 2.1 40.7 .. 12.0 19.0 13.6 64.0 80.0 ..

46.9 25.0 82.1 74.9 58.1 68.2 24.0 30.8 24.7 57.9 22.1 53.0 39.6 78.6 26.6 55.6 19.0 51.3 44.5 47.5 .. 21.1 24.1 44.0 29.5 15.1 34.1 65.0 46.3 61.4 27.6 40.5 55.7 44.2 27.7 60.7 32.6 82.2 32.2 70.3 36.7 23.2 51.5 60.9 76.8 14.5 19.3 75.6 31.0 11.0 61.7 45.0 54.8 28.1 31.0 ..

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65

2.8
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Assessing vulnerability
Urban informal sector employment Youth unemployment
Male % of urban employment Male 1995–2001 a Female 1995–2001 a % of male labor force ages 15–24 1995–2002 a Female % of female labor force ages 15–24 1995–2002 a % ages 10–14 1980 2002 Year % of total Year % of labor force % of working-age population % of total 2001

Children in the labor force

Female-headed households

Pension contributors

Private health expenditure

.. 10 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 60 .. .. .. .. 10 .. .. 5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. 9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 85 .. .. .. .. 6 .. .. 5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

18 24 .. .. .. .. .. 4 39 15 .. 58 18 20 .. 42 14 7 .. .. .. 7 .. 22 .. 21 .. .. 23 6 13 13 29 .. 20 .. .. .. .. 17 .. w .. .. .. 21 .. .. .. 17 .. .. .. 12 14

17 26 .. .. .. .. .. 6 36 18 .. 53 27 31 .. 48 12 4 .. .. .. 6 .. 31 .. 18 .. .. 25 6 9 11 42 .. 28 .. .. .. .. 11 .. w .. .. .. 27 .. .. .. 24 .. .. .. 13 17

0 0 43 5 43 0 19 2 0 0 38 1 0 4 33 17 0 0 14 0 43 25 36 1 6 21 0 49 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 22 .. 26 19 37 20 w 25 21 23 6 23 27 3 13 14 23 35 0 1

0 0 41 2000 0 26 1997 0 13 0 0 0 31 0 1998 0 1 27 12 0 0 2 0 36 1999 11 26 1998 0 0 7 1998 0 2000 43 2000–01 0 0 0 0 1 0 1996 0 4 1997 .. 18 1997 15 2001–02 26 1999 11 w 18 5 5 2 12 6 1 8 4 14 28 0 0

.. .. 36 .. 18 .. .. .. .. .. .. 41 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23 .. 24 .. .. 10 26 27 .. .. .. .. .. 22 .. 24 .. 9 22 33

1994 1993 1998

1995 1996 1995

1994 1992 1995 1994 1994

1996 1999 1997 2000 1997 1994 1995 1994 1993 1995 1999 1998

1994 1995

55.0 .. 9.3 .. 4.3 .. .. 73.0 73.0 86.0 .. .. 85.3 28.8 12.1 .. 91.1 98.1 .. .. 2.0 18.0 15.9 .. 40.0 37.1 .. 8.2 69.8 .. 89.7 94.0 82.0 .. 23.6 8.4 .. .. 10.2 12.0

48.0 .. 13.3 .. 4.7 .. .. 56.0 72.0 68.7 .. .. 61.4 20.8 12.0 .. 88.9 96.8 .. .. 2.0 17.0 15.0 .. 23.0 27.4 .. .. 66.1 .. 84.5 91.9 78.0 .. 18.2 10.0 .. .. 7.9 10.0

20.8 31.8 44.5 25.4 41.2 20.8 39.0 66.5 10.7 25.1 55.4 58.6 28.6 51.1 81.3 31.5 14.8 42.9 56.1 71.1 53.3 42.9 51.4 56.7 24.3 36.8 26.7 42.5 32.2 24.2 17.8 55.6 53.7 25.5 37.9 71.5 .. 65.9 46.9 54.7 40.8 w 73.7 48.9 52.8 42.3 53.0 61.2 27.6 52.0 40.7 78.4 58.7 37.9 26.5

a. Data are for the most recent year available.

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2004 World Development Indicators

Assessing vulnerability
About the data Definitions As traditionally defined and measured, poverty is a static concept, and vulnerability a dynamic one. Vulnerability reflects a household’s resilience in the face of shocks and the likelihood that a shock will lead to a decline in well-being. Thus it depends primarily on the household’s asset endowment and insurance mechanisms. Because poor people have fewer assets and less diversified sources of income than the better-off, fluctuations in income affect them more. Poor households face many risks, and vulnerability is thus multidimensional. The indicators in the table focus on individual risks—informal sector employment, youth unemployment, child labor, femaleheaded household, income insecurity in old age, private health expenditure—and the extent to which publicly provided services may be capable of mitigating some of these risks. Poor people face labor market risks, often having to take up precarious, lowquality jobs in the informal sector and to increase their household’s labor market participation through their children. Income security is a prime concern for the elderly. And affordable access to health care is a primary concern for all poor people, for whom illness and injury have both direct and opportunity costs. For informal sector employment, the data are from labor force and special informal sector surveys, various household surveys, surveys of household industries or economic activities, surveys of small and micro enterprises, and official estimates. The international comparability of the data is affected by differences among countries in definitions and coverage and in the treatment of domestic workers and those who have a secondary job in the informal sector. The data in the table are based on national definitions of urban areas established by countries. For details on these definitions, see the notes in Data sources. Youth unemployment is an important policy issue for many economies. Experiencing unemployment may permanently impair a young person’s productive potential and future employment opportunities. In this table unemployment among youth ages 15–24 is presented, but the lower age limit for young people could be determined by the minimum age for leaving school, so age groups could differ across countries. Also since this age group is likely to include school leavers, the level of youth unemployment varies significantly over the year as a result of different school opening and closing dates. The youth unemployment rate shares similar limitations on comparability to the general unemployment rate. For further information, see About the data for table 2.4. Reliable estimates of child labor are difficult to obtain. In many countries child labor is officially presumed not to exist and so is not included in surveys or in official data. Underreporting also occurs because data exclude children engaged in agricultural or household activities with their families. Available statistics suggest that more boys than girls work. But the number of girls working is often underestimated because surveys exclude girls working as unregistered domestic help or doing full-time household work to enable their parents to work outside the home. The data on female-headed household are from recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The definition and concept of the female-headed household differ greatly across economies, making cross-country comparison difficult. In some cases it is assumed that a woman cannot be the head of any household in which an adult male is present, because of sexbiased stereotype. Users need to be cautious when interpreting the data. The data on pension contributors come from national sources, the International Labour

2.8

PEOPLE

• Urban informal sector employment is broadly characterized as employment in urban areas in units that produce goods or services on a small scale with the primary objective of generating employment and income for those concerned. These units typically operate at a low level of organization, with little or no division between labor and capital as factors of production. Labor relations are based on casual employment, kinship, or social relationships rather than contractual arrangements. • Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15–24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment may differ by country (see About the data). • Children in the labor force refer to the share of children ages 10–14 active in the labor force. • Female-headed households refer to the percentage of households with a female head. • Pension contributors refer to the share of the labor force or working-age population (here defined as ages 15–64) covered by a pension scheme. • Private health expenditure includes direct (out-of-pocket) spending by households, private insurance, spending by nonprofit institutions serving households (other than social insurance), and direct service payments by private corporations.

Organization, and International Monetary Fund country reports. Coverage by pension schemes may be broad or even universal where eligibility is determined by citizenship, residency, or income status. In contribution-related schemes, however, eligibility is usually restricted to individuals who have made contributions for a minimum number of years. Definitional issues—relating to the labor force, for example—may arise in comparing coverage by contribution-related schemes over time and across countries (for countr y-specific information, see Palacios and Pallares-Miralles 2000). Coverage of the share of the labor force covered by a pension scheme may be overstated in countries that do not attempt to count informal sector workers as part of the labor force. The expenditure on health in a countr y can be divided into two main categories by source of funding: public and private. Public health expenditure consists of spending by central and local governments, including social health insurance funds. Private health expenditure includes private insurance, direct out-of-pocket payments by households, spending by nonprofit institutions ser ving households, and direct payments by private corporations. In countries where the share of out-of-pocket spending is large, poor households may be par ticularly vulnerable to the impoverishing effects of health care needs.

Data sources The data on urban informal sector employment and youth unemployment are from the International Labour Organization (ILO) database Key Indicators of the Labour Market, third edition. The child labor force participation rates are from the ILO database Estimates and Projections of the Economically Active Population, 1950–2010. The data on female-headed household are from Demographic and Health Surveys by Macro International. The data on pension contributors are drawn from Robert Palacios and Montserrat Pallares-Miralles’s “International Patterns of Pension Provision” (2000), and updates. For further updates, notes, and sources, go to “Knowledge and information” on the World Bank’s Web site on pensions (http://www.worldbank.org/pensions). The data on private health expenditure for developing countries are largely from the World Health Organization’s World Health Report 2003 and updates, from household surveys, and from World Bank poverty assessments and sector studies. The data on private health expenditure for member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are from the OECD.

2004 World Development Indicators

67

2.9
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Enhancing security
Public expenditure on pensions Public expenditure on health Public expenditure on education
Per student % of GDP 2001 % of GDP 2001/02 a % of GDP per capita 2001/02 a

Average pension % of Year GDP Year % of per capita income

1995 1997 1994 2002 1997 1995 1996 1992 1997 1997 1993 2000

1997 1996 1992 1991 1993 1997 1990 1997 2001 1996 1994 1992 1997 1997 2001 1992 1999 1997 2000 2002 1994 1997 2001 2002 1993 1997 1997

2000 1997 1996 1993 1995

.. 5.1 2.1 .. 6.2 2.5 5.9 14.9 2.5 0.0 7.7 12.9 0.4 4.5 .. .. 9.8 7.3 0.3 0.2 .. 0.4 5.4 0.3 0.1 2.9 2.7 .. 1.1 .. 0.9 4.2 0.3 13.2 12.6 9.8 8.8 0.8 1.4 2.5 1.3 0.3 6.7 0.9 12.1 13.4 .. .. 2.7 12.1 1.1 11.9 0.7 .. .. ..

.. 1995 1991 .. .. 1996 1989 1993 1996 .. 1995 .. 1993 .. .. .. .. 1995 1992 1991 .. .. 1994 .. .. 1993 .. .. 1989 .. .. 1993 .. .. .. 1996 1994 2000 2002 1994 .. .. 1995 .. 1994 .. .. .. 1996 1995 .. 1990 1995 .. .. ..

.. 36.4 75.0 .. .. 18.7 37.3 69.3 51.4 .. 31.2 .. 189.7 .. .. .. .. 39.3 207.3 57.4 .. .. 54.3 .. .. 56.1 .. .. 72.2 .. .. 76.1 .. .. .. 37.0 46.7 42.0 55.3 45.0 .. .. 56.7 .. 57.4 .. .. .. 12.6 62.8 .. 85.6 27.6 .. .. ..

2.7 2.4 3.1 2.8 5.1 3.2 6.2 5.5 0.6 1.5 4.8 6.4 2.1 3.5 2.8 4.4 3.2 3.9 2.0 2.1 1.7 1.2 6.8 2.3 2.0 3.1 2.0 .. 3.6 1.5 1.4 4.9 1.3 7.3 6.2 6.7 7.0 2.2 2.3 1.9 3.7 3.7 4.3 1.4 5.3 7.3 1.7 3.2 1.4 8.1 2.8 5.2 2.3 1.9 3.2 2.7

.. .. .. 2.8 4.6 3.2 4.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 6.0 5.9 3.3 5.5 .. 8.6 4.0 3.2 .. 3.6 2.0 3.2 5.2 1.9 2.5 d 3.9 2.2 .. 4.4 .. 0.1 4.7 4.6 4.2 8.5 4.4 8.3 2.4 .. .. 2.5 2.7 7.4 4.8 5.9 5.8 3.9 2.7 2.5 4.5 4.1 3.8 1.7 1.9 2.1 ..

.. .. .. .. 14.5 14.3 16.5 .. 12.4 11.2 .. .. 14.2 15.0 .. 7.1 12.7 15.6 .. 25.6 7.6 12.2 9.1 .. 14.2 15.1 11.5 .. 19.5 .. .. 19.1 22.0 5.8 42.6 20.6 37.7 .. .. .. 8.6 .. 27.5 .. .. .. 8.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

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2004 World Development Indicators

Enhancing security
Public expenditure on pensions Public expenditure on health

2.9
Per student % of GDP per capita 2001/02 a

PEOPLE

Public expenditure on education

Average pension % of Year GDP Year % of per capita income % of GDP 2001 % of GDP 2001/02 a

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

1994 1996

1994 1997 1996 1997 1996 1997 1995 2001 1993 1997 1990 1997 1995

2002 1998 1990 1999 1991 1992 1999 2000 1996 2002 1994 1996

1997 1997 1996 1992 1991 1997 1993 1996 2000 2000 1993 1997 1997

0.6 9.7 .. .. 1.5 .. 4.6 5.9 17.6 .. 6.9 4.2 3.8 0.5 .. 1.3 3.5 6.4 .. 10.2 .. .. .. .. 7.1 8.7 0.2 .. 6.5 0.4 0.2 4.4 0.3 b 7.5 5.8 1.8 0.0 .. .. .. 11.1 6.5 2.5 0.1 0.1 8.2 .. 0.9 4.3 .. 0.8 c 2.6 1.0 15.5 10.0 ..

.. 1996 .. .. .. .. 1993 1992 .. 1989 1989 1995 2001 .. .. .. .. 2001 .. 1994 .. .. .. .. 1995 1996 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1994 .. .. .. .. 1989 .. .. .. 1991 1994 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1995 1989 ..

.. 33.6 .. .. .. .. 77.9 48.1 .. 25.9 33.9 144.0 23.0 .. .. .. .. 45.0 .. 47.6 .. .. .. .. 21.3 91.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 118.0 .. .. .. .. 48.5 .. .. .. 40.5 49.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 61.2 44.6 ..

3.2 5.1 0.9 0.6 2.7 1.0 4.9 6.0 6.3 2.9 6.2 4.5 1.9 1.7 1.9 2.6 3.5 1.9 1.7 3.4 2.2 4.3 3.3 1.6 4.2 5.8 1.3 2.7 2.0 2.2 2.6 2.0 2.7 2.8 4.6 2.0 4.0 0.4 4.7 1.5 5.7 6.4 3.8 1.4 0.8 6.8 2.4 1.0 4.8 3.9 3.0 2.6 1.5 4.6 6.3 ..

4.0 4.9 4.1 1.3 5.0 .. 4.3 7.3 4.6 6.3 3.6 4.6 4.4 6.3 .. 3.6 6.1 3.1 3.2 5.9 2.9 10.0 .. 2.7 .. 3.7 d 2.5 4.1 7.9 2.8 3.6 3.3 4.4 4.0 6.2 5.0 2.4 1.3 8.1 3.4 4.8 6.6 5.0 2.3 .. 6.8 3.9 1.8 4.3 2.3 4.7 3.3 3.2 5.0 5.8 ..

.. 20.5 20.8 6.0 15.7 .. .. 23.0 .. 23.1 20.4 15.5 .. 4.7 .. 15.0 .. 12.8 11.0 23.7 .. .. .. .. .. 19.7 d .. .. 23.2 26.7 22.5 13.0 15.0 .. .. .. .. 7.8 28.2 13.8 .. 21.6 .. 26.3 .. 25.9 17.5 .. 19.1 13.3 15.8 .. 11.4 18.8 .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

69

2.9
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Enhancing security
Public expenditure on pensions Public expenditure on health Public expenditure on education
Per student % of GDP 2001 % of GDP 2001/02 a % of GDP per capita 2001/02 a

Average pension % of Year GDP Year % of per capita income

1996 1996

1998

1996 1994 1996

1997 1996

1997 1997 1991 1996

1997 1996 2000 1997 1996 1997 1996 1997 1997 1996 1995 2001 1998 1994 1993

5.1 5.7 .. .. 1.5 .. .. 1.4 9.1 13.6 .. .. 10.9 2.4 .. .. 11.1 13.4 0.5 3.0 .. .. 0.6 0.6 4.2 4.5 2.3 0.8 8.6 .. 10.3 7.5 15.0 5.3 2.7 1.6 .. 0.1 0.1 ..

1994 1995 .. .. 1997 .. .. .. 1994 1996 .. .. 1995 .. .. .. 1994 1993 .. .. .. .. 1993 .. 1991 1993 .. .. 1995 .. .. 1989 1996 1995 .. .. .. .. .. ..

34.1 18.3 .. .. 85.0 c .. .. .. 44.5 49.3 .. .. 54.1 .. .. .. 78.0 44.4 .. .. .. .. 178.8 .. 89.5 56.0 .. .. 30.9 .. .. 33.0 64.1 45.8 .. .. .. .. .. ..

5.2 3.7 3.1 3.4 2.8 6.5 2.6 1.3 5.1 6.3 1.2 3.6 5.4 1.8 0.6 2.3 7.4 6.4 2.4 1.0 2.0 2.1 1.5 1.7 4.9 4.4 3.0 3.4 2.9 2.6 6.3 6.2 5.1 2.7 3.7 1.5 .. 1.5 3.0 2.8 5.6 w 1.1 3.1 2.7 3.7 2.7 1.9 4.3 3.4 2.8 1.0 2.5 6.3 6.8

3.5 3.1 2.8 8.3 6.5 d .. 1.0 .. 4.1 .. .. 5.7 4.5 1.3 .. 5.5 7.7 5.5 4.1 2.4 2.2 5.0 4.8 4.0 6.8 3.7 .. 2.5 4.2 1.9 4.4 4.9 2.5 .. .. 2.8 .. 10.0 2.3 10.4 4.1 m 3.1 4.5 4.0 4.4 3.8 3.2 4.3 4.5 4.3 2.3 3.4 5.2 5.2

.. .. 12.8 .. 21.0 .. .. .. 16.8 .. .. 17.7 .. 6.1 .. 19.2 30.7 28.9 .. .. .. 17.7 16.0 18.4 23.9 16.4 .. .. 17.0 10.0 15.8 20.8 9.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. 18.0 .. m .. .. .. 15.0 .. 10.2 .. 15.0 .. 11.2 .. .. ..

a. Data are preliminary. b. Refers only to the scheme for civil servants. c. Refers to system covering private sector workers. d. Data are for 2002/03.

70

2004 World Development Indicators

Enhancing security
About the data Definitions Enhancing security for poor people means reducing their vulnerability to such risks as ill health, providing them the means to manage risk themselves, and strengthening market or public institutions for managing risk. The tools include microfinance programs, old age assistance and pensions, and public provision of basic health care and education. Public interventions and institutions can provide services directly to poor people, although whether these work well for the poor is debated. State action is often ineffective, in part because governments can influence only a few of the many sources of wellbeing and in part because of difficulties in delivering goods and services. The effectiveness of public provision is further constrained by the fiscal resources at governments’ disposal and the fact that state institutions may not be responsive to the needs of poor people. The data on public pension spending are from national sources and cover all government expenditures, including the administrative costs of pension programs. They cover noncontributory pensions or social assistance targeted to the elderly and disabled and spending by social insurance schemes for which contributions had previously been made. The pattern of spending in a country is correlated with its demographic structure—spending increases as the population ages. The lack of consistent national health accounting systems in most developing countries makes crosscountry comparisons of health spending difficult. Compiling estimates of public health expenditures is complicated in countries where state or provincial and local governments are involved in financing and delivering health care because the data on public spending often are not aggregated. The data in the table are the product of an effort to collect all available information on health expenditures from national and local government budgets, national accounts, household surveys, insurance publications, international donors, and existing tabulations. The data on education spending in the table refer solely to public spending—government spending on public education plus subsidies for private education. The data generally exclude foreign aid for education. They may also exclude spending by religious schools, which play a significant role in many developing countries. Data for some countries and for some years refer to spending by the ministry of education only (excluding education expenditures by other ministries and departments and local authorities). The share of gross domestic product (GDP) devoted to education Data sources can be interpreted as reflecting a country’s effort in education. It often bears a weak relationship to the output of the education system as reflected in educational attainment. The pattern in this relationship suggests wide variations across countries in the efficiency with which the government’s resources are translated into education outcomes. Data for education expenditure are reported for school years.

2.9

PEOPLE

• Public expenditure on pensions includes all government expenditures on cash transfers to the elderly, the disabled, and survivors and the administrative costs of these programs. • Average pension is estimated by dividing total pension expenditure by the number of pensioners. • Public expenditure on health consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. • Public expenditure on education consists of public spending on public education plus subsidies to private education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels.

The data on pension spending are drawn from Rober t Palacios and Montserrat Pallares-

Miralles’s “International Patterns of Pension Provision” (2000) and updates. For fur ther updates, notes, and sources, go to “Knowledge and information” on the World Bank’s Web site on pensions (http://www.worldbank.org/pensions). The estimates of health expenditure come from the World Health Organization’s World Health Report 2003 and updates, from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for its member countries, and from countries’ national health accounts, supplemented by World Bank country and sector studies. The data on education expenditure are from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

2004 World Development Indicators

71

2.10
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Education inputs
Public expenditure per student a Public expenditure on education Trained teachers in primary education Primary pupilteacher ratio
pupils per teacher 2001/02 b

% of total % of GDP per capita Primary 1990/91 2001/02 b Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b Tertiary 1990/91 2001/02 b government expenditure 2001/02 b % of total 2001/02 b

.. .. .. .. .. .. 15.9 18.0 .. .. 25.7 .. .. .. .. 7.4 .. 22.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. 7.0 8.4 5.4 8.0 .. .. .. 7.8 .. .. .. .. 21.9 2.5 .. .. .. .. .. 31.1 21.8 11.9 .. 13.1 .. .. .. 8.1 2.7 10.8 .. 5.7

.. .. .. .. 12.4 .. 16.0 .. .. 8.3 .. .. 10.1 12.0 .. 6.0 10.7 .. .. 11.6 7.4 .. .. .. 9.5 14.3 .. .. 16.4 .. 0.4 14.6 14.9 .. 32.7 13.0 23.4 6.6 .. .. .. .. 23.6 .. .. .. 4.7 .. .. .. .. .. 7.7 9.2 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 34.6 23.6 .. 15.2 6.9 27.1 .. .. .. 44.2 .. .. .. 117.8 .. .. .. 17.7 .. 7.7 12.5 .. 10.4 .. .. 15.8 .. .. .. .. 31.2 .. 9.5 .. .. .. 38.7 46.1 25.8 20.7 .. 28.2 .. .. .. 12.4 4.4 34.9 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 15.8 14.8 14.3 .. 20.1 13.4 .. .. 18.5 10.2 .. 5.5 10.0 .. .. 61.7 6.2 .. .. .. 28.4 14.7 .. .. 18.5 .. .. 20.2 49.4 .. 43.3 22.3 37.7 5.0 .. .. .. .. 29.7 .. .. .. 18.9 .. .. .. .. .. 4.8 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 50.7 35.1 .. 26.0 17.8 29.0 .. .. .. 161.5 .. 30.9 .. .. .. 302.0 27.5 347.1 .. 27.1 102.4 51.3 33.0 .. .. 45.8 328.5 .. .. 45.9 40.4 .. 23.9 50.4 .. .. 55.9 506.6 40.3 22.9 .. .. .. .. .. 16.0 34.7 572.0 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 17.8 38.9 23.5 .. 14.0 42.5 .. .. .. 45.0 .. 88.6 48.5 .. .. 691.5 42.0 .. 47.2 .. 422.7 19.2 .. .. 38.5 .. 8.8 45.8 .. 36.4 96.5 32.8 69.0 .. .. .. 9.3 17.4 31.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 13.7 .. 13.8 15.1 23.1 15.8 .. 11.6 .. 18.4 .. .. 10.4 .. .. 21.8 10.1 12.5 .. .. .. 17.5 .. .. 18.0 .. 12.6 21.1 21.5 .. 16.8 9.7 15.3 13.2 8.0 .. 19.4 .. .. 13.8 12.2 11.5 .. 14.2 13.1 9.9 .. 7.0 11.4 25.6 4.8 ..

.. .. 97.1 .. 67.0 .. .. .. 100.0 65.6 97.9 .. 65.0 74.1 .. 89.5 91.9 .. 80.4 .. 96.0 .. .. .. .. 94.9 96.8 .. .. .. 64.6 89.5 99.1 100.0 100.0 .. .. .. 68.6 99.9 .. 72.6 .. 69.3 .. .. 95.3 73.1 87.6 .. 64.9 .. 100.0 .. 35.1 ..

43 22 28 .. 20 19 .. 13 16 55 17 12 53 25 .. 27 23 17 47 49 56 61 17 .. 71 32 20 .. 26 .. 56 24 44 18 14 18 10 33 24 22 26 44 14 57 16 19 63 38 14 15 32 13 30 47 44 ..

72

2004 World Development Indicators

Education inputs
Public expenditure per student a Public expenditure on education

2.10
Primary pupilteacher ratio
pupils per teacher 2001/02 b % of total 2001/02 b

PEOPLE

Trained teachers in primary education

% of total % of GDP per capita Primary 1990/91 2001/02 b Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b Tertiary 1990/91 2001/02 b government expenditure 2001/02 b

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

.. 20.3 .. .. 6.2 .. 11.1 12.7 15.1 10.8 18.6 .. .. 13.0 .. 12.0 35.4 .. 5.0 .. .. 16.7 .. .. .. .. .. 6.5 12.4 .. 16.9 10.1 3.5 .. .. .. 11.0 .. .. .. 12.1 17.1 10.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.1 .. .. .. 15.4 ..

.. 19.2 13.7 3.7 11.6 .. .. 21.0 .. 15.7 21.4 16.0 .. 0.9 .. 18.4 .. .. 9.1 23.1 8.3 21.4 .. .. .. 16.6 c 10.7 .. 17.0 14.4 14.0 9.0 11.8 .. .. 17.9 .. 5.8 .. 12.5 .. 19.6 .. 16.8 .. 26.8 12.6 .. 10.5 12.4 12.9 .. 11.8 28.8 .. ..

16.5 25.4 13.6 .. 14.1 .. 18.5 27.6 21.4 14.0 18.4 .. .. .. .. 9.9 13.6 28.4 25.3 19.4 .. 61.8 .. .. 26.9 30.9 .. 44.0 16.9 .. 85.2 17.1 8.3 .. .. 47.1 27.4 .. 50.1 8.1 21.7 15.0 9.7 105.4 .. 17.2 17.2 14.7 12.9 .. 6.7 .. .. .. 18.0 ..

.. 18.8 23.0 7.3 13.6 .. .. 22.4 .. 24.5 21.0 19.0 .. 2.2 .. 16.8 .. .. 10.2 24.7 .. 52.9 .. .. .. 17.1 c .. .. 27.5 .. 44.0 13.9 13.8 .. .. 47.5 .. 7.0 .. 11.8 .. 21.9 .. 56.7 .. 17.1 20.8 .. 13.8 19.2 15.4 .. 9.4 11.8 .. ..

76.6 81.3 92.0 .. 79.7 .. 36.1 32.7 .. 132.3 .. 78.9 .. .. .. 5.8 353.8 53.5 52.2 18.6 .. 609.1 .. .. 54.1 62.5 167.9 851.2 116.6 .. 396.3 177.1 23.6 .. 119.4 73.1 .. .. 259.5 90.8 54.1 67.8 .. .. .. 27.7 56.3 155.1 43.5 .. 38.0 .. .. .. 32.5 ..

.. 31.4 85.8 21.0 81.5 .. .. 29.9 .. 70.5 17.2 .. .. 256.7 .. 7.4 .. .. 94.5 22.0 9.8 .. .. 24.9 .. 20.8 c 191.6 .. 83.5 .. .. 48.7 45.2 .. .. .. .. 28.5 .. 82.3 .. 25.1 .. 304.5 .. 40.9 50.2 .. 41.2 .. 47.1 .. 13.9 16.1 .. ..

.. 14.1 12.7 9.6 21.7 .. 10.7 .. 9.5 12.3 10.5 20.6 .. 22.5 .. 17.4 .. 18.6 10.6 .. 11.1 18.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. 25.2 .. .. 13.3 22.6 15.0 .. .. .. 18.1 21.0 13.9 10.4 .. 13.0 .. .. 16.2 .. 7.8 7.3 .. 9.7 21.1 .. 12.2 12.8 ..

.. .. .. 93.5 97.9 .. .. .. .. 79.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 49.3 76.1 .. 14.9 74.8 .. .. .. .. .. 51.2 .. .. .. 100.0 .. .. 92.9 .. 59.9 85.4 36.0 51.8 .. .. 72.9 72.7 .. .. 99.8 .. 75.7 100.0 .. 78.2 .. .. .. ..

34 11 40 21 24 21 22 12 11 34 20 20 19 32 .. 32 14 24 30 15 17 47 38 .. 16 18 c 54 c .. 20 56 39 25 27 20 32 28 66 33 32 40 10 15 37 41 40 .. 23 44 24 36 .. 29 35 11 13 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

73

2.10
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Education inputs
Public expenditure per student a Public expenditure on education Trained teachers in primary education Primary pupilteacher ratio
pupils per teacher 2001/02 b

% of total % of GDP per capita Primary 1990/91 2001/02 b Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b Tertiary 1990/91 2001/02 b government expenditure 2001/02 b % of total 2001/02 b

23.2 .. .. .. 17.3 .. .. .. 22.8 17.5 .. .. 11.8 .. .. 7.0 46.5 34.9 .. .. .. 13.3 8.3 4.5 .. .. .. .. 20.9 .. 15.1 20.2 .. .. 2.4 .. .. .. 5.6 20.1 .. m .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 40.2

.. .. 6.9 .. 13.8 .. .. .. 11.4 .. .. 14.3 .. 10.0 .. 10.4 24.3 22.8 12.8 .. .. 15.9 11.0 14.2 15.8 11.6 .. .. .. .. 13.6 18.0 7.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 16.2 .. m .. .. .. 12.4 .. 5.7 .. 13.1 .. 8.7 .. 26.2

5.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 13.6 7.9 15.4 .. .. 13.6 .. .. .. 18.8 13.5 15.0 .. .. 15.9 36.4 15.5 27.6 8.4 .. .. 9.5 .. 26.5 22.1 8.6 .. 7.8 .. .. .. .. 34.0 .. m .. .. .. 16.9 .. .. .. 9.9 .. 14.7 .. 31.0

.. .. 22.0 .. .. .. .. .. 16.8 .. .. 18.3 .. .. .. 29.7 27.8 27.8 23.1 .. .. 13.0 26.0 20.1 25.7 13.8 .. .. 16.9 .. 14.5 22.5 8.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. 24.2 .. m .. .. .. .. .. 10.4 .. .. .. 10.4 .. ..

32.3 .. .. 133.2 .. .. .. 43.4 63.7 38.7 .. 90.9 18.0 78.6 .. 305.1 38.6 43.7 46.6 .. .. .. 572.8 67.4 115.5 .. .. .. 19.5 .. 40.9 20.2 24.0 .. 36.3 .. .. .. .. 195.9 .. m .. .. .. 61.8 .. .. 49.9 .. 76.0 90.8 .. 47.1

.. 9.6 575.0 .. .. .. .. .. 27.9 .. .. 56.8 .. .. .. 253.2 52.0 53.2 .. .. .. 31.1 297.7 68.5 68.0 48.5 .. .. 35.3 .. 25.7 23.0 24.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. m .. .. .. 30.6 .. .. .. 44.9 .. 60.4 .. 66.5

.. 10.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. 13.8 .. .. 18.1 11.3 .. .. .. 13.6 15.2 .. .. .. 28.3 23.2 13.4 17.4 .. .. .. 15.0 .. 11.4 15.5 10.0 .. .. .. .. 32.8 .. .. .. m .. .. .. 13.7 .. .. .. 13.2 .. 13.0 .. 11.5

.. .. 81.2 93.3 100.0 100.0 60.7 .. .. .. .. 67.6 .. .. .. 90.4 .. .. .. 81.6 .. .. 80.5 78.1 94.1 .. .. .. 99.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. 87.0 .. .. 100.0 95.3 86.2 m 76.1 90.4 93.0 77.7 84.9 93.5 .. 76.7 96.8 66.9 80.4 .. ..

20 17 51 12 49 20 31 .. 19 13 .. 37 14 .. .. 32 11 14 24 22 47 19 35 19 22 .. .. 59 19 15 18 15 21 .. .. 26 .. .. 45 38 28 m 40 22 22 21 30 22 17 26 24 42 45 17 14

a. Break in series between 1997 and 1998 due to change from International Standard Classification of Education 1976 (ISCED76) to ISCED97. For information on ISCED, see About the data. b. Data are preliminary. c. Data are for 2002/03.

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2004 World Development Indicators

Education inputs
About the data Data on education are compiled by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics from official responses to surveys and from reports provided by education authorities in each country. Such data are used for monitoring, policymaking, and resource allocation. For a variety of reasons, however, education statistics generally fail to provide a complete and accurate picture of a country’s education system. Statistics often lag by two to three years, though an effort is being made to shorten the delay. Moreover, coverage and data collection methods vary across countries and over time within countries, so the results of comparisons should be interpreted with caution. The data on education spending in the table refer solely to public spending—government spending on public education plus subsidies for private education. The data generally exclude foreign aid for education. They may also exclude spending by religious schools, which play a significant role in many developing countries. Data for some countries and for some years refer to spending by the ministry of education only (excluding education expenditures by other ministries and departments and local authorities). Many developing countries have sought to supplement public funds for education. Some countries have adopted tuition fees to recover part of the cost of providing education services or to encourage development of private schools. Charging fees raises difficult questions relating to equity, efficiency, access, and taxation, however, and some governments have used scholarships, vouchers, and other methods of public finance to counter criticism. Data for a few countries include private spending, although national practices vary with respect to whether parents or schools pay for books, uniforms, and other supplies. For greater detail, see the country- and indicatorspecific notes in the source. The share of public expenditure devoted to education allows an assessment of the priority a government assigns to education relative to other public investments. It also reflects a government’s commitment to investing in human capital development. The share of trained teachers in primary schools measures the quality of the teaching staff. It does not take account of competencies acquired by teachers through their professional experience or selfinstruction, or of such factors as work experience, teaching methods and materials, or classroom conditions, all of which may affect the quality of teaching. Since the training teachers receive varies greatly, care should be taken in comparing across countries. The comparability of pupil-teacher ratios across countries is affected by the definition of teachers and by differences in class size by grade and in the number of hours taught. Moreover, the underlying enrollment levels are subject to a variety of reporting errors (for further discussion of enrollment data, see About the data for table 2.11). While the pupilteacher ratio is often used to compare the quality of schooling across countries, it is often weakly related to the value added of schooling systems (Behrman and Rosenzweig 1994). Data for education are reported for school years. For two decades the International Standard Classification of Education, 1976 (ISCED76), was used to assemble, compile, and present education Definitions

2.10

PEOPLE

statistics. In 1998 UNESCO introduced ISCED97 and adjusted its data collection program and country reporting of education statistics to this new classification. The adjustments were made to ease the international compilation and comparison of education statistics and to take into account new types of learning opportunities and activities for both children and adults. Thus the time-series data for the years through 1997 are not consistent with those for 1998 and later. Any time-series analysis should therefore be undertaken with extreme caution.

• Public expenditure per student is public current spending on education divided by the number of students by level, as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. • Public expenditure on education is current and capital public expenditure on education expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure. • Trained teachers in primary education are the percentage of primary school teachers who have received the minimum organized teacher training (preservice or in service) required for teaching. • Primary pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

2.10a
Education suffers in primary schools with high teacher absence rates
Teacher absence rate, 2000–03 (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Uganda India Indonesia Zambia Bangladesh Ecuador Papua New Guinea Peru

Data sources The data are from the UNESCO Institute for

The primary school teacher absence rate is the percentage of full-time teachers who were absent from a random sample of primary schools during a surprise visit, regardless of the reasons for their absence. Many teachers were absent for valid reasons, but even authorized absences reduce the quantity and quality of primary education. Source: Chaudhury and others 2004; NRI and World Bank 2003; Habyarimana and others 2003.

Statistics, which compiles international data on education in cooperation with national commissions and national statistical services.

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75

2.11
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Par ticipation in education
Gross enrollment ratio a Net enrollment ratio a

% of relevant age group Preprimary 2001/02 b Primary 1990/91 2001/02 b Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b Tertiary 1990/91 2001/02 b 1990/91

% of relevant age group Primary 2001/02 b Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b

.. 44 4 .. 61 30 104 82 23 19 99 112 6 47 .. .. 67 70 1 1 7 14 65 .. .. 77 27 .. 37 1 4 115 3 38 111 92 90 35 73 12 46 5 102 2c 54 114 13 20 41 101 41 70 55 .. 3 ..

27 100 100 92 106 104 108 102 114 72 95 101 58 95 70 113 106 98 33 73 121 101 103 65 54 100 125 102 102 70 133 101 67 85 98 96 98 97 116 94 81 46 111 33 99 108 .. 64 97 101 75 98 78 37 56 74

23 107 108 .. 120 96 102 103 93 98 110 105 104 114 .. 103 148 99 48 c 71 123 107 100 66 73 103 114 .. 110 .. 86 108 80 96 100 104 102 126 117 97 112 61 103 62 c 102 105 134 79 92 103 81 97 103 77 70 ..

9 78 61 12 71 93 82 104 90 19 93 103 12 37 65 43 38 75 7 6 32 28 101 12 8 73 49 80 50 22 53 42 22 76 89 91 109 40 55 76 26 15 102 14 116 99 .. 19 95 98 36 93 23 10 9 21

12 78 72 19 100 87 154 99 80 47 84 154 26 84 .. 73 108 94 10 11 22 33 106 .. 12 85 68 .. 65 .. 32 67 23 88 89 95 128 67 59 85 56 28 110 17 c 126 108 51 34 79 99 38 96 33 .. 18 ..

2 7 11 1 39 20 35 35 24 4 48 40 3 21 15 3 11 31 1 1 1 3 95 2 1 21 3 19 13 2 5 27 3 24 21 16 36 20 20 16 16 .. 26 1 49 40 .. .. 37 34 1 36 8 1 1 1

.. 15 .. 1 57 26 65 57 23 6 62 58 4 39 .. 5 18 40 .. 2 3 5 59 2 1 37 13 .. 24 .. 4 21 .. 36 27 30 59 .. .. .. 17 2 59 2 85 54 .. .. 36 .. 3 61 .. .. 0d ..

.. .. 93 .. .. .. 99 90 .. 64 .. 97 49 91 .. 93 86 86 27 52 .. .. 97 53 .. 88 97 .. 69 54 .. 86 47 79 92 .. 98 .. .. .. 75 24 94 .. 99 100 .. 51 .. 84 .. 94 .. .. .. 22

.. 97 95 .. 100 85 96 91 80 87 94 100 71 94 .. 81 97 90 35 53 86 .. 100 .. 58 89 93 .. 87 .. .. 91 63 88 96 90 99 97 99 90 89 43 98 46 100 100 78 73 91 86 60 95 85 61 45 ..

.. .. 54 .. .. .. 79 91 .. 18 .. 88 .. 29 .. 34 15 63 7 5 .. .. 89 .. .. 55 .. .. 34 15 .. 36 .. 63 69 .. 87 .. .. .. .. .. 82 .. 93 86 .. 18 .. 89 .. 83 .. .. .. ..

.. 74 62 .. 81 85 88 88 76 44 78 .. 20 67 .. 55 72 87 8 8 21 .. 98 .. 8 75 .. .. 54 .. .. 51 .. 86 83 88 89 41 50 78 46 21 92 15 95 92 .. 28 .. 88 30 85 28 .. .. ..

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2004 World Development Indicators

Par ticipation in education
Gross enrollment ratio a

2.11
Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b

PEOPLE

Net enrollment ratio a

% of relevant age group Preprimary 2001/02 b Primary 1990/91 2001/02 b Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b Tertiary 1990/91 2001/02 b 1990/91

% of relevant age group Primary 2001/02 b

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

21 79 26 20 23 5 3 112 96 87 84 31 13 44 .. 79 73 14 8 57 74 21 56 8 53 29 3 .. 89 2 .. 87 75 39 32 60 .. 2 23 13 96 87 26 1 .. 79 5 55 51 39 30 60 33 49 70 ..

109 95 97 115 112 111 103 95 103 101 100 71 87 95 .. 105 60 111 105 94 120 112 29 105 91 99 103 68 94 26 49 109 114 93 97 67 67 106 129 108 102 106 94 29 91 100 86 61 106 72 105 118 111 98 123 121

106 102 99 111 92 99 119 114 101 101 101 99 99 96 .. 100 94 102 115 99 103 124 105 114 104 99 104 .. 95 57 86 106 110 85 99 107 99 90 106 122 108 99 105 40 96 101 83 73 110 77 112 121 112 100 121 ..

33 79 44 44 55 47 101 85 83 65 97 45 98 24 .. 90 43 100 25 93 73 25 14 86 92 56 18 8 56 7 14 53 53 80 82 35 8 23 44 33 120 89 40 7 25 103 46 23 63 12 31 67 73 81 67 61

.. 98 48 58 81 38 .. 93 96 84 102 86 89 32 .. 94 85 85 41 93 77 34 .. 105 98 85 .. .. 70 .. 22 80 73 72 76 41 13 39 61 44 124 113 57 6 .. 115 79 .. 69 23 64 .. 82 101 114 ..

9 14 6 9 10 13 29 34 32 7 30 16 40 2 .. 39 12 14 1 25 29 1 3 15 34 17 3 1 7 1 3 4 15 36 14 11 0d 4 3 5 40 40 8 1 4 42 4 3 21 3 8 30 28 22 23 45

14 40 11 15 19 14 47 53 50 17 48 31 39 4 .. 82 .. 44 4 64 45 2 .. 58 59 24 2 .. 26 2 3 11 20 29 35 10 1 11 7 5 55 72 .. 1 .. 70 7 .. 34 .. 18 .. 30 55 50 ..

89 91 .. 97 97 79 91 .. .. 96 100 66 .. .. .. 100 45 .. 61 83 .. 73 .. 96 .. 94 .. 50 .. 21 .. 95 100 .. .. 58 47 .. 89 .. 95 100 72 25 .. 100 70 .. 91 .. 93 .. 97 97 100 ..

87 90 83 92 87 91 90 100 100 95 100 91 90 70 .. 99 85 82 83 91 90 84 70 .. 97 93 69 .. 95 .. 67 93 99 78 87 88 60 82 78 70 99 98 82 34 .. 100 75 67 99 77 92 100 93 98 .. ..

21 75 .. 38 .. 37 80 .. .. 64 97 33 .. .. .. 86 45 .. 15 .. .. 15 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 .. .. 45 .. .. .. 7 .. 31 .. 84 85 .. 6 .. 88 49 .. 51 .. 26 .. 57 76 70 ..

.. 87 .. 47 .. 33 .. 88 88 75 100 80 84 24 .. 91 77 .. 31 89 .. 22 .. .. 92 82 .. .. 69 .. 15 62 58 68 71 31 11 35 38 .. 90 92 37 5 .. 95 68 .. 62 23 50 .. 56 91 85 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

77

2.11
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Par ticipation in education
Gross enrollment ratio a Net enrollment ratio a

% of relevant age group Preprimary 2001/02 b Primary 1990/91 2001/02 b Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b Tertiary 1990/91 2001/02 b 1990/91

% of relevant age group Primary 2001/02 b Secondary 1990/91 2001/02 b

73 92 3 5 3c 44 4 .. 81 75 .. 35 102 .. 20 .. 74 95 10 10 .. 86 3 63 20 7 .. 4 72 71 82 58 63 21 52 43 .. 0d .. 39 40 w 24 40 36 63 33 29 58 60 21 28 .. 90 98

91 109 70 73 59 72 50 104 98 108 11 122 109 106 53 111 100 90 108 91 70 99 109 97 113 99 91 71 89 104 104 102 109 81 96 103 .. 58 99 116 102 w 88 113 115 102 102 121 98 106 96 90 74 103 105

99 114 117 67 75 99 76 .. 103 100 .. 105 107 110 59 100 110 107 112 107 70 98 124 105 112 94 .. 136 90 92 101 100 108 103 106 103 .. 81 79 99 103 w 94 111 112 104 103 111 103 129 96 95 87 102 104

92 93 8 44 16 63 17 68 87 91 6 74 104 74 24 44 90 99 52 102 5 30 24 80 45 47 107 13 93 67 85 93 81 99 35 32 .. 58 24 50 55 w 35 56 55 64 47 47 85 49 57 39 23 94 97

82 92 14 69 19 89 .. .. 87 106 .. 86 114 81 32 45 149 100 45 82 6 83 36 70 79 76 .. .. 97 79 158 94 101 99 69 70 .. 46 .. 43 70 w 46 75 75 81 63 66 89 89 70 48 .. 106 106

10 52 1 12 3 18 1 19 19 24 3 13 37 5 3 4 32 26 18 22 0d 17 3 7 9 13 22 1 47 9 30 75 30 30 29 2 .. 4 2 5 16 w 5 13 12 20 10 5 34 17 12 5 3 47 35

27 68 2 22 .. 36 2 .. 30 61 .. 15 57 .. .. 5 70 42 .. 15 1 37 4 7 23 25 .. 3 57 .. 59 71 38 9 18 10 .. .. 2 4 24 w 10 22 20 33 17 14 48 23 .. 10 .. 61 54

77 .. 66 59 48 69 .. .. .. .. .. 99 100 .. .. 88 100 84 95 .. 51 .. 75 91 94 89 .. .. .. 94 97 96 91 .. 88 .. .. .. .. .. .. w .. 95 95 92 .. 97 .. 89 .. .. .. 98 93

93 .. 96 59 58 75 .. .. 89 93 .. 90 100 .. 46 77 100 99 98 98 54 86 92 94 97 88 .. .. 82 81 100 94 90 .. 92 94 .. 67 66 83 88 w 80 92 91 93 86 92 .. 94 83 82 .. 97 99

.. .. 7 31 .. 62 .. .. .. .. .. 51 .. .. .. 33 85 80 46 .. .. .. 18 65 43 41 .. .. .. 59 79 86 .. .. 19 .. .. .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. 50 .. .. .. 29 .. .. .. 87 87

80 .. .. 53 .. .. .. .. 75 96 .. 62 93 .. .. 32 96 88 39 79 5 .. 27 65 68 .. .. .. 91 72 95 87 72 .. 57 65 .. 35 .. 40 .. w .. .. .. 69 .. .. .. 65 54 .. .. 91 90

a. Break in series between 1997 and 1998 due to change from ISCED76 to ISCED97. For information on ISCED, see About the data for table 2.10. b. Data are preliminary. c. Data are for 2002/03. d. Less than 0.5.

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2004 World Development Indicators

Par ticipation in education
About the data School enrollment data are reported to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics by national education authorities. Enrollment ratios help to monitor two important issues for universal primary education: whether the Millennium Development Goal that implies achieving a net primary enrollment ratio of 100 percent is on track, and whether an education system has sufficient capacity to meet the needs of universal primary education, as indicated in part by its gross enrollment ratios. The gross enrollment ratio shows the share of children in the population who are enrolled in school regardless of their age. Net enrollment ratios show the share of children of primary school age who are enrolled in school and thus also the share who are not. Enrollment ratios, while a useful measure of participation in education, also have significant limitations. They are based on data collected during annual school surveys, which are typically conducted at the beginning of the school year. They do not reflect actual rates of attendance or dropouts during the school year. And school administrators may report exaggerated enrollments, especially if there is a financial incentive to do so. Often the number of teachers paid by the government is related to the number of pupils enrolled. Overage or underage enrollments frequently occur, particularly when parents prefer, for cultural or economic reasons, to have children start school at other than the official age. Children’s age at enrollment may be inaccurately estimated or misstated, especially in communities where registration of births is not strictly enforced. Parents who want to enroll their underage children in primary school may do so by overstating the age of the children. And in some education systems ages for children repeating a grade may be deliberately or inadvertently underreported. As an international indicator, the gross primary enrollment ratio has been used to indicate broad levels of participation as well as school capacity. It has an inherent weakness: the length of primary education differs significantly across countries. A short duration tends to increase the ratio, and a long duration to decrease it (in part because there are more dropouts among older children). Other problems affecting cross-country comparisons of enrollment data stem from errors in estimates of school-age populations. Age-gender structures from censuses or vital registration systems, the primary sources of data on school-age populations, are commonly subject to underenumeration (especially of young children) aimed at circumventing laws or regulations; errors are also introduced when parents round up children’s ages. While census data are often adjusted for age bias, adjustments are rarely made for inadequate vital registration systems. Compounding these problems, pre- and post-census estimates of school-age children are interpolations or projections based on models that may miss important demographic events (see the discussion of demographic data in About the data for table 2.1). In using enrollment data, it is also important to consider repetition rates. These rates are quite high in some developing countries, leading to a substantial number of overage children enrolled in each grade and raising the gross enrollment ratio. A common error that may also distort enrollment ratios is the lack of distinction between new entrants and repeaters, Definitions

2.11

PEOPLE

which, other things equal, leads to underreporting of repeaters and overestimation of dropouts. Thus gross enrollment ratios indicate the capacity of each level of the education system, but a high ratio does not necessarily mean a successful education system. The net enrollment ratio excludes overage students in an attempt to capture more accurately the system’s coverage and internal efficiency. It does not solve the problem completely, however, because some children fall outside the official school age because of late or early entry rather than because of grade repetition. The difference between gross and net enrollment ratios shows the incidence of overage and underage enrollments.

• Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. • Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age (as defined by the national education system) who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED97). • Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment. • Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. • Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development by offering

2.11a
Girls from rural areas and poor households have the lowest attendance rates in Guinea
Net attendance ratio, 1999 Male 100 80 100 80 Female

more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. • Tertiary education, whether or not leading to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admis-

60

60

sion, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.

40

40

20

20

0 Urban Rural

0 Richest quintile Poorest quintile

Household surveys can provide data on attendance at school that cannot usually be derived from administrative data. In Guinea more children attend school in urban areas than in rural areas, and more than four times as many rich children attend school as poor children. Regardless of location and wealth, more boys than girls attend school. Source: Global Education Report 2003, UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2003.

Data source The data are from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

2004 World Development Indicators

79

2.12
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Education efficiency
Apparent intake rate in grade 1 Share of cohort reaching grade 5 Primary completion rate Repeaters in primary school

% of relevant age group Male 2001/02 a Female 2001/02 a Male 1990/91 2000/01 a % of grade 1 students Female 1990/91

% of relevant age group Total 2000/01– Male Female Total % of enrollment Male Female 2001/02 a 2001/02 a 2000/01 – 2000/01 –

2000/01 a 2002/03 a, b 2002/03 a, b 2002/03 a, b 2001/02 a

.. 103 102 .. 112 97 .. 108 91 106 .. .. 127 119 .. 114 130 98 53 92 174 115 .. 76 94 97 .. .. 130 .. 67 101 82 97 95 102 100 148 139 95 135 70 98 96 98 .. 97 88 93 100 86 .. 126 77 106 ..

.. 101 100 .. 112 95 .. 105 88 108 .. .. 96 121 .. 110 119 98 39 73 161 99 .. 53 70 96 .. .. 125 .. 61 101 62 98 96 101 100 137 138 92 128 59 94 74 98 .. 97 88 92 99 84 .. 123 67 79 ..

.. .. 95 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 55 .. .. 94 .. 91 71 65 .. .. .. 25 58 .. .. .. 71 58 58 81 75 .. .. .. 94 .. 40 .. 56 85 92 61 100 .. .. 85 .. .. 81 99 .. 64 .. ..

.. .. 95 .. 91 .. .. .. .. 63 .. .. 89 79 .. 87 .. .. 68 68 71 63 .. .. 58 101 .. .. 59 .. .. 93 73 .. 95 98 .. 71 77 99 67 89 100 63 99 98 102 75 .. .. 67 .. 57 90 41 ..

.. .. 93 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 56 .. .. 98 .. 90 68 58 .. .. .. 22 43 .. .. .. 50 50 67 84 70 .. .. .. 94 .. 41 .. 60 80 94 54 100 .. .. 89 .. .. 79 100 .. 48 .. ..

.. .. 97 .. 95 .. .. .. .. 68 .. .. 78 77 .. 92 .. .. 71 59 70 60 .. .. 48 101 .. .. 63 .. .. 95 65 .. 96 99 .. 79 79 99 73 74 99 59 101 97 102 63 .. .. 65 .. 54 77 34 ..

.. 100 96 .. 100 74 .. .. 100 77 131 .. 45 89 77 91 82 94 29 27 71 57 .. .. 22 96 102 .. 90 .. 58 90 48 90 100 .. .. 95 99 91 86 33 103 18 .. .. 92 69 92 .. 59 .. 59 .. .. ..

.. 101 96 .. 98 74 .. .. 101 76 .. .. 58 91 .. 87 .. 95 34 30 75 58 .. .. 31 95 .. .. 87 .. 59 89 57 90 101 .. .. 91 99 92 86 38 108 .. .. .. 92 77 92 .. 61 .. 63 .. .. ..

.. 99 95 .. 102 74 .. .. 99 78 .. .. 32 87 .. 95 .. 92 24 24 66 56 .. .. 13 97 .. .. 92 .. 56 92 38 89 99 .. .. 100 99 89 86 29 98 .. .. .. 92 60 91 .. 57 .. 55 .. .. ..

.. 4.1 11.7 29.0 6.2 0.1 .. .. 0.3 6.3 0.3 .. 20.1 2.7 .. 3.2 21.5 2.4 14.0 c 26.3 9.6 25.2 .. .. 25.5 2.0 0.6 .. 6.6 .. 24.8 8.2 23.3 0.4 1.2 1.1 .. 5.9 2.0 5.2 6.5 17.5 2.3 9.9 c 0.5 4.2 34.4 10.6 0.3 1.8 5.2 .. 14.2 20.8 24.0 ..

.. 4.6 14.2 29.0 7.3 0.1 .. .. 0.3 6.7 0.6 .. 20.1 2.9 .. 4.0 25.0 2.8 17.5 25.6 10.2 25.9 .. .. 25.3 2.4 .. .. 7.3 .. 25.1 9.5 23.1 0.5 1.7 1.3 .. 7.1 2.3 6.4 7.3 17.1 3.2 8.6 c 0.7 4.2 35.1 10.7 0.5 2.0 5.3 .. 14.8 19.7 23.6 ..

.. 3.4 9.0 29.0 5.0 0.1 .. .. 0.3 6.0 0.6 .. 20.1 2.5 .. 2.5 25.0 2.0 17.7 27.2 8.9 24.4 .. .. 25.9 1.6 .. .. 5.9 .. 24.4 6.9 23.6 0.3 0.6 0.9 .. 4.6 1.8 3.9 5.6 17.9 1.3 11.7 c 0.3 4.2 33.7 10.5 0.2 1.6 5.0 .. 13.5 22.4 24.5 ..

80

2004 World Development Indicators

Education efficiency
Apparent intake rate in grade 1 Share of cohort reaching grade 5 Primary completion rate

2.12
Repeaters in primary school
% of enrollment Male Female 2001/02 a 2001/02 a

PEOPLE

% of relevant age group Male 2001/02 a Female 2001/02 a Male 1990/91 2000/01 a % of grade 1 students Female 1990/91

% of relevant age group Total 2000/01– Male Female Total 2000/01 – 2000/01 –

2000/01 a 2002/03 a, b 2002/03 a, b 2002/03 a, b 2001/02 a

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

138 99 136 119 86 118 101 .. 96 99 .. 103 107 105 .. 102 96 111 133 94 98 158 204 .. 102 98 119 .. 93 65 114 90 110 95 100 119 126 116 96 128 99 99 142 67 .. .. 74 107 120 102 114 115 137 98 .. ..

138 97 114 113 86 104 100 .. 95 99 .. 103 106 101 .. 100 95 108 117 93 96 139 174 .. 100 98 116 .. 93 54 110 93 110 92 103 115 112 117 98 117 98 98 134 48 .. .. 74 80 117 90 112 116 127 97 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 91 .. 100 .. 100 .. 100 100 .. .. .. 99 .. .. 56 .. .. 58 .. .. .. .. 22 71 98 73 75 98 81 .. .. 75 37 .. 61 52 .. 90 51 61 .. 100 95 .. .. 60 69 .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 59 87 94 .. 98 .. 95 88 .. 98 .. .. .. 100 .. .. 62 .. 92 60 44 .. .. .. 33 .. 96 88 54 99 88 .. .. 84 56 59 94 57 .. .. 51 73 .. .. 96 .. 88 61 76 88 76 99 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 89 .. 100 .. 100 .. 100 100 .. .. .. 100 .. .. 50 .. .. 83 .. .. .. .. 21 57 98 70 75 98 82 .. .. 76 28 .. 65 52 .. 91 57 65 .. 100 96 .. .. 58 72 .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 59 92 94 .. 99 .. 98 93 .. 97 .. .. .. 100 .. .. 63 .. 96 74 21 .. .. .. 34 .. 96 79 56 99 89 .. .. 83 47 61 94 69 .. .. 58 68 .. .. 96 .. 89 58 78 87 83 99 .. ..

70 .. 77 107 123 .. .. .. .. 90 .. 98 99 56 .. .. .. 94 73 90 68 65 .. .. 106 95 41 55 .. 39 46 108 96 80 107 68 22 71 95 73 .. .. 75 21 .. .. 72 .. 86 59 89 98 90 95 .. ..

69 .. 85 106 125 .. .. .. .. 88 .. 97 99 54 .. .. .. 96 78 .. 65 55 .. .. 106 96 40 62 .. 48 48 108 96 80 106 72 27 71 91 78 .. .. 71 25 .. .. 75 .. 85 63 88 98 87 94 .. ..

70 .. 69 108 120 .. .. .. .. 92 .. 99 99 58 .. .. .. 92 69 .. 71 75 .. .. 106 95 41 48 .. 31 43 107 97 80 109 64 17 71 100 67 .. .. 79 17 .. .. 69 .. 87 55 90 99 94 95 .. ..

.. 2.5 3.7 5.3 4.3 12.3 1.6 .. 0.3 3.5 .. 0.5 0.2 .. .. .. 2.8 0.2 20.0 2.0 8.7 19.7 2.7 .. 0.7 0.1 29.0 c .. .. 19.3 14.1 4.3 5.5 .. 0.6 12.6 22.9 0.7 13.0 21.6 .. .. 6.7 8.6 .. .. 4.3 .. 5.6 .. 8.0 10.7 2.3 0.6 .. ..

.. 3.0 3.7 5.5 5.2 14.1 1.7 .. 0.4 4.3 .. 0.5 0.2 .. .. .. 2.9 0.2 21.2 2.7 10.1 22.1 2.4 .. 0.9 0.1 31.5 .. .. 19.0 13.8 4.9 6.5 .. 0.7 14.1 22.5 0.7 14.7 21.8 .. .. 7.7 8.5 .. .. 5.2 .. 6.6 .. 9.2 10.9 2.9 1.0 .. ..

.. 2.0 3.7 5.1 3.3 10.0 1.4 .. 0.2 2.6 .. 0.5 0.1 .. .. .. 2.7 0.1 18.5 1.2 7.2 17.3 3.0 .. 0.5 0.1 29.4 .. .. 19.7 14.4 3.7 4.4 .. 0.6 10.8 23.4 0.7 11.3 21.4 .. .. 5.7 8.7 .. .. 3.3 .. 4.6 .. 6.7 10.4 1.6 0.2 .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

81

2.12
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Education efficiency
Apparent intake rate in grade 1 Share of cohort reaching grade 5 Primary completion rate Repeaters in primary school

% of relevant age group Male 2001/02 a Female 2001/02 a Male 1990/91 2000/01 a % of grade 1 students Female 1990/91

% of relevant age group Total 2000/01– Male Female Total % of enrollment Male Female 2001/02 a 2001/02 a 2000/01 – 2000/01 –

2000/01 a 2002/03 a, b 2002/03 a, b 2002/03 a, b 2001/02 a

102 .. 132 68 87 98 .. .. 100 106 .. 117 .. .. 58 100 .. 92 124 117 107 99 117 100 98 .. .. .. 119 100 .. .. 104 104 107 103 .. 104 86 121 116 w 121 98 98 101 117 96 93 125 96 130 92 .. 99

102 .. 133 67 86 99 .. .. 100 106 .. 116 .. .. 48 96 .. 96 121 112 100 92 104 96 99 .. .. .. 118 98 .. .. 104 104 104 97 .. 79 87 118 104 w 105 98 97 101 105 97 92 118 95 110 82 .. 98

.. .. 61 82 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 72 100 94 90 74 100 76 94 .. 77 .. 55 96 92 98 .. .. .. 80 .. .. 93 .. 83 .. .. .. .. 96 .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 39 94 70 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 69 .. 101 93 .. 79 92 88 98 95 .. .. .. .. 97 .. .. 87 .. 82 90 .. 80 79 .. .. w 66 .. .. 90 .. .. .. .. 93 59 .. .. ..

.. .. 59 84 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 79 100 95 95 78 100 75 94 .. 81 .. 44 96 78 97 .. .. .. 80 .. .. 96 .. 90 .. .. .. .. 89 .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 41 94 65 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 79 .. 101 92 .. 83 96 80 101 96 .. .. .. .. 98 .. .. 90 .. 88 88 .. 98 75 .. .. w 68 .. .. 92 .. .. .. .. 95 61 .. .. ..

94 99 25 66 49 .. .. .. .. 96 .. 90 .. 108 .. 74 .. .. 89 101 58 91 84 108 98 95 .. 67 98 .. .. .. 95 98 58 104 66 68 59 .. .. w 74 98 97 89 86 100 97 87 91 78 48 d .. ..

95 .. 25 66 53 .. .. .. .. 99 .. 89 .. 113 .. 77 .. .. 93 104 57 92 100 107 99 105 .. 73 98 .. .. .. 93 98 51 106 61 90 64 .. .. w 78 98 98 88 88 101 99 83 94 84 51 d .. ..

94 .. 24 66 44 .. .. .. .. 93 .. 91 .. 103 .. 72 .. .. 85 98 59 90 67 110 98 85 .. 62 97 .. .. .. 97 98 65 101 72 45 54 .. .. w 68 97 96 90 82 98 95 92 87 71 44 d .. ..

3.2 0.9 36.1 5.2 13.6 1.0 .. .. 2.4 0.8 .. 8.8 .. 0.8 11.3 16.7 .. 1.7 6.8 0.4 2.5 3.9 22.5 8.0 9.8 .. .. .. 0.2 2.8 .. .. 9.0 .. 7.7 2.4 .. 9.0 6.2 .. 5.6 w 6.7 4.8 4.7 5.2 5.7 2.0 .. 13.0 7.8 4.6 .. .. 2.2

3.8 .. 36.0 6.3 13.7 1.0 .. .. 2.6 0.9 .. 10.2 .. .. 10.9 18.9 .. 1.8 7.7 0.3 2.5 4.0 21.9 8.4 11.5 .. .. .. 0.2 3.2 .. .. 10.5 .. 9.3 2.8 .. 11.1 6.5 .. .. w 6.8 .. .. 6.2 .. .. .. 12.5 9.3 4.6 .. .. 2.3

2.5 .. 36.2 3.9 13.6 1.0 .. .. 2.1 0.6 .. 7.3 .. .. 11.8 14.3 .. 1.5 5.7 0.4 2.5 3.7 23.2 7.5 8.0 .. .. .. 0.2 2.4 .. .. 7.4 .. 5.9 1.9 .. 5.5 5.9 .. .. w 6.7 .. .. 4.2 .. .. .. 11.3 6.1 4.6 .. .. 2.1

a. Data are preliminary. b. Data are for the most recent year available. c. Data are for 2002/03. d. Represent only 60% of the population.

82

2004 World Development Indicators

Education efficiency
About the data Definitions Indicators of students’ progress through school are estimated by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics and the World Bank. These indicators measure an education system’s success in extending coverage to all students, maintaining the flow of students from one grade to the next, and, ultimately, imparting a particular level of education. Apparent intake rate indicates the general level of access to primary education. It also indicates the capacity of the education system to provide access to primary education. Low apparent intake rates in grade 1 reflect the fact that many children do not enter primary school even though school attendance, at least through the primary level, is mandatory in all countries. Because the apparent intake rate includes all new entrants regardless of age, it can be more than 100 percent. Once enrolled, students drop out for a variety of reasons, including low quality of schooling, discouragement over poor performance, and the direct and indirect costs of schooling. Students’ progress to higher grades may also be limited by the availability of teachers, classrooms, and educational materials. The cohort survival rate is estimated as the proportion of an entering cohort of grade 1 students that eventually reaches grade 5. It measures the holding power and internal efficiency of an education system. Cohort survival rates approaching 100 percent indicate a high level of retention and a low level of dropout. Cohort survival rates are typically estimated from data on enrollment and repetition by grade for two consecutive years, in a procedure called the reconstructed cohort method. This method makes three simplifying assumptions: dropouts never return to school; promotion, repetition, and dropout rates remain constant over the entire period in which the cohort is enrolled in school; and the same rates apply to all pupils enrolled in a given grade, regardless of whether they previously repeated a grade (Fredricksen 1993). Given these assumptions, crosscountry comparisons should be made with caution, because other flows—caused by new entrants, reentrants, grade skipping, migration, or school transfers during the school year—are not considered. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics measures cohort survival to grade 5 because research suggests that five to six years of schooling is a critical threshold for the achievement of sustainable basic literacy and numeracy skills. But the cohort survival rate only indirectly reflects the quality of schooling, and a high rate does not guarantee these learning outcomes. Measuring actual learning outcomes requires setting curriculum standards and measuring students’ learning progress against those standards through standardized assessments or tests. The World Bank and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics are working jointly on development of the primary completion rate indicator. The primary completion rate is increasingly used as a core indicator of an education system’s performance. It reflects both the coverage of the education system and the educational attainment of students. It is vital as a key measure of educational outcome at the primary level and of progress on the Millennium Development Goals and the Education for All initiative. However, because curricula and standards for school completion vary across countries, a high rate of primary completion does not necessarily mean high levels of student learning. The primary completion rate reflects the primary cycle as nationally defined, ranging from three or four years of primary education (in a very small number of countries) to five or six years (in most countries) and seven or eight years (in a small number of countries). The data shown in the table are for the proxy primary completion rate, calculated by subtracting the number of students who repeat the final primary grade from the number of students in that grade and dividing the result by the number of children of official graduation age in the population. Data limitations preclude adjusting this number for students who drop out during the final year of primary school. Thus proxy rates should be taken as an upper-bound estimate of the actual primary completion rate. The numerator may include overage children who have repeated one or more grades of primary school but are now graduating successfully as well as children who entered school early. The denominator is the number of children of official graduation age, which could cause the primary completion rate to exceed 100 percent. There are other data limitations that contribute to completion rates exceeding 100 percent, such as the use of estimates for the population, the conduct of the school and population surveys at different times of year, and other discrepancies in the numbers used in the calculation. Repeaters not only increase the cost of education for the family and for the school system, but also use up limited school resources. Countries have different policies on repetition and promotion of students; in some cases the number of repeaters is controlled because of limited capacity of the school system. Care should be taken in cross-country comparisons of this indicator. Data sources

2.12

PEOPLE

• Apparent intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary school entrance age. • Share of cohort reaching grade 5 is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method (see About the data). • Primary completion rate is the percentage of students successfully completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. • Repeaters in primary school refer to the total number of pupils who are enrolled in the same grade as in a previous year, expressed as a percentage of the total enrollment. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

The data on the apparent intake rate, the cohort reaching grade 5, and repeaters are from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. The data on the primary completion rate are compiled by staff in the Development Data Group of the World Bank, in collaboration with the Education Anchor of the Human Development Network of the World Bank and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

2004 World Development Indicators

83

2.13
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Education outcomes
Adult literacy rate Youth literacy rate Expected years of schooling

% ages 15 and older Male 1990 2002 a 1990 Female 2002 a 1990 Male

% ages 15–24 Female 2002 a 1990 2002 a Male 1990/91 2000/01 Female 1990/91 2000/01

.. 87 64 .. 96 99 .. .. .. 44 100 .. 38 87 .. 66 83 98 25 48 78 69 .. 47 37 94 87 .. 89 .. 77 94 51 99 95 .. .. 80 90 60 76 .. 100 37 .. .. .. .. .. .. 70 98 69 .. .. 43

.. 99 b 78 .. 97 100 b .. .. .. 50 100 .. 55 93 b 98 76 86 b 99 19 b 58 81 77 c .. 65 c 55 96 b 95 b .. 92 .. 89 96 .. 99 b 97 .. .. 84 92 b 67 b 82 .. 100 b 49 .. .. .. .. .. .. 82 99 77 .. .. 54

.. 67 41 .. 96 96 .. .. .. 24 99 .. 15 70 .. 70 81 96 8 27 49 48 .. 21 19 94 69 .. 88 .. 58 94 26 95 95 .. .. 79 85 34 69 .. 100 20 .. .. .. .. .. .. 47 92 53 .. .. 37

.. 98 b 60 .. 97 99 b .. .. .. 31 100 .. 26 81 b 91 82 87 b 98 8b 44 59 60 c .. 33 c 38 96 b 87 b .. 92 .. 77 96 .. 97 b 97 .. .. 84 90 b 44 b 77 .. 100 b 34 .. .. .. .. .. .. 66 96 62 .. .. 50

.. 97 86 .. 98 100 .. .. .. 51 100 .. 57 96 .. 79 91 100 36 58 81 86 .. 66 58 98 97 .. 94 .. 95 97 65 100 99 .. .. 87 96 71 85 .. 100 52 .. .. .. .. .. .. 88 99 80 .. .. 56

.. 99 b 94 .. 98 100 b .. .. .. 58 100 .. 73 99 b 100 85 93 b 100 26 b 67 85 .. .. 70 c 76 99 b 99 b .. 97 .. 98 98 70 c 100 b 100 .. .. 91 96 b 79 b 90 .. 100 b 63 .. .. .. .. .. .. 94 100 86 .. .. 66

.. 92 68 .. 98 99 .. .. .. 33 100 .. 25 89 .. 87 93 99 14 45 66 76 .. 39 38 98 93 .. 96 .. 90 98 40 100 99 .. .. 88 95 51 83 .. 100 34 .. .. .. .. .. .. 75 100 66 .. .. 54

.. 99 b 86 .. 99 100 b .. .. .. 41 100 .. 38 96 b 100 93 96 b 100 14 b 65 76 .. .. 47 c 64 99 b 99 b .. 98 .. 97 99 52 c 100 b 100 .. .. 92 96 b 67 b 88 .. 100 b 52 .. .. .. .. .. .. 90 100 74 .. .. 67

.. .. 11 .. .. .. 13 15 .. 6 .. 14 .. .. .. 10 .. 12 3 6 .. .. 17 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12 .. 14 .. .. .. .. .. 12 .. 15 14 .. .. .. 15 .. 13 .. .. .. ..

.. 11 .. .. 14 8 17 15 11 8 12 16 9 .. .. 12 13 13 .. .. 8 .. 14 .. 7 14 .. .. 11 .. .. 10 .. 12 12 14 15 .. .. 10 11 6 14 6 16 15 .. .. 6 15 8 15 .. .. .. ..

.. .. 9 .. .. .. 13 14 .. 4 .. 14 .. .. .. 11 .. 12 2 4 .. .. 17 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13 .. 14 .. .. .. .. .. 12 .. 16 15 .. .. .. 14 .. 13 .. .. .. ..

.. 11 .. .. 15 9 17 15 10 8 13 16 5 .. .. 12 14 13 .. .. 7 .. 15 .. 4 13 .. .. 11 .. .. 10 .. 12 12 14 16 .. .. 10 11 4 15 4 17 16 .. .. 6 15 7 15 .. .. .. ..

84

2004 World Development Indicators

Education outcomes
Adult literacy rate Youth literacy rate

2.13
Female 1990/91 2000/01

PEOPLE

Expected years of schooling

% ages 15 and older Male 1990 2002 a 1990 Female 2002 a 1990 Male

% ages 15–24 Female 2002 a 1990 2002 a Male 1990/91 2000/01

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

69 99 62 87 72 .. .. 95 98 78 .. 90 99 81 .. .. 79 .. 70 100 .. 65 55 83 100 .. .. 69 87 28 46 85 91 99 98 53 49 87 77 47 .. .. 63 18 59 .. 67 49 90 .. 92 92 92 .. 91 92

80 b 99 .. 92 84 c .. .. 97 99 84 .. 96 100 90 .. .. 85 .. 77 100 b .. 74 c 72 92 100 b .. .. 76 92 b 27 b 51 88 b 93 b 100 98 b 63 62 89 84 62 .. .. 77 c 25 74 .. 82 53 b 93 .. 93 c 91 c 93 b .. 95 94

67 99 36 73 54 .. .. 88 97 86 .. 72 98 61 .. .. 73 .. 43 100 .. 89 23 51 99 .. .. 36 74 10 24 75 84 96 97 25 18 74 72 14 .. .. 63 5 38 .. 38 20 88 .. 88 79 91 .. 84 91

80 b 99 .. 83 70 c .. .. 93 98 91 .. 86 99 79 .. .. 81 .. 55 100 b .. 90 c 39 71 100 b .. .. 49 85 b 12 b 31 81 b 89 b 99 98 b 38 31 81 83 26 .. .. 77 c 9 59 .. 65 29 b 92 .. 90 c 80 c 93 b .. 91 94

78 100 73 97 92 .. .. 99 100 87 .. 98 100 93 .. .. 88 .. 79 100 .. 77 75 99 100 .. .. 76 95 38 56 91 96 100 99 68 66 90 86 67 .. .. 68 25 81 .. 95 63 96 .. 96 97 97 .. 99 95

87 b 100 .. 99 .. .. .. 100 100 91 .. 99 100 96 .. .. 92 .. 86 100 b .. .. 86 100 100 b .. .. 82 97 b 32 b 57 94 b 97 b 100 97 b 77 77 92 91 78 .. .. 84 c 34 91 .. 100 65 b 97 .. 96 c 98 c 94 b .. 100 97

81 100 54 93 81 .. .. 98 100 95 .. 95 100 87 .. .. 87 .. 61 100 .. 97 39 83 100 .. .. 51 94 17 36 91 94 100 99 42 32 86 89 27 .. .. 69 9 66 .. 75 31 95 .. 95 92 97 .. 100 97

91 b 100 .. 98 .. .. .. 99 100 98 .. 100 100 95 .. .. 94 .. 73 100 b .. .. 55 94 100 b .. .. 63 97 b 17 b 42 95 b 96 b 100 98 b 61 49 91 94 46 .. .. 89 c 15 87 .. 97 42 b 97 .. 96 c 96 c 96 b .. 100 98

.. 11 .. 10 .. .. 12 .. .. 11 .. 9 .. .. .. 14 7 .. 9 .. .. 9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. 15 14 .. .. .. 14 10 .. .. .. 9 .. .. 12 13 ..

.. 13 .. .. .. 10 14 14 15 11 14 12 12 8 .. 16 8 .. 9 12 13 10 11 .. 14 12 6 .. 12 .. 7 12 12 9 9 9 7 7 12 .. 16 16 .. 3 .. 16 9 .. 12 6 10 13 11 14 15 ..

.. 11 .. 9 .. .. 13 .. .. 11 .. 9 .. .. .. 13 7 .. 6 .. .. 11 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 .. .. .. 15 15 .. .. .. 14 9 .. .. .. 8 .. .. 12 14 ..

.. 14 .. .. .. 8 15 15 15 11 14 13 12 8 .. 14 9 .. 7 14 13 10 8 .. 15 12 6 .. 12 .. 6 12 11 10 11 7 5 7 12 .. 16 17 .. 2 .. 18 9 .. 13 6 10 11 12 15 16 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

85

2.13
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Education outcomes
Adult literacy rate Youth literacy rate Expected years of schooling

% ages 15 and older Male 1990 2002 a 1990 Female 2002 a 1990 Male

% ages 15–24 Female 2002 a 1990 2002 a Male 1990/91 2000/01 Female 1990/91 2000/01

99 100 63 76 38 .. .. 94 .. 100 .. 82 98 93 60 74 .. .. 82 99 76 95 60 98 72 89 .. 69 100 71 .. .. 96 99 90 94 .. 55 79 87 79 w 64 88 87 92 78 88 98 87 66 59 60 .. ..

98 b 100 75 84 49 .. .. 97 b 100 b 100 .. 87 99 95 71 82 .. .. 91 100 b 85 95 b 74 99 83 93 b 99 b 79 100 76 .. .. 97 100 94 94 b .. 69 86 94 84 w 72 92 92 95 83 93 99 90 76 67 71 .. ..

96 99 44 50 19 .. .. 83 .. 100 .. 80 95 85 32 70 .. .. 48 97 51 89 29 96 47 66 .. 43 99 71 .. .. 97 98 88 87 .. 13 59 75 63 w 42 75 74 88 62 71 95 83 40 34 40 .. ..

96 b 99 63 69 30 .. .. 89 b 100 b 100 .. 85 97 90 49 80 .. .. 74 99 b 69 91 b 45 98 63 75 b 98 b 59 100 81 .. .. 98 99 93 87 b .. 29 74 86 71 w 53 83 82 92 70 82 96 89 55 44 56 .. ..

99 100 78 91 50 .. .. 99 .. 100 .. 89 100 96 76 85 .. .. 92 100 89 99 79 100 93 97 .. 80 100 82 .. .. 98 100 95 94 .. 74 86 97 87 w 75 95 95 97 86 97 99 93 81 70 75 .. ..

98 b 100 86 95 61 .. .. 99 b 100 b 100 .. 92 100 97 84 90 .. .. 97 100 b 94 98 b 88 100 98 98 b 100 b 86 100 88 .. .. 99 100 98 .. .. 84 91 99 89 w 82 97 96 98 89 98 100 95 87 77 83 .. ..

99 100 67 79 30 .. .. 99 .. 100 .. 88 100 94 54 85 .. .. 67 100 77 98 48 100 75 88 .. 60 100 89 .. .. 99 100 97 94 .. 25 76 91 78 w 59 91 91 95 77 93 98 93 61 50 60 .. ..

98 b 100 84 92 44 .. .. 100 b 100 b 100 .. 92 100 97 74 92 .. .. 93 100 b 89 98 b 67 100 91 93 b 100 b 74 100 95 .. .. 99 100 99 .. .. 51 87 96 83 w 70 94 94 98 82 97 99 96 75 61 74 .. ..

11 .. .. 9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13 .. .. .. 11 13 14 11 .. .. .. 11 11 11 .. .. .. .. 10 14 15 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15 15

12 .. .. .. .. 10 7 .. 13 14 .. 13 15 .. .. 13 15 16 .. 11 5 11 12 11 14 .. .. .. 11 .. 16 15 13 .. 10 .. .. 11 7 10 .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

11 .. .. 7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13 .. .. .. 10 13 13 9 .. .. .. 6 11 10 .. .. .. .. 11 14 16 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15 15

12 .. .. 9 .. 11 5 .. 13 15 .. 13 16 .. .. 12 17 15 .. 9 5 11 8 12 14 .. .. .. 12 .. 17 16 14 .. 11 .. .. 5 7 9 .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

a. Data are preliminary. b. National estimates based on census data. c. National estimates based on survey data.

86

2004 World Development Indicators

Education outcomes
About the data Many governments collect and publish statistics that indicate how their education systems are working and developing—statistics on enrollment and on such efficiency indicators as repetition rates, pupilteacher ratios, and cohort progression through school. But until recently, despite an obvious interest in what education achieves, few systems in highincome or developing countries had systematically collected information on outcomes of education. Basic student outcomes include achievements in reading and mathematics judged against established standards. In many countries national learning assessments are enabling ministries of education to monitor progress in these outcomes. Internationally, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics has established literacy as an outcome indicator based on an internationally agreed definition. The literacy rate is defined as the percentage of people who can, with understanding, both read and write a short, simple statement about their everyday life. In practice, literacy is difficult to measure. To estimate literacy using such a definition requires census or survey measurements under controlled conditions. Many countries estimate the number of literate people from self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy but apply different lengths of school attendance or level of completion. Because definition and methodologies of data collection differ across countries, data need to be used with caution. The reported literacy data are national estimates or UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates. The national estimates are received from countries and are based on national censuses or household surveys during 1995–2004. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates were assessed in July 2002. The estimation methodology can be reviewed at www.uis.unesco.org. Literacy statistics for most countries cover the population ages 15 and older, by five-year age groups, but some include younger ages or are confined to age ranges that tend to inflate literacy rates. As an alternative, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics has proposed the narrower age range of 15–24, which better captures the ability of participants in the formal education system. The youth illiteracy rate reported in the table measures the accumulated outcomes of primary education over the previous 10 years or so by indicating the proportion of people who have passed through the primary education system without acquiring basic literacy and numeracy skills (or never entered the system). Reasons for this may include difficulties in attending school or dropping out before reaching grade 5 (see About the data for table 2.12) and thereby failing to achieve basic learning competencies. Expected years of schooling is an estimate of the total years of schooling that a typical child at the age of school entry will receive, including years spent on repetition, given the current patterns of enrollment across cycles of education. It may also be interpreted as an indicator of the total education resources, measured in school years, that a child will acquire over his or her “lifetime” in school—or as an indicator of an education system’s overall level of development. Definitions

2.13

PEOPLE

Because the calculation of this indicator assumes that the probability of a child’s being enrolled in school at any future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio for that age, it does not account for changes and trends in future enrollment ratios. The expected number of years and the expected number of grades completed are not necessarily consistent, because the first includes years spent in repetition. Comparability across countries and over time may be affected by differences in the length of the school year or changes in policies on automatic promotions and grade repetition.

• Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and older who can, with understanding, both read and write a short, simple statement about their everyday life. • Youth literacy rate is the literacy rate among people ages 15–24. • Expected years of schooling are the average number of years of formal schooling that children are expected to receive, including university education and years spent in repetition. They reflect the underlying age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, and tertiary education.

2.13a
There is a strong positive relationship between primary school enrollment ratios and literacy among youth
Literacy rate, 2002 (%) 100 80 60 40 20

Data sources
0 0 50 100 150 Gross primary enrollment ratio, 1990 Children learn basic reading and writing along with other subjects in primary school. The primary school enrollment ratio and the literacy rate among young people (15–24) have a strong positive relationship, suggesting the push to achieve universal primary education will increase the number of literate young people. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

The data on literacy are national estimates collected by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics and estimates and projections by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, assessed in July 2002. The data on expected years of schooling are from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.

2004 World Development Indicators

87

2.14
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Health expenditure, ser vices, and use
Health expenditure Health expenditure per capita Physicians Hospital beds Inpatient admission rate Average length of stay Outpatient visits per capita

Total % of GDP 2001

Public % of GDP 2001

Public % of total 2001

$ 2001

per 1,000 people 1995– 1980 2002 a

per 1,000 people 1995– 1980 2002 a

% of population 1995– 2002 a

days 1995– 2002 a

1995– 2002 a

5.2 3.7 4.1 4.4 9.5 7.8 9.2 8.0 0.9 3.5 5.6 8.9 4.4 5.3 7.5 6.6 7.6 4.8 .. 3.6 11.8 3.3 9.5 4.5 2.6 7.0 5.5 .. 5.5 3.5 2.1 7.2 6.2 9.0 7.2 7.4 8.4 6.1 4.5 3.9 8.0 5.7 5.5 3.6 7.0 9.6 3.6 6.4 3.6 10.8 4.7 9.4 4.8 3.5 5.9 5.0

2.7 2.4 3.1 2.8 5.1 3.2 6.2 5.5 0.6 1.5 4.8 6.4 2.1 3.5 2.8 4.4 3.2 3.9 2.0 2.1 1.7 1.2 6.8 2.3 2.0 3.1 2.0 .. 3.6 1.5 1.4 4.9 1.0 7.3 6.2 6.7 7.0 2.2 2.3 1.9 3.7 3.7 4.3 1.4 5.3 7.3 1.7 3.2 1.4 8.1 2.8 5.2 2.3 1.9 3.2 2.7

52.6 64.6 75.0 63.1 53.4 41.2 67.9 69.3 75.1 44.2 86.7 71.7 46.9 66.3 36.8 66.2 41.6 82.1 .. 59.0 14.9 37.1 70.8 51.2 76.0 44.0 37.2 .. 65.7 44.4 63.8 68.5 16.0 81.8 86.2 91.4 82.4 36.1 50.3 48.9 46.7 65.1 77.8 40.5 75.6 76.0 47.9 49.4 37.8 74.9 59.6 56.0 48.3 54.1 53.8 53.4

8 48 73 31 679 28 1,741 1,866 8 12 68 1,983 16 49 85 190 222 81 .. 4 30 20 2,163 12 5 296 49 .. 105 5 18 293 41 394 185 407 2,545 153 76 46 174 10 226 3 1,631 2,109 127 19 22 2,412 12 1,001 86 13 8 22

.. 1.4 .. .. .. 3.2 .. 1.6 3.4 0.1 3.0 2.3 0.1 .. 1.0 0.1 .. 2.5 0.0 c .. .. .. 1.8 0.0 c .. .. 1.2 0.8 .. .. .. .. .. 1.7 .. 2.3 2.2 .. .. 1.1 0.3 .. 2.9 0.0 c 1.7 2.0 .. .. 4.1 2.3 .. 2.4 .. .. 0.1 ..

0.1 1.4 1.0 0.1 2.7 2.9 2.5 3.2 3.6 0.2 4.5 3.9 0.1 1.3 1.4 .. 1.3 3.4 0.0 c .. 0.3 0.1 2.1 0.0 c .. 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.2 0.1 0.3 0.9 0.1 2.4 5.3 3.4 3.4 2.2 1.7 1.6 1.1 0.0 c 3.1 .. 3.1 3.3 .. 0.0 c 3.9 3.3 0.1 4.4 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.2

.. 4.3 .. .. .. 8.4 12.3 11.2 9.7 0.2 12.5 9.4 1.5 .. 4.8 2.4 .. 8.9 .. .. .. .. 6.8 1.6 .. 3.4 2.2 4.0 1.6 .. .. 3.3 .. 7.2 .. 11.3 8.1 .. 1.9 2.0 .. .. 12.2 0.3 15.6 11.1 .. .. 10.2 11.5 .. 6.2 .. .. 1.9 0.7

.. 3.3 2.1 .. 3.3 4.3 7.9 8.6 8.5 .. 12.6 7.3 .. 1.7 3.2 .. 3.1 7.2 1.4 .. .. .. 3.9 .. .. 2.7 2.5 .. 1.5 .. .. 1.7 .. 6.0 5.1 8.8 4.5 1.5 1.6 2.1 1.6 .. 6.7 .. 7.5 8.2 .. .. 4.3 9.1 .. 4.9 1.0 .. .. 0.7

.. .. .. .. .. 8 16 30 6 .. 26 20 .. .. .. .. 0b .. 2 .. .. .. 10 .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. 9 .. .. .. 21 20 .. .. 3 .. .. 18 .. 27 23 .. .. 5 24 .. 15 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. 15 16 9 .. .. 18 12 .. .. 15 .. .. 12 3 .. .. .. 9 .. .. .. 12 .. .. .. .. 6 .. .. .. 11 6 .. .. 6 .. .. 9 .. 11 13 .. .. 11 12 .. 8 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. 2 6 7 1 .. 11 7 .. .. .. .. 2 .. 0b .. .. .. 6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. 13 6 .. .. 4 .. .. 5 .. 4 7 .. .. 1 7 .. 3 .. .. .. ..

88

2004 World Development Indicators

Health expenditure, ser vices, and use
Health expenditure Health expenditure per capita Physicians Hospital beds Inpatient admission rate

2.14
Average length of stay Outpatient visits per capita
days 1995– 2002 a 1995– 2002 a

PEOPLE

Total % of GDP 2001

Public % of GDP 2001

Public % of total 2001

$ 2001

per 1,000 people 1995– 1980 2002 a

per 1,000 people 1995– 1980 2002 a

% of population 1995– 2002 a

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

6.1 6.8 5.1 2.4 6.6 3.2 6.5 8.7 8.4 6.8 8.0 9.5 3.1 7.8 2.5 6.0 4.3 4.0 3.1 6.4 12.4 5.5 4.3 2.9 6.0 6.8 2.0 7.8 3.8 4.3 3.6 3.4 6.1 5.1 6.4 5.1 5.9 2.1 7.0 5.2 8.9 8.3 7.8 3.7 3.4 8.0 3.0 3.9 7.0 4.4 8.0 4.7 3.3 6.1 9.2 ..

3.2 5.1 0.9 0.6 2.7 1.0 4.9 6.0 6.3 2.9 6.2 4.5 1.9 1.7 1.9 2.6 3.5 1.9 1.7 3.4 2.2 4.3 3.3 1.6 4.2 5.8 1.3 2.7 2.0 1.7 2.6 2.0 2.7 2.8 4.6 2.0 4.0 0.4 4.7 1.5 5.7 6.4 3.8 1.4 0.8 6.8 2.4 1.0 4.8 3.9 3.0 2.6 1.5 4.6 6.3 ..

53.1 75.0 17.9 25.1 41.9 31.8 76.0 69.2 75.3 42.1 77.9 47.0 60.4 21.4 73.4 44.4 81.0 48.7 55.5 52.5 18.0 78.9 75.9 56.0 70.5 84.9 65.9 35.0 53.7 38.6 72.4 59.5 44.3 55.8 72.3 39.3 67.4 17.8 67.8 29.7 63.3 76.8 48.5 39.1 23.2 85.5 80.7 24.4 69.0 89.0 38.3 55.0 45.2 71.9 69.0 ..

59 345 24 16 363 225 1,711 1,641 1,584 191 2,627 163 44 29 22 532 630 12 10 210 .. 23 1 143 206 115 6 13 143 11 12 128 370 18 25 59 11 197 110 12 2,138 1,073 60 6 15 2,981 225 16 258 24 97 97 30 289 982 ..

.. 2.3 0.4 .. .. 0.6 .. 3.1 2.6 .. 1.3 0.8 3.0 .. .. .. 1.7 2.6 .. 3.6 .. .. .. 1.3 .. 1.3 .. .. 0.3 0.0 c .. 0.5 .. 2.8 .. .. 0.0 c .. .. 0.0 c 1.9 1.6 0.4 .. 0.1 2.0 0.5 0.3 .. 0.1 .. 0.7 0.1 1.8 2.0 ..

0.8 2.9 .. .. 0.9 0.6 2.4 3.7 4.3 1.4 1.9 1.7 3.6 0.1 3.0 1.4 1.9 2.6 0.2 2.9 2.1 0.1 0.0 1.3 4.0 2.2 0.1 .. 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.9 1.5 2.7 2.4 0.5 .. 0.3 0.3 0.0 c 3.3 2.2 0.9 0.0 c .. 3.0 1.3 0.6 1.7 0.1 1.1 0.9 1.2 2.2 3.2 1.8

1.3 9.1 0.8 .. 1.5 1.9 13.0 6.8 9.6 .. 13.7 1.3 13.1 .. .. 1.7 4.1 12.0 .. 13.9 .. .. c .. 12.1 5.2 .. .. .. .. .. 3.1 0.7 12.1 11.2 .. 1.1 0.9 .. 0.2 12.3 10.2 .. .. 0.9 16.5 1.6 0.6 .. 5.5 .. .. 1.7 5.6 5.2 ..

1.1 8.2 .. .. 1.6 1.5 9.7 6.2 4.9 2.1 16.5 1.8 7.0 .. .. 6.1 2.8 5.5 .. 8.2 2.7 .. .. 4.3 9.2 4.8 0.4 1.3 2.0 0.2 .. .. 1.1 5.9 .. 1.0 .. .. .. 0.2 10.8 6.2 1.5 0.1 .. 14.6 2.2 .. 2.2 .. 1.3 1.5 .. 4.9 4.0 3.3

.. 24 .. .. .. .. 15 .. 18 .. 10 11 15 .. .. 6 .. 21 .. 21 17 .. .. .. 24 9 1 .. .. 1 .. .. 6 19 .. 3 .. .. .. .. 10 13 .. 28 .. 17 9 .. .. .. .. 1 .. 16 12 ..

.. 9 .. .. .. .. 8 .. 8 .. 40 4 16 .. .. 13 .. 13 .. 14 4 .. .. .. 11 12 5 .. .. 7 .. .. 4 18 .. 7 .. .. .. .. 33 8 .. 5 .. 9 4 .. .. .. .. 6 .. 8 9 ..

.. 12 .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 .. 14 .. 0b .. .. 9 .. 1 .. 4 .. .. .. .. .. 7 3 1 2 .. 0b .. .. 3 8 .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 4 .. 0b .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 3 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

89

2.14
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Health expenditure, ser vices, and use
Health expenditure Health expenditure per capita Physicians Hospital beds Inpatient admission rate Average length of stay Outpatient visits per capita

Total % of GDP 2001

Public % of GDP 2001

Public % of total 2001

$ 2001

per 1,000 people 1995– 1980 2002 a

per 1,000 people 1995– 1980 2002 a

% of population 1995– 2002 a

days 1995– 2002 a

1995– 2002 a

6.5 5.4 5.5 4.6 4.8 8.2 4.3 3.9 5.7 8.4 2.6 8.6 7.5 3.6 3.5 3.3 8.7 11.1 5.4 3.4 4.4 3.7 2.8 4.0 6.4 6.9 4.1 5.9 4.3 3.5 7.6 13.9 10.9 3.6 6.0 5.1 .. 4.5 5.7 6.2 9.8 w 4.4 6.0 5.8 6.4 5.8 4.9 5.8 7.0 4.9 4.8 6.0 10.8 9.3

5.2 3.7 3.1 3.4 2.8 6.5 2.6 1.3 5.1 6.3 1.2 3.6 5.4 1.8 0.6 2.3 7.4 6.4 2.4 1.0 2.0 2.1 1.5 1.7 4.9 4.4 3.0 3.4 2.9 2.6 6.3 6.2 5.1 2.7 3.7 1.5 .. 1.5 3.0 2.8 5.6 w 1.1 3.1 2.7 3.7 2.7 1.9 4.3 3.4 2.8 1.0 2.5 6.3 6.8

79.2 68.2 55.5 74.6 58.8 79.2 61.0 33.5 89.3 74.9 44.6 41.4 71.4 48.9 18.7 68.5 85.2 57.1 43.9 28.9 46.7 57.1 48.6 43.3 75.7 63.0 73.3 57.5 67.8 75.8 82.2 44.4 46.3 74.5 62.1 28.5 .. 34.1 53.1 45.3 59.2 w 26.3 51.1 47.2 57.7 47.0 38.8 72.4 48.0 59.3 21.6 41.3 62.1 73.5

117 115 11 375 22 103 7 816 216 821 6 222 1,088 30 14 41 2,150 3,779 65 6 12 69 8 279 134 .. 57 14 33 849 1,835 4,887 603 17 307 21 .. 20 19 45 500 w 23 118 85 357 72 48 123 255 166 22 29 2,841 1,856

1.5 .. 0.0 c .. .. .. 0.1 0.9 .. 1.8 0.0 c .. .. 0.1 0.1 .. 2.2 2.4 0.4 .. .. 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.3 0.6 2.8 .. 3.5 1.1 1.3 2.0 .. 2.7 0.8 0.2 .. .. 0.1 0.2 1.1 w 0.4 1.2 1.2 .. 0.8 1.0 .. .. .. 0.3 .. 1.9 2.2

1.9 4.2 .. 1.7 0.1 2.1 0.1 1.6 3.6 2.2 0.0 c 0.6 3.3 0.4 0.1 0.2 3.0 3.5 1.3 2.1 0.0 c 0.4 0.1 0.8 0.7 1.3 3.0 .. 3.0 1.8 2.0 2.7 3.7 2.9 2.4 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.1 .. w .. 1.9 2.0 1.8 .. 1.4 3.1 1.4 .. .. .. 2.8 3.5

8.8 .. 1.5 .. .. .. 1.2 4.0 .. 7.0 .. .. 5.4 2.9 0.9 .. 15.1 .. 1.1 .. 1.4 1.5 .. .. 2.1 2.2 10.5 .. 12.1 2.8 8.1 6.0 .. 9.2 0.3 3.5 .. .. .. 3.0 3.7 w 1.2 3.0 2.9 3.8 2.2 2.2 .. .. .. 0.7 .. 8.6 9.9

7.5 10.8 .. 2.3 0.4 5.3 .. .. 7.8 5.2 .. .. 4.1 .. .. .. 3.6 17.9 1.4 6.4 .. 2.0 .. 5.1 1.7 2.6 7.1 .. 8.7 2.6 4.1 3.6 4.4 5.3 1.5 1.7 1.2 0.6 .. .. .. w .. 3.7 3.7 3.4 .. 2.5 8.9 2.2 .. .. .. 7.4 8.0

18 22 .. 11 .. .. .. .. 19 .. .. .. 12 .. .. .. 18 15 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8 .. .. 20 .. 15 12 .. .. .. 8 9 .. .. .. 9w .. 7 6 11 .. 4 18 2 .. .. .. 14 20

10 17 .. 4 10 12 .. .. 10 .. .. .. 9 .. .. .. 6 13 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 .. .. .. .. 10 7 .. .. .. 7 3 .. .. .. .. w .. 11 12 6 .. 12 13 .. .. .. .. 14 12

4 8 .. 1 1 2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 .. .. .. 3 .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. 3 .. .. 10 .. 5 9 .. .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. 5 .. .. 6 2 .. .. .. 8 7

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Less than 0.5. c. Less than 0.05.

90

2004 World Development Indicators

Health expenditure, ser vices, and use
About the data National health accounts track financial flows in the health sector, including public and private expenditures, by source of funding. In contrast with highincome countries, few developing countries have health accounts that are methodologically consistent with national accounting approaches. The difficulties in creating national health accounts go beyond data collection. To establish a national health accounting system, a country needs to define the boundaries of the health care system and to define a taxonomy of health care delivery institutions. The accounting system should be comprehensive and standardized, providing not only accurate measures of financial flows but also information on the equity and efficiency of health financing to inform health policy. The absence of consistent national health accounting systems in most developing countries makes cross-countr y comparisons of health spending difficult. Records of private out-of-pocket spending are often lacking. And compiling estimates of public health expenditures is complicated in countries where state or provincial and local governments are involved in financing and delivering health care, because the data on public spending often are not aggregated. The data in the table are the product of an effor t by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the World Bank to collect all available information on health expenditures from national and local government budgets, national accounts, household surveys, insurance publications, international donors, and existing tabulations. Indicators on health services (physicians and hospital beds per 1,000 people) and health care utilization (inpatient admission rates, average length of stay, and outpatient visits) come from a variety of sources (see Data sources). Data are lacking for many countries, and for others comparability is limited by differences in definitions. In estimates of health personnel, for example, some countries incorrectly include retired physicians (because deletions to physician rosters are made only periodically) or those working outside the health sector. There is no universally accepted definition of hospital beds. Moreover, figures on physicians and hospital beds are indicators of availability, not of quality or use. They do not show how well trained the physicians are or how well equipped the hospitals or medical centers are. And physicians and hospital beds tend to be concentrated in urban areas, so these indicators give only a partial view of health services available to the entire population. The average length of stay in hospitals is an indicator of the efficiency of resource use. Longer stays may reflect a waste of resources if patients are kept in hospitals beyond the time medically required, inflating demand for hospital beds and increasing hospital costs. Aside from differences in cases and financing methods, cross-country variations in average length of stay may result from differences in the role of hospitals. Many developing countries do not have separate extended care facilities, so hospitals become the source of both long-term and acute care. Other factors may also explain the variations. Data for some countries may not include all public and private hospitals. Admission rates may be overstated in some countries if outpatient Definitions

2.14

PEOPLE

surgeries are counted as hospital admissions. And in many countries outpatient visits, especially emergency visits, may result in double counting if a patient receives treatment in more than one department.

• Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. • Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. • Physicians are graduates of any faculty or school of medicine who are working in the country in any medical field (practice, teaching, research). • Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers. In most cases beds for both acute and chronic care are included. • Inpatient admission rate is the percentage of the population admitted to hospitals during a year. • Average length of stay is the average duration of inpatient hospital admissions. • Outpatient visits per capita are the number of visits to health care facilities per capita, including repeat visits.

2.14a
High health personnel absence rates lower the quality of health care
Health personnel absence rate, 2000–03 (%) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 India Indonesia Uganda Bangladesh Peru Papua New Guinea

Data sources The estimates of health expenditure come mostly from the WHO’s World Health Report 2003 and updates and from the OECD for its member countries, supplemented by World Bank pover ty assessments and country and sector studies. Data are also drawn from World Bank public expenditure reviews, the International Monetary Fund’s Government Finance Statistics database, and other studies. The data on private expenditure in developing countries are drawn largely from household surveys conducted by governments or by statistical or international organizations. The data on

Health personnel absence rate is the percentage of full-time medical personnel who were absent from a random sample of primary health centers during surprise visits. Some personnel were absent for valid reasons, but even authorized absences reduce the quantity and quality of primary health care. Absence rates tend to be higher in remote areas, affecting the quality of health care available in these areas. Source: Chaudhury and others 2004; NRI and World Bank 2003; Habyarimana and others 2003.

physicians, hospital beds, and utilization of health services are from the WHO, OECD, and TransMONEE, supplemented by country data.

2004 World Development Indicators

91

2.15
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Disease prevention: coverage and quality
Access to an improved water source Access to improved sanitation facilities
% of population 2000 1990 2000

Tetanus vaccinations

Child immunization rate

% of % of population 1990 pregnant women 2002

% of children ages 12–23 months a Measles 2002 DPT 2002

Children sleeping under treated bednets b
% of children under age 5 1999–2001 c

Tuberculosis treatment success rate
% of registered cases 2001

DOTS detection rate
% of estimated cases 2002

.. .. .. .. 94 .. 100 100 .. 94 .. .. .. 71 .. 93 83 .. .. 69 .. 51 100 48 .. 90 71 .. 94 .. .. .. 80 .. .. .. .. 83 71 94 66 .. .. 25 100 .. .. .. .. .. 53 .. 76 45 .. 53

13 97 89 38 .. .. 100 100 78 97 100 .. 63 83 .. 95 87 100 42 78 30 58 100 70 27 93 75 .. 91 45 51 95 81 .. 91 .. 100 86 85 97 77 46 .. 24 100 .. 86 62 79 .. 73 .. 92 48 56 46

.. .. .. .. 82 .. 100 100 .. 41 .. .. 20 52 .. 60 71 .. .. 87 .. 77 100 24 18 97 29 .. 83 .. .. .. 46 .. .. .. .. 66 70 87 73 .. .. 8 100 .. .. .. .. .. 61 .. 70 55 44 23

12 91 92 44 .. .. 100 100 81 48 .. .. 23 70 .. 66 76 100 29 88 17 79 100 25 29 96 40 .. 86 21 .. 93 52 .. 98 .. .. 67 86 98 82 13 .. 12 100 .. 53 37 100 .. 72 .. 81 58 56 28

34 .. .. 62 .. .. .. .. .. 89 .. .. 66 .. .. .. .. .. 44 42 36 65 .. 63 39 .. .. .. .. 44 41 .. 80 .. .. .. .. .. .. 70 .. 50 .. 24 .. .. 50 .. .. .. 73 .. .. 43 41 52

44 96 81 74 97 91 94 78 97 77 99 75 78 79 89 90 93 90 46 75 52 62 96 35 55 95 65 .. 89 45 37 94 56 95 98 97 99 92 80 97 93 84 95 52 96 85 55 90 73 89 81 88 92 54 47 53

47 98 86 47 88 94 93 83 97 85 99 90 79 81 80 97 96 94 41 74 54 48 97 40 40 94 79 .. 85 43 41 94 54 95 99 98 98 72 89 97 81 83 97 56 98 98 38 90 84 97 80 88 84 47 50 43

.. .. .. 2.3 .. .. .. .. 1.4 .. .. .. 7.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.3 .. 1.3 .. 1.5 0.6 .. .. .. 0.7 0.7 .. .. 1.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14.7 .. .. .. .. 1.2 .. 7.4 ..

84 98 84 66 64 90 66 64 66 84 .. 64 79 82 98 78 67 87 65 80 92 62 67 61 .. 83 96 78 85 77 66 72 73 .. 93 73 .. 85 82 82 88 80 64 76 .. .. 49 71 67 67 42 .. 85 74 51 75

19 24 114 91 51 28 25 41 43 32 .. 64 98 75 47 73 10 43 18 28 52 60 52 49 42 112 27 51 9 52 69 79 25 .. 91 57 .. 43 31 53 57 14 61 33 .. .. 73 73 50 52 41 .. 45 54 43 41

92

2004 World Development Indicators

Disease prevention: coverage and quality
Access to an improved water source Access to improved sanitation facilities
% of population 2000 1990 2000

2.15
Tuberculosis treatment success rate
% of registered cases 2001

PEOPLE

Tetanus vaccinations

Child immunization rate

% of % of population 1990 pregnant women 2002

% of children ages 12–23 months a Measles 2002 DPT 2002

Children sleeping under treated bednets b
% of children under age 5 1999–2001 c

DOTS detection rate
% of estimated cases 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

83 99 68 71 .. .. .. .. .. 93 .. 97 .. 45 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 71 .. .. 44 49 .. 55 37 100 80 .. .. 75 .. .. 72 67 100 .. 70 53 53 100 37 83 .. 40 63 74 87 .. .. ..

88 99 84 78 92 85 .. .. .. 92 .. 96 91 57 100 92 .. 77 37 .. 100 78 .. 72 .. .. 47 57 .. 65 37 100 88 92 60 80 57 72 77 88 100 .. 77 59 62 100 39 90 90 42 78 80 86 .. .. ..

61 99 16 47 .. .. .. .. .. 99 .. 98 .. 80 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 97 .. .. 36 73 .. 70 30 100 70 .. .. 58 .. .. 33 20 100 .. 76 15 53 .. 84 36 .. 82 93 60 74 .. .. ..

75 99 28 55 83 79 .. .. .. 99 .. 99 99 87 99 63 .. 100 30 .. 99 49 .. 97 .. .. 42 76 .. 69 33 99 74 99 30 68 43 64 41 28 100 .. 85 20 54 .. 92 62 92 82 94 71 83 .. .. ..

.. .. 78 81 .. 70 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 60 .. .. .. .. 35 .. .. .. 41 .. .. .. 35 82 .. 32 40 .. .. .. .. .. 67 71 85 69 .. .. .. 36 44 .. .. 56 .. 34 .. .. 87 .. .. ..

97 99 67 76 99 90 73 95 70 86 98 95 95 78 .. 97 99 98 55 98 96 70 57 91 98 98 61 69 92 33 81 84 96 94 98 96 58 75 68 71 96 85 98 48 40 88 99 57 79 71 82 95 73 98 87 ..

95 99 70 75 99 81 84 97 95 87 95 95 95 84 .. 97 98 98 55 97 92 79 51 93 95 96 62 64 96 57 83 88 91 97 98 94 60 77 77 72 98 90 84 23 26 91 99 63 89 57 77 89 70 99 96 ..

.. .. .. 0.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.2 2.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

86 46 85 86 84 89 .. 79 40 78 75 86 78 80 91 .. .. 81 77 73 91 71 .. .. 75 88 69 70 79 50 .. 93 83 66 87 87 77 81 68 88 76 9 83 .. 79 87 90 77 65 67 86 90 88 77 78 80

114 39 31 30 60 21 .. 58 63 68 33 72 93 49 88 .. .. 45 43 78 68 61 .. 106 62 37 62 36 78 15 .. 25 73 19 69 83 45 73 76 64 54 48 85 22 12 26 106 13 88 15 8 84 58 55 94 65

2004 World Development Indicators

93

2.15
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Disease prevention: coverage and quality
Access to an improved water source Access to improved sanitation facilities
% of population 2000 1990 2000

Tetanus vaccinations

Child immunization rate

% of % of population 1990 pregnant women 2002

% of children ages 12–23 months a Measles 2002 DPT 2002

Children sleeping under treated bednets b
% of children under age 5 1999–2001 c

Tuberculosis treatment success rate
% of registered cases 2001

DOTS detection rate
% of estimated cases 2002

.. .. .. .. 72 .. .. 100 .. 100 .. 86 .. 68 67 .. 100 100 .. .. 38 80 51 91 75 79 .. 45 .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. 55 .. .. 52 78 74 w 66 76 75 .. 71 71 .. 82 .. 72 53 .. ..

58 99 41 95 78 98 57 100 100 100 .. 86 .. 77 75 .. 100 100 80 60 68 84 54 90 80 82 .. 52 98 .. 100 100 98 85 83 77 .. 69 64 83 81 w 76 82 81 .. 79 76 91 86 88 84 58 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 57 .. .. 100 .. .. .. 86 .. 85 58 .. 100 100 .. .. 84 79 37 99 76 87 .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. 29 .. 32 63 56 45 w 30 47 45 .. 39 35 .. 72 .. 22 54 .. ..

53 .. 8 100 70 100 66 100 100 .. .. 87 .. 94 62 .. 100 100 90 90 90 96 34 99 84 90 .. 79 99 .. 100 100 94 89 68 47 .. 38 78 62 55 w 43 60 58 .. 51 46 .. 77 85 34 53 .. ..

.. .. 83 .. 75 .. 60 .. .. .. 60 52 .. .. 35 .. .. .. .. .. 86 .. 38 .. .. 37 .. 50 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 89 .. 39 60 77

98 98 69 97 54 92 60 91 99 94 45 78 97 99 49 72 94 79 98 84 89 94 58 88 94 82 88 77 99 94 83 .. 92 97 78 96 .. 65 85 58 72 w 65 80 78 94 71 70 93 91 92 66 58 90 85

99 96 88 95 60 95 50 92 99 92 40 82 96 98 40 77 99 95 99 84 89 96 64 89 96 78 98 72 99 94 91 .. 93 98 63 75 .. 69 78 58 75 w 65 85 84 90 73 78 92 88 92 70 54 95 96

.. .. 5.0 .. 1.7 .. 1.5 .. .. .. 0.3 .. .. .. 0.4 0.1 .. .. .. 1.9 2.1 .. 2.0 .. .. .. .. 0.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15.8 .. .. 1.1 ..

78 67 61 77 53 88 80 88 87 82 86 65 .. 80 80 36 62 .. 81 .. 81 75 55 .. 90 .. 75 56 .. 62 .. 70 85 76 80 93 .. 80 75 71

41 6 29 37 54 22 36 39 35 68 28 96 .. 79 33 31 59 .. 42 3 43 73 6 .. 92 .. 36 47 .. 25 .. 87 70 24 65 82 .. 49 40 46

a. Refers to children who were immunized before 12 months or, in some cases, at any time before the survey (between 12–23 months). b. For malaria prevention only. c. Data are for the most recent year available.

94

2004 World Development Indicators

Disease prevention: coverage and quality
About the data Definitions The indicators in the table are based on data provided to the World Health Organization (WHO) by member states as part of their efforts to monitor and evaluate progress in implementing national health strategies. Because reliable, observation-based statistical data for these indicators do not exist in some developing countries, some of the data are estimated. People’s health is influenced by the environment in which they live. Lack of clean water and basic sanitation is the main reason diseases transmitted by feces are so common in developing countries. The data on access to an improved water source measure the share of the population with ready access to water for domestic purposes. The data are based on surveys and estimates provided by governments to the Joint Monitoring Programme of the WHO and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The coverage rates for water and sanitation are based on information from service users on the facilities their households actually use rather than on information from service providers, who may include nonfunctioning systems. Access to drinking water from an improved source does not ensure that the water is safe or adequate, as these characteristics are not tested at the time of the surveys. Neonatal tetanus is an important cause of infant mortality in some developing countries. It can be prevented through immunization of the mother during pregnancy. Recommended doses for full protection are generally two tetanus shots during the first pregnancy and one booster shot during each subsequent pregnancy, with five doses considered adequate for lifetime protection. Information on tetanus shots during pregnancy is collected through surveys in which pregnant respondents are asked to show antenatal cards on which tetanus shots have been recorded. Because not all women have antenatal cards, respondents are also asked about their receipt of these injections. Poor recall may result in a downward bias in estimates of the share of births protected. But in settings where receiving injections is common, respondents may erroneously report having received tetanus shots. Governments in developing countries usually finance immunization against measles and diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) as part of the basic public health package. In many developing countries, however, lack of precise information on the size of the cohort of children under one year of age makes immunization coverage difficult to estimate. The data shown here are based on an assessment of national immunization coverage rates by the WHO and UNICEF. The assessment considered both administrative data from ser vice providers and household survey data on children’s immunization histories. Based on the data available, consideration of potential biases, and contributions of local experts, the most likely true level of immunization coverage was determined for each year. Sleeping under treated bednets, if properly used and maintained, is one of the most important malaria preventive strategies to limit human-mosquito contact. Studies have emphasized that mortality rates could be reduced by about 25–30 percent if every child under five in malaria-risk areas such as Africa slept under a treated bednet every night. Data on the success rate of tuberculosis treatment
30

2.15

PEOPLE

• Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, or rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within 1 kilometer of the dwelling. • Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities (private or shared but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. • Tetanus vaccinations refer to the percentage of pregnant women who receive two tetanus toxoid injections during their first pregnancy and one booster shot during each subsequent pregnancy, with five doses considered adequate for a lifetime. • Child immunization rate is the percentage of children ages 12–23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey for four diseases—measles and diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT). A child is considered adequately immunized against measles after receiving one dose of vaccine and against DPT after receiving three doses. • Children sleeping under treated bednets refer to the percentage of children under age five who slept under an insecticide-impregnated bednet to prevent malaria. • Tuberculosis treatment success rate is the percentage of new, registered smear-positive (infectious) cases that were cured or in which a full course of treatment was completed. • DOTS detection rate is the percentage of estimated new infectious tuberculosis cases detected under the directly observed treatment, short course case detection and treatment strategy.

2.15a
Children in rural households are less likely to use bednets
Children under five sleeping under bednets, 2000 (%) 40

are provided for countries that have implemented the recommended control strategy: directly observed

20

treatment, short course (DOTS). Countries that have not adopted DOTS or have only recently done so are

10

omitted because of lack of data or poor comparability or reliability of reported results. The treatment suc-

0 Urban Untreated bednets Rural Insecticide-treated bednets

cess rate for tuberculosis provides a useful indicator of the quality of health services. A low rate or no success suggests that infectious patients may not be receiving adequate treatment. An essential complement to the tuberculosis treatment success rate is the DOTS detection rate, which indicates whether there is adequate coverage by the recommended case detection and treatment strategy. A country with a high treatment success rate may still face big chalData sources Data are drawn from a variety of sources, including WHO and UNICEF estimates of National Immunization Coverage, the WHO’s Global Tuberculosis Control Report 2003; UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children 2004; and the WHO and UNICEF’s Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report.

Even though malaria is often more prevalent in rural areas, fewer children under age five sleep under a bednet in rural areas than in urban ones. The ratio of urban-rural difference is even greater for insecticide-treated bednets because they are more expensive than untreated bednets, and retreatment of insecticide-treated nets is still uncommon, especially in rural areas. Source: WHO and UNICEF 2003.

lenges if its DOTS detection rate remains low.

2004 World Development Indicators

95

2.16
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Reproductive health
Total fertility rate Adolescent Women at risk Contraceptive fertility of unintended prevalence rate pregnancy rate
births per 1,000 births per woman 1980 2002 women ages 15–19 2002 % of married women ages 15–49 1990–2002 a % of women ages 15–49 1990–2002 a 1985 % of total 1995–2002 a per 100,000 live births National estimates 1985–2002 a Modeled estimates 2000

Births attended by skilled health staff

Maternal mortality ratio

7.0 3.6 6.7 6.9 3.3 2.3 1.9 1.6 3.2 6.1 2.0 1.7 7.0 5.5 2.1 6.1 3.9 2.0 7.5 6.8 5.7 6.4 1.7 5.8 6.9 2.8 2.5 2.0 3.9 6.6 6.3 3.6 7.4 1.9 2.0 2.1 1.5 4.2 5.0 5.1 4.9 7.5 2.0 6.6 1.6 1.9 4.5 6.5 2.3 1.4 6.5 2.2 6.3 6.1 7.1 5.9

6.8 2.2 2.8 7.0 2.4 1.1 1.8 1.3 2.1 3.0 1.3 1.6 5.3 3.8 1.3 3.8 2.1 1.3 6.3 5.8 3.8 4.6 1.5 4.6 6.2 2.2 1.9 1.0 2.5 6.7 6.3 2.3 4.6 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.7 2.6 2.8 3.0 2.9 4.8 1.3 5.6 1.7 1.9 4.1 4.8 1.1 1.4 4.1 1.3 4.3 5.0 6.6 4.2

151 11 17 225 60 35 18 20 44 129 21 11 103 75 23 68 68 49 133 50 57 127 20 124 182 43 15 6 75 226 146 69 118 18 67 23 8 89 64 46 87 101 26 135 10 10 156 139 27 14 81 17 100 153 215 72

.. .. .. .. .. 12 .. .. .. 15 .. .. 27 26 .. .. 7 .. 26 .. 30 20 .. 16 10 .. .. .. 6 .. .. .. 28 .. .. .. .. 12 .. 11 .. 28 .. 36 .. .. 28 .. .. .. 23 .. 23 24 .. 40

.. .. 51 .. .. 61 .. .. 55 54 .. .. 19 49 .. .. 77 .. 12 .. 24 19 .. 15 4 .. 83 .. 77 .. .. .. 15 .. .. 69 .. 70 66 56 60 8 .. 8 .. 71 33 .. 41 .. 22 .. 38 6 .. 28

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. .. 81 .. .. 19 .. .. 100 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 97 .. .. .. .. 100 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100 .. .. 35 .. .. ..

12 99 92 45 98 97 100 100 b 84 12 100 100 b 66 69 100 94 88 .. 31 25 32 60 98 44 16 100 76 .. 86 61 .. 98 63 100 100 99 100 b 98 69 61 90 21 .. 6 100 b 99 b 86 55 96 100 b 44 .. 41 35 35 24

.. 20 140 .. 41 22 .. .. 25 380 14 .. 500 390 10 330 160 15 480 .. 440 430 .. 1,100 830 23 53 .. 78 950 .. 29 600 2 30 3 10 230 b 160 84 120 1,000 46 870 6 10 520 .. 67 8 210 b 1 190 530 910 520

1,900 55 140 1,700 82 55 8 4 94 380 35 10 850 420 31 100 260 32 1,000 1,000 450 730 6 1,100 1,100 31 56 .. 130 990 510 43 690 8 33 9 5 150 130 84 150 630 63 850 6 17 420 540 32 8 540 9 240 740 1,100 680

96

2004 World Development Indicators

Reproductive health
Total fertility rate Adolescent Women at risk Contraceptive fertility of unintended prevalence rate pregnancy rate
births per 1,000 births per woman 1980 2002 women ages 15–19 2002 % of married women ages 15–49 1990–2002 a % of women ages 15–49 1990–2002 a 1985 % of total 1995–2002 a

2.16
Maternal mortality ratio
per 100,000 live births National estimates Modeled estimates 2000

PEOPLE

Births attended by skilled health staff

1985–2002 a

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

6.5 1.9 5.0 4.3 6.7 6.4 3.2 3.2 1.6 3.7 1.8 6.8 2.9 7.8 2.8 2.6 5.3 4.1 6.7 1.9 4.0 5.5 6.8 7.3 2.0 2.5 6.6 7.6 4.2 7.1 6.4 2.7 4.7 2.4 5.3 5.4 6.5 4.9 5.9 6.1 1.6 2.0 6.3 8.0 6.9 1.7 9.9 7.0 3.7 5.8 5.2 4.5 4.8 2.3 2.2 2.6

4.0 1.3 2.9 2.3 2.0 4.1 1.9 2.7 1.3 2.3 1.3 3.5 1.8 4.2 2.1 1.5 2.5 2.4 4.8 1.2 2.2 4.3 5.8 3.3 1.3 1.8 5.2 6.1 2.8 6.4 4.6 2.0 2.4 1.4 2.4 2.8 5.0 2.8 4.8 4.2 1.7 1.9 3.4 7.1 5.1 1.8 4.0 4.5 2.4 4.3 3.8 2.6 3.2 1.3 1.5 1.9

110 21 98 52 25 35 15 19 8 84 3 30 35 100 2 4 30 29 91 32 23 77 196 32 33 31 157 137 23 176 113 39 62 44 45 44 153 29 103 112 5 30 122 205 111 10 54 62 75 68 75 61 33 15 23 64

.. .. 16 9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14 9 24 .. .. .. 12 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26 30 .. 29 32 .. .. .. .. 20 23 .. 22 28 .. .. 15 17 17 .. .. 32 .. .. 15 10 19 .. .. ..

62 73 52 57 73 .. 60 .. .. 65 .. 56 66 39 .. .. .. 60 25 .. 61 23 .. 45 .. .. 17 31 .. 8 8 75 65 74 60 59 6 .. 29 39 75 .. 60 8 15 .. 24 28 .. 26 57 69 47 .. .. 78

41 .. .. 36 .. .. .. 99 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 96 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 32 .. .. .. .. .. 26 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 87 .. .. .. .. .. .. 99 .. ..

56 .. 43 64 90 72 100 99 b .. 95 100 97 99 44 97 100 98 98 19 100 89 60 51 94 .. 97 46 56 97 41 57 99 86 99 97 40 44 56 78 11 100 100 67 16 42 100 b 95 20 90 53 71 59 58 99 b 100 ..

110 5 540 380 37 290 6 5 7 97 8 41 50 590 110 20 5 44 530 25 100 b .. 580 77 13 15 490 1,100 30 580 750 21 79 44 160 230 1,100 230 270 540 7 15 120 590 .. 6 23 530 70 370 b 190 190 170 4 8 ..

110 16 540 230 76 250 5 17 5 87 10 41 210 1,000 67 20 5 110 650 42 150 550 760 97 13 23 550 1,800 41 1,200 1,000 24 83 36 110 220 1,000 360 300 740 16 7 230 1,600 800 16 87 500 160 300 170 410 200 13 5 25

2004 World Development Indicators

97

2.16
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Reproductive health
Total fertility rate Adolescent Women at risk Contraceptive fertility of unintended prevalence rate pregnancy rate
births per 1,000 births per woman 1980 2002 women ages 15–19 2002 % of married women ages 15–49 1990–2002 a % of women ages 15–49 1990–2002 a 1985 % of total 1995–2002 a per 100,000 live births National estimates 1985–2002 a Modeled estimates 2000

Births attended by skilled health staff

Maternal mortality ratio

2.4 1.9 8.3 7.3 6.8 2.3 6.5 1.7 2.3 2.1 7.3 4.6 2.2 3.5 6.1 6.2 1.7 1.5 7.4 5.6 6.7 3.5 6.8 3.3 5.2 4.3 4.9 7.2 2.0 5.4 1.9 1.8 2.7 4.8 4.2 5.0 .. 7.9 7.0 6.4 3.7 w 5.5 3.2 3.1 3.6 4.1 3.1 2.5 4.1 6.2 5.3 6.6 1.9 1.8

1.3 1.3 5.7 5.3 4.9 1.7 5.6 1.4 1.3 1.1 6.9 2.8 1.3 2.1 4.4 4.2 1.6 1.5 3.4 2.9 5.0 1.8 4.9 1.8 2.1 2.2 2.7 6.0 1.2 3.0 1.7 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.7 1.9 4.9 6.0 5.1 3.7 2.6 w 3.5 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.8 2.1 1.6 2.5 3.1 3.2 5.1 1.7 1.5

41 46 52 91 89 32 182 8 25 9 204 43 9 20 56 103 9 5 38 24 115 72 82 42 10 55 16 182 31 64 27 47 64 37 90 28 81 97 129 86 63 w 98 36 33 54 68 25 38 70 41 98 126 24 11

.. .. 36 .. 35 .. .. .. .. .. .. 15 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 22 .. 32 .. .. 10 10 35 .. .. .. .. .. 14 .. 7 .. 39 27 13

64 34 13 21 11 .. .. .. .. .. .. 62 .. .. 10 .. .. .. 45 .. 25 72 24 .. 60 64 62 23 72 .. .. 64 .. 56 .. 79 42 21 26 54 .. w .. .. 86 .. .. 83 .. .. 53 50 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 41 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100 .. .. .. .. .. .. 98 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

98 99 31 91 58 99 42 100 .. 100 b 34 84 .. 97 86 b 70 100 b .. 76 b 71 36 99 49 96 90 81 97 39 100 96 99 99 100 96 94 70 .. 22 43 73 60 w 41 80 78 92 56 72 93 82 70 35 44 99 ..

34 37 1,100 .. 560 7 1,800 6 16 17 .. 150 0 92 550 230 5 5 110 b 45 530 36 480 70 69 130 b 9 510 18 3 7 8 26 34 60 95 .. 350 650 700

49 67 1,400 23 690 11 2,000 30 3 17 1,100 230 4 92 590 370 2 7 160 100 1,500 44 570 160 120 70 31 880 35 54 13 17 27 24 96 130 .. 570 750 1,100 403 w 657 106 112 67 440 115 58 193 165 506 917 13 10

a. Data are for most recent year available. b. Data refer to period other than specified, differ from the standard definition, or refer to only part of a country.

98

2004 World Development Indicators

Reproductive health
About the data
Reproductive health is a state of physical and mental well-being in relation to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. Means of achieving reproductive health include education and services during pregnancy and childbirth, provision of safe and effective contraception, and prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. The complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death and disability among women of reproductive age in developing countries. Reproductive health services will need to expand rapidly over the next two decades, when the number of women and men of reproductive age is projected to increase by more than 600 million. Total and adolescent fertility rates are based on data on registered live births from vital registration systems or, in the absence of such systems, from censuses or sample surveys. As long as the surveys are fairly recent, the estimated rates are generally considered reliable measures of fertility in the recent past. Where no empirical information on age-specific fertility rates is available, a model is used to estimate the share of births to adolescents. For countries without vital registration systems, fertility rates are generally based on extrapolations from trends observed in censuses or surveys from earlier years. An increasing number of couples in the developing world want to limit or postpone childbearing but are not using effective contraceptive methods. These couples face the risk of unintended pregnancy, shown in the table as the percentage of married women of reproductive age who do not want to become pregnant but are not using contraception (Bulatao 1998). Information on this indicator is collected through surveys and excludes women not exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy because of menopause, infertility, or postpartum anovulation. Common reasons for not using contraception are lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods and concerns about their possible health side-effects. Contraceptive prevalence reflects all methods— ineffective traditional methods as well as highly effective modern methods. Contraceptive prevalence rates are obtained mainly from Demographic and Health Surveys and contraceptive prevalence surveys (see Primary data documentation for the most recent survey year). Unmarried women are often excluded from such surveys, which may bias the estimates. The share of births attended by skilled health staff is an indicator of a health system’s ability to provide adequate care for pregnant women. Good antenatal and postnatal care improve maternal health and reduce maternal and infant mortality. But data may not reflect such improvements because health information systems are often weak, maternal deaths are underreported, and rates of maternal mortality are difficult to measure. Maternal mortality ratios are generally of unknown reliability, as are many other cause-specific mortality indicators. Household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys attempt to measure maternal mortality by asking respondents about survivorship of sisters. The main disadvantage of this method is that the estimates of maternal mortality that it produces pertain to 12 years or so before the survey, making them unsuitable for monitoring recent changes or observing the impact of interventions. In addition, measurement of maternal mortality is subject to many types of errors. Even in high-income countries with vital registration systems, misclassification of maternal deaths has been found to lead to serious underestimation.

2.16

PEOPLE

The maternal mortality ratios shown in the table as national estimates are based on national surveys, vital registration, or surveillance or are derived from community and hospital records. Those shown as modeled estimates are based on an exercise carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). In this exercise maternal mortality was estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence. Neither set of ratios can be assumed to provide an accurate estimate of maternal mortality in any of the countries in the table.

Definitions

• Total fertility rate is the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. • Adolescent fertility rate is the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15–19. • Women at risk of unintended pregnancy are fertile, married women of reproductive age who do not want to become pregnant and are not using contraception. • Contraceptive prevalence rate is the percentage of women who are practicing, or whose sexual partners are practicing, any form of contraception. It is usually measured for married women ages 15–49 only. • Births attended by skilled health staff are the percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period; to conduct deliveries on their own; and to care for newborns. • Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die from pregnancy-related causes during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births.

2.16a
Does household wealth affect antenatal care?
Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics, by wealth quintile (%) 100 80 60

Data sources
40 20 0 Poorest Second Third Fourth Richest

The data on reproductive health come from Demographic and Health Surveys, the WHO’s Coverage of Maternity Care (1997) and other WHO sources, UNICEF, and national statistical offices. Modeled estimates for maternal mortality ratios are from Carla AbouZahr and Tessa Wardlaw’s “Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA” (2003).

Across 22 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa rich women were about 1.5 times more likely to attend antenatal clinics than were poor women. The lack of care can contribute to women’s death during pregnancy or childbirth and can also compromise the health and survival of their infants. Source: WHO and UNICEF 2003.

2004 World Development Indicators

99

2.17
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Nutrition
Prevalence of undernourishment Prevalence of child malnutrition Prevalence of overweight Lowbirthweight babies Exclusive breastfeeding Consumption of iodized salt Vitamin A supplementation

% of population 1990–92 1999–2001

% of children under age 5 Weight for age Height for age 1996–2002 a 1996–2002 a

Year

% of children under age 5

% of births 1998–2002 a

% of children under 6 months 1995–2002 a

% of households 1997–2002 a

% of children 6–59 months 2001

58 5c 5 61 <3 55 c .. .. 37 c 35 <3 c .. 20 26 13 c 18 12 8c 22 49 43 33 .. 50 58 8 17 d <3 17 31 37 7 18 18 c 8 <3 c .. 27 8 5 12 .. 10 c .. .. .. 11 22 45 c .. 35 .. 16 40 .. 65

70 b 4 6 49 <3 51 .. .. 21 32 3 .. 16 22 8 24 9 16 17 70 38 27 .. 44 34 4 11 d <3 13 75 30 6 15 12 11 <3 .. 25 4 3 14 61 4 42 .. .. 7 27 26 .. 12 .. 25 28 .. 49

49 14 6 31 5 3 0 .. 17 48 .. .. 23 8 4 13 6 .. 34 45 45 22 .. .. 28 1 10 .. 7 31 .. 5 21 1 4 .. .. 5 14 4 12 40 .. 47 .. .. 12 17 3 .. 25 .. 24 33 25 17

48 32 18 45 12 13 0 .. 20 45 .. .. 31 27 10 23 11 .. 37 57 45 29 .. .. 29 2 14 .. 14 38 .. 6 25 1 5 .. .. 6 26 19 23 38 .. 52 .. .. 21 19 12 .. 26 .. 46 41 30 23

1997 2000 2000 1996 1995–96 2000–01 1995–96 2000 1999–2000

2001 1998 2000 2000 1996 1998–99 1987 2000 1998 1995 2000 2002 2000 2000 2001 1987 1996 1998–99 1995–96 1991 1996 1995–96 1998 1995–96 2000

2000–01 1999 1998–99 1998–99 1999 2000

4.0 22.5 10.1 0.5 9.2 10.4 5.2 .. 3.8 0.4 .. .. 1.8 6.5 13.2 6.9 4.9 .. 1.0 1.1 2.0 5.0 .. 0.8 1.5 8.0 2.6 .. 3.7 3.9 0.7 6.2 2.5 5.9 .. 4.1 .. 4.9 .. 8.6 2.6 0.9 .. 1.2 .. .. 3.7 .. 12.7 .. 1.7 .. 4.4 2.7 .. 2.0

.. 3 7 12 7 7 7 7 11 30 5 8e 16 9 4 10 10 e 10 19 16 11 11 6 14 17 e 5 6 .. 9 12 .. 7 17 6 6 7 5 14 16 12 13 21 e 4 15 4 7 14 17 6 7 11 8 13 12 22 21

.. 6 13 11 .. 30 .. .. 7 46 .. .. 38 39 6 34 42 f .. 6 62 12 12 .. 17 10 73 f 67 f .. 32 24 4f 35 e, f 10 23 41 .. .. 11 29 f 57 16 52 .. 55 .. .. 6 26 18 f .. 31 .. 39 11 37 24

2 62 69 35 90 e 84 .. .. 26 70 37 .. 72 65 77 66 95 e .. 23 e 96 14 84 .. 86 58 100 93 .. 92 72 .. 97 e 31 90 73 .. .. 18 99 28 91 e 97 .. 28 .. .. 15 8 8 .. 28 .. 49 12 2 11

84 .. .. 75 .. .. .. .. .. 90 .. .. 95 31 .. 85 .. .. 97 95 57 100 .. 90 91 .. .. .. .. 98 100 .. 97 .. .. .. .. 35 50 .. .. 61 .. 16 .. .. 89 91 .. .. 100 .. .. 93 100 ..

100

2004 World Development Indicators

Nutrition
Prevalence of undernourishment Prevalence of child malnutrition Prevalence of overweight Lowbirthweight babies Exclusive breastfeeding

2.17
Consumption of iodized salt Vitamin A supplementation
% of households 1997–2002 a % of children 6–59 months 2001

PEOPLE

% of population 1990–92 1999–2001

% of children under age 5 Weight for age Height for age 1996–2002 a 1996–2002 a

Year

% of children under age 5

% of births 1998–2002 a

% of children under 6 months 1995–2002 a

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

23 <3 c 25 9 5 7 .. .. .. 14 .. 4 <3 c 44 18 <3 22 28 c 29 3c 3 27 33 <3 4c 15 c 35 49 3 25 14 6 5 5c 34 6 69 10 20 18 .. .. 30 42 13 .. .. 26 20 25 18 40 26 <3 c .. ..

20 <3 21 6 5 27 b .. .. .. 9 .. 6 22 37 34 <3 4 7 22 6 3 25 42 <3 <3 10 36 33 <3 21 10 5 5 12 38 7 53 7 7 17 .. .. 29 34 8 .. .. 19 26 27 13 11 22 <3 .. ..

17 .. 47 25 11 16 .. .. .. 4 .. 5 4 22 28 .. 2 6 40 .. 3 18 27 .. .. 6 33 25 .. 33 32 .. 8 .. 13 9 26 28 .. 48 .. .. 10 40 31 .. 18 .. 8 .. .. 7 32 .. .. ..

29 .. 45 .. 15 22 .. .. .. 4 .. 8 10 33 45 .. 3 25 41 .. 12 45 40 .. .. 7 49 49 .. 38 35 .. 18 .. 25 23 36 42 .. 51 .. .. 20 40 34 .. 10 .. 18 .. .. 25 32 .. .. ..

2001 1980–88 1998–99 1995 1998

1975–77 1999 1978–81 1997 1999 1993

1996–97 1997

1999–2000

1999 1997 2000 2001 1995 1998–99 1999 1992 1997 1997 1992 2001 1980 1998 2000 1993 1998 1990–94 1997 1982–83 1990 2000 1998

2.2 2.0 2.2 4.0 4.3 .. .. .. 4.4 3.8 1.6 2.8 3.0 3.5 .. .. 5.7 6.3 .. .. .. .. 2.3 .. .. 4.9 2.0 4.3 .. 1.5 .. 4.0 5.3 .. 4.8 6.8 3.4 7.7 3.3 0.2 1.6 .. 2.6 0.8 3.3 .. 1.0 1.3 4.2 1.6 3.9 7.6 1.0 .. .. ..

14 9 30 10 e 7e 15 6 8 6 9 8 10 e 8 11 7 4 7 7e 14 5 6 14 .. 7e 4 5 14 16 10 23 42 13 9 5 8 11 e 14 e 15 16 e 21 .. 6 13 17 12 5 8 19 e 10 e 11 e 9e 11 e 20 6 8 ..

35 .. 37 f 42 44 12 .. .. .. .. .. 34 36 5 97 f .. 12 f 24 23 .. 27 f 15 35 .. .. 37 41 44 29 f 38 20 16 e, f 38 e,f .. 51 66 f 30 11 26 f 69 .. .. 31 1 17 .. .. 16 f 25 59 7f 71 37 .. .. ..

80 .. 50 65 94 40 .. .. .. 100 .. 88 20 91 .. .. .. 27 75 .. 87 69 .. 90 e .. 100 52 49 .. 74 2 0e 90 33 45 41 62 e 48 63 63 .. 83 96 15 98 .. 61 17 95 .. 83 93 24 .. .. ..

62 .. 25 61 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 90 99 .. .. .. 70 .. .. .. 100 .. .. .. 73 63 .. 74 98 .. .. .. 93 .. 71 97 84 98 .. .. .. 89 77 .. .. 100 .. .. .. 6 84 .. .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

101

2.17
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Nutrition
Prevalence of undernourishment Prevalence of child malnutrition Prevalence of overweight Lowbirthweight babies Exclusive breastfeeding Consumption of iodized salt Vitamin A supplementation

% of population 1990–92 1999–2001

% of children under age 5 Weight for age Height for age 1996–2002 a 1996–2002 a

Year

% of children under age 5

% of births 1998–2002 a

% of children under 6 months 1995–2002 a

% of households 1997–2002 a

% of children 6–59 months 2001

<3 c 4c 43 4 23 5c 46 .. 4c 3c 68 .. .. 29 31 10 .. .. 5 22 c 35 28 33 13 <3 <3 15 c 23 <3 c 4 .. .. 6 10 c 11 27 .. 35 45 43 21 w 26 15 16 .. 21 17 .. 14 7 27 31 .. ..

<3 4 41 3 24 9 50 .. 5 <3 71 b .. .. 25 25 12 .. .. 4 71 43 19 25 12 <3 3 7 19 4 <3 .. .. 3 26 18 19 .. 33 50 39 17 w 24 10 11 .. 17 12 9 11 8 23 32 .. ..

3 6 24 .. 23 2 27 .. .. .. 26 .. .. 33 11 10 .. .. 7 .. 29 .. 25 6 4 8 12 23 3 7 .. .. .. 19 4 34 4 46 28 13 .. w 42 .. 9 .. .. 15 .. 9 .. 48 .. .. ..

10 11 43 .. 25 5 34 .. .. .. 23 .. .. .. .. 30 .. .. 19 31 44 .. 22 4 12 16 22 39 16 .. .. .. .. 31 13 37 7 52 47 27 .. w .. 25 17 .. .. 14 .. 19 .. 47 .. .. ..

2002 2000 2000 1996 1970–77

1995 1987

1999 1995 1998 1987 1996–97 1998 1995 2000

1988–94 1992–93 1996 2000 2000 1996 1996 2001–02 1999

5.5 .. 4.0 .. 2.2 12.9 .. 0.5 .. .. .. 6.7 .. 0.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.7 2.8 1.5 3.0 4.5 2.2 .. 2.8 20.1 .. .. 4.5 6.2 14.4 3.2 2.7 2.3 4.3 3.0 7.0

9 6 9 11 e 18 4 .. 8 7 6 .. 15 6e 22 31 9 4 6 6 15 13 9 15 23 7 16 6 12 5 15 e 8 8 8 7 7 9 .. 32 e 10 11 15 w 21 9 9 8 16 8 9 10 12 28 14 7 7

.. .. 84 31 f 24 f 11 f 4 .. .. .. 9 7 .. 54 f 16 24 .. .. 81 f 14 32 4f 18 2 46 7 13 65 22 34 f .. .. .. 16 7f 31 .. 18 40 33

.. 30 e 90 .. 16 73 23 .. .. .. .. 62 .. 88 1 59 .. .. 40 20 67 74 67 1 97 64 75 95 5 .. .. .. .. 19 90 40 .. 39 68 93 66 w 52 79 78 89 66 82 36 88 58 48 62 .. ..

.. .. 94 .. 85 .. 91 .. .. .. 62 .. .. .. 92 .. .. .. .. .. 93 .. 77 .. .. .. .. 37 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 59 .. 100 83 .. .. w 55 .. .. .. 51 .. .. .. .. 42 76 .. ..

a. Data are for the most recent year available. b. Data are for 1998–2000. c. Data are for 1993–95. d. Includes Taiwan, China. e. Data refer to period other than specified, differ from the standard definition, or refer to only part of a country. f. Refers to exclusive breastfeeding for less than four months.

102

2004 World Development Indicators

Nutrition
About the data Definitions Data on undernourishment are produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) based on the calories available from local food production, trade, and stocks; the number of calories needed by different age and gender groups; the proportion of the population represented by each age group; and a coefficient of distribution to take account of inequality in access to food (FAO 2000). From a policy and program standpoint, however, this measure has its limits. First, food insecurity exists even where food availability is not a problem because of inadequate access of poor households to food. Second, food insecurity is an individual or household phenomenon, and the average food available to each person, even corrected for possible effects of low income, is not a good predictor of food insecurity among the population. And third, nutrition security is determined not only by food security but also by the quality of care of mothers and children and the quality of the household’s health environment (Smith and Haddad 2000). Estimates of child malnutrition, based on weight for age (underweight) and height for age (stunting), are from national survey data. The proportion of children who are underweight is the most common indicator of malnutrition. Being underweight, even mildly, increases the risk of death and inhibits cognitive development in children. Moreover, it perpetuates the problem from one generation to the next, as malnourished women are more likely to have low-birthweight babies. Height for age reflects linear growth achieved pre- and postnatally, and a deficit indicates long-term, cumulative effects of inadequacies of health, diet, or care. It is often argued that stunting is a proxy for multifaceted deprivation and is a better indicator of long term changes in malnutrition. Estimates of children who are overweight are also from national survey data. Overweight in children has become a growing concern in developing countries. Researchers show an association between obesity in childhood and a high prevalence of diabetes, respiratory disease, high blood pressure, and psychosocial and orthopedic disorders (de Onis and Blossner 2000). The survey data were analyzed in a standardized way by the World Health Organization (WHO) to allow comparisons across countries. Low birthweight, which is associated with maternal malnutrition, raises the risk of infant mortality and stunts growth in infancy and childhood. There is also emerging evidence that low-birthweight babies are more prone to noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular heart diseases. Estimates of low-birthweight infants are drawn mostly Data sources from hospital records and household surveys. Many births in developing countries take place at home, and these births are seldom recorded. A hospital birth may indicate higher income and therefore better nutrition, or it could indicate a higher-risk birth, possibly skewing the data on birthweights downward. The data should therefore be treated with caution. It is estimated that breastfeeding can save some 1.5 million children a year. Breast milk alone contains all the nutrients, antibodies, hormones, and antioxidants an infant needs to thrive. It protects babies from diarrhea and acute respiratory infections, stimulates their immune systems and response to vaccination, and according to some studies, confers cognitive benefits as well. The data on breastfeeding are derived from national surveys. Iodine deficiency is the single most important cause of preventable mental retardation, and it contributes significantly to the risk of stillbirth and miscarriage. Iodized salt is the best source of iodine, and a global campaign to iodize edible salt is significantly reducing the risks (UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children 1999). Vitamin A is essential for the functioning of the immune system. A child deficient in vitamin A faces a 23 percent greater risk of dying from a range of childhood ailments such as measles, malaria, and diarrhea. Improving the vitamin A status of pregnant women helps reduce anemia, improves their resistance to infection, and may reduce their risk of dying during pregnancy and childbirth. Giving vitamin A to new mothers who are breastfeeding helps to protect their children during the first months of life.

2.17

PEOPLE

• Prevalence of undernourishment is the percentage of the population that is undernourished. • Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children under five whose weight for age or height for age is more than two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0–59 months. For children up to two years of age height is measured by recumbent length. For older children height is measured by stature while standing. The reference population, adopted by the WHO in 1983, is based on children from the United States, who are assumed to be well nourished. • Prevalence of overweight is the percentage of children under five whose weight for height is more than two standard deviations above the median for the international reference population of the corresponding age, established by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics and the WHO. • Lowbirthweight babies are newborns weighing less than 2,500 grams, with the measurement taken within the first hours of life, before significant postnatal weight loss has occurred. • Exclusive breastfeeding refers to the percentage of children less than 6 months old who are fed breast milk alone (no other liquids). • Consumption of iodized salt refers to the percentage of households that use edible salt fortified with iodine. • Vitamin A supplementation refers to the percentage of children ages 6–59 months who received at least one high-dose vitamin A capsule in the previous six months.

Data are drawn from a variety of sources, including the FAO’s State of Food Insecurity in the World 2003; the United Nations Administrative

Committee on Coordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition’s Update on the Nutrition Situation; the WHO’s World Health Report 2003; and the United Nations Children’s Fund’s (UNICEF) State of the World’s Children 2004.

2004 World Development Indicators

103

2.18
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Health risk factors and future challenges
Prevalence of smoking Incidence of tuberculosis Prevalence of HIV

% of adults Male 2000 Female 2000

per 100,000 people 2002

% of adults 2001 Male 2001

% ages 15–24 a Female 2001

.. 60 44 .. 47 64 21 30 30 54 55 30 .. 43 .. .. 38 49 .. .. 66 .. 27 .. 24 26 67 .. 24 .. .. 29 42 34 48 36 32 24 46 35 38 .. 44 .. 27 39 .. 34 61 39 28 47 38 60 .. 11

.. 18 7 .. 34 1 18 19 1 24 5 26 .. 18 .. .. 29 24 .. .. 8 .. 23 .. .. 18 4 .. 21 6 .. 7 2 32 26 22 29 17 17 2 12 .. 20 .. 20 30 .. 2 15 31 4 29 18 44 .. 9

333 27 52 335 46 77 6 15 82 221 83 14 86 234 60 657 62 48 157 359 549 188 6 338 222 18 113 93 45 383 395 15 412 47 12 13 13 95 137 29 60 268 55 370 10 14 248 230 85 10 211 20 77 215 196 319

<0.01 <0.01 0.10 5.50 0.70 0.20 0.10 0.20 <0.10 <0.10 0.30 0.20 3.60 <0.10 0.10 38.80 0.70 <0.10 6.50 8.30 2.70 11.80 0.30 12.90 3.60 0.30 0.10 0.10 0.40 4.90 7.20 0.60 9.70 <0.10 <0.10 <0.10 0.20 2.50 0.30 <0.10 0.60 2.80 1.00 6.40 <0.10 0.30 4.16 1.60 <0.10 0.10 3.00 0.20 1.00 1.54 2.80 6.10

.. .. .. 2.23 0.86 0.22 0.12 0.22 0.06 0.01 0.58 0.12 1.17 0.11 .. 16.08 0.64 .. 3.97 4.95 0.96 5.44 0.28 5.82 2.38 0.35 0.16 0.00 0.85 2.92 3.28 0.58 2.91 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.14 2.10 0.31 .. 0.77 2.78 2.48 4.39 0.04 0.26 2.32 0.52 0.08 0.10 1.36 0.14 0.90 0.57 1.06 4.06

.. .. .. 5.74 0.34 0.06 0.01 0.12 0.01 0.01 0.19 0.12 3.71 0.05 .. 37.49 0.48 .. 9.73 11.05 2.48 12.67 0.17 13.54 4.28 0.13 0.09 0.00 0.19 5.91 7.80 0.27 8.31 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.06 2.76 0.15 .. 0.35 4.30 0.62 7.82 0.03 0.17 4.72 1.35 0.02 0.05 2.97 0.06 0.85 1.43 2.98 4.95

104

2004 World Development Indicators

Health risk factors and future challenges
Prevalence of smoking Incidence of tuberculosis Prevalence of HIV

2.18
% ages 15–24 a Female 2001

PEOPLE

% of adults Male 2000 Female 2000

per 100,000 people 2002

% of adults 2001 Male 2001

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

36 44 29 59 27 40 32 33 32 .. 53 48 60 67 .. 65 30 60 41 49 46 39 .. .. 51 40 .. 20 49 .. .. 45 51 46 68 35 .. 44 65 48 37 25 .. .. 15 31 16 36 56 46 24 42 54 44 30 ..

11 27 3 4 3 5 31 24 17 .. 13 10 7 32 .. 5 2 16 15 13 35 1 .. .. 16 32 .. 9 4 .. .. 3 18 18 26 2 .. 22 35 29 29 25 .. .. 2 32 2 9 20 28 6 16 11 25 7 ..

86 32 168 256 29 167 13 10 8 8 33 5 146 540 160 91 26 142 170 78 14 726 247 21 66 41 234 431 95 334 188 64 33 154 209 114 436 154 751 190 8 11 64 193 304 6 11 181 47 254 70 202 320 32 47 7

1.60 0.10 0.80 0.10 <0.10 <0.10 0.10 0.10 0.40 1.20 <0.10 <0.10 0.10 6.70 b <0.01 <0.10 0.12 <0.10 <0.10 0.40 0.09 31.00 2.80 0.20 0.10 <0.10 0.30 15.00 0.40 1.70 c 0.52 0.10 0.30 0.20 <0.10 0.10 13.00 1.99 22.50 0.50 0.20 0.10 0.20 1.35 5.80 0.10 0.10 0.10 1.50 0.70 0.11 0.40 <0.10 0.10 0.50 ..

1.20 0.09 0.34 0.06 0.05 .. 0.06 0.06 0.28 0.82 0.01 .. 0.13 6.01 .. 0.03 .. 0.00 0.05 0.94 .. 17.40 .. .. 0.16 0.00 0.06 6.35 0.70 1.37 0.38 0.04 0.37 0.46 .. .. 6.13 1.04 11.10 0.26 0.20 0.05 0.23 0.95 2.99 0.08 .. 0.06 1.88 0.33 0.13 0.41 0.01 0.09 0.41 ..

1.50 0.02 0.71 0.06 0.01 .. 0.05 0.06 0.26 0.86 0.04 .. 0.03 15.56 .. 0.01 .. 0.00 0.03 0.24 .. 38.08 .. .. 0.05 0.00 0.23 14.89 0.12 2.08 0.59 0.04 0.09 0.14 .. .. 14.67 1.72 24.29 0.28 0.09 0.01 0.08 1.50 5.82 0.04 .. 0.05 1.25 0.39 0.04 0.18 0.01 0.05 0.19 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

105

2.18
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Health risk factors and future challenges
Prevalence of smoking Incidence of tuberculosis Prevalence of HIV

% of adults Male 2000 Female 2000

per 100,000 people 2002

% of adults 2001 Male 2001

% ages 15–24 a Female 2001

62 63 7 22 .. 52 .. 27 55 30 .. 42 42 26 24 25 19 39 51 .. 50 44 .. 42 62 65 27 52 51 18 27 26 32 49 42 51 .. 60 35 34 46 w 37 56 58 44 48 63 56 40 37 33 .. 36 37

25 10 4 1 .. 42 .. 3 30 20 .. 11 25 2 1 2 19 28 10 .. 12 3 .. 8 8 24 1 17 19 1 26 22 14 9 39 4 .. 29 10 1 11 w 7 10 9 21 9 5 17 24 6 6 .. 21 26

148 126 389 42 242 38 405 43 24 21 405 558 30 54 217 1,067 5 8 44 109 363 128 361 13 23 32 94 377 95 18 12 5 29 101 42 192 27 92 668 683 142 w 226 108 116 43 164 147 88 67 57 176 358 18 15

<0.10 0.90 8.90 0.01 0.50 0.20 7.00 0.20 <0.10 <0.10 1.00 15.60 d 0.50 <0.10 2.60 33.40 0.10 0.50 0.01 <0.10 7.80 1.80 6.00 2.50 0.04 <0.10 <0.10 5.00 1.00 0.18 0.10 0.60 0.30 <0.10 0.50 0.30 .. 0.10 15.60 e 33.70 1.27 w 2.31 0.69 0.70 0.57 1.45 0.19 0.45 0.67 0.10 0.64 8.38 0.33 0.28

0.02 1.87 4.91 .. 0.19 .. 2.48 0.14 0.00 0.00 .. 10.66 0.51 0.03 1.08 15.23 0.06 0.46 .. 0.00 3.55 1.11 2.05 2.41 .. .. 0.00 1.99 1.96 .. 0.10 0.47 0.52 0.01 0.65 0.31 .. .. 8.06 12.38 0.83 w 1.11 0.68 0.69 0.56 0.91 0.19 1.03 0.68 .. 0.27 4.14 0.26 0.25

0.02 0.67 11.20 .. 0.54 .. 7.53 0.16 0.00 0.00 .. 25.64 0.24 0.04 3.13 39.49 0.05 0.40 .. 0.00 8.06 1.66 5.93 3.23 .. .. 0.00 4.63 0.88 .. 0.05 0.22 0.20 0.00 0.15 0.17 .. .. 20.98 33.01 1.57 w 2.51 0.91 0.98 0.44 1.77 0.17 0.39 0.47 .. 0.54 9.44 0.14 0.15

a. Average of high and low estimates. b. Demographic and Health Survey 2003. c. Demographic and Health Survey 2001. d. Demographic and Health Survey 2002. e. Demographic and Health Survey 2001/02.

106

2004 World Development Indicators

Health risk factors and future challenges
About the data
The limited availability of data on health status is a major constraint in assessing the health situation in developing countries. Surveillance data are lacking for many major public health concerns. Estimates of prevalence and incidence are available for some diseases but are often unreliable and incomplete. National health authorities differ widely in their capacity and willingness to collect or report information. To compensate for the paucity of data and ensure reasonable reliability and international comparability, the World Health Organization (WHO) prepares estimates in accordance with epidemiological models and statistical standards. Smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in many countries, and the prevalence of smoking is therefore a good measure of the extent of the tobacco epidemic (Corrao and others 2000). While the prevalence of smoking has been declining in some high-income countries, it has been increasing in many developing countries. Tobacco use causes heart and other vascular diseases and cancers of the lung and other organs. Given the long delay between starting to smoke and the onset of disease, the health impact of smoking in developing countries will increase rapidly in the next few decades. Because the data present a one-time estimate, with no information on the intensity or duration of smoking, they should be interpreted with caution. Tuberculosis is one of the main causes of death from a single infectious agent among adults in developing countries. In high-income countries tuberculosis has reemerged largely as a result of cases among immigrants. The estimates of tuberculosis incidence in the table are based on a new approach in which reported cases are adjusted using the ratio of case notifications to the estimated share of cases detected by panels of 80 epidemiologists convened by the WHO. Adult HIV prevalence rates reflect the rate of HIV infection in each country’s population. Low national prevalence rates can be very misleading, however. They often disguise serious epidemics that are initially concentrated in certain localities or among specific population groups and threaten to spill over into the wider population. In many parts of the developing world most new infections

2.18

PEOPLE

occur in young adults, with young women especially vulnerable. The estimates of HIV prevalence are based on extrapolations from data collected through surveys and surveillance of small, nonrepresentative groups. Estimates from recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) that have collected data on HIV/AIDS differ from those of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and WHO, which are based on surveillance systems that focus on pregnant women who attend sentinel antenatal clinics. There are reasons to be cautious about comparing the two sets of estimates. DHS is a household survey that uses a representative sample from the whole population, whereas surveillance data from antenatal clinics is limited to pregnant women. Representative household surveys also frequently provide better coverage of rural populations. However, the fact that some respondents refuse to participate or are absent from the household adds considerable uncertainty to survey-based HIV estimates, because the possible association of absence or refusal with higher HIV prevalence is unknown. UNAIDS and WHO estimates are generally based on surveillance systems that focus on pregnant women who attend sentinel antenatal clinics. UNAIDS and WHO use a methodology to estimate HIV prevalence for the adult population (ages 15–49) that

2.18a
HIV prevalence rates vary by method of data collection Prevalence rate (%) Country Zambia South Africa Kenya Mali UNAIDS and WHO surveillance data 21.5 20.1 15.0 1.7 Demographic and Health Survey data 15.6 15.6 6.7 1.7

assumes that prevalence among pregnant women is a good approximation of prevalence among men and women. However, this assumption might not apply to all countries or over time. There are also other potential biases associated with the use of antenatal clinic data, such as differences among women who attend antenatal clinics and those who do not.

Recent household survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys show significantly lower HIV prevalence rates than those from UNAIDS and WHO, which are based on surveillance. This indicates that different data collection methodologies, and their quality and coverage, record different prevalence rates. Source: UNAIDS and WHO 2002; Demographic and Health Survey data.

Definitions
• Prevalence of smoking is the percentage of men and women who smoke cigarettes. The age range varies among countries but in most is 18 and older or 15 and older. • Incidence of tuberculosis is the estiMen Women

2.18b
In some countries men know more about preventing HIV than women do
Population with correct knowledge of HIV prevention (%) 40

mated number of new tuberculosis cases (pulmonary, smear positive, extrapulmonary). • Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV.

30

20

Data sources
10

The data are drawn from a variety of sources, including the WHO’s World Health Report 2003,

0 Uganda Malawi Tanzania Rwanda Haiti Dominican Republic

Tobacco Atlas 2002, and Global Tuberculosis Control Repor t 2003; the National Tobacco Information Online System (NATIONS) database (http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/nations/); and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and WHO’s AIDS Epidemic Update 2002.

More men correctly identified the ways of preventing HIV transmission and had fewer misconceptions about it than did women. Countries where populations are more informed about HIV transmission do not necessarily have a low HIV prevalence rate, because it takes time to change people’s behavior. However, there is no doubt that knowledge is an important prerequisite for behavior change. Source: Demographic and Health Surveys, 1996–2000.

2004 World Development Indicators

107

2.19
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Mor tality
Life expectancy at birth Infant mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Child mortality rate Adult mortality rate Survival to age 65

per 1,000 per 1,000 years 1980 2002 live births 1980 2002 per 1,000 1980 2002 Male 1997– 2002 a Female 1997– 2002 a per 1,000 Male 2000–02 a Female 2000–02 a % of cohort Male 2002 Female 2002

40 69 59 41 70 73 74 73 68 49 71 73 48 52 70 58 63 71 44 47 39 50 75 46 42 69 67 74 66 49 50 73 49 70 74 70 74 63 63 56 57 44 69 42 73 74 48 40 71 73 53 74 57 40 39 51

43 74 71 47 74 75 79 79 65 62 68 79 53 64 74 38 69 72 43 42 54 48 79 42 48 76 71 80 72 45 52 78 45 74 77 75 77 67 70 69 70 51 71 42 78 79 53 53 73 78 55 78 65 46 45 52

183 56 94 158 33 22 11 14 91 129 21 12 126 112 31 62 67 20 140 114 110 105 11 121 124 31 49 .. 40 130 88 24 114 20 22 17 9 71 64 118 84 141 21 143 8 10 75 144 34 13 96 20 97 175 173 132

165 22 39 154 16 30 6 5 76 48 17 5 93 56 15 80 33 14 107 123 96 95 5 115 117 10 30 .. 19 129 81 9 116 7 7 4 4 32 25 33 33 59 10 114 4 4 63 91 24 4 60 5 36 106 130 79

280 66 134 265 38 80 13 17 117 205 26 15 213 170 39 84 86 24 247 190 190 173 13 189 225 39 64 .. 56 210 125 26 172 23 22 19 10 92 98 173 118 210 24 220 9 13 105 231 43 16 157 23 139 300 290 195

257 24 49 260 19 35 6 5 96 73 20 6 151 71 18 110 37 16 207 208 138 166 7 180 200 12 38 .. 23 205 108 11 191 8 9 5 4 38 29 39 39 80 12 171 5 6 85 126 29 5 97 5 49 165 211 123

.. .. .. .. .. 5 .. .. .. 28 .. .. 72 26 .. .. .. .. 131 .. 34 69 .. .. 106 .. .. .. 4 .. .. .. 83 .. .. .. .. 13 .. 15 .. 55 .. 83 .. .. 32 .. .. .. 53 .. 15 101 .. 52

.. .. .. .. .. 3 .. .. .. 38 .. .. 79 29 .. .. .. .. 128 .. 30 75 .. .. 99 .. .. .. 3 .. .. .. 58 .. .. .. .. 8 .. 16 .. 50 .. 86 .. .. 33 .. .. .. 51 .. 18 98 .. 54

437 209 155 492 184 223 100 122 261 262 381 126 384 264 200 703 259 239 559 648 386 488 101 620 449 151 161 97 238 571 475 131 553 150 143 160 128 234 199 210 250 493 316 594 144 130 380 373 250 125 379 114 286 432 495 524

376 95 119 386 92 106 52 58 150 252 133 65 328 219 93 669 136 103 507 603 334 440 57 573 361 67 110 50 115 493 406 78 494 110 94 75 80 146 120 147 148 441 114 535 61 57 330 320 133 59 326 47 182 366 427 373

32 77 73 34 75 70 84 83 58 59 54 82 43 59 75 13 62 69 28 26 42 35 83 24 38 79 72 85 71 31 35 82 31 71 81 75 80 63 72 69 68 37 60 26 80 82 45 40 71 82 47 83 58 32 34 38

33 85 79 39 87 83 92 91 72 61 81 91 50 67 86 18 79 83 32 29 48 41 92 29 43 89 79 92 83 35 44 90 34 87 88 88 88 75 77 75 81 42 85 30 91 92 51 47 87 91 51 91 72 33 39 47

108

2004 World Development Indicators

Mor tality
Life expectancy at birth Infant mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Child mortality rate Adult mortality rate

2.19
Survival to age 65
% of cohort Male 2002 Female 2002

PEOPLE

per 1,000 per 1,000 years 1980 2002 live births 1980 2002 per 1,000 1980 2002 Male 1997– 2002 a Female 1997– 2002 a per 1,000 Male 2000–02 a Female 2000–02 a

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

60 70 54 55 58 62 73 73 74 71 76 64 67 55 67 67 71 65 45 69 65 53 51 60 71 .. 51 44 67 42 47 66 67 66 58 58 44 51 53 48 76 73 59 40 46 76 60 55 70 51 67 60 61 70 71 74

66 72 63 67 69 63 77 79 78 76 82 72 62 46 62 74 77 65 55 70 71 38 47 72 73 73 55 38 73 41 51 73 74 67 65 68 41 57 42 60 78 78 69 46 45 79 74 64 75 57 71 70 70 74 76 77

75 24 113 79 92 63 12 16 15 28 8 52 45 73 32 16 29 90 135 21 38 115 157 55 21 53 106 157 31 176 118 33 56 41 97 99 140 94 84 124 9 13 85 191 108 9 73 105 34 79 46 89 55 21 25 ..

32 8 65 32 34 102 6 6 4 17 3 27 76 78 42 5 9 52 87 17 28 91 157 16 8 22 84 113 8 122 120 17 24 27 58 39 128 77 55 62 5 6 32 155 100 4 11 76 19 70 26 30 28 8 5 ..

103 26 173 125 130 83 14 19 17 34 11 67 58 115 43 18 35 115 200 26 44 168 235 70 22 69 175 265 42 300 175 40 74 53 140 144 233 134 114 183 11 16 120 320 216 11 95 156 46 108 61 126 81 24 31 ..

42 9 90 43 41 125 6 6 6 20 5 33 99 122 55 5 10 61 100 21 32 132 235 19 9 26 135 182 8 222 183 19 29 32 71 43 205 108 67 83 5 6 41 264 201 4 13 101 25 94 30 39 37 9 6 ..

.. .. 25 19 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 11 36 .. .. .. 10 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 75 101 .. 132 38 .. .. .. .. .. 85 .. .. 28 .. .. 12 184 66 .. .. .. .. .. .. 19 21 .. .. ..

.. .. 37 20 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 6 38 .. .. .. 11 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 68 102 .. 125 38 .. .. .. .. .. 82 .. .. 40 .. .. 11 202 69 .. .. .. .. .. .. 17 19 .. .. ..

221 295 250 227 170 258 108 99 110 169 98 199 366 578 238 186 100 335 355 328 192 667 448 210 286 160 385 701 202 518 357 228 180 325 280 174 674 343 695 314 95 108 225 473 443 105 187 221 145 359 173 190 249 226 164 148

157 123 191 175 139 208 62 56 53 127 44 144 201 529 192 71 68 299 299 122 136 630 385 157 106 89 322 653 113 446 302 109 101 165 199 113 612 245 661 314 64 69 161 308 393 59 135 198 93 329 129 139 142 88 66 55

59 67 62 64 71 63 80 84 81 80 86 74 47 28 55 72 82 56 45 60 71 15 33 73 66 75 49 20 72 25 43 70 75 58 65 68 25 46 22 58 83 83 67 30 33 84 78 64 78 49 70 69 70 71 77 76

72 85 66 72 75 67 89 90 91 87 94 81 71 33 62 86 88 75 50 84 79 20 37 83 87 84 55 23 83 29 49 85 85 75 71 76 30 58 25 56 90 90 77 37 36 91 84 70 86 53 80 78 77 87 89 91

2004 World Development Indicators

109

2.19
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Mor tality
Life expectancy at birth Infant mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Child mortality rate Adult mortality rate Survival to age 65

per 1,000 per 1,000 years 1980 2002 live births 1980 2002 per 1,000 1980 2002 Male 1997– 2002 a Female 1997– 2002 a per 1,000 Male 2000–02 a Female 2000–02 a % of cohort Male 2002 Female 2002

69 67 46 61 45 70 35 71 70 70 43 57 76 68 48 52 76 76 62 66 50 64 49 68 62 61 64 48 69 68 74 74 70 67 68 60 .. 49 50 55 63 w 53 66 65 68 60 64 68 65 58 54 48 74 74

70 66 40 73 52 73 37 78 73 76 47 46 78 74 58 44 80 80 70 67 43 69 50 72 73 70 65 43 68 75 77 77 75 67 74 70 73 57 37 39 67 w 59 70 69 73 65 69 69 71 69 63 46 78 78

29 28 130 65 128 36 192 11 20 16 133 64 13 34 86 99 7 9 54 .. 106 45 106 35 72 103 86 107 22 23 12 13 37 51 34 44 .. 135 90 69 79 w 110 57 59 42 86 56 45 61 94 115 116 12 13

19 18 118 23 79 16 165 3 8 4 133 52 5 16 64 106 3 5 23 90 104 24 87 17 21 35 70 83 16 8 5 7 14 55 19 20 .. 83 102 76 55 w 79 30 32 19 60 32 31 28 44 68 103 5 4

36 35 219 85 218 44 336 13 23 18 225 91 16 46 142 143 9 11 73 .. 175 58 176 40 100 133 109 185 27 27 14 15 42 60 42 66 .. 205 155 108 119 w 174 76 79 54 131 79 57 82 134 176 197 15 16

21 21 203 28 138 19 284 4 9 5 225 65 6 19 94 149 3 6 28 116 165 28 140 20 26 41 86 141 20 9 7 8 15 65 22 26 .. 114 182 123 81 w 121 37 40 22 88 42 37 34 54 95 174 7 6

.. .. 105 .. 76 .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 61 .. 73 .. .. 10 19 78 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 10 .. 33 89 35 .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. .. ..

.. .. 97 .. 74 .. .. .. .. .. .. 13 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 58 .. 65 .. .. 13 17 70 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13 .. 36 74 31 .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37 .. .. ..

260 420 667 181 355 180 587 114 204 170 516 621 122 244 341 642 87 99 170 293 569 245 460 209 169 218 280 617 365 143 108 135 185 282 178 203 154 278 725 650 234 w 310 211 212 197 255 184 317 222 193 252 519 128 125

117 149 599 116 303 100 531 61 82 76 452 583 49 124 291 602 55 58 132 204 520 150 406 133 99 120 156 567 135 93 65 80 89 176 99 139 97 226 687 612 166 w 259 128 131 103 186 129 137 125 143 202 461 66 58

64 48 23 76 38 73 24 83 70 76 38 27 83 76 53 26 85 85 69 62 27 67 37 74 75 69 57 25 56 80 81 81 74 63 75 68 74 50 16 18 69 w 64 63 61 68 64 69 59 67 68 62 40 81 ..

81 77 25 83 47 83 29 89 86 89 44 33 92 84 58 30 92 93 79 75 31 77 42 82 83 79 72 28 80 85 89 91 88 77 85 78 83 53 21 20 78 w 69 80 78 82 73 76 80 81 73 65 46 90 ..

a. Data are for the most recent year available.

110

2004 World Development Indicators

Mor tality
About the data Mortality rates for different age groups—infants, children, or adults—and overall indicators of mortality—life expectancy at birth or survival to a given age—are important indicators of health status in a country. Because data on the incidence and prevalence of diseases (morbidity data) are frequently unavailable, mortality rates are often used to identify vulnerable populations. And they are among the indicators most frequently used to compare levels of socioeconomic development across countries. The main sources of mortality data are vital registration systems and direct or indirect estimates based on sample surveys or censuses. A “complete” vital registration system—one covering at least 90 percent of vital events in the population—is the best source of age-specific mortality data. But such systems are fairly uncommon in developing countries. Thus estimates must be obtained from sample surveys or derived by applying indirect estimation techniques to registration, census, or survey data. Survey data are subject to recall error, and surveys estimating infant deaths require large samples because households in which a birth or an infant death has occurred during a given year cannot ordinarily be preselected for sampling. Indirect estimates rely on estimated actuarial (“life”) tables that may be inappropriate for the population concerned. Because life expectancy at birth is constructed using infant mortality data and model life tables, similar reliability issues arise for this indicator. Life expectancy at birth and age-specific mortality rates are generally estimates based on vital registration or the most recent census or survey available (see Primary data documentation). Extrapolations based on outdated surveys may not be reliable for monitoring changes in health status or for comparative analytical work. To produce harmonized estimates of infant and under-five mortality rates that make use of all available information in a transparent way, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank developed and adopted a methodology that fits a regression line to the relationship between mortality rates and their reference dates using weighted least squares. (For further discussion of methodology for childhood mortality estimates, see Hill and others 1999.) Some of the estimates shown in the table this year are World Bank estimates. Estimates may change after the harmonization process with UNICEF and the World Health Organization is completed. Infant and child mortality rates are higher for boys than for girls in countries in which parental gender preferences are insignificant. Child mortality captures the effect of gender discrimination better than does infant mortality, as malnutrition and medical interventions are more important in this age group. Where female child mortality is higher, as in some countries in South Asia, girls probably have unequal access to resources. Adult mortality rates have increased in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe and Central Asia. In Sub-Saharan Africa the increase stems from AIDS-related mortality and affects both men and women. In Europe and Central Asia the causes are more diverse and affect men more. They include a Definitions

2.19

PEOPLE

high prevalence of smoking, a high-fat diet, excessive alcohol use, and stressful conditions related to the economic transition. The percentage of a cohort surviving to age 65 reflects both child and adult mortality rates. Like life expectancy, it is a synthetic measure based on current age-specific mortality rates and used in the construction of life tables. It shows that even in countries where mortality is high, a certain share of the current birth cohort will live well beyond the life expectancy at birth, while in low-mortality countries close to 90 percent will reach at least age 65.

• Life expectancy at birth is the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. • Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. • Underfive mortality rate is the probability that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. The probability is expressed as a rate per 1,000. • Child mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of one and five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. The probability is expressed as a rate per 1,000. • Adult mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60—that is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reaching age 60—if subject to current age-specific mortality rates between ages 15 and 60. • Survival to age 65 refers to the percentage of a cohort of newborn infants that would survive to age 65, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

2.19a
Under-five mortality rates are higher in poor households than in rich ones
Under-five mortality per 1,000 people, by income quintile Uganda, 2000–01 200 200 Bangladesh, 2000 Male Female 150 150

100

100

50

50

Data sources The data are from the United Nations Statistics

0 Poorest Second Third Fourth Richest

0 Poorest Second Third Fourth Richest

Division’s Population and Vital Statistics Report, publications and other releases from national sta-

Higher under-five mortality rates for children from poor households than for those from wealthier households indicate the deprivation among the poor. Under-five mortality is usually higher for boys than for girls, except in cases of parental discrimination against girls. Source: Demographic and Health Survey data.

tistical offices, Demographic and Health Surveys from national sources and Macro International, and UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children 2004.

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3 ENVIRONMENT

E

conomic development has led to dramatic improvements in the quality of life in

developing countries, producing gains unparalleled in human history. But the picture is far from entirely positive. Gains have been unevenly distributed, and a large part of the world’s population remains desperately poor. At the same time, natural resources—land, water, and forests—are being degraded at alarming rates in many countries, and environmental

factors such as indoor and outdoor air pollution, waterborne diseases, and exposure to toxic chemicals threaten the health of millions of people. Addressing these concerns, successive international conferences, including the latest World Summit on Sustainable Development, have reaffirmed the commitment to eliminate poverty through

environmentally sound and socially responsible economic development.

If the vision of a world without poverty is to be realized, sustainable development is the key. A healthy environment is central to the international development agenda and an integral part of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (see section 1, World View). The Millennium Development Goals call for integrating principles of environmental sustainability into country policies and programs and reversing environmental losses. This requires measuring and monitoring the state of the environment and its changes as well as the links between the economy and the environment.

Given such close links, there is a strong argument for developing indicators that integrate economic activity and environmental change. One approach that appears to hold much promise is environmental accounting. Aimed at deriving “greener” measures of national income, savings, and wealth, environmental accounting adds natural resources and pollutants to the assets and liabilities measured in the standard national accounts. But preparing full-fledged integrated environmental and economic accounts is costly, and not all countries are doing so. In the absence of such integrated accounts, physical indicators and descriptive statistics can provide useful information for monitoring the state of the environment.

Many such indicators are presented here, but despite greater awareness of the importance of environmental issues and efforts to improve environmental data, information on many aspects of the environment remains sparse. The available data are often of uneven quality,

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113

relate to different periods, and are sometimes out of date. The lack of adequate data hampers efforts to measure the state of the environment and design sound policies. Another problem is that many environmental indicators are not meaningful at the national level. Climate change has impacts that go beyond national boundaries. Other environmental factors such as air and water pollution may have relevance only to the locality where they are measured. So global, regional, or city (tables 3.11 and 3.13) indicators are often more meaningful than national aggregates. Fragile land and increasing demand for food Almost three of every five people in developing countries—some 3 billion—live in rural areas (table 3.1). In many of these countries agriculture is still the main source of employment. But most of the land available to meet current and future food requirements is already in production; any further expansion must necessarily involve fragile and marginal lands. This is particularly so in developing countries where population growth is high, poverty is endemic, and existing institutional capacities for land management are weak. Because land resources are finite, fragile, and nonrenewable, countries must meet their increased need for food and other agricultural products mainly by raising and sustaining crop and livestock yields and by using land more intensively. Low-income countries are increasing the land under cereal production, but their use of agricultural machinery lags far behind that in other countries (table 3.2). These countries, where current cereal yields are a third those in high-income countries, will have to expand their arable land—a strategy that cannot be sustained for long (table 3.3). Shrinking forests and threatened biodiversity A substantial number of the world’s 1.2 billion extremely poor people—those living on less than $1 a day—depend for their livelihoods on forests and forest products . But the forests are shrinking, as is the diversity of the plants and animals they support. With growth and development, forests are being converted to agricultural land and urban areas. At the beginning of the 20th century the earth had about 5 billion hectares of forested area. Now it has less than 4 billion hectares. The loss has been concentrated in developing countries, driven by the growing demand for timber and agricultural land, exacerbated by weak monitoring institutions. Low-income countries lost some 73 million hectares—about 8 percent of their forest—in the 1990s. By contrast, high-income countries reforested about 8 million hectares of forest in the same period (table 3.4). Closely linked to changes in land use is biodiversity, another important dimension of environmental sustainability. Many countries have designated a share of their land as protected areas (table 3.4). But even where protected areas are increased and environmental protections are effectively respected, losses of biologically diverse areas cannot be reversed. About 12 percent of the world’s nearly 10,000 bird species are vulnerable or in immediate danger of extinction, as are 24 percent of the world’s 4,800 mammal species and an estimated 30 percent of all fish species. A thirsty planet—and getting thirstier Water is crucial to economic growth and development—and to the survival of both terrestrial and aquatic systems. But more than 1 billion

people lack access to safe water, and more than 430 million live in countries facing chronic and widespread water shortages—with water stress (less than 1,700 cubic meters of freshwater available per person a year) or water scarcity (less than 1,000 cubic meters; table 3.5). Global per capita water supplies are declining, further growth in population and economic activity will add to the demand for water, and by 2050 the share of the world’s population facing water stress could increase more than fivefold. These trends pose a significant challenge for meeting the Millennium Development Goal of halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015. Energy use improves welfare, but has its consequences The use of energy, especially electricity, is important in raising people’s standard of living. High-income countries use more than five times as much energy as developing countries on a per capita basis, and with only 15 percent of the world’s population they use more than half its energy (table 3.7 and figure 3a). At the same time, energy use and electricity generation also have environmental consequences. Generating energy produces emissions of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. Anthropogenic (human caused) carbon dioxide emissions result primarily from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacturing, with high-income countries contributing half (table 3.8), Among countries in all income groups, per capita emissions vary widely (figure 3b). The extent of environmental damage depends largely on how energy is generated. For example, burning coal releases twice as much carbon dioxide as does burning an equivalent amount of natural gas (see About the data for table 3.8). More urban—and more polluted The world is become increasingly urban. Now urban areas are home to 48 percent of the world’s population—two of five people in low- and middle-income countries and almost four of five in highincome countries. Most of Latin America is as urbanized as Europe, with 76 percent of the population living in urban areas. Asia is urbanizing rapidly. Even such traditionally rural countries as

3a
High-income countries use more than half the world’s energy
Global energy use, 2001

Rest of the world 21% India 5% Russian Federation 6%

United States 23% Japan 5%

China 11%

Other high-income countries 29%

Source: Table 3.7.

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2004 World Development Indicators

3b
Emissions of carbon dioxide vary widely, even among the five largest producers of emissions
Carbon dioxide emissions (billions of metric tons) 6 1980 5 4 3 2 1 0 United States China Russian Federation Japan India Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons) 20 2000

policy instruments more than their effectiveness. Still, making a formal commitment is an essential first step toward taking action. Beyond national environmental problems, governments are increasingly concerned about global environmental issues. To address these issues, countries have reached agreements and signed treaties on areas relating to the quality of life on earth (for example, figure 3c shows the decline in chlorofluorocarbons as a result of such agreements). Many of these agreements resulted from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, which produced Agenda 21—an array of actions to address environmental challenges. But 10 years after Rio the World Summit on Sustainable Development recognized that many of the proposed actions have yet to materialize. Adjusted net savings—moving toward a measure of sustainability The question of an economy’s sustainability can be reduced to the question of whether welfare is expected to decline along the future development path as a result of decisions made today. Because flows of income and well-being are ultimately derived from the stocks of produced, natural, and human assets, a drop in the aggregate value of these stocks must eventually lead to a decline in welfare. One measure of change in total assets is provided by net adjusted savings—a measure of savings that accounts not only for a country’s economic surplus but also for its depletion of natural resources, accumulation of pollutants and their damages, and investments in human capital. The data limitations and the approximations used in calculating net adjusted savings mean that these estimates still must be used with caution (for more details on the assumptions made, see About the data for table 3.15). Many developing countries have low or negative adjusted net savings. Broadly speaking, the lowest adjusted savings rates are recorded for countries that depend heavily on resource rents, particularly those endowed with minerals and fossil fuels. These rents account for a sizable share of GDP in many countries, suggesting that managing natural resources and resource revenues should receive even more attention as these countries strive to ensure the sustainability of their economies and the welfare of future generations.

15

10

5

0 United States China Russian Federation Japan India

Note: No data for 1980 are available for the Russian Federation. Source: Table 3.8 and World Bank staff estimates.

China, India, and Indonesia now have hundreds of millions of people living in urban areas, with both the number of people and the share of the population in cities growing rapidly (table 3.10). Urbanization can yield important social benefits, improving access to public services such as education, health care, and cultural facilities (table 3.11). Urbanization can also lead to adverse environmental effects that require policy responses. Greater urbanization usually means greater pollution, which can overwhelm the natural capacities of air and water to absorb pollutants. The costs of controlling pollution can be enormous. And pollution exposes people to severe health hazards. Several major urban air pollutants—lead, sulfur dioxide, suspended particulate matter—are known to harm human health (table 3.13). A big source of urban air pollution is motor vehicles, whose numbers are strongly linked to rising income. The number of passenger cars in developing countries has increased from 16 cars per 1,000 people in 1990 to 28 in 2001. At the same time, the number of passenger cars in high-income countries has increased from 400 per 1,000 people to 440 (table 3.12). Commitment to change—necessary, but not sufficient The strength of environmental policies in any country reflects the priority its government gives to problems of environmental degradation— and that priority reflects the benefits expected from using scarce resources that have competing uses. But measuring governments’ commitment to these goals is difficult. The indicators of government commitment in table 3.14 are imperfect, measuring the existence of

3c
Emissions of some greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases have begun to fall or slow since Rio
Methane and gaseous chlorine emissions, parts per trillion 3,000 Gaseous chlorine

2,000 Methane

1,000

0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
Source: World Research Institute 2002.

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3.1
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China b Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Rural environment and land use
Rural population Rural population density
average annual % % of total 1980 2002 growth 1980–2002 people per sq. km of arable land 2001 thousand sq. km 2001 Arable land 1980 2001 % of land area Permanent cropland 1980 2001 Other land 1980 2001

Land area

Land use

84 66 56 79 17 34 14 33 47 85 43 5 73 55 64 82 33 39 92 96 88 69 24 65 81 19 80 9 37 .. 58 53 65 50 32 25 16 49 53 56 56 86 30 90 40 27 50 80 48 17 69 42 63 81 83 76

77 56 42 65 12 33 9 32 48 74 30 3 56 37 56 50 18 32 83 90 82 50 21 58 75 14 62 0 24 .. 33 40 56 41 24 25 15 33 36 57 38 80 31 84 41 24 17 68 43 12 63 39 60 72 67 63

2.2 0.0 1.0 1.9 –0.4 –0.3 –1.0 0.2 1.4 1.5 –1.5 –2.4 1.7 0.4 –0.6 0.7 –1.2 –1.3 2.0 2.2 2.5 1.2 0.4 1.8 2.5 0.1 0.1 .. –0.1 .. 0.7 1.2 2.5 –1.0 –0.6 –0.0 –0.2 0.1 0.4 2.3 –0.3 2.4 –0.3 2.3 0.5 0.0 –2.0 2.8 –0.4 –1.4 2.4 0.1 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.1

268 309 170 277 13 204 3 187 230 1,228 49 32 182 110 333 232 54 59 243 699 274 130 14 114 171 108 561 .. 420 .. 690 697 292 128 76 85 35 263 285 1,306 370 679 62 517 97 78 71 372 286 86 343 154 516 614 317 664

652 27 2,382 1,247 2,737 28 7,682 83 87 130 207 33 a 111 1,084 51 567 8,457 111 274 26 177 465 9,221 623 1,259 749 9,327 .. 1,039 2,267 342 51 318 56 110 77 42 48 277 995 21 101 42 1,000 305 550 258 10 69 349 228 129 108 246 28 28

12.1 21.4 2.9 2.3 10.6 .. 5.7 18.6 .. 68.3 .. 23.2 a 13.6 1.8 .. 0.7 5.3 34.6 10.0 36.2 11.3 12.7 4.9 3.0 2.5 5.1 10.4 7.0 3.6 2.9 0.4 5.5 6.1 .. 23.9 .. 62.3 22.1 5.6 2.3 26.9 .. .. .. 7.8 31.8 1.1 15.5 .. 34.5 8.4 22.5 11.7 2.9 9.1 28.3

12.1 21.1 3.2 2.4 12.3 17.6 6.5 16.9 19.6 62.1 29.5 25.7 a 18.1 2.7 13.6 0.7 7.0 40.0 14.4 35.0 21.0 12.8 5.0 3.1 2.9 2.6 15.4 .. 2.4 3.0 0.5 4.4 9.7 26.1 33.1 39.8 54.0 22.7 5.9 2.9 31.9 5.0 16.0 10.7 7.2 33.5 1.3 25.0 11.4 33.9 16.3 21.1 12.5 3.6 10.7 28.3

0.2 4.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 .. 0.0 1.2 .. 2.0 .. 0.4 a 0.8 0.1 .. 0.0 0.9 3.2 0.1 12.5 0.4 2.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.4 1.0 1.4 0.4 0.1 4.4 7.2 .. 6.4 .. 0.3 7.2 3.3 0.2 11.7 .. .. .. 0.0 2.5 0.6 0.4 .. 1.4 7.5 7.9 4.4 1.8 1.7 11.6

0.2 4.4 0.2 0.2 0.5 2.3 0.0 0.9 2.7 3.1 0.6 0.7 a 2.4 0.2 3.0 0.0 0.9 1.9 0.2 14.0 0.6 2.6 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 1.2 .. 1.7 0.5 0.1 5.9 13.8 2.3 7.6 3.1 0.2 10.3 4.9 0.5 12.1 0.0 0.4 0.8 0.0 2.1 0.7 0.5 3.9 0.6 9.7 8.8 5.0 2.6 8.8 11.6

87.7 74.4 96.8 97.3 89.0 .. 94.2 80.2 .. 29.6 .. 76.4 a 85.7 98.1 .. 99.3 93.7 62.2 89.8 51.3 88.3 85.1 95.0 96.9 97.5 94.6 89.3 92.0 95.0 96.6 99.5 90.1 86.6 .. 69.7 .. 37.4 70.6 91.1 97.5 61.4 .. .. .. 92.2 65.7 98.2 84.1 .. 64.1 84.2 69.6 83.9 95.4 89.2 60.1

87.6 74.5 96.5 97.4 87.2 80.1 93.4 82.2 77.7 34.8 69.9 73.6 a 79.5 97.1 83.4 99.3 92.1 58.1 85.4 50.9 78.4 84.6 95.0 96.8 97.1 96.9 83.4 .. 95.9 96.5 99.4 89.7 76.4 71.6 59.3 57.1 45.8 67.0 89.2 96.6 56.1 95.0 83.5 88.5 92.8 64.4 98.1 74.5 84.7 65.6 74.1 70.1 82.4 93.8 80.5 60.1

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2004 World Development Indicators

Rural environment and land use
Rural population Rural population density
average annual % % of total 1980 2002 growth 1980–2002 people per sq. km of arable land 2001 thousand sq. km 2001 Arable land 1980 2001 % of land area Permanent cropland 1980 2001

3.1
Other land 1980 2001

ENVIRONMENT

Land area

Land use

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

65 43 77 78 50 34 45 11 33 53 24 40 46 84 43 43 9 62 88 32 26 87 65 31 39 47 81 91 58 82 72 58 34 60 48 59 87 76 77 93 12 17 50 87 73 29 68 72 50 87 58 35 63 42 71 33

45 35 72 57 35 32 40 8 33 43 21 21 44 65 39 17 4 66 80 40 10 71 54 12 31 40 69 85 41 68 40 58 25 58 43 43 66 71 68 87 10 14 43 78 54 25 23 66 43 82 43 27 40 37 33 24

1.3 –1.2 1.6 0.2 0.6 2.5 0.2 0.8 0.0 –0.0 –0.2 1.0 –0.2 1.7 0.8 –3.2 –1.6 1.7 2.1 0.6 –2.8 0.6 1.7 –1.7 –0.9 –0.3 2.1 2.2 1.0 1.7 –0.2 1.1 0.5 0.1 1.3 0.5 0.6 1.4 2.5 2.0 0.1 0.3 2.1 2.8 1.5 –0.3 –1.2 2.2 1.2 2.3 1.2 0.7 0.3 –0.2 –3.2 –0.6

288 78 460 591 160 134 150 157 232 648 603 449 31 439 353 491 684 232 495 51 257 380 461 36 37 146 378 406 554 165 228 701 102 137 87 146 302 346 164 668 184 36 117 195 251 128 1,533 438 230 2,060 77 191 564 104 176 2,681

112 92 2,973 1,812 1,636 437 69 21 294 11 365 89 2,700 569 120 99 18 192 231 62 10 30 96 1,760 65 25 582 94 329 1,220 1,025 2 1,909 33 1,567 446 784 658 823 143 34 268 121 1,267 911 307 310 771 74 453 397 1,280 298 304 92 9

13.3 54.4 54.8 9.9 7.9 12.0 16.1 15.8 32.2 12.5 13.3 3.4 .. 6.7 19.0 20.9 0.1 .. 3.4 .. 20.5 9.6 3.9 1.0 .. .. 4.4 16.1 3.0 1.6 0.2 49.3 12.1 .. 0.8 16.9 3.7 14.6 0.8 16.0 23.3 9.8 8.8 2.8 30.6 2.7 0.1 25.9 5.8 0.4 4.1 2.5 17.5 48.0 26.5 8.3

9.5 50.1 54.4 11.3 8.7 13.1 15.2 16.4 27.8 16.1 12.2 2.7 8.0 8.1 20.8 17.2 0.7 7.3 3.8 29.7 16.6 10.9 3.9 1.0 45.2 22.3 5.1 23.4 5.5 3.8 0.5 49.3 13.0 55.3 0.8 19.6 5.1 15.2 1.0 21.7 26.7 5.6 15.9 3.5 31.3 2.9 0.1 27.9 7.4 0.5 7.6 2.9 18.9 45.9 21.7 3.9

2.4 3.3 1.8 4.4 0.4 0.4 0.0 4.3 10.0 9.7 1.6 0.4 .. 0.8 2.4 1.4 0.0 .. 0.1 .. 8.9 0.1 2.1 0.2 .. .. 0.9 0.9 11.6 0.0 0.0 3.4 0.8 .. 0.0 1.1 0.3 0.7 0.0 0.2 0.9 3.4 1.4 0.0 2.8 .. 0.1 0.4 1.6 1.1 0.3 0.3 14.8 1.1 7.8 7.3

3.2 2.1 2.7 7.2 1.4 0.8 0.0 4.2 9.5 10.2 1.0 1.8 0.1 1.0 2.5 2.0 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.5 14.0 0.1 2.3 0.2 0.9 1.8 1.0 1.5 17.6 0.0 0.0 3.0 1.3 10.8 0.0 2.2 0.3 1.0 0.0 0.6 1.0 7.0 1.9 0.0 3.0 .. 0.1 0.9 2.0 1.4 0.2 0.4 16.8 1.1 7.8 5.5

84.3 42.2 43.4 85.6 91.6 87.6 83.9 80.0 57.7 77.8 85.1 96.2 .. 92.5 78.6 77.8 99.9 .. 96.5 .. 70.6 90.2 94.0 98.8 .. .. 94.8 83.0 85.4 98.3 99.8 47.3 87.1 .. 99.2 82.0 96.0 84.8 99.2 83.8 75.7 86.8 89.7 97.2 66.6 .. 99.8 73.7 92.5 98.5 95.6 97.2 67.7 50.9 65.7 84.3

87.2 47.8 42.9 81.5 89.9 86.1 84.8 79.4 62.7 73.8 86.8 95.5 92.0 90.9 76.7 80.9 99.2 92.4 95.8 69.9 69.4 89.0 93.8 98.8 53.9 75.9 93.9 75.1 76.9 96.1 99.5 47.8 85.7 33.9 99.2 78.2 94.6 83.8 99.0 77.7 72.3 87.4 82.1 96.4 65.7 .. 99.7 71.3 90.7 98.1 92.2 96.7 64.3 53.0 70.4 90.5

2004 World Development Indicators

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3.1
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Rural environment and land use
Rural population Rural population density
average annual % % of total 1980 2002 growth 1980–2002 people per sq. km of arable land 2001 thousand sq. km 2001 Arable land 1980 2001 % of land area Permanent cropland 1980 2001 Other land 1980 2001

Land area

Land use

51 30 95 34 64 54 76 0 48 52 78 52 27 78 80 82 17 43 53 66 85 83 77 37 48 56 53 91 38 29 11 26 15 59 21 81 .. 81 60 78 61 w 78 61 65 34 68 79 41 35 52 78 79 27 27

45 27 94 13 51 48 62 0 42 51 72 42 22 77 62 73 17 33 48 72 66 80 66 25 33 33 55 85 32 12 10 22 8 63 13 75 .. 75 60 63 52 w 69 47 51 25 58 62 36 24 42 72 67 22 22

–0.6 –0.3 2.0 –0.6 1.6 –1.3 1.3 .. –0.3 0.0 1.3 1.3 –0.6 1.1 1.2 2.4 0.3 –0.6 2.6 2.5 1.7 1.1 2.2 –0.9 0.2 –0.3 2.5 2.7 –1.0 1.3 –0.1 0.3 –2.3 2.4 0.1 1.5 .. 3.2 2.6 1.8 0.8 w 1.6 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.3 –0.1 0.0 1.5 1.7 1.8 –0.3 –0.5

107 32 743 79 203 .. 644 0 158 581 622 129 69 1,607 125 440 55 571 173 485 575 326 123 441 118 97 148 401 48 773 109 37 20 352 122 923 .. 923 115 255 476 w 510 473 492 190 494 568 124 203 601 553 350 205 139

230 16,889 25 2,150 193 .. 72 1 48 20 627 1,221 499 65 2,376 17 412 40 184 141 884 511 54 5 155 770 470 197 579 84 241 9,159 175 414 882 325 .. 528 743 387 130,145 s 32,424 66,725 54,034 12,691 99,149 15,885 23,722 20,053 11,105 4,781 23,603 30,996 2,436

42.7 .. 30.8 0.9 12.2 28.0 6.3 3.3 .. .. 1.6 10.2 31.1 13.2 5.2 10.8 7.2 9.9 28.5 .. 3.5 32.3 35.9 13.6 20.5 32.9 .. 20.7 .. 0.2 28.7 20.6 8.0 .. 3.4 18.2 .. 2.6 6.9 6.5 10.3 w 11.7 8.2 8.6 7.0 9.6 10.1 37.1 6.4 4.4 42.5 5.5 12.1 27.3

40.8 7.3 40.5 1.7 12.8 .. 7.0 1.6 30.4 8.6 1.7 12.1 26.1 13.9 6.8 10.3 6.5 10.4 25.2 6.6 4.5 29.4 46.1 14.6 17.9 30.9 3.7 25.9 56.2 0.6 23.5 19.1 7.4 10.8 2.9 20.0 .. 2.8 7.1 8.3 10.8 w 12.5 9.6 9.9 8.0 10.5 13.3 11.2 7.4 4.9 42.5 6.7 11.6 25.7

2.9 .. 10.3 0.0 0.0 2.9 0.7 9.8 .. .. 0.0 0.7 9.9 15.9 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.5 2.5 .. 1.0 3.5 1.6 9.0 9.7 4.1 .. 8.1 .. 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 .. 0.8 1.9 .. 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.8 w 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.7 1.0 1.5 3.1 0.9 0.4 1.5 0.7 0.5 4.8

2.3 0.1 12.2 0.1 0.2 .. 0.9 0.0 2.8 1.5 0.0 0.8 9.9 15.7 0.2 0.7 0.0 0.6 4.4 0.9 1.1 6.5 2.2 9.2 13.7 3.3 0.1 10.7 1.6 2.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.9 6.0 .. 0.2 0.0 0.3 1.0 w 1.5 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.1 2.7 0.4 1.0 0.8 2.2 0.9 0.5 4.6

54.4 .. 58.9 99.1 87.8 69.1 93.0 86.9 .. .. 98.4 89.1 59.0 70.9 94.8 89.0 92.8 89.6 69.1 .. 95.5 64.2 62.6 77.4 69.7 63.0 .. 71.2 .. 99.7 71.0 79.2 91.7 .. 95.8 79.8 .. 97.2 93.1 93.3 88.9 w 87.3 90.9 90.3 92.3 89.4 88.5 59.8 92.8 95.2 56.1 93.8 87.4 67.9

56.9 92.6 47.3 98.2 87.0 .. 92.1 98.4 66.8 89.9 98.3 87.1 64.1 70.4 93.0 89.0 93.4 89.0 70.3 92.5 94.4 64.2 51.6 76.2 68.4 65.8 96.1 63.5 42.2 97.2 76.3 80.6 92.3 88.3 96.1 74.1 .. 97.0 92.9 91.3 88.2 w 86.0 89.5 89.2 90.9 88.3 84.0 88.4 91.6 94.4 55.3 92.4 87.9 69.7

a. Includes Luxembourg. b. Includes Taiwan, China.

118

2004 World Development Indicators

Rural environment and land use
About the data Definitions Indicators of rural development are sparse, as few indicators are disaggregated between rural and urban areas (for some that are, see tables 2.5, 3.5, and 3.10). This table shows indicators of rural population and land use. Rural population is approximated as the midyear nonurban population. The data in the table show that land use patterns are changing. They also indicate major differences in resource endowments and uses among countries. True comparability of the data is limited, however, by variations in definitions, statistical methods, and the quality of data collection. Countries use different definitions of rural population and land use, for example. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the primary compiler of these data, occasionally adjusts its definitions of land use categories and sometimes revises earlier data. (In 1985, for example, the FAO began to exclude from cropland the land used for shifting cultivation but currently lying fallow.) And following FAO practice, this year’s edition of World Development Indicators, like the previous five, breaks down the category cropland, used in the earliest editions, into arable land and permanent cropland. Because the data reflect changes in data reporting procedures as well as actual changes in land use, apparent trends should be interpreted with caution. Satellite images show land use that differs from that given by ground-based measures in both area under cultivation and type of land use. Moreover, land use data in countries such as India are based on reporting systems that were designed for the collection of tax revenue. Because taxes on land are no longer a major source of government revenue, the quality and coverage of land use data (except for cropland) have declined. Data on forest area, aggregated in the category other, may be particularly unreliable because of differences in definitions and irregular surveys (see About the data for table 3.4).

3.1

ENVIRONMENT

• Rural population is calculated as the difference between the total population and the urban population (see Definitions for tables 2.1 and 3.10). • Rural population density is the rural population divided by the arable land area. • Land area is a country’s total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to the continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes. (See table 1.1 for the total surface area of countries.) • Land use is broken into three categories. • Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (doublecropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. • Permanent cropland is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. • Other land includes forest and woodland as well as logged-over areas to be forested in the near future. Also included are uncultivated land, grassland not used for pasture, wetlands, wastelands, and built-up areas—residential, recreational, and industrial lands and areas covered by roads and other fabricated infrastructure.

3.1a
All regions are becoming less rural
Rural population as a share of total population, by region (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 East Asia & Pacific Source: Table 3.1. Europe & Central Asia Latin America Middle East & & Caribbean North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa World 1980 2002

Data sources The data on urban population shares used to estimate rural population come from the United Nations Population Division’s World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001 Revision. The total population figures are World Bank estimates. The data on land area and land use are from the FAO’s electronic files, which may contain more recent information than those published in its Production Yearbook. The FAO gathers these data from national agencies through annual questionnaires and by analyzing the results of national agricultural censuses.

2004 World Development Indicators

119

3.2
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium a Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Agricultural inputs
Arable land Irrigated land Land under cereal production Fertilizer consumption Agricultural machinery
tractors hundreds of grams hectares per capita 1979–81 1999–2001 1979–81 % of cropland 1999–2001 thousands of hectares 1979–81 2000–02 per hectare of arable land 1979–81 1999–2001 per 1,000 agricultural workers 1979–81 1999–2001 tractors per 100 sq. km of arable land 1979–81 1999–2001

0.50 0.22 0.37 0.41 1.03 .. 2.97 0.20 .. 0.10 .. 0.08 0.43 0.36 .. 0.44 0.37 0.43 0.39 0.23 0.29 0.67 1.86 0.81 0.70 0.34 0.10 0.00 0.13 0.24 0.08 0.12 0.24 .. 0.27 .. 0.52 0.19 0.20 0.06 0.12 .. .. .. 0.49 0.32 0.42 0.26 .. 0.15 0.17 0.30 0.19 0.16 0.32 0.15

0.30 0.19 0.25 0.24 0.91 0.16 2.58 0.17 0.21 0.06 0.61 0.08 0.31 0.35 0.17 0.22 0.34 0.54 0.34 0.13 0.31 0.39 1.48 0.52 0.45 0.13 0.11 .. 0.06 0.14 0.05 0.06 0.19 0.33 0.32 0.30 0.43 0.13 0.13 0.04 0.10 0.12 0.71 0.16 0.42 0.31 0.26 0.18 0.15 0.14 0.19 0.26 0.12 0.12 0.22 0.10

31.1 53.0 3.4 2.2 5.2 .. 3.5 0.2 .. 17.1 .. 1.7 0.3 6.6 .. 0.5 3.0 28.3 0.4 4.2 5.8 0.2 1.3 .. 0.4 31.1 45.1 37.5 7.7 0.1 0.6 12.1 1.0 .. 22.9 .. 14.5 11.7 24.8 100.0 4.6 .. .. .. 2.5 7.2 2.4 0.6 .. 3.7 0.2 24.2 5.0 7.9 5.6 6.4

29.6 48.6 6.8 2.3 4.5 51.3 4.7 0.3 74.8 49.6 2.1 4.7 0.5 4.2 0.4 0.3 4.4 17.4 0.6 5.9 7.1 0.5 1.6 .. 0.6 82.7 36.3 .. 20.2 0.1 0.5 20.6 1.0 0.2 19.5 0.7 19.5 17.2 29.0 100.0 5.0 4.2 0.4 1.7 2.9 13.4 3.0 0.8 44.2 4.0 0.2 37.3 6.8 6.3 3.1 6.8

3,037 367 2,968 705 11,154 .. 15,986 1,062 .. 10,823 .. 426 525 559 .. 153 20,612 2,110 2,026 203 1,264 1,021 19,561 194 907 820 94,647 0 1,361 1,115 19 136 1,008 .. 224 .. 1,818 149 419 2,007 422 .. .. .. 1,190 9,804 6 54 .. 7,692 902 1,600 716 708 142 416

2,302 183 1,770 928 10,714 191 17,097 821 735 11,712 2,491 336 921 754 381 177 17,799 1,988 3,061 205 2,014 747 17,106 180 1,900 626 83,012 .. 1,147 2,043 10 68 1,381 710 202 1,615 1,550 168 867 2,700 363 293 290 7,440 1,170 9,106 17 137 338 7,001 1,425 1,287 660 742 154 448

62 1,556 277 49 39 .. 269 2,615 .. 459 .. 5,323 11 22 .. 32 777 2,334 26 11 45 56 416 5 6 338 1,494 .. 812 12 27 2,650 261 .. 2,024 .. 2,453 572 471 2,864 1,376 .. .. .. 2,024 3,260 20 136 .. 4,249 104 1,927 726 16 24 43

12 277 126 5 253 122 478 1,591 58 1,662 1,288 3,549 211 25 581 128 1,103 328 96 41 0 83 550 3 49 2,421 2,562 .. 2,397 2 286 7,096 217 1,445 447 1,075 1,516 869 1,177 4,401 1,189 212 393 150 1,384 2,367 9 40 521 2,367 34 1,635 1,449 36 60 158

0 15 27 4 132 .. 751 945 .. 0 .. 917 0 4 .. 9 31 66 0 0 0 0 827 0 0 43 2 0 8 0 2 22 1 .. 78 .. 973 3 6 4 5 .. .. .. 721 737 5 0 .. 624 1 120 3 0 0 0

0 11 37 2 205 74 705 1,737 31 0 102 1,299 0 4 304 20 61 86 0 0 0 0 1,870 0 0 55 2 .. 6 0 1 21 1 13 100 192 1,132 3 11 10 4 0 602 0 1,355 1,411 7 0 33 1,018 1 323 2 0 0 0

1 173 68 35 63 .. 75 2,084 .. 5 .. 1,416 1 21 .. 54 118 161 0 1 6 1 144 0 1 90 76 10 77 3 49 210 16 .. 259 .. 708 20 40 158 61 .. .. .. 893 836 43 3 .. 1,340 19 485 32 2 1 2

1 140 122 34 89 369 64 2,371 178 7 118 1,266 1 20 433 166 139 57 5 2 5 1 160 0 0 273 70 .. 80 4 40 311 12 16 215 293 547 17 90 307 53 10 575 3 889 687 46 2 221 873 10 912 32 6 1 2

120

2004 World Development Indicators

Agricultural inputs
Arable land Irrigated land Land under cereal production Fertilizer consumption
tractors hundreds of grams hectares per capita 1979–81 1999–2001 1979–81 % of cropland 1999–2001 thousands of hectares 1979–81 2000–02 per hectare of arable land 1979–81 1999–2001 per 1,000 agricultural workers 1979–81

3.2
tractors per 100 sq. km of arable land 1979–81 1999–2001

ENVIRONMENT

Agricultural machinery

1999–2001

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

0.42 0.47 0.24 0.12 0.36 0.40 0.33 0.08 0.17 0.06 0.04 0.14 .. 0.23 0.13 0.05 0.00 .. 0.24 .. 0.07 0.23 0.20 0.58 .. .. 0.29 0.25 0.07 0.31 0.13 0.10 0.34 .. 0.71 0.39 0.24 0.28 0.64 0.16 0.06 0.84 0.38 0.62 0.39 0.20 0.02 0.24 0.22 0.05 0.52 0.19 0.11 0.41 0.25 0.02

0.19 0.46 0.16 0.10 0.24 0.24 0.28 0.05 0.14 0.07 0.04 0.05 1.44 0.15 0.11 0.04 0.00 0.28 0.17 0.78 0.04 0.19 0.12 0.35 0.84 0.28 0.19 0.21 0.08 0.43 0.18 0.08 0.25 0.42 0.50 0.31 0.22 0.21 0.43 0.13 0.06 0.39 0.37 0.42 0.22 0.20 0.02 0.15 0.19 0.04 0.55 0.14 0.07 0.36 0.20 0.01

4.1 3.6 22.8 16.2 35.5 32.1 .. 49.3 19.3 10.1 56.0 11.0 .. 0.9 44.0 59.6 83.3 .. 13.3 .. 28.3 0.3 0.3 10.7 .. .. 21.2 1.1 6.7 4.5 22.8 15.0 20.3 .. 3.0 15.0 2.1 10.4 0.6 22.5 58.5 5.2 6.2 0.7 0.7 .. 74.5 72.7 5.0 .. 3.4 32.3 12.8 0.7 20.1 27.2

5.2 4.6 32.2 14.4 44.2 60.8 .. 46.0 24.2 8.8 54.7 19.3 10.8 1.7 52.1 60.4 85.8 74.2 18.2 1.1 32.0 0.3 0.5 21.9 0.2 9.0 31.0 1.3 4.8 3.0 9.8 19.5 23.1 14.1 7.1 13.5 2.6 18.3 0.9 36.2 59.9 8.6 4.5 1.5 0.8 .. 78.2 81.6 5.1 .. 2.2 28.4 14.6 0.7 24.0 47.6

421 2,878 104,350 11,825 8,062 2,159 425 129 5,082 4 2,724 158 .. 1,692 1,625 1,689 0 .. 751 .. 34 203 203 538 .. .. 1,309 1,155 729 1,346 125 0 9,356 .. 559 4,414 1,077 5,133 195 2,251 225 193 266 3,872 6,048 311 2 10,693 166 2 307 732 6,790 7,875 1,099 1

399 2,936 97,956 15,004 7,740 2,526 287 84 4,187 2 2,017 52 13,082 2,017 1,278 1,177 2 618 765 440 53 236 141 342 938 207 1,412 1,602 705 2,769 185 0 10,322 989 196 5,181 1,894 6,880 292 3,308 223 141 464 7,693 19,783 326 2 12,300 123 3 638 1,217 6,514 8,643 543 1

171 2,906 345 645 430 172 5,373 2,384 2,295 1,231 4,131 404 .. 160 3,346 3,920 4,500 .. 35 .. 1,663 150 123 357 .. .. 30 203 4,273 61 57 2,547 570 .. 83 268 107 111 0 98 8,620 1,879 415 10 59 3,146 475 525 692 452 44 381 636 2,393 1,113 ..

1,408 835 1,074 1,243 905 668 5,871 2,696 2,078 1,095 3,162 913 19 322 1,061 4,539 1,002 157 107 305 3,105 247 0 363 533 665 27 195 6,695 95 30 3,667 736 25 26 415 40 180 4 260 4,755 5,317 159 10 68 2,196 1,690 1,362 584 530 227 715 1,337 1,110 1,146 ..

5 59 2 0 17 23 607 304 370 9 209 47 .. 1 12 1 3 .. 0 .. 28 6 0 101 .. .. 1 0 4 0 1 4 16 .. 32 7 1 1 11 0 560 619 6 0 1 824 1 5 27 1 14 5 1 112 72 ..

7 209 6 1 37 91 1,031 350 1,219 12 745 32 36 1 20 80 10 46 1 350 177 6 0 319 429 449 1 0 25 1 1 6 37 84 16 10 1 1 11 0 603 448 7 0 2 1,263 1 13 20 1 23 4 1 302 260 ..

22 111 24 5 57 44 1,289 809 1,117 208 2,723 153 .. 17 196 14 220 .. 7 .. 141 47 8 134 .. .. 10 8 77 5 13 33 54 .. 82 34 20 9 39 10 2,238 352 20 0 3 1,603 43 50 122 82 45 37 20 425 351 ..

44 228 94 35 158 107 1,586 728 1,973 177 4,601 234 24 27 280 1,112 94 186 12 302 453 61 9 187 347 948 12 7 239 6 8 37 131 230 42 49 15 11 39 15 1,644 501 15 0 11 1,511 40 150 93 56 57 36 20 933 848 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

121

3.2
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU
a. Includes Luxembourg.

Agricultural inputs
Arable land Irrigated land Land under cereal production Fertilizer consumption Agricultural machinery
tractors hundreds of grams hectares per capita 1979–81 1999–2001 1979–81 % of cropland 1999–2001 thousands of hectares 1979–81 2000–02 per hectare of arable land 1979–81 1999–2001 per 1,000 agricultural workers 1979–81 1999–2001 tractors per 100 sq. km of arable land 1979–81 1999–2001

0.44 .. 0.15 0.20 0.42 0.73 0.14 0.00 .. .. 0.15 0.45 0.42 0.06 0.64 0.30 0.36 0.06 0.60 .. 0.16 0.35 0.77 0.06 0.51 0.57 .. 0.32 .. 0.01 0.12 0.83 0.48 .. 0.19 0.11 .. 0.16 0.89 0.35 0.25 w 0.23 0.18 0.16 0.36 0.20 0.12 .. 0.36 0.29 0.23 0.32 0.44 0.23

0.42 0.85 0.12 0.17 0.25 .. 0.10 0.00 0.27 0.09 0.12 0.34 0.33 0.05 0.52 0.17 0.31 0.06 0.29 0.15 0.12 0.25 0.55 0.06 0.30 0.36 0.37 0.22 0.66 0.02 0.10 0.62 0.39 0.18 0.11 0.08 .. 0.09 0.53 0.25 0.23 w 0.17 0.24 0.22 0.32 0.20 0.11 0.56 0.29 0.19 0.15 0.24 0.37 0.21

21.9 31.2 6,340 5,696 1,448 309 .. 3.6 .. 41,919 .. 117 0.4 0.4 239 298 3 3 28.9 42.8 388 615 228 1,036 2.6 2.9 1,216 1,174 104 162 1.9 .. 4,310 .. 1,261 .. 4.1 5.4 434 213 58 4 .. .. .. .. 22,333 30,423 .. 11.2 .. .. .. 610 .. 1.3 .. 102 .. 4,384 13.3 18.7 638 671 9 5 8.4 9.2 6,760 4,633 874 510 14.8 20.1 7,391 6,658 1,012 1,674 28.3 33.6 864 809 1,800 2,768 14.4 11.7 4,447 7,468 51 32 34.0 36.8 70 56 1,050 343 2.4 4.2 1,505 1,163 1,654 1,055 6.2 5.7 172 177 4,623 2,277 9.6 22.5 2,642 3,028 250 731 .. 68.3 .. 376 .. 114 3.1 3.3 2,834 2,980 110 56 16.4 27.1 10,625 11,257 177 1,120 0.3 0.4 416 703 14 74 2.9 3.3 4 3 1,064 1,163 4.8 7.7 1,416 782 212 389 9.6 16.9 13,499 13,946 529 825 .. 100.1 .. 819 .. 603 0.1 0.1 752 1,395 1 11 .. 7.2 .. 13,436 .. 136 237.7 32.6 0 0 2,250 7,090 2.0 1.8 3,930 3,203 3,191 3,251 10.8 12.6 72,639 55,818 1,092 1,097 5.4 13.5 614 522 564 846 .. 88.6 .. 1,581 .. 1,637 10.1 16.9 814 928 696 1,012 25.6 37.6 5,962 8,301 302 3,407 .. .. .. .. .. .. 19.9 30.2 865 654 93 102 0.4 0.9 595 641 145 65 3.1 3.5 1,633 1,685 610 520 17.5 w 19.6 w 588,621 s 666,427 s 860 w 988 w 19.8 26.4 199,719 244,864 289 717 22.6 19.4 232,191 289,922 941 1,020 25.8 20.5 196,509 249,113 962 1,063 11.5 13.4 35,682 40,809 871 804 21.2 22.1 431,910 534,786 625 903 36.3 35.5 139,927 135,938 1,113 2,145 .. 10.9 .. 114,548 .. 335 10.8 12.5 49,845 48,623 536 815 25.8 37.9 25,653 25,446 421 808 28.7 39.9 132,128 128,481 360 1,081 4.0 4.2 46,978 81,750 158 128 10.2 12.1 156,711 131,641 1,327 1,238 14.1 19.4 35,996 31,617 2,703 2,170

39 .. 0 2 0 140 0 3 .. .. 1 92 200 4 2 29 715 494 29 .. 1 1 0 50 30 38 .. 0 .. 6 726 1,230 171 .. 50 1 .. 3 2 7 19 w 2 8 6 50 5 2 .. 25 12 2 3 430 427

100 96 0 16 0 .. 0 22 .. .. 1 43 686 2 2 34 1,108 700 68 37 1 10 0 54 37 65 73 1 90 5 931 1,586 174 57 61 6 .. 2 2 7 20 w 4 12 9 117 8 2 102 40 25 5 1 895 911

150 174 .. 63 1 1 10 27 2 3 616 .. 6 2 220 650 .. 164 .. .. 17 17 140 50 335 668 141 90 8 7 173 219 623 616 2,428 2,710 54 212 .. 325 35 19 11 147 0 0 337 360 79 123 169 391 .. 289 6 9 .. 101 106 68 744 860 253 272 236 255 .. 380 131 189 38 254 .. .. 33 41 9 11 66 75 173 w 189 w 20 66 110 127 104 103 133 253 66 103 55 76 .. 171 87 119 61 131 25 92 23 15 385 439 879 984

122

2004 World Development Indicators

Agricultural inputs
About the data Definitions Agricultural activities provide developing countries with food and revenue, but they also can degrade natural resources. Poor farming practices can cause soil erosion and loss of soil fer tility. Effor ts to increase productivity through the use of chemical fer tilizers, pesticides, and intensive irrigation have environmental costs and health impacts. Excessive use of chemical fer tilizers can alter the chemistr y of soil. Pesticide poisoning is common in developing countries. And salinization of irrigated land diminishes soil fer tility. Thus inappropriate use of inputs for agricultural production has far-reaching effects. This table provides indicators of major inputs to agricultural production: land, fertilizer, and agricultural machinery. There is no single correct mix of inputs: appropriate levels and application rates vary by country and over time, depending on the type of crops, the climate and soils, and the production process used. The data shown here and in table 3.3 are collected by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) through annual questionnaires. The FAO tries to impose standard definitions and reporting methods, but exact consistency across countries and over time is not possible. Data on agricultural employment, in particular, should be used with caution. In many countries much agricultural employment is informal and unrecorded, including substantial work performed by women and children. Fertilizer consumption measures the quantity of plant nutrients. Consumption is calculated as production plus imports minus exports. Because some chemical compounds used for fertilizers have other industrial applications, the consumption data may overstate the quantity available for crops. To smooth annual fluctuations in agricultural activity, the indicators in the table have been averaged over three years.

3.2

ENVIRONMENT

• Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. • Irrigated land refers to areas purposely provided with water, including land irrigated by controlled flooding. • Cropland refers to arable land and permanent cropland (see table 3.1). • Land under cereal production refers to harvested areas, although some countries repor t only sown or cultivated area. • Fertilizer consumption is the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients—animal and plant manures—are not included. The time reference for fertilizer consumption is the crop year (July through June).

• Agricultural machinery refers to wheel and crawler tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in agriculture at the end of the calendar year specified or during the first quar ter of the following year. • Agricultural workers refer to all economically active people engaged principally in agriculture, forestry, hunting, or fishing.

3.2a
The 10 countries with the most arable land per person in 1999–2001—and the 10 with the least Ares per capita Country Australia Canada Kazakhstan Argentina Russian Federation Lithuania Latvia Estonia Ukraine United States Arable land 258.1 148.2 143.6 90.6 85.5 83.7 77.8 71.0 65.9 62.5 Country Singapore Kuwait Puerto Rico Oman United Arab Emirates Japan Korea, Rep. Papua New Guinea Lebanon Egypt, Arab Rep. Arable land 0.0 0.5 0.9 1.6 1.8 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.2 4.4 Data sources The data are from electronic files that the FAO makes available to the World Bank and that may contain more recent information than those published in the FAO’s Production Yearbook.

Note: An are equals 100 square meters or 0.01 hectare. Source: Table 3.2.

2004 World Development Indicators

123

3.3
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium a Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Agricultural output and productivity
Crop production index Food production index Livestock production index Cereal yield Agricultural productivity
Agriculture value added kilograms 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 per hectare 1979–81 2000–02 per worker 1995 $ 1979–81 2000–02

.. .. 77.4 101.9 83.6 .. 79.9 92.8 .. 80.2 .. 84.9 53.8 71.9 .. 86.4 75.4 107.7 59.3 79.9 55.0 87.3 77.6 102.9 66.8 70.7 67.1 133.6 84.1 73.0 86.4 66.2 73.7 .. 84.1 .. 65.2 96.5 78.2 75.5 120.4 .. .. .. 76.3 87.4 76.2 79.2 .. 90.0 67.0 86.8 85.8 89.7 64.9 103.4

.. .. 128.0 195.7 165.2 99.8 152.2 103.6 63.4 135.6 90.3 143.9 195.6 177.2 .. 89.8 135.8 66.9 166.8 92.7 147.2 141.6 106.7 136.6 160.8 132.6 155.6 .. 106.4 83.2 127.9 147.0 133.8 90.6 66.3 88.6 89.9 89.6 143.2 154.9 98.9 121.9 76.8 160.6 99.7 107.0 121.4 132.8 43.7 118.2 190.0 110.6 131.8 158.7 147.2 87.2

.. .. 68.8 89.9 91.7 .. 91.3 92.2 .. 79.3 .. 88.5 66.8 71.5 .. 87.3 69.5 105.5 62.7 79.9 48.9 80.6 79.7 79.7 79.8 71.5 60.8 99.8 75.5 72.8 83.8 69.5 70.6 .. 90.1 .. 83.3 85.2 77.4 68.5 88.9 .. .. .. 93.8 93.6 79.0 82.4 .. 91.4 68.5 91.2 68.0 93.1 68.3 101.2

.. .. 136.2 172.5 142.5 79.3 138.8 104.7 83.7 138.3 62.1 113.5 173.9 151.6 .. 89.8 153.2 68.2 157.9 93.2 152.0 138.3 123.5 146.5 151.2 140.2 185.9 .. 120.3 86.3 130.3 150.0 136.5 68.5 70.9 78.0 106.0 107.8 153.8 158.2 111.7 116.3 39.8 152.6 93.7 104.3 116.7 127.2 74.9 97.1 181.2 101.3 136.2 161.8 142.2 101.7

.. .. 54.6 83.8 100.9 .. 85.6 94.5 .. 81.3 .. 88.8 93.2 75.5 .. 87.6 67.9 96.3 59.9 82.3 27.3 61.3 88.3 48.9 89.2 75.8 45.4 194.3 72.6 83.5 81.6 77.1 73.9 .. 96.0 .. 95.0 68.8 73.0 67.0 86.5 .. .. .. 107.5 97.8 86.6 93.7 .. 98.7 78.7 99.9 76.9 91.7 78.0 100.2

.. .. 128.9 137.2 108.8 67.9 116.1 103.2 81.8 142.1 58.4 109.8 116.7 129.7 .. 89.7 169.8 62.9 147.8 76.1 166.9 121.8 142.2 147.4 122.2 151.4 226.7 .. 122.4 98.3 135.5 136.6 139.3 55.2 71.6 70.8 118.6 138.2 170.1 165.9 116.3 112.0 33.8 129.8 91.8 105.5 118.9 102.7 93.8 87.7 127.3 94.0 130.3 188.8 127.2 156.2

1,337 2,500 656 526 2,184 .. 1,321 4,131 .. 1,938 .. 4,861 698 1,183 .. 203 1,496 3,853 575 1,081 1,006 849 2,173 529 587 2,124 3,027 1,712 2,452 807 838 2,498 867 .. 2,458 .. 4,040 3,024 1,633 4,053 1,702 .. .. .. 2,511 4,700 1,718 1,284 .. 4,166 807 3,090 1,578 958 711 1,009

1,533 3,154 1,343 606 3,374 2,049 1,758 5,589 2,583 3,312 2,369 8,002 1,077 1,786 3,186 156 3,081 2,961 968 1,325 1,978 1,696 2,521 1,069 697 5,235 4,845 .. 3,411 774 779 3,968 1,213 4,748 2,519 4,297 5,912 4,525 2,122 7,244 2,264 351 2,028 1,293 3,219 6,796 1,652 1,231 2,004 6,355 1,191 3,555 1,758 1,403 972 840

.. 1,184 1,357 .. 7,148 .. 20,872 11,082 .. 232 .. 21,861 311 693 .. 657 2,049 2,754 133 177 .. 826 16,002 380 160 3,488 161 .. 3,034 241 385 3,139 945 .. .. .. 19,350 2,129 3,839 721 1,925 .. .. .. 17,885 19,318 1,814 325 .. 9,119 671 8,600 2,143 .. 237 ..

.. 1,868 1,919 137 10,317 2,827 36,327 33,828 1,029 318 3,038 57,462 621 754 7,634 575 4,899 8,282 185 151 422 1,213 43,064 502 211 6,226 338 .. 3,619 212 469 5,270 1,046 9,741 .. 6,382 63,131 3,458 3,310 1,316 1,678 68 3,650 154 42,306 59,243 2,102 307 .. 33,686 571 13,860 2,115 286 324 ..

124

2004 World Development Indicators

Agricultural output and productivity
Crop production index Food production index Livestock production index Cereal yield

3.3
Agricultural productivity
Agriculture value added per worker 1995 $ 1979–81 2000–02

ENVIRONMENT

kilograms 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 per hectare 1979–81 2000–02

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

90.4 93.3 70.9 65.9 57.5 74.7 93.6 99.8 106.1 101.4 108.3 54.6 .. 70.2 .. 87.8 37.1 .. 73.5 .. 49.9 98.2 .. 76.3 .. .. 83.1 85.7 75.3 54.5 62.1 93.3 86.5 .. 44.6 54.8 109.9 89.0 80.1 61.9 79.8 74.4 124.1 89.2 51.7 94.8 60.1 65.6 96.9 86.5 58.7 82.1 88.3 84.6 85.0 131.3

114.1 79.7 124.2 122.9 151.5 76.7 111.3 97.4 101.9 127.5 87.1 132.6 89.5 123.1 .. 114.3 198.1 153.2 177.5 78.7 100.4 147.9 .. 129.4 76.5 94.9 108.5 156.0 119.4 143.9 126.2 98.1 123.6 61.9 29.7 91.8 141.1 178.5 126.9 137.9 111.7 142.9 141.3 147.5 156.0 77.6 160.3 122.8 83.3 120.7 115.5 180.3 123.1 84.0 91.7 67.9

88.3 90.7 68.2 63.1 61.2 77.3 83.5 85.0 101.4 93.6 94.1 57.4 .. 65.6 .. 77.5 81.0 .. 70.3 .. 60.6 96.6 .. 78.7 .. .. 83.8 93.1 55.6 77.2 86.5 89.6 85.3 .. 88.1 55.8 100.7 88.2 107.6 65.4 86.5 90.7 117.8 97.5 57.2 93.9 62.1 66.3 85.5 86.1 60.8 77.3 86.1 87.9 72.2 99.8

121.1 79.5 131.8 123.6 154.8 77.5 106.7 115.3 102.3 125.9 91.6 147.4 73.5 122.2 .. 132.3 229.0 132.5 186.4 42.4 108.9 111.6 .. 134.1 64.7 89.5 115.8 174.0 142.1 128.6 108.3 109.0 135.7 51.1 91.9 103.6 127.5 176.5 96.8 135.8 98.4 135.2 154.3 140.1 155.8 91.0 163.1 152.7 105.8 124.3 141.0 175.0 137.1 86.0 102.2 84.0

81.0 94.1 62.6 51.0 68.0 81.2 83.5 78.4 93.0 85.5 85.1 51.5 .. 60.5 .. 52.4 94.5 .. 56.0 .. 95.0 96.6 .. 68.4 .. .. 87.7 78.4 41.0 95.6 89.4 64.0 86.2 .. 93.2 59.8 85.8 89.1 116.0 77.3 88.3 95.5 139.7 110.0 83.3 96.2 61.5 59.5 71.3 84.9 62.1 78.0 73.8 98.0 71.8 90.3

153.8 73.3 149.8 124.7 158.3 67.9 107.7 127.6 105.1 126.2 93.2 167.7 46.7 118.0 .. 159.9 211.2 80.7 188.8 31.1 157.0 87.2 .. 134.9 52.6 89.9 114.2 125.4 142.1 123.2 107.0 145.3 150.1 32.9 97.4 124.6 103.9 169.4 93.3 129.3 96.5 123.9 148.1 128.9 145.3 97.4 144.5 171.9 138.6 146.0 136.9 159.1 177.8 83.3 122.3 89.4

1,170 4,519 1,324 2,837 1,108 832 4,733 1,840 3,548 1,667 5,252 521 .. 1,364 3,694 4,986 3,124 .. 1,402 .. 1,307 977 1,251 430 .. .. 1,664 1,161 2,828 804 384 2,536 2,164 .. 573 811 603 2,521 377 1,615 5,696 4,089 1,475 440 1,265 3,634 982 1,608 1,524 2,087 1,535 1,946 1,611 2,345 1,102 7,970

1,382 4,026 2,390 4,141 2,163 945 7,053 2,853 4,815 1,002 5,879 1,301 1,149 1,516 3,189 6,118 2,206 2,742 3,140 2,189 2,575 926 983 631 2,807 2,642 2,007 1,134 3,132 943 860 7,577 2,870 2,345 751 1,129 848 3,453 400 2,178 7,531 6,230 1,761 417 1,105 3,760 2,319 2,266 2,753 3,919 2,034 3,302 2,692 3,072 2,702 1,731

696 3,390 269 604 2,165 .. .. .. 11,090 1,123 17,378 1,141 .. 265 .. 3,765 .. .. .. .. .. 611 .. .. .. .. 158 96 3,939 242 289 2,891 1,482 .. 994 1,146 .. .. 1,064 156 24,360 16,637 1,549 229 417 17,138 .. 416 2,122 692 2,641 1,299 1,381 .. 3,796 ..

1,037 5,625 401 748 3,737 .. .. .. 27,064 1,487 33,077 1,145 1,753 213 .. 14,251 .. 1,861 621 2,773 29,874 575 .. .. 3,431 4,243 155 124 6,912 274 447 5,494 1,813 971 1,444 1,513 136 .. 1,545 203 59,476 28,740 1,618 197 729 37,073 .. 716 2,967 823 3,318 1,863 1,458 1,637 7,567 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

125

3.3
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU
a. Includes Luxembourg.

Agricultural output and productivity
Crop production index Food production index Livestock production index Cereal yield Agricultural productivity
Agriculture value added kilograms 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 1989–91 = 100 1979–81 2000–02 per hectare 1979–81 2000–02 per worker 1995 $ 1979–81 2000–02

114.1 .. 84.9 27.2 77.2 96.3 80.3 595.0 .. .. .. 94.9 83.0 99.3 127.1 72.5 93.1 95.5 100.7 .. 80.5 79.1 70.6 121.5 68.1 76.6 .. 67.5 .. 38.9 80.1 98.6 86.8 .. 76.3 65.8 .. 82.3 64.6 77.8 79.1 w 71.7 74.3 72.5 79.4 73.3 68.5 .. 80.3 66.0 71.9 75.4 93.4 90.7

91.0 86.1 115.4 84.2 111.0 .. 75.4 48.2 .. 81.9 .. 110.1 115.8 114.8 165.9 85.2 89.3 89.6 177.2 62.2 107.7 124.3 138.0 87.9 98.4 118.8 77.7 138.9 71.3 659.7 97.2 118.3 135.3 89.0 119.3 180.3 .. 133.6 96.2 113.9 131.5 w 134.0 147.0 154.2 116.2 142.7 166.1 .. 138.6 136.4 131.6 132.3 112.5 105.3

113.0 .. 85.8 26.7 74.1 94.3 84.5 154.3 .. .. .. 90.5 81.9 98.1 105.2 81.1 100.6 95.8 93.6 .. 75.4 79.7 78.3 111.1 66.3 75.8 .. 69.7 .. 42.7 92.2 94.5 87.1 .. 80.2 62.5 .. 74.8 73.0 83.3 78.8 w 70.7 71.8 68.8 78.8 71.5 63.4 .. 78.3 64.8 69.6 78.3 91.9 91.4

87.1 66.6 117.3 98.5 122.4 .. 84.0 31.9 .. 100.9 .. 111.1 120.1 117.2 167.5 99.9 96.0 95.6 163.6 60.5 112.8 123.5 131.4 127.8 115.0 114.6 131.6 136.7 52.4 549.9 92.4 122.5 124.8 122.3 135.0 171.4 .. 142.6 107.2 108.6 133.1 w 135.1 150.3 158.0 118.6 145.2 170.6 .. 141.9 137.1 133.3 133.5 113.2 105.2

110.0 .. 80.3 32.7 65.7 94.2 84.1 173.7 .. .. .. 86.0 83.9 92.0 89.3 99.9 103.8 98.8 72.1 .. 69.2 64.5 56.2 96.9 60.3 80.4 .. 81.9 .. 42.2 98.1 89.0 85.9 .. 84.9 50.1 .. 68.9 86.2 89.7 79.6 w 68.4 69.6 60.8 82.8 69.3 47.9 .. 79.8 64.1 64.0 84.1 90.6 93.9

80.7 52.6 112.3 152.6 147.0 .. 126.6 31.8 .. 108.7 .. 104.3 134.2 147.7 161.1 126.4 100.2 94.9 136.1 41.6 126.9 135.3 115.2 157.3 164.4 103.9 138.0 130.6 45.7 200.6 93.1 123.6 110.4 114.8 138.8 193.8 .. 160.4 130.2 121.5 136.4 w 146.8 164.4 181.9 114.0 159.9 214.6 .. 144.8 145.3 154.3 124.4 112.5 101.9

2,854 .. 1,134 820 690 3,601 1,249 .. .. .. 474 2,105 1,986 2,462 645 1,345 3,595 4,883 1,156 .. 1,063 1,911 729 3,167 828 1,869 .. 1,555 .. 2,224 4,792 4,151 1,644 .. 1,904 2,049 .. 1,038 1,676 1,359 1,605 w 1,090 1,759 1,682 1,842 1,397 2,034 2,854 1,786 925 1,510 895 3,274 4,035

2,562 1,846 1,011 3,818 755 .. 1,234 .. .. 5,452 547 2,633 3,091 3,520 600 1,512 4,878 6,466 2,114 1,561 1,438 2,654 1,008 2,807 2,218 2,176 2,621 1,651 2,399 414 6,841 5,830 3,243 3,644 3,278 4,375 .. 966 1,481 872 2,233 w 1,321 2,497 2,181 2,926 1,966 3,147 2,640 2,804 1,726 2,222 1,064 3,746 5,517

1,397 .. 271 2,152 345 .. 674 16,664 .. .. .. 2,857 7,556 642 .. 1,752 20,865 .. 2,206 .. .. 616 365 3,536 1,743 1,872 .. .. .. .. 20,326 20,672 6,563 .. 3,935 .. .. .. 186 310 .. w .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2,239 .. 285 419 .. ..

3,588 3,822 254 15,796 354 .. 359 42,920 .. 37,671 .. 4,072 22,412 725 .. 1,936 40,368 .. 2,636 728 187 863 503 3,034 3,115 1,848 690 346 1,576 .. 32,918 53,907 8,177 1,449 5,399 256 .. 412 194 355 .. w 415 820 713 3,937 626 .. 2,353 3,570 2,340 412 360 .. 30,154

126

2004 World Development Indicators

Agricultural output and productivity
About the data Definitions The agricultural production indexes in the table are prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The FAO obtains data from official and semiofficial reports of crop yields, area under production, and livestock numbers. If data are not available, the FAO makes estimates. The indexes are calculated using the Laspeyres formula: production quantities of each commodity are weighted by average international commodity prices in the base period and summed for each year. Because the FAO’s indexes are based on the concept of agriculture as a single enterprise, estimates of the amounts retained for seed and feed are subtracted from the production data to avoid double counting. The resulting aggregate represents production available for any use except as seed and feed. The FAO’s indexes may differ from other sources because of differences in coverage, weights, concepts, time periods, calculation methods, and use of international prices. To ease cross-country comparisons, the FAO uses international commodity prices to value production. These prices, expressed in international dollars (equivalent in purchasing power to the U.S. dollar), are derived using a Geary-Khamis formula applied to agricultural outputs (see Inter-Secretariat Working Group on National Accounts 1993, sections 16.93–96). This method assigns a single price to each commodity so that, for example, one metric ton of wheat has the same price regardless of where it was produced. The use of international prices eliminates fluctuations in the value of output due to transitory movements of nominal exchange rates unrelated to the purchasing power of the domestic currency. Data on cereal yield may be affected by a variety of reporting and timing differences. The FAO allocates production data to the calendar year in which the bulk of the harvest took place. But most of a crop harvested near the end of a year will be used in the following year. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage, and those used for grazing, are generally excluded. But millet and sorghum, which are grown as feed for livestock and poultry in Europe and North America, are used as food in Africa, Asia, and countries of the former Soviet Union. So some cereal crops are excluded from the data for some countries and included elsewhere, depending on their use. Agricultural productivity is measured by value added per unit of input. (For further discussion of the calculation of value added in national accounts, see About the data for tables 4.1 and 4.2.) Agricultural value added includes that from forestry and fishing. Thus interpretations of land productivity should be made with caution. To smooth annual fluctuations in agricultural activity, the indicators in the table have been averaged over three years.

3.3

ENVIRONMENT

• Crop production index shows agricultural production for each period relative to the base period 1989–91. It includes all crops except fodder crops. The regional and income group aggregates for the FAO’s production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 1989–91. The data in this table are three-year averages. • Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value. • Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins. • Cereal yield, measured in kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals refer to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage, and those used for grazing, are excluded. • Agricultural productivity refers to the ratio of agricultural value added, measured in constant 1995 U.S. dollars, to the number of workers in agriculture.

3.3a
The 15 countries with the highest cereal yield in 2001–03—and the 15 with the lowest Kilograms per hectare of arable land Country Belgium a Mauritius Netherlands Egypt, Arab Rep. Ireland United Kingdom France Switzerland Germany New Zealand Korea, Rep. Denmark Japan United States Austria
a. Includes Luxembourg. Source: Table 3.3.

Cereal yield 8,002 7,577 7,531 7,244 7,053 6,841 6,796 6,466 6,355 6,230 6,118 5,912 5,879 5,830 5,589

Country Botswana Eritrea Namibia United Arab Emirates Niger Somalia Sudan Angola Libya Chad Mongolia Senegal Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Haiti

Cereal yield 156 351 400 414 417 547 600 606 631 697 751 755 774 779 840 Data sources The agricultural production indexes are prepared by the FAO and published annually in its Production Yearbook. The FAO makes these data and the data on cereal yield and agricultural employment available to the World Bank in electronic files that may contain more recent information than the published versions. For sources of data on agricultural value added, see Data sources for table 4.2.

2004 World Development Indicators

127

3.4
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Deforestation and biodiversity
Forest area Average annual deforestation Mammals Birds Higher plants a Nationally protected areas
% of Threatened sq. km % Species 2002 species 2002 Species 2002 1990–2000 1990–2000 Threatened species 2002 Species 2002 Threatened species 2002 thousand sq. km 2003 b total land area 2003 b

% of thousand sq. km 2000 total land area 2000

14 10 21 698 346 4 1,581 39 11 13 94 7 27 531 23 124 5,325 37 71 1 93 239 2,446 229 127 155 1,589 .. 496 1,352 221 20 71 18 23 26 5 14 106 1 1 16 21 46 219 153 218 5 30 107 63 36 29 69 22 1

c

2.1 36.2 0.9 56.0 12.7 12.4 20.6 47.0 12.6 10.2 45.3 22.2 24.0 48.9 44.8 21.9 63.0 33.4 25.9 3.7 52.9 51.3 26.5 36.8 10.1 20.7 17.0 .. 47.8 59.6 64.6 38.5 22.4 31.9 21.4 34.1 10.7 28.4 38.1 0.1 5.8 15.7 48.7 4.6 72.0 27.9 84.7 48.1 43.0 30.8 27.8 27.9 26.3 28.2 77.8 3.2

c

.. 78 –266 1,242 2,851 –42 0 –77 –130 –165 –2,562 –10 699 1,611 0 1,184 22,264 –204 152 147 561 2,218 0 300 817 203 –13,483 .. 1,905 5,324 175 158 2,649 –20 –277 –5 –10 0 1,372 –20 72 54 –125 403 –80 –616 101 –45 0 0 1,200 –300 537 347 216 70

c

.. 0.8 –1.3 0.2 0.8 –1.3 0.0 –0.2 –1.3 –1.3 –3.2 –0.2 2.3 0.3 0.0 0.9 0.4 –0.6 0.2 9.0 0.6 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.1 –0.9 .. 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.8 3.1 –0.1 –1.3 –0.0 –0.2 0.0 1.2 –3.4 4.6 0.3 –0.6 0.8 –0.0 –0.4 0.0 –1.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 –0.9 1.7 0.5 0.9 5.7

c

119 68 92 276 320 84 252 83 99 125 74 58 188 316 72 164 394 81 147 107 123 409 193 209 134 91 394 .. 359 200 450 205 230 76 31 81 43 20 302 98 135 112 65 277 60 93 190 117 107 76 222 95 250 190 108 20

13 3 13 19 34 11 63 7 13 23 7 11 8 24 10 6 81 14 7 6 24 40 14 14 17 21 79 1 41 15 40 14 19 9 11 8 5 5 33 13 2 12 4 35 5 18 15 3 13 11 14 13 6 12 3 4

181 193 183 265 362 236 497 230 229 166 194 191 112 504 205 184 686 248 138 145 183 165 310 168 141 157 618 .. 708 130 345 279 252 224 86 205 196 79 640 123 141 138 204 262 243 283 156 154 208 247 206 255 221 109 235 62

11 3 6 15 39 4 37 3 8 23 3 2 2 28 3 7 114 10 2 7 19 15 8 3 5 22 74 11 78 3 28 13 12 4 18 2 1 15 62 7 0 7 3 16 3 5 5 2 3 5 8 7 6 10 0 14

4,000 3,031 3,164 5,185 9,372 3,553 15,638 3,100 4,300 5,000 2,100 1,550 2,500 17,367 .. 2,151 56,215 3,572 1,100 2,500 .. 8,260 3,270 3,602 1,600 5,284 32,200 .. 51,220 6,000 11,007 12,119 3,660 4,288 6,522 1,900 1,450 5,657 19,362 2,076 2,911 .. 1,630 6,603 1,102 4,630 6,651 974 4,350 2,682 3,725 4,992 8,681 3,000 1,000 5,242

1 0 2 19 42 1 38 3 0 12 0 0 11 70 1 0 .. 0 2 2 29 155 1 10 2 40 168 .. 213 33 55 109 101 0 160 4 3 29 197 2 23 3 0 22 1 2 71 3 .. 12 115 2 77 21 4 27

2.0 1.0 119.1 82.3 180.6 2.1 1,029.4 27.3 5.3 1.0 13.1 0.9 12.6 145.3 0.3 104.8 566.6 5.0 31.5 1.5 32.7 20.9 1,023.5 54.2 114.6 141.5 727.5 0.5 105.9 113.4 22.2 11.7 19.1 4.2 75.9 12.4 14.4 25.1 50.7 96.6 0.1 4.3 5.0 169.0 28.3 73.2 1.8 0.2 1.6 113.8 12.7 4.6 21.7 1.7 .. 0.1

0.3 3.8 5.0 6.6 6.6 7.6 13.4 33.0 6.1 0.8 6.3 2.6 11.4 13.4 0.5 18.5 6.7 4.5 11.5 5.7 18.5 4.5 11.1 8.7 9.1 18.9 7.8 .. 10.2 5.0 6.5 23.0 6.0 7.5 69.1 16.1 34.0 51.9 18.3 9.7 0.4 4.3 11.8 16.9 9.3 13.3 0.7 2.3 2.3 31.9 5.6 3.6 20.0 0.7 .. 0.4

128

2004 World Development Indicators

Deforestation and biodiversity
Forest area Average annual deforestation Mammals Birds Higher plants a

3.4
Nationally protected areas
% of thousand sq. km 2003 b total land area 2003 b

ENVIRONMENT

% of thousand sq. km 2000 total land area 2000 sq. km % Species 2002 1990–2000 1990–2000 Threatened species 2002 Species 2002 Threatened species 2002 Species 2002 Threatened species 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

54 18 641 1,050 73 8 7 1 100 3 241 1 121 171 82 63 0 10 126 29 0 0 35 4 20 9 117 26 193 132 3 0 552 3 106 30 306 344 80 39 4 79 33 13 135 89 0 25 29 306 234 652 58 93 37 2

48.1 19.9 21.6 58.0 4.5 1.8 9.6 6.4 34.0 30.0 66.1 1.0 4.5 30.0 68.2 63.3 0.3 5.2 54.4 47.1 3.5 0.5 36.1 0.2 30.8 35.6 20.2 27.6 58.7 10.8 0.3 7.9 28.9 9.9 6.8 6.8 39.0 52.3 9.8 27.3 11.1 29.7 27.0 1.0 14.8 28.9 0.0 3.2 38.6 67.6 58.8 50.9 19.4 30.6 40.1 25.8

590 –72 –381 13,124 0 0 –170 –50 –295 54 –34 0 –2,390 931 0 49 –2 –228 527 –127 1 0 760 –47 –48 0 1,174 707 2,377 993 98 1 6,306 –7 600 12 637 5,169 734 783 –10 –390 1,172 617 3,984 –310 0 304 519 1,129 1,230 2,688 887 –110 –570 5

1.0 –0.4 –0.1 1.2 0.0 0.0 –3.0 –4.9 –0.3 1.5 –0.0 0.0 –2.2 0.5 0.0 0.1 –5.2 –2.6 0.4 –0.4 0.3 0.0 2.0 –1.4 –0.2 0.0 0.9 2.4 1.2 0.7 2.7 0.6 1.1 –0.2 0.5 0.0 0.2 1.4 0.9 1.8 –0.3 –0.5 3.0 3.7 2.6 –0.4 0.0 1.1 1.6 0.4 0.5 0.4 1.4 –0.1 –1.7 0.2

173 83 390 515 140 81 25 116 90 24 188 71 178 359 .. 49 21 83 172 83 57 33 193 76 68 78 141 195 300 137 61 .. 491 68 133 105 179 300 250 181 55 .. 200 131 274 54 56 188 218 214 305 460 153 84 63 ..

10 9 88 147 22 11 5 14 14 5 37 10 16 51 13 13 1 7 31 4 5 3 17 8 5 11 50 8 50 13 10 3 70 6 14 16 14 39 15 31 10 8 6 11 27 10 9 19 20 58 10 49 50 15 17 2

232 208 458 929 293 140 143 162 250 75 210 117 379 344 150 138 35 168 212 216 116 123 146 76 201 199 172 219 254 191 172 .. 440 175 274 206 144 310 201 274 192 .. 215 125 286 241 109 237 302 414 233 695 404 233 235 ..

5 8 72 114 13 11 1 12 5 12 34 8 15 24 19 25 7 4 20 3 7 7 11 1 4 3 27 11 37 4 2 9 39 5 16 9 16 35 11 25 4 63 5 3 9 2 10 17 16 32 26 76 67 4 7 8

5,680 2,214 18,664 29,375 8,000 .. 950 2,317 5,599 3,308 5,565 2,100 6,000 6,506 2,898 2,898 234 4,500 8,286 1,153 3,000 1,591 2,200 1,825 1,796 3,500 9,505 3,765 15,500 1,741 1,100 .. 26,071 1,752 2,823 3,675 5,692 7,000 3,174 6,973 1,221 .. 7,590 1,460 4,715 1,715 1,204 4,950 9,915 11,544 7,851 17,144 8,931 2,450 5,050 ..

108 1 244 384 1 0 1 0 3 206 11 0 1 98 3 0 0 1 18 0 0 0 46 1 0 0 162 14 681 6 0 .. .. 0 0 2 36 37 5 6 0 .. 39 2 119 2 6 2 193 142 10 269 193 4 15 ..

7.2 6.5 154.6 373.2 78.5 0.0 1.2 3.3 23.2 .. 24.8 3.0 72.9 45.5 3.1 6.8 0.3 28.9 6.9 8.3 0.1 0.1 1.6 1.8 6.7 1.8 25.0 10.5 18.7 45.1 17.4 0.2 194.7 0.5 180.1 3.1 65.9 2.0 112.0 12.7 4.8 79.3 21.6 97.5 30.1 20.9 43.3 37.8 16.2 10.4 13.9 78.1 17.0 37.7 6.0 0.3

6.4 7.0 5.2 20.6 4.8 0.0 1.7 15.8 7.9 .. 6.8 3.4 2.7 8.0 2.6 6.9 1.5 12.5 3.6 13.4 0.5 0.2 1.7 0.1 10.3 7.1 4.3 11.2 5.7 3.7 1.7 7.8 10.2 1.4 11.5 0.7 8.4 0.3 13.6 8.9 14.2 29.6 17.8 7.7 3.3 6.8 14.0 4.9 21.7 2.3 3.5 6.1 5.7 12.4 6.6 3.5

2004 World Development Indicators

129

3.4
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Deforestation and biodiversity
Forest area Average annual deforestation Mammals Birds Higher plants a Nationally protected areas
% of Threatened sq. km % Species 2002 species 2002 Species 2002 1990–2000 1990–2000 Threatened species 2002 Species 2002 Threatened species 2002 thousand sq. km 2003 b total land area 2003 b

% of thousand sq. km 2000 total land area 2000

64 8,514 3 15 62 29 11 0 20 11 75 89 144 19 616 5 271 12 5 4 388 148 5 3 5 102 38 42 96 3 26 2,260 13 20 495 98 .. 4 312 190 38,480 s 9,031 21,493 19,065 2,428 30,525 4,238 9,464 9,438 168 782 6,436 7,955 846

28.0 50.4 12.4 0.7 32.2 .. 14.7 3.3 42.5 55.0 12.0 7.3 28.8 30.0 25.9 30.3 65.9 30.3 2.5 2.8 43.9 28.9 9.4 50.5 3.3 13.3 8.0 21.3 16.5 3.8 10.7 24.7 7.4 4.8 56.1 30.2 .. 0.9 42.0 49.2 29.7 w 27.1 32.7 31.8 34.5 30.9 27.2 39.7 47.1 1.5 16.3 27.3 26.1 37.0

–147 –1,353 150 0 450 14 361 0 –69 –22 769 80 –860 348 9,589 –58 –6 –43 0 –20 913 1,124 209 22 –11 –220 0 913 –310 –78 –200 –3,880 –501 –46 2,175 –516 .. 92 8,509 3,199 95,009 s 73,087 29,869 14,730 15,139 102,956 11,613 –8,143 45,873 –239 889 52,963 –7,947 –2,978

–0.2 –0.0 3.9 0.0 0.7 0.0 2.9 0.0 –0.3 –0.2 1.0 0.1 –0.6 1.6 1.4 –1.2 –0.0 –0.4 0.0 –0.5 0.2 0.7 3.4 0.8 –0.2 –0.2 0.0 2.0 –0.3 –2.8 –0.8 –0.2 –5.0 –0.2 0.4 –0.5 .. 1.8 2.4 1.5 0.2 w 0.8 0.1 –0.1 0.5 0.3 0.2 –0.1 0.5 –0.1 0.1 0.8 –0.1 –0.3

84 269 151 77 192 96 147 85 85 75 171 247 82 88 267 .. 60 75 63 84 316 265 196 100 78 116 103 345 108 25 50 428 81 97 323 213 .. 66 233 270

17 45 9 8 12 12 12 3 9 9 19 42 24 22 23 4 7 5 4 9 42 37 9 1 11 17 13 20 16 3 12 37 6 9 26 40 1 5 12 12

257 528 200 125 175 238 172 142 199 201 179 304 281 126 280 .. 259 199 145 210 229 285 117 131 165 278 204 243 245 34 229 508 115 203 547 262 .. 93 252 229

8 38 9 15 4 5 10 7 4 1 10 28 7 14 6 5 2 2 8 7 33 37 0 1 5 11 6 13 8 8 2 55 11 9 24 37 1 12 11 10

3,400 11,400 2,288 2,028 2,086 4,082 2,090 2,282 3,124 3,200 3,028 23,420 5,050 3,314 3,137 .. 1,750 3,030 3,000 5,000 10,008 11,625 3,085 2,259 2,196 8,650 .. 4,900 5,100 .. 1,623 19,473 2,278 4,800 21,073 10,500 .. 1,650 4,747 4,440

1 7 3 3 7 1 43 54 2 0 17 45 14 280 17 .. 3 2 0 2 236 78 9 1 0 3 0 33 1 0 13 .. 1 1 67 126 .. 52 8 14

10.8 1,317.3 1.5 823.3 22.3 .. 1.5 0.0 11.0 1.2 5.0 67.2 42.5 8.7 123.6 0.6 37.5 11.9 .. 5.9 263.3 71.0 4.3 0.3 0.5 12.3 19.7 48.5 22.6 0.0 50.3 2,372.2 0.5 8.3 562.7 12.0 .. .. 237.1 46.8 13,750.0 s 2,665.5 6,073.9 3,891.0 2,183.0 8,739.5 1,454.8 1,610.2 2,237.8 1,169.3 228.6 2,038.8 5,010.5 324.9

4.7 7.8 6.2 38.3 11.6 3.3 2.1 4.9 22.8 6.0 0.8 5.5 8.5 13.5 5.2 3.5 9.1 30.0 .. 4.2 29.8 13.9 7.9 6.0 0.3 1.6 4.2 24.6 3.9 0.0 20.9 25.9 0.3 2.0 63.8 3.7 .. .. 31.9 12.1 10.7 w 8.4 9.1 7.2 17.3 8.9 9.2 6.8 11.2 11.3 4.8 8.7 19.5 13.5

a. Flowering plants only. b. Data may refer to earlier years. They are the most recent reported by the World Conservation Monitoring Center in 2003. c. Includes Luxembourg.

130

2004 World Development Indicators

Deforestation and biodiversity
About the data Definitions The estimates of forest area are from the Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) State of the World’s Forests 2003, which provides information on forest cover in 2000 and an estimate of forest cover in 1990. The current survey is the latest global forest assessment and the first to use a uniform global definition of forest. According to this assessment, the global rate of net deforestation has slowed to 9.5 million hectares a year, a rate 20 percent lower than that previously reported. No breakdown of forest cover between natural forest and plantation is shown in the table because of space limitations. (This breakdown is provided by the FAO only for developing countries.) For this reason the deforestation data in the table may underestimate the rate at which natural forest is disappearing in some countries. Deforestation is a major cause of loss of biodiversity, and habitat conservation is vital for stemming this loss. Conservation efforts traditionally have focused on protected areas, which have grown substantially in recent decades. Measures of species richness are among the most straightforward ways to indicate the importance of an area for biodiversity. The number of small plants and animals is usually estimated by sampling plots. It is also important to know which aspects are under the most immediate threat. This, however, requires a large amount of data and time-consuming analysis. For this reason global analyses of the status of threatened species have been carried out for few groups of organisms. Only for birds has the status of all species been assessed. An estimated 45 percent of mammal species remain to be assessed. For plants the World Conservation Union’s (IUCN) 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants provides the first-ever comprehensive listing of threatened species on a global scale, the result of more than 20 years’ work by botanists from around the world. Nearly 34,000 plant species, 12.5 percent of the total, are threatened with extinction. The table shows information on protected areas, numbers of certain species, and numbers of those species under threat. The World Conser vation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) compiles these data from a variety of sources. Because of differences in definitions and reporting practices, cross-country comparability is limited. Compounding these problems, available data cover different periods. Nationally protected areas are areas of at least 1,000 hectares that fall into one of five management categories defined by the WCMC: • Scientific reserves and strict nature reserves with limited public access. • National parks of national or international significance (not materially affected by human activity). • Natural monuments and natural landscapes with unique aspects. • Managed nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries. • Protected landscapes and seascapes (which may include cultural landscapes). Designating land as a protected area does not necessarily mean that protection is in force. For small countries that may only have protected areas smaller than 1,000 hectares, this size limit in the definition will result in an underestimate of the extent and number of protected areas. Threatened species are defined according to the IUCN’s classification categories: endangered (in danger of extinction and unlikely to survive if causal factors continue operating), vulnerable (likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if causal factors continue operating), rare (not endangered or vulnerable but at risk), indeterminate (known to be endangered, vulnerable, or rare but not enough information is available to say which), out of danger (formerly included in one of the above categories but now considered relatively secure because appropriate conservation measures are in effect), and insufficiently known (suspected but not definitely known to belong to one of the above categories). Figures on species are not necessarily comparable across countries because taxonomic concepts and coverage vary. And while the number of birds and mammals is fairly well known, it is difficult to make an accurate count of plants. Although the data in the table should be interpreted with caution, especially for numbers of threatened species (where knowledge is very incomplete), they do identify countries that are major sources of global biodiversity and show national commitments to habitat protection. The dataset on protected areas is tentative and is being revised. Due to variations in consistency and methodology of collection, the quality of the data are highly variable across countries. Some countries update their information more frequently than others, some may have more accurate data on extent of coverage, and many underreport the number or extent of protected areas. Data sources

3.4

ENVIRONMENT
131

• Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. • Average annual deforestation refers to the permanent conversion of natural forest area to other uses, including shifting cultivation, permanent agriculture, ranching, settlements, and infrastructure development. Deforested areas do not include areas logged but intended for regeneration or areas degraded by fuelwood gathering, acid precipitation, or forest fires. Negative numbers indicate an increase in forest area. • Mammals exclude whales and porpoises. • Birds refer to breeding species and are listed for countries included within their breeding ranges. • Higher plants refer to native vascular plant species. • Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. • Nationally protected areas are totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated as scientific reserves with limited public access, national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, and protected landscapes and seascapes. The data do not include sites protected under local or provincial law. Total land area is used to calculate the percentage of total area protected (see table 3.1).

The forestry data are from the FAO’s State of the World’s Forests 2003. The data on species are from the WCMC’s electronic files and the IUCN’s 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals and 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. The data on protected areas are from the United Nations Environment Programme and WCMC.

2004 World Development Indicators

3.5
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Freshwater
Renewable freshwater resources
Net flows Internal flows billion cu. m 2000 from other countries billion cu. m 2000 Total resources per capita cu. m a 2000 billion cu. m 1980– 2000 b % of total resources 1980– 2000 a,b % for agriculture 1987 % for industry 1987 % for domestic 1987 % of urban population 1990 2000 % of rural population 1990 2000

Annual freshwater withdrawals

Access to improved water source

55 27 14 184 276 9 492 55 8 105 37 12 10 304 36 3 5,418 21 13 4 121 273 2,850 141 15 884 2,812 .. 2,112 900 222 112 77 38 38 13 6 21 432 2 18 3 13 110 107 179 164 3 58 107 30 58 109 226 16 13

10.0 15.7 0.4 .. 623.0 1.5 0.0 29.0 21.0 1,105.6 20.8 4.0 15.5 7.2 2.0 11.8 1,900.0 0.2 2.0 .. 355.6 0.0 52.0 .. 28.0 0.0 17.2 .. 0.0 313.0 610.0 .. .. 33.7 0.0 1.0 .. .. 0.0 66.7 .. 6.0 0.1 0.0 3.0 11.0 0.0 5.0 8.4 71.0 22.9 15.0 0.0 0.0 11.0 ..

2,322 13,524 457 14,023 23,693 3,455 25,022 10,437 3,561 8,922 5,844 1,548 3,938 35,271 9,120 8,586 41,941 2,662 1,226 509 38,136 17,312 92,532 36,911 5,155 56,707 2,210 .. 48,293 23,517 227,509 28,513 4,645 15,991 3,383 1,391 1,116 2,438 33,703 1,032 2,774 2,048 9,426 1,636 21,158 3,186 124,715 5,760 12,845 2,158 2,624 6,867 9,106 29,184 18,659 1,569

26.1 1.4 5.0 0.5 28.6 2.9 14.6 2.4 16.5 14.6 2.7 .. 0.1 1.2 1.0 0.1 54.9 13.9 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.4 45.1 0.1 0.2 20.3 525.5 .. 8.9 0.4 0.0 5.8 0.7 0.8 5.2 2.7 1.2 8.3 17.0 66.0 0.7 .. 0.2 2.2 2.2 32.3 0.1 0.0 3.5 46.3 0.3 8.7 1.2 0.7 0.0 1.0

40.2 3.3 35.0 0.3 3.2 27.4 3.0 2.9 56.7 1.2 4.7 .. 0.4 0.4 2.7 0.7 0.8 65.6 2.8 2.8 0.1 0.1 1.6 0.1 0.5 2.3 18.6 .. 0.4 0.0 0.0 5.2 0.9 1.1 13.6 19.0 20.0 39.5 3.9 96.4 3.9 .. 1.6 2.0 2.0 17.0 0.1 0.0 5.3 26.0 0.6 11.9 1.1 0.3 0.0 7.7

99 c 71 52 c 76 c 75 66 33 9 70 86 35 .. 67 c 87 60 48 c 61 22 81 c 64 c 94 35 c 12 74 c 82 c 84 78 .. 37 23 c 11 c 80 67 c 0 51 2 43 89 82 82 c 46 .. 5 86 c 3 10 6c 91 c 59 20 52 c 87 74 87 c 36 c 94

0c 0 14 c 10 c 9 4 2 58 25 2 43 .. 10 c 3 10 20 c 18 75 0c 0c 1 19 c 70 5c 2c 11 18 .. 4 16 c 27 c 7 11 c 50 0 57 27 0 6 11 c 20 .. 39 3c 85 72 22 c 2c 20 69 13 c 3 17 3c 4c 1

1c 29 34 c 14 c 16 30 65 33 5 12 22 .. 23 c 10 30 32 c 21 3 19 c 36 c 5 46 c 18 21 c 16 c 5 5 .. 59 61 c 62 c 13 22 c 50 49 41 30 11 12 7c 34 .. 56 11 c 12 18 72 c 7c 21 11 35 c 10 9 10 c 60 c 5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. 99 .. .. .. 91 .. 100 93 .. .. 96 .. 78 100 71 .. 98 99 .. 98 .. .. .. 97 .. .. .. .. 92 82 97 88 .. .. 80 100 .. .. .. .. .. 85 .. 88 72 .. 59

19 99 94 34 97 87 100 100 93 99 100 .. 74 95 .. 100 95 100 66 91 54 78 100 89 31 99 94 .. 99 89 71 99 92 .. 95 .. 100 90 90 99 91 63 .. 81 100 .. 95 80 90 .. 91 .. 98 72 79 49

.. .. .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. 93 .. .. .. 47 .. 88 54 .. .. 67 .. 32 99 35 .. 49 60 .. 84 .. .. .. 69 .. .. .. .. 71 58 92 48 .. .. 17 100 .. .. .. .. .. 36 .. 69 36 .. 50

11 95 82 40 73 45 100 100 58 97 100 .. 55 64 .. 90 53 100 37 77 26 39 99 57 26 58 66 .. 70 26 17 92 72 .. 77 .. 100 78 75 96 64 42 .. 12 100 .. 47 53 61 .. 62 .. 88 36 49 45

132

2004 World Development Indicators

Freshwater
Renewable freshwater resources
Net flows Internal flows billion cu. m 2000 from other countries billion cu. m 2000 Total resources per capita cu. m a 2000 billion cu. m 1980– 2000 b % of total resources 1980– 2000 a,b % for agriculture 1987 % for industry 1987 % for domestic 1987 % of urban population 1990 2000

3.5
% of rural population 1990 2000

ENVIRONMENT

Annual freshwater withdrawals

Access to improved water source

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

96 6 1,261 2,838 129 35 49 1 183 9 430 1 75 20 67 65 0 47 190 17 5 5 200 1 16 5 337 16 580 60 0 2 409 1 35 29 99 881 6 198 11 327 190 4 221 382 1 52 147 801 94 1,616 479 54 38 ..

0.0 114.0 647.2 .. .. 75.9 3.0 0.9 6.8 .. 0.0 .. 34.2 10.0 10.1 4.9 0.0 0.0 143.1 18.7 0.0 0.0 32.0 .. 9.3 1.0 0.0 1.1 .. 40.0 11.0 0.0 49.0 10.7 .. 0.0 111.0 165.0 39.3 12.0 80.0 0.0 0.0 29.0 59.0 11.0 .. 170.3 .. .. .. 144.0 0.0 8.0 35.0 ..

14,109 11,812 1,819 13,405 1,961 4,596 13,265 259 3,281 3,592 3,382 135 7,368 963 3,428 1,465 .. 9,293 60,307 15,141 1,081 2,926 70,410 110 7,178 3,140 20,503 1,601 23,863 8,792 4,093 1,815 4,543 2,750 14,210 978 11,390 21,432 22,922 8,713 5,637 83,016 35,511 2,845 2,109 86,602 394 1,534 50,136 148,940 17,060 65,797 5,992 1,595 7,173 ..

1.5 6.8 500.0 74.3 70.0 42.8 0.8 1.6 42.0 0.9 91.4 1.0 33.7 2.0 14.2 23.7 0.5 10.1 1.0 0.3 1.3 0.1 0.1 4.5 0.3 1.9 16.3 0.9 12.7 1.4 1.6 .. 77.8 3.0 0.4 11.5 0.6 4.0 0.2 29.0 7.8 2.0 1.3 0.5 3.6 2.0 1.2 155.6 1.6 0.1 0.4 19.0 55.4 12.3 7.3 ..

1.6 5.7 26.2 2.6 54.5 38.5 1.5 94.1 22.2 9.6 21.3 .. 30.7 6.6 18.4 34.0 .. 21.7 0.3 0.8 27.1 1.9 0.0 .. 1.2 29.7 4.8 5.2 2.2 1.4 14.0 .. 17.0 25.6 1.1 39.7 0.3 0.4 0.4 13.8 8.6 0.6 0.7 1.5 1.3 0.5 .. 70.0 1.1 0.0 0.4 1.1 11.6 20.0 10.0 ..

91 36 92 93 92 92 10 54 c 48 77 64 75 81 76 c 73 63 60 94 82 13 68 56 c 60 c 84 c 3 74 99 c 86 c 77 97 c 92 77 c 78 26 53 89 c 89 c 90 68 c 99 34 44 84 82 c 54 c 8 94 97 70 49 78 86 88 11 48 ..

5 55 3 1 2 5 74 7c 34 7 17 3 17 4c 16 11 2 3 10 32 6 22 13 c 3c 16 15 .. c 3c 13 1c 2 7c 5 65 27 2c 2c 3 3c 0 61 10 2 2c 15 c 72 2 2 2 22 7 7 4 76 37 ..

4 9 5 6 6 3 16 39 c 19 15 19 22 2 20 c 11 26 37 3 8 55 27 22 c 27 c 13 c 81 12 1c 10 c 11 2c 6 16 c 17 9 20 10 c 9c 7 29 c 1 5 46 14 16 c 31 c 20 5 2 28 29 15 7 8 13 15 ..

89 100 88 92 .. .. .. .. .. 98 .. 99 .. 91 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 72 .. .. 85 90 .. 65 34 100 90 .. .. 94 .. .. 98 93 100 100 93 65 83 100 41 96 .. 88 80 88 93 .. .. ..

95 100 95 90 98 96 .. .. .. 98 .. 100 98 88 100 97 .. 98 61 .. 100 88 .. 72 .. .. 85 95 .. 74 34 100 95 97 77 98 81 89 100 94 100 100 91 70 78 100 41 95 99 88 93 87 91 .. .. ..

78 98 61 62 .. .. .. .. .. 87 .. 92 .. 31 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 68 .. .. 31 43 .. 52 40 100 52 .. .. 58 .. .. 63 64 100 .. 44 51 37 100 30 77 .. 32 46 42 82 .. .. ..

81 98 79 69 83 48 .. .. .. 85 .. 84 82 42 100 71 .. 66 29 .. 100 74 .. 68 .. .. 31 44 94 61 40 100 69 88 30 56 41 66 67 87 100 .. 59 56 49 100 30 87 79 32 59 62 79 .. .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

133

3.5
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Freshwater
Renewable freshwater resources
Net flows Internal flows billion cu. m 2000 from other countries billion cu. m 2000 Total resources per capita cu. m a 2000 billion cu. m 1980– 2000 b % of total resources 1980– 2000 a,b % for agriculture 1987 % for industry 1987 % for domestic 1987 % of urban population 1990 2000 % of rural population 1990 2000

Annual freshwater withdrawals

Access to improved water source

42 170.0 4,313 185.5 5 .. 2 .. 26 13.0 44 144.0 160 0.0 .. .. 13 70.0 19 0.0 6 9.7 45 5.2 111 0.3 50 0.0 30 119.0 3 1.9 171 12.2 40 13.0 7 37.7 66 13.3 82 9.0 210 199.9 12 0.5 4 .. 4 0.4 227 7.6 1 59.5 39 27.0 53 86.5 0 .. 145 2.0 2,800 18.0 59 74.0 16 98.1 723 .. 367 524.7 .. .. 4 .. 80 35.8 14 .. 42,900 s 9,463.8 s 11,185 4,815.6 22,898 4,275.4 19,341 3,260.3 3,556 1,015.2 34,082 9,091.0 9,454 1,415.6 5,255 1,134.8 13,429 2,833.8 234 183.1 1,816 1,945.1 3,895 1,578.7 8,818 372.8 910 258.8

9,520 31,222 637 110 4,009 23,039 30,564 .. 15,356 9,521 1,685 1,103 2,725 2,636 4,544 4,136 20,529 7,325 2,632 12,706 2,587 6,653 2,521 2,914 470 3,369 12,706 2,683 2,866 62 2,482 9,772 39,572 4,527 28,796 11,081 .. 220 11,324 1,085 8,513 w 6,416 9,938 9,401 13,848 8,258 6,020 13,511 30,925 1,377 2,684 7,951 .. 3,826

26.0 77.1 0.8 17.0 1.4 13.0 0.4 .. 1.8 1.3 0.8 13.3 35.2 9.8 17.8 .. 2.9 1.2 12.0 11.9 1.2 33.1 0.1 0.3 2.8 35.5 23.8 0.2 26.0 2.1 11.8 467.3 0.7 58.1 4.1 54.3 .. 2.9 1.7 1.2 3,325 s 1,041 1,430 1,229 201 2,471 776 387 263 238 735 73 854 185

12.2 1.7 15.4 .. 3.6 6.9 0.3 .. 2.2 7.0 5.1 26.6 31.6 19.6 11.9 .. 1.6 2.2 26.8 14.9 1.3 8.1 0.8 7.9 60.9 15.1 39.1 0.3 18.6 .. 8.0 16.6 0.5 50.8 0.6 6.1 .. 70.7 1.5 8.5 6w 7 5 5 4 6 7 6 2 57 20 1 9 16

59 20 94 c 90 92 c 8c 89 4 .. 1c 97 c 72 68 96 c 94 c 96 9 4 90 92 c 89 91 c 25 6c 86 c 73 98 60 30 67 3c 42 91 94 46 87 .. 92 77 c 79 c 71 w 92 73 73 71 81 81 57 74 88 94 85 42 38

33 62 2c 1 3c 86 c 4 51 .. 80 c 0c 11 19 2c 1c 2 55 73 2 4c 2 4c 13 26 c 1c 12 1 8 52 9 77 c 45 3 2 10 10 .. 1 7c 7c 20 w 4 18 19 14 12 14 33 9 5 3 6 42 47

8 19 5c 9 5c 6c 7 45 .. 20 c 3c 17 13 2c 4c 2 36 23 8 3c 9 5c 62 68 c 13 c 16 1 32 18 24 20 c 13 6 4 44 4 .. 7 16 c 14 c 10 w 5 9 9 15 7 5 10 18 7 4 10 16 15

.. .. .. .. 90 .. .. 100 .. 100 .. 99 .. 91 86 .. 100 100 .. .. 76 87 82 .. 91 83 .. 81 .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. 86 .. .. 88 99 94 w 88 95 96 .. 93 97 .. 92 .. 90 86 .. ..

91 100 60 100 92 99 75 100 100 100 .. 99 .. 98 86 .. 100 100 94 93 90 95 85 .. 92 81 .. 80 100 .. 100 100 98 94 85 95 .. 74 88 100 94 w 90 95 95 .. 93 93 96 94 96 94 83 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 60 .. .. 100 .. 100 .. 73 .. 62 60 .. 100 100 .. .. 28 78 38 .. 54 72 .. 40 .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. 48 .. .. 28 69 62 59 63 63 .. 61 61 .. 58 .. 66 40 .. ..

16 96 40 64 65 97 46 .. 100 100 .. 73 .. 70 69 .. 100 100 64 47 57 81 38 .. 58 86 .. 47 94 .. 100 100 93 79 70 72 .. 68 48 73 71 w 70 70 70 77 70 67 83 65 78 80 46 .. ..

a. River flows from other countries and river outflows are included when available. b. Data are for the most recent year available. c. Data refer to a year other than 1987 (see Primary data documentation).

134

2004 World Development Indicators

Freshwater
About the data Definitions The data on freshwater resources are based on estimates of runoff into rivers and recharge of groundwater. These estimates are based on different sources and refer to different years, so cross-country comparisons should be made with caution. Because the data are collected intermittently, they may hide significant variations in total renewable water resources from one year to the next. The data also fail to distinguish between seasonal and geographic variations in water availability within countries. Data for small countries and countries in arid and semiarid zones are less reliable than those for larger countries and countries with greater rainfall. Finally, caution is also needed in comparing data on annual freshwater withdrawals, which are subject to variations in collection and estimation methods. The table shows both internal freshwater different times and with different levels of quality and precision, these data must be used with caution, particularly in case of water-short countries, notably in the Middle East. The data on access to an improved water source measure the share of the population with reasonable and ready access to an adequate amount of safe water for domestic purposes. An improved source can be any form of collection or piping used to make water regularly available. While information on access to an improved water source is widely used, it is extremely subjective, and such terms as safe, improved, adequate, and reasonable may have very different meanings in different countries despite official World Health Organization definitions (see Definitions). Even in high-income countries treated water may not always be safe to drink. While access to an improved water source is equated with connection to a public supply system, this does not take into account variations in the quality and cost (broadly defined) of the service once connected. Thus cross-country comparisons must be made cautiously. Changes over time within countries may result from changes in definitions or measurements. The
Middle East & North Africa 1%

3.5

ENVIRONMENT

• Renewable freshwater resources refer to total renewable resources, broken down between internal flows (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country and net river flows from other countries. • Net flows from other countries refer to river flows arising outside countries minus river outflows, when these data are available. • Freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank’s population estimates (see table 2.1). • Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. • Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, or rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs.

resources and river flows arising outside countries. River outflows are also taken into account. However, because inflows and outflows may be estimated at

3.5a
The distribution of freshwater resources is uneven
Internal freshwater flows, 2000
South Asia 4% Sub-Saharan Africa 9% Europe & Central Asia 12% East Asia & Pacific 22%

definition in this table and in table 2.15 differs from that used for the city-level data shown in table 3.11, which is more stringent.

High income 21%

Latin America & Caribbean 31%

Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within 1 kilometer of the dwelling.

Source: Table 3.5.

3.5b
Latin America and the Caribbean has more than 20 times the freshwater resources per capita as the Middle East and North Africa
Total freshwater resources per capita, 2000 (thousands of cubic meters) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Latin America & Caribbean Source: Table 3.5. Europe & Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific South Asia Middle East & North Africa

Data sources The data on freshwater resources and withdrawals are compiled by the World Resources Institute from various sources and published in World Resources 2000–01 and World Resources 2002–03 (produced in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Development Programme, and World Bank). These are supplemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization’s AQUASTAT data. The data on access to an improved water source come from the World Health Organization.

2004 World Development Indicators

135

3.6

Water pollution
Emissions of organic water pollutants
kilograms kilograms per day 1980 2000 a 1980 per day per worker 2000 a Primary metals 2000 a Paper and pulp 2000 a Chemicals 2000 a Food and beverages 2000 a

Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants

% of total Stone, ceramics, and glass 2000 a Textiles 2000 a Wood 2000 a Other 2000 a

Afghanistan 6,680 .. Albania .. 6,512 Algeria 60,290 45,645 Angola .. 1,472 Argentina 244,711 177,882 Armenia .. 10,014 Australia 204,333 95,369 Austria 108,416 80,789 Azerbaijan .. 45,025 Bangladesh 66,713 273,082 Belarus .. .. Belgium 136,452 102,460 Benin 1,646 .. Bolivia 9,343 12,759 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. 8,903 Botswana 1,307 4,635 Brazil 866,790 629,406 Bulgaria 152,125 107,945 Burkina Faso 2,385 2,598 Burundi 769 1,644 Cambodia .. 12,078 Cameroon 14,569 10,714 Canada 330,241 307,325 Central African Republic 861 670 Chad .. .. Chile 44,371 72,850 China 3,377,105 6,204,237 Hong Kong, China 102,002 35,649 Colombia 96,055 93,879 Congo, Dem. Rep. .. .. Congo, Rep. 1,039 .. Costa Rica .. 32,914 Côte d’Ivoire 15,414 12,401 Croatia .. 48,447 Cuba 120,703 .. Czech Republic 316,429 258,413 Denmark 65,465 83,591 Dominican Republic 54,935 .. Ecuador 25,297 32,266 Egypt, Arab Rep. 169,146 203,633 El Salvador 9,390 22,760 Eritrea .. .. Estonia .. .. Ethiopia 16,754 21,533 Finland 92,275 62,610 France 729,776 278,878 Gabon 2,661 1,886 Gambia, The 549 832 Georgia .. .. Germany .. 792,194 Ghana 15,868 14,449 Greece 65,304 57,178 Guatemala 20,856 19,253 Guinea .. .. Guinea-Bissau .. .. Haiti 4,734 ..

0.17 .. 0.19 .. 0.18 .. 0.18 0.16 .. 0.16 .. 0.16 0.28 0.22 .. 0.24 0.16 0.13 0.29 0.22 .. 0.29 0.18 0.26 .. 0.21 0.14 0.11 0.19 .. 0.21 .. 0.23 .. 0.24 0.13 0.17 0.38 0.23 0.19 0.24 .. .. 0.22 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.30 .. .. 0.20 0.17 0.25 .. .. 0.19

.. 0.29 0.24 0.20 0.21 .. 0.21 0.13 0.17 0.14 .. 0.17 .. 0.25 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.17 0.22 0.24 0.16 0.20 0.15 0.17 .. 0.24 0.14 0.18 0.21 .. .. 0.21 0.24 0.17 .. 0.13 0.17 .. 0.27 0.20 0.18 .. .. 0.23 0.19 0.10 0.26 0.34 .. 0.13 0.17 0.20 0.28 .. .. ..

.. 14.3 23.4 7.6 6.5 .. .. 14.9 11.6 1.8 .. 13.7 .. 0.9 20.5 1.7 17.7 11.7 3.5 0.0 0.0 3.1 10.8 0.0 .. 6.9 20.6 0.9 3.1 .. .. 1.8 .. 7.2 .. 23.2 4.4 .. 2.3 11.8 2.1 .. .. 1.9 9.8 14.9 0.0 .. .. 11.2 9.8 6.3 4.9 .. .. ..

.. 0.9 2.0 3.0 12.5 3.9 .. 18.2 2.5 6.8 .. 18.0 .. 20.5 13.1 15.8 12.9 7.9 1.1 8.3 3.4 6.3 23.9 .. .. 11.3 10.8 43.6 16.2 .. .. 10.0 5.5 14.4 .. 9.5 29.1 .. 10.8 7.9 10.2 .. .. 10.8 43.3 30.9 6.0 .. .. 22.3 16.9 11.8 7.2 .. .. ..

.. 5.5 3.3 9.1 8.0 .. 6.5 11.1 12.0 6.6 .. 10.5 1.2 6.6 6.6 0.8 7.6 8.2 5.8 5.1 3.3 3.6 9.8 4.0 .. 8.9 15.3 4.2 10.3 .. .. 7.1 5.0 8.6 .. 7.9 7.0 1.9 7.1 8.3 7.1 .. .. .. 2.2 10.3 5.0 1.7 .. 9.8 10.5 9.1 8.1 .. .. ..

.. 73.5 59.5 65.9 59.4 72.5 81.7 32.8 49.0 23.2 .. 40.4 .. 61.4 33.3 56.4 44.4 48.1 73.8 67.8 59.2 52.7 34.8 62.0 .. 62.7 28.4 27.4 53.2 .. .. 62.2 71.9 45.2 .. 31.5 44.2 .. 71.8 49.8 43.5 .. .. 61.5 30.2 37.7 79.7 .. .. 34.4 39.5 54.0 72.8 .. .. ..

.. 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.1 .. 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 .. 0.2 .. 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.1 0.0 .. 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.2 .. .. 0.1 0.0 0.2 .. 0.4 0.2 .. 0.1 0.3 0.1 .. .. 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 .. .. 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 .. .. ..

.. 4.6 7.6 5.5 7.4 .. 2.8 5.1 18.1 64.1 .. 6.0 .. 7.1 17.6 17.2 9.8 17.0 4.1 16.7 24.7 3.6 5.4 13.8 .. 5.0 14.8 17.9 14.2 .. .. 13.9 8.6 14.6 .. 12.2 2.2 .. 6.0 18.9 34.1 .. .. 18.7 2.8 9.7 1.2 .. .. 3.2 9.1 13.2 6.9 .. .. ..

.. 0.0 0.8 4.4 1.5 .. 3.1 5.3 1.0 0.5 .. 2.0 .. 2.4 5.8 1.4 1.4 2.0 10.1 1.6 5.8 5.6 5.1 19.6 .. 2.6 0.8 0.1 1.0 .. .. 1.7 5.9 3.8 .. 2.0 3.5 .. 1.5 0.4 0.5 .. .. 1.6 4.4 2.7 6.9 .. .. 2.3 12.4 1.5 0.8 .. .. ..

.. 0.8 –0.0 4.1 4.5 .. .. 12.1 5.6 .. .. 7.5 .. 0.9 2.8 1.8 4.5 6.6 1.9 0.8 3.1 0.4 10.0 .. .. 2.5 8.9 6.0 2.4 .. .. 2.9 .. 6.0 .. 12.8 8.6 .. 1.3 2.9 1.4 .. .. 0.8 7.0 .. 1.2 .. .. 16.5 1.7 3.8 .. .. .. ..

136

2004 World Development Indicators

Water pollution
Emissions of organic water pollutants
kilograms kilograms per day 1980 2000 a 1980 per day per worker 2000 a Primary metals 2000 a Paper and pulp 2000 a Chemicals 2000 a Food and beverages 2000 a % of total Stone, ceramics, and glass 2000 a Textiles 2000 a

3.6
Wood 2000 a Other 2000 a

ENVIRONMENT

Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

13,067 34,036 201,888 152,531 1,422,564 1,582,285 214,010 752,834 72,334 101,900 32,986 19,617 43,544 49,144 39,113 54,149 442,712 495,411 11,123 17,507 1,456,016 1,332,302 4,146 16,142 .. .. 26,834 53,029 .. .. 281,900 303,091 6,921 11,412 .. 20,700 .. .. .. 25,106 14,586 14,899 993 3,123 .. .. 3,532 .. .. 35,689 .. 23,490 9,131 .. 12,224 11,805 77,215 158,761 .. .. .. .. 9,224 17,700 130,993 296,093 .. 34,234 9,254 7,939 26,598 88,779 .. 10,230 .. 3,356 .. 7,350 18,692 26,550 165,416 124,182 59,012 46,099 9,647 .. 372 .. 72,082 82,477 67,897 55,439 .. 5,789 75,125 100,821 8,121 11,462 4,365 .. .. 3,250 50,367 52,644 182,052 201,952 580,869 388,153 105,441 121,013 24,034 15,367

0.23 0.15 0.21 0.22 0.15 0.19 0.19 0.15 0.13 0.25 0.14 0.17 .. 0.19 .. 0.14 0.16 .. .. .. 0.20 0.24 .. 0.21 .. .. 0.23 0.32 0.15 .. .. 0.21 0.22 .. 0.19 0.15 .. .. .. 0.25 0.18 0.21 0.28 0.19 0.17 0.19 .. 0.17 0.26 0.22 .. 0.18 0.19 0.14 0.15 0.16

0.20 0.17 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.13 0.29 0.15 0.18 .. 0.25 .. 0.12 0.17 0.16 .. 0.19 0.19 0.16 .. .. 0.18 0.18 .. 0.29 0.12 .. .. 0.15 0.20 0.29 0.18 0.18 0.31 0.13 0.35 0.14 0.18 0.22 .. .. 0.17 0.20 0.16 0.18 0.31 .. 0.28 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.14

1.1 8.0 13.9 2.8 20.6 8.8 1.3 3.7 9.5 6.9 7.4 3.9 .. 4.1 .. 12.2 2.5 13.7 .. 2.8 0.9 1.2 .. .. 1.2 11.7 .. 0.0 6.5 .. .. 0.9 7.8 0.2 1.8 0.7 1.1 14.0 0.0 1.5 7.3 3.2 .. .. 1.4 8.7 6.1 11.6 1.6 .. 2.3 8.1 5.2 13.8 4.0 1.9

7.8 12.1 6.6 8.6 8.0 14.1 14.2 19.7 16.9 7.2 21.8 16.2 .. 11.9 .. 17.0 16.4 0.2 .. 8.7 15.6 4.0 .. .. 11.2 9.6 .. 16.0 14.5 .. .. 6.6 12.5 4.0 4.3 7.0 7.1 9.0 5.0 8.1 26.7 21.7 .. .. 15.4 31.7 13.1 7.0 13.7 .. 9.9 13.5 9.8 6.2 17.4 14.9

3.9 7.9 9.6 8.6 8.0 15.1 11.4 9.4 10.8 3.8 8.9 14.5 .. 5.8 .. 12.4 10.9 0.9 .. 0.8 3.3 0.7 .. 11.0 5.0 6.2 2.5 3.7 16.5 .. .. 2.6 10.4 1.4 2.9 9.7 4.1 40.5 1.6 3.9 11.3 5.2 5.1 .. 11.3 4.9 6.9 8.1 3.8 0.9 6.0 10.5 7.3 6.8 4.5 19.5

55.5 48.0 52.2 50.1 39.7 39.4 56.4 43.9 30.3 70.8 41.7 51.4 .. 70.0 .. 26.0 49.4 54.8 .. 64.5 60.7 39.7 .. .. 55.6 45.0 .. 70.0 34.1 .. .. 32.8 55.6 81.7 64.2 54.4 81.2 27.0 90.4 43.3 43.0 57.3 .. .. 40.2 42.9 50.4 39.9 74.6 .. 73.6 52.8 54.5 48.8 33.6 34.4

0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.5 .. 0.1 .. 0.2 0.4 0.4 .. 0.1 0.5 0.1 .. .. 0.2 0.1 .. 0.0 0.2 .. .. 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.1 1.2 0.2 0.1 .. .. 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.2 .. 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2

26.8 14.1 13.1 22.0 17.3 16.7 3.1 12.1 16.0 9.8 5.4 7.2 .. 8.5 .. 15.7 12.1 21.0 .. 11.5 10.2 51.3 .. .. 17.6 20.9 .. 7.8 7.5 .. .. 55.4 7.5 10.8 24.6 27.2 5.8 4.9 1.2 39.3 2.3 4.6 .. .. 23.5 1.4 14.1 30.3 4.2 .. 6.7 11.7 16.4 13.6 27.4 15.5

4.0 2.4 0.3 5.3 0.7 0.3 1.6 1.8 3.7 1.3 1.7 3.3 .. 1.8 .. 1.3 2.9 1.0 .. 9.7 4.6 0.6 .. 6.0 0.4 .. 1.7 7.0 3.2 .. .. 0.9 1.3 4.9 0.9 1.4 2.9 0.9 1.7 1.2 2.1 .. .. 4.7 3.0 3.8 0.3 0.5 .. 0.3 2.0 2.0 2.6 5.4 1.4 ..

0.8 7.3 4.2 4.5 5.4 4.8 11.8 9.3 12.5 0.0 12.7 3.0 .. .. .. 15.3 5.8 8.0 .. .. 3.4 2.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. 19.7 .. .. 0.8 3.7 .. .. .. .. .. 0.4 1.6 7.4 .. .. .. 5.1 6.5 5.9 2.1 .. .. .. 2.8 4.3 5.1 11.1 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

137

3.6

Water pollution
Emissions of organic water pollutants
kilograms kilograms per day 1980 2000 a 1980 per day per worker 2000 a Primary metals 2000 a Paper and pulp 2000 a Chemicals 2000 a Food and beverages 2000 a

Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants

% of total Stone, ceramics, and glass 2000 a Textiles 2000 a Wood 2000 a Other 2000 a

Romania 343,145 333,168 Russian Federation .. 1,485,833 Rwanda .. .. Saudi Arabia 18,181 24,436 Senegal 9,865 6,643 Serbia and Montenegro .. 101,535 Sierra Leone 1,612 4,170 Singapore 28,558 32,119 Slovak Republic .. 57,970 Slovenia .. 38,601 Somalia .. .. South Africa 237,599 234,012 Spain 376,253 374,589 Sri Lanka 30,086 83,058 Sudan .. .. Swaziland 2,826 2,009 Sweden 130,439 103,913 Switzerland .. 123,752 Syrian Arab Republic 36,262 15,115 Tajikistan .. .. Tanzania 21,084 35,155 Thailand 213,271 355,819 Togo 963 .. Trinidad and Tobago 7,835 11,787 Tunisia 20,294 46,052 Turkey 160,173 170,685 Turkmenistan .. .. Uganda .. .. Ukraine .. 499,886 United Arab Emirates 4,524 .. United Kingdom 964,510 569,736 United States 2,742,993 1,968,196 Uruguay 34,270 17,972 Uzbekistan .. .. Venezuela, RB 84,797 94,175 Vietnam .. .. West Bank and Gaza .. .. Yemen, Rep. .. 7,823 Zambia 13,605 11,433 Zimbabwe 32,681 26,810

0.12 .. .. 0.12 0.31 .. 0.24 0.10 .. .. .. 0.17 0.16 0.18 .. 0.26 0.15 .. 0.19 .. 0.21 0.22 0.27 0.18 0.16 0.20 .. .. .. 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.21 .. 0.20 .. .. .. 0.23 0.20

0.14 0.16 .. 0.14 0.36 0.16 0.32 0.09 0.15 0.17 .. 0.17 0.15 0.18 .. 0.23 0.14 0.17 0.20 .. 0.25 0.16 .. 0.28 0.16 0.17 .. .. 0.18 .. 0.15 0.12 0.28 .. 0.21 .. .. 0.25 0.22 0.19

17.1 17.7 .. 4.4 0.0 9.5 .. 1.4 17.2 32.3 .. 13.7 6.7 0.6 .. .. 11.3 24.9 4.1 .. 1.5 6.1 .. 4.4 5.8 11.0 .. .. 22.8 .. 7.2 10.5 1.2 .. 13.7 .. .. 0.0 3.4 5.2

6.7 7.4 .. 15.9 6.6 12.0 9.6 26.2 12.7 15.6 .. 16.3 19.8 7.4 .. 79.8 35.0 23.6 1.5 .. 9.4 5.3 .. 10.9 8.0 7.1 .. .. 3.4 .. 30.4 11.0 11.1 .. 10.4 .. .. 9.1 10.8 10.2

8.3 9.3 .. 5.8 4.0 8.0 5.5 16.0 7.9 8.5 .. 9.1 8.9 9.8 .. 0.3 7.8 10.4 8.3 .. 4.9 5.3 2.3 18.3 6.5 7.6 .. .. 6.6 .. 10.0 13.8 6.7 .. 9.8 .. .. 12.9 6.9 4.6

34.3 46.8 .. 45.1 87.0 46.9 82.3 21.6 37.5 24.4 .. 40.3 42.5 52.6 .. .. 26.6 25.0 69.8 .. 69.3 42.2 .. 72.6 41.1 44.5 .. .. 51.6 .. 32.1 38.4 71.2 .. 53.1 .. .. 71.1 63.6 54.2

0.3 0.3 .. 1.0 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 .. 0.2 0.3 0.2 .. 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.9 .. 0.1 0.2 .. 0.1 0.4 0.3 .. .. 0.3 .. 0.2 0.2 0.1 .. 0.3 .. .. 0.3 0.2 0.3

18.5 6.9 .. 3.8 1.8 13.3 2.0 4.0 11.9 11.1 .. 10.2 9.3 29.8 .. 16.5 1.3 3.2 19.4 .. 14.0 35.4 .. 2.9 33.5 23.6 .. .. 5.8 .. 5.6 7.1 8.5 .. 7.5 .. .. 4.9 9.3 16.3

4.8 2.1 .. 2.0 0.2 2.2 2.2 1.4 2.7 2.1 .. 3.4 4.0 1.1 .. 2.0 3.0 4.2 0.2 .. 1.5 1.5 .. 1.3 1.5 1.1 .. .. 1.6 .. 2.5 4.1 0.7 .. 1.5 .. .. 1.0 2.9 2.8

9.4 9.5 .. 6.8 0.7 7.7 .. 28.6 9.9 5.9 .. 6.8 8.6 .. .. .. 14.9 8.7 .. .. 1.4 3.9 .. .. 3.3 5.0 .. .. 7.9 .. 12.0 14.9 1.8 .. 3.3 .. .. 0.9 2.4 3.1

Note: Industry shares may not sum to 100 percent because data may be from different years. a. Data refer to any year from 1993 to 2000.

138

2004 World Development Indicators

Water pollution
About the data Definitions Emissions of organic pollutants from industrial activities are a major cause of degradation of water quality. Water quality and pollution levels are generally measured in terms of concentration or load—the rate of occurrence of a substance in an aqueous solution. Polluting substances include organic matter, metals, minerals, sediment, bacteria, and toxic chemicals. This table focuses on organic water pollution resulting from industrial activities. Because water pollution tends to be sensitive to local conditions, the national-level data in the table may not reflect the quality of water in specific locations. The data in the table come from an international study of industrial emissions that may be the first to include data from developing countries (Hettige, Mani, and Wheeler 1998). These data were updated through 2000 by the World Bank’s Development Research Group. Unlike estimates from earlier studies based on engineering or economic models, these estimates are based on actual measurements of plant-level water pollution. The focus is on organic water pollution caused by organic waste, measured in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), because the data for this indicator are the most plentiful and the most reliable for cross-country comparisons of emissions. BOD measures the strength of an organic waste in terms of the amount of oxygen consumed in breaking it down. A sewage overload in natural waters exhausts the water’s dissolved oxygen content. Wastewater treatment, by contrast, reduces BOD. Data on water pollution are more readily available than other emissions data because most industrial pollution control programs start by regulating emissions of organic water pollutants. Such data are fairly reliable because sampling techniques for measuring water pollution are more widely understood and much less expensive than those for air pollution. Hettige, Mani, and Wheeler (1998) used plant- and sector-level information on emissions and employment from 13 national environmental protection agencies and sector-level information on output and employment from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). Their econometric analysis found that the ratio of BOD to employment in each industrial sector is about the same across countries. This finding allowed the authors to estimate BOD loads across countries and over time. The estimated BOD intensities per unit of employment were multiplied by sectoral employment numbers from UNIDO’s industry database for 1980–98. The estimates of sectoral emissions were then totaled to get daily emissions of organic water pollutants in kilograms per day for each country and year. The data in the table were derived by updating these estimates through 2000.

3.6

ENVIRONMENT

• Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Emissions per worker are total emissions divided by the number of industrial workers. • Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37), paper and pulp (34), chemicals (35), food and beverages (31), stone, ceramics, and glass (36), textiles (32), wood (33), and other (38 and 39).

3.6a
High- and middle-income countries account for most water pollution from organic waste
Emissions of organic water pollutants, 1998 Low income, excluding India 6%

Data sources
India 7% High income 36%

The data come from a 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, “Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited” (available at http://www. worldbank.org/nipr). These data were updated
China 31%

Middle income, excluding China 20%

through 2000 by the World Bank’s Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study. Sectoral employment numbers are from UNIDO’s industry database.

Source: World Bank staff estimates.

2004 World Development Indicators

139

3.7
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Energy production and use
Total energy production
Total thousands of metric tons of oil equivalent 1990 2001 thousands of metric tons of oil equivalent 1990 2001

Energy use

Energy use per capita

Combustible renewables and waste % of total 1990 2001 average annual % growth 1990–2001 kg of oil equivalent 1990 2001 average annual % growth 1990–2001

.. 2,449 104,559 28,652 47,384 263 157,712 8,080 18,150 10,747 4,103 12,490 1,774 4,923 3,642 .. 97,069 9,613 .. .. .. 12,090 273,680 .. .. 7,641 902,689 43 48,445 12,027 9,005 1,032 3,395 4,346 6,271 38,474 9,835 1,031 16,400 54,869 1,722 .. 4,118 14,158 12,081 111,278 14,630 .. 1,470 186,157 4,392 9,200 3,390 .. .. 1,253

.. 673 144,330 43,559 82,862 602 250,436 9,717 19,581 16,200 3,533 12,967 1,483 6,938 3,277 .. 145,933 10,297 .. .. .. 12,485 379,207 .. .. 8,673 1,138,617 48 73,920 15,707 13,668 1,733 6,177 3,720 6,656 30,489 27,171 1,485 22,872 59,301 2,329 .. 2,989 18,000 15,156 132,709 14,788 .. 1,265 133,745 5,995 9,965 5,230 .. .. 1,542

.. 2,662 23,926 6,280 45,039 4,298 87,536 25,042 16,675 12,937 39,703 48,685 1,678 2,774 4,474 .. 132,985 28,820 .. .. .. 5,031 209,090 .. .. 13,630 870,441 10,662 25,014 11,911 1,056 2,025 4,420 6,714 16,524 47,401 17,609 4,139 6,054 32,024 2,535 .. 6,271 15,151 29,171 227,114 1,287 .. 8,762 356,218 5,337 22,181 4,477 .. .. 1,585

.. 1,715 29,438 8,454 57,601 2,297 115,627 30,721 11,582 20,410 24,415 59,001 2,028 4,271 4,359 .. 185,083 19,476 .. .. .. 6,445 248,184 .. .. 23,801 1,139,369 16,278 29,245 15,039 931 3,481 6,497 7,904 13,651 41,396 19,783 7,810 8,727 48,012 4,269 .. 4,697 19,161 33,815 265,570 1,702 .. 2,413 351,092 8,180 28,704 7,313 .. .. 2,088

.. 13.6 0.1 68.8 3.8 0.0 4.5 9.8 0.0 53.0 1.5 1.4 93.2 27.2 3.6 .. 31.0 0.6 .. .. .. 75.9 3.9 .. .. 19.6 23.0 0.5 23.3 83.9 69.4 36.6 71.9 3.8 33.7 1.2 6.6 24.2 13.6 3.3 48.2 .. 2.9 92.8 15.6 4.8 57.7 .. 7.7 1.3 73.1 4.0 67.9 .. .. 76.5

.. 7.5 0.3 68.7 5.2 0.0 4.5 10.4 0.0 37.9 4.3 1.6 71.2 16.8 4.1 .. 23.4 2.8 .. .. .. 79.0 4.2 .. .. 17.7 19.0 0.3 17.9 93.0 64.9 11.0 66.6 3.7 24.4 1.7 9.2 18.4 8.4 2.8 32.9 .. 11.5 93.1 19.7 4.5 55.7 .. .. 2.3 66.3 3.5 53.3 .. .. 72.7

.. –1.6 1.6 2.7 2.9 –2.3 2.7 1.6 –4.0 4.3 –3.9 1.8 1.5 5.7 5.1 .. 3.6 –2.6 .. .. .. 2.4 1.8 .. .. 6.1 2.8 3.9 1.5 2.2 –2.8 4.8 4.1 2.1 –0.5 –1.0 0.7 6.5 3.4 3.9 4.5 .. –2.2 2.4 1.7 1.2 2.4 .. –11.7 –0.0 4.1 2.4 4.8 .. .. 3.5

.. 812 956 672 1,395 1,231 5,130 3,241 2,259 118 3,886 4,885 356 422 1,086 .. 899 3,306 .. .. .. 431 7,524 .. .. 1,041 767 1,869 715 319 423 664 375 1,405 1,555 4,574 3,426 586 590 611 496 .. 4,091 296 5,851 4,003 1,350 .. 1,612 4,485 349 2,183 512 .. .. 245

.. 548 955 663 1,593 744 5,956 3,825 1,428 153 2,449 5,735 318 496 1,074 .. 1,074 2,428 .. .. .. 417 7,985 .. .. 1,545 896 2,421 680 300 262 899 402 1,771 1,216 4,049 3,692 921 692 737 677 .. 3,444 291 6,518 4,487 1,322 .. 462 4,264 410 2,710 626 .. .. 257

.. –1.0 –0.3 –0.1 1.6 –0.9 1.5 1.3 –5.0 2.5 –3.6 1.6 –1.2 3.1 4.7 .. 2.1 –2.0 .. .. .. –0.2 0.8 .. .. 4.6 1.8 2.1 –0.4 –0.5 –5.8 2.6 1.1 3.1 –1.0 –0.9 0.3 4.7 1.4 1.9 2.4 .. –1.0 0.1 1.3 0.8 –0.4 .. –11.4 –0.3 1.6 2.1 2.1 .. .. 1.3

140

2004 World Development Indicators

Energy production and use
Total energy production
Total thousands of metric tons of oil equivalent 1990 2001 thousands of metric tons of oil equivalent 1990 2001

3.7
Energy use per capita
average kg of oil equivalent annual % growth 1990–2001 2001

ENVIRONMENT

Energy use

Combustible renewables and waste % of total 1990 2001 average annual % growth 1990–2001

1990

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

1,694 14,239 333,978 161,518 179,738 106,715 3,467 433 25,547 485 73,209 162 89,007 10,272 28,725 21,908 48,519 1,818 .. 794 143 .. .. 73,173 4,189 .. .. .. 48,727 .. .. .. 194,454 58 .. 773 6,846 10,651 218 5,501 60,316 12,256 1,495 .. 150,453 120,304 38,312 34,360 612 .. 4,578 10,596 15,901 99,228 2,805 ..

1,535 10,824 438,099 234,314 246,644 123,296 1,729 685 26,264 487 104,006 280 83,752 12,644 19,251 34,207 108,851 1,353 .. 1,717 161 .. .. 74,363 4,144 .. .. .. 77,623 .. .. .. 230,236 62 .. 583 7,560 15,275 294 7,338 60,437 14,932 1,540 .. 207,024 226,570 64,534 48,606 678 .. 6,077 9,363 20,006 79,861 3,396 ..

2,416 28,467 363,153 92,815 68,775 20,841 10,575 12,112 152,552 2,943 436,523 3,499 79,661 12,479 32,874 92,578 8,413 5,066 .. 5,979 2,309 .. .. 11,541 11,077 .. .. .. 22,455 .. .. .. 124,028 6,884 .. 6,725 7,203 10,683 652 5,806 66,491 14,016 2,118 .. 70,905 21,492 4,562 43,424 1,490 .. 3,089 9,952 28,292 99,847 17,158 ..

3,236 25,340 531,453 152,304 120,000 28,476 14,981 21,193 171,998 4,009 520,729 5,116 40,324 15,377 20,440 194,780 16,368 2,235 .. 4,297 5,434 .. .. 15,992 8,023 .. .. .. 51,608 .. .. .. 152,273 3,140 .. 11,006 7,687 12,159 1,159 8,416 77,214 18,294 2,792 .. 95,444 26,607 9,984 64,506 3,180 .. 3,756 12,113 42,151 90,570 24,732 ..

62.0 1.3 48.4 43.9 1.0 0.1 1.0 0.0 0.6 16.2 1.0 0.1 0.1 78.4 2.9 0.3 0.1 0.1 .. 8.1 4.5 .. .. 1.1 1.5 .. .. .. 9.5 .. .. .. 5.9 0.5 .. 4.7 94.4 84.4 16.0 93.4 1.1 4.9 53.3 .. 79.8 4.8 .. 43.2 28.3 .. 72.1 26.9 34.8 2.2 11.0 ..

41.1 1.6 38.5 31.5 0.7 0.1 1.2 0.0 1.4 11.9 1.0 0.1 0.2 78.2 4.9 1.2 .. 0.2 .. .. 2.3 .. .. 0.9 8.2 .. .. .. 4.6 .. .. .. 5.4 1.9 .. 4.0 88.3 77.4 15.2 85.2 1.6 6.4 48.2 .. 77.5 5.6 .. 37.2 14.6 .. 58.0 18.7 23.1 4.8 8.3 ..

2.6 –0.7 3.6 4.4 5.2 4.2 3.6 5.3 1.2 3.0 1.8 3.7 –7.7 2.2 –5.1 7.1 9.9 –6.4 .. –3.4 8.0 .. .. 2.1 –2.5 .. .. .. 7.2 .. .. .. 1.8 –8.3 .. 4.4 0.0 1.7 5.3 3.4 1.1 2.8 2.6 .. 2.5 1.9 5.4 3.8 6.1 .. 2.8 2.6 4.2 –0.7 3.7 ..

496 2,746 427 521 1,264 1,153 3,016 2,599 2,690 1,231 3,534 1,104 4,823 534 1,647 2,160 3,959 1,114 .. 2,272 635 .. .. 2,680 2,994 .. .. .. 1,234 .. .. .. 1,490 1,582 .. 280 509 264 445 320 4,447 4,065 554 .. 737 5,066 2,804 402 621 .. 744 461 463 2,619 1,734 ..

488 2,487 515 729 1,860 1,202 3,876 3,291 2,981 1,545 4,099 1,017 2,705 500 914 4,114 7,195 451 .. 1,822 1,239 .. .. 2,994 2,304 .. .. .. 2,168 .. .. .. 1,532 735 .. 377 425 252 596 357 4,814 4,714 536 .. 735 5,896 4,029 456 1,098 .. 697 460 538 2,344 2,435 ..

–0.2 –0.4 1.8 2.9 3.6 1.6 2.7 2.4 1.0 2.2 1.5 –0.1 –6.6 –0.4 –6.1 6.1 6.3 –7.5 .. –2.2 6.1 .. .. 0.1 –1.9 .. .. .. 4.6 .. .. .. 0.2 –8.1 .. 2.6 –2.2 0.1 2.5 0.9 0.5 1.6 –0.2 .. –0.3 1.3 1.8 1.3 4.3 .. 0.4 0.8 1.9 –0.8 3.4 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

141

3.7
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Energy production and use
Total energy production
Total thousands of metric tons of oil equivalent 1990 2001 thousands of metric tons of oil equivalent 1990 2001

Energy use

Energy use per capita

Combustible renewables and waste % of total 1990 2001 average annual % growth 1990–2001 kg of oil equivalent 1990 2001 average annual % growth 1990–2001

40,834 28,222 1,118,707 996,161 .. .. 368,753 476,831 1,362 1,765 11,835 10,774 .. .. .. 64 5,273 6,550 2,765 3,161 .. .. 114,534 145,287 34,648 33,022 4,191 4,462 8,775 21,551 .. .. 29,754 34,377 9,831 12,367 22,570 34,377 1,553 1,267 9,063 13,001 25,908 40,059 778 1,056 12,612 18,385 6,127 6,886 25,857 26,154 48,822 50,443 .. .. 110,170 83,428 108,472 144,566 207,007 261,939 1,650,408 1,711,814 1,149 1,211 40,461 55,630 148,854 216,020 24,988 50,346 .. .. 9,792 22,687 4,923 6,052 8,250 8,531 8,711,744 t 10,140,706 t 980,692 1,330,614 4,481,928 4,952,955 3,356,996 3,544,563 1,124,932 1,408,392 5,462,620 6,283,569 1,219,107 1,595,491 1,860,581 1,516,768 613,090 845,705 965,686 1,254,273 388,777 514,705 415,379 556,627 3,249,124 3,857,137 466,100 439,167

62,403 36,841 774,823 621,349 .. .. 60,834 110,586 2,238 3,179 15,002 16,061 .. .. 13,357 29,158 21,426 18,717 5,008 6,838 .. .. 91,229 107,738 91,209 127,381 5,516 7,923 10,627 13,525 .. .. 46,667 51,054 25,106 28,019 11,928 13,955 9,087 3,036 9,808 13,917 43,215 75,542 1,001 1,422 5,795 8,693 5,536 8,243 53,005 72,458 11,307 15,309 .. .. 218,376 141,577 17,611 32,624 212,176 235,158 1,927,572 2,281,414 2,251 2,703 44,994 50,650 43,918 54,856 24,690 39,356 .. .. 2,626 3,560 5,469 6,423 9,084 9,882 8,572,434 t 10,009,627 t 923,451 1,233,424 3,400,356 3,641,578 2,825,424 2,929,430 572,246 709,943 4,311,187 4,850,856 1,138,460 1,550,628 1,716,074 1,273,037 455,450 595,827 257,289 413,276 437,361 642,291 321,164 405,176 4,287,850 5,187,992 1,049,967 1,189,043

1.0 1.6 .. 0.0 60.6 5.0 .. .. 0.8 5.3 .. 11.4 4.5 71.0 81.8 .. 11.8 4.1 0.0 .. 91.0 33.9 77.7 0.8 18.7 13.6 .. .. 0.1 0.2 0.3 3.2 24.3 .. 1.2 76.5 .. 2.9 73.5 52.0 10.9 w 52.0 10.8 12.0 4.1 18.9 26.4 1.9 18.2 1.4 48.9 56.7 2.9 3.1

6.4 1.1 .. 0.0 55.5 5.0 .. .. 1.9 6.6 .. 11.7 3.2 52.9 80.3 .. 16.0 6.0 0.0 .. 91.5 17.1 74.3 0.3 15.2 8.7 .. .. 0.2 0.1 1.0 3.1 15.6 .. 1.0 58.3 .. 2.2 81.5 57.4 10.6 w 46.2 10.4 11.9 4.2 18.9 21.0 2.3 14.5 1.1 39.2 57.6 3.0 3.5

–3.8 –2.4 .. 4.3 3.4 1.8 .. 5.8 –0.9 3.3 .. 1.9 3.1 3.8 4.2 .. 0.7 0.8 2.6 –8.9 3.2 5.2 4.5 3.8 3.9 3.8 2.4 .. –4.5 5.3 0.8 1.7 2.4 1.7 2.2 4.5 .. 2.2 1.3 0.7 1.5 w 2.7 0.7 0.4 1.9 1.1 3.1 –3.0 2.8 4.1 3.6 2.3 1.8 1.1

2,689 1,644 –3.5 5,211 4,293 –2.1 .. .. .. 3,850 5,195 1.6 305 325 0.8 1,435 1,508 1.6 .. .. .. 4,384 7,058 2.8 4,056 3,480 –1.1 2,508 3,459 3.3 .. .. .. 2,592 2,404 –0.3 2,349 3,127 2.7 339 423 2.5 426 421 1.7 .. .. .. 5,452 5,740 0.4 3,740 3,875 0.2 984 841 –0.3 1,631 487 –10.1 385 404 0.4 777 1,235 4.4 290 305 1.6 4,770 6,708 3.2 679 852 2.3 944 1,057 2.0 2,912 3,244 0.3 .. .. .. 4,187 2,884 –3.8 9,550 10,860 1.2 3,686 3,982 0.6 7,728 7,996 0.4 725 809 1.7 2,098 2,029 –0.0 2,252 2,227 0.1 373 495 2.8 .. .. .. 221 197 –1.1 703 638 –1.0 887 769 –1.3 1,677 w 1,686 w 0.1 w 480 518 0.7 1,417 1,339 –0.4 1,337 1,226 –0.7 2,027 2,176 0.6 1,012 966 –0.4 715 854 1.9 3,681 2,684 –3.1 1,051 1,151 1.2 1,087 1,383 2.0 391 469 1.7 693 661 –0.3 4,847 5,423 1.1 3,580 3,904 0.8

142

2004 World Development Indicators

Energy production and use
About the data Definitions In developing countries growth in energy use is closely related to growth in the modern sectors—industry, motorized transport, and urban areas—but energy use also reflects climatic, geographic, and economic factors (such as the relative price of energy). Energy use has been growing rapidly in low- and middleincome countries, but high-income countries still use more than five times as much on a per capita basis. Energy data are compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA). IEA data for countries that are not members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are based on national energy data adjusted to conform to annual questionnaires completed by OECD member governments. Total energy use refers to the use of domestic primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels (such as electricity and refined petroleum products). It includes energy from combustible renewables and waste—solid biomass and animal products, gas and liquid from biomass, and industrial and municipal waste. Biomass is defined as any plant matter used directly as fuel or converted into fuel, heat, or electricity. (The data series published in World Development Indicators 1998 and earlier editions did not include energy from combustible renewables and waste.) Data for combustible renewables and waste are often based on small surveys or other incomplete information. Thus the data give only a broad impression of developments and are not strictly comparable between countries. The IEA reports (see Data sources) include country notes that explain some of these differences. All forms of energy—primary energy and primary electricity—are converted into oil equivalents. To convert nuclear electricity into oil equivalents, a notional thermal efficiency of 33 percent is assumed; for hydroelectric power 100 percent efficiency is assumed.
4 3 2 1 0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income Energy use per capita (thousands of kg of oil equivalent) 6 1990 5 2001 Source: Table 3.7. 0 United States China Russian India Federation Japan 1,000 500 1,500

3.7

ENVIRONMENT

3.7a
Energy use varies by country, even among the five largest energy users
Total energy use (millions of metric tons of oil equivalent) 2,500 1990 2,000 2001

• Total energy production refers to forms of primary energy—petroleum (crude oil, natural gas liquids, and oil from nonconventional sources), natural gas, solid fuels (coal, lignite, and other derived fuels), and combustible renewables and waste—and primary electricity, all converted into oil equivalents (see About the data). • Energy use refers to apparent consumption, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transpor t (see About the data). • Combustible renewables and waste comprise solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial waste, and municipal waste, measured as a percentage of total energy use.

Energy use per capita (thousands of kg of oil equivalent) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 United States China Russian India Federation Japan

3.7b
People in high-income countries use more than five times as much energy as do people in low-income countries

Source: Table 3.7.

Data sources The data on energy production and use come from IEA electronic files. The IEA’s data are published in its annual publications, Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries, Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, and Energy Balances of OECD Countries.

2004 World Development Indicators

143

3.8
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Energy efficiency, dependency, and emissions
GDP per unit of energy use Net energy imports a Carbon dioxide emissions

1995 PPP $ per kg oil equivalent 1990 2001 1990 % of energy use 2001 1990 Total million metric tons 2000 Per capita metric tons 1990 2000 1990

kg per 1995 PPP $ of GDP 2000

.. 3.5 5.1 2.7 5.8 1.2 3.7 6.6 1.4 9.1 1.1 4.1 2.1 4.5 .. .. 6.6 1.9 .. .. .. 4.4 2.9 .. .. 5.0 2.0 9.7 7.0 4.2 2.4 8.5 4.1 4.3 .. 2.7 6.4 5.9 2.8 4.3 6.6 .. 1.7 1.8 3.4 5.0 4.3 .. 1.3 4.7 4.1 5.7 6.1 .. .. 8.3

.. 6.4 5.0 2.2 6.8 3.3 4.2 6.8 1.7 9.7 1.9 4.3 2.9 4.3 4.8 .. 6.2 2.5 .. .. .. 4.2 3.2 .. .. 5.6 4.2 9.9 7.9 1.9 3.3 8.3 3.7 4.7 .. 3.2 7.3 5.7 4.4 4.5 6.2 .. 2.8 2.2 3.6 5.3 4.2 .. 4.2 5.6 4.3 5.8 5.7 .. .. 5.8

.. 8 –337 –356 –5 94 –80 68 –9 17 90 74 –6 –77 19 .. 27 67 .. .. .. –140 –31 .. .. 44 –4 100 –94 –1 –753 49 23 35 62 19 44 75 –171 –71 32 .. 34 7 59 51 –1,037 .. 83 48 18 59 24 .. .. 21

.. 61 –390 –415 –44 74 –117 68 –69 21 86 78 27 –62 25 .. 21 47 .. .. .. –94 –53 .. .. 64 0 100 –153 –4 –1,368 50 5 53 51 26 –37 81 –162 –24 45 .. 36 6 55 50 –769 .. 48 62 27 65 28 .. .. 26

2.6 7.3 80.4 4.6 109.7 3.7 266.0 57.5 47.1 15.4 94.6 100.5 0.6 5.5 4.7 2.2 202.6 75.3 1.0 0.2 0.5 1.5 428.8 0.2 0.1 35.3 2,401.7 26.2 55.9 4.1 2.0 2.9 11.9 16.8 32.0 137.9 50.7 9.4 16.6 75.4 2.6 .. 24.9 3.0 52.9 357.5 6.7 0.2 15.1 890.2 3.5 72.2 5.1 1.0 0.8 1.0

0.9 2.9 89.4 6.4 138.2 3.5 344.8 60.8 29.0 29.3 59.2 102.2 1.6 11.1 19.3 3.9 307.5 42.3 1.0 0.2 0.5 6.5 435.9 0.3 0.1 59.5 2,790.5 33.1 58.5 2.7 1.8 5.4 10.5 19.6 30.9 118.8 44.6 25.1 25.5 142.2 6.7 0.6 16.0 5.6 53.4 362.4 3.5 0.3 6.2 785.5 5.9 89.6 9.9 1.3 0.3 1.4

0.1 2.2 3.2 0.5 3.4 1.1 15.6 7.4 6.4 0.1 9.3 10.1 0.1 0.8 1.1 1.7 1.4 8.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 15.4 0.1 0.0 2.7 2.1 4.6 1.6 0.1 0.8 1.0 1.0 3.5 3.0 13.4 9.9 1.3 1.6 1.4 0.5 .. 16.2 0.1 10.6 6.3 7.0 0.2 2.8 11.1 0.2 7.1 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.2

0.0 0.9 2.9 0.5 3.9 1.1 18.0 7.6 3.6 0.2 5.9 10.0 0.3 1.3 4.8 2.3 1.8 5.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 14.2 0.1 0.0 3.9 2.2 5.0 1.4 0.1 0.5 1.4 0.7 4.4 2.8 11.6 8.4 3.0 2.0 2.2 1.1 0.1 11.7 0.1 10.3 6.2 2.8 0.2 1.2 9.6 0.3 8.5 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.2

.. 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.4 2.0 0.1 2.1 0.5 0.2 0.4 .. 0.3 0.2 1.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.5 1.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.7 0.6 .. 1.2 0.4 0.4 1.0 0.6 0.2 .. 2.4 0.1 0.5 0.3 1.2 0.1 1.4 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.1 1.0 0.1

.. 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.3 1.6 0.2 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.6 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.5 .. 0.9 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.2 1.3 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1

144

2004 World Development Indicators

Energy efficiency, dependency, and emissions
GDP per unit of energy use Net energy imports a Carbon dioxide emissions

3.8
kg per 1995 PPP $ of GDP 1990 2000

ENVIRONMENT

1995 PPP $ per kg oil equivalent 1990 2001 1990 % of energy use 2001 1990 Total million metric tons 2000 Per capita metric tons 1990 2000

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

4.3 3.7 3.6 3.9 3.3 .. 4.6 5.7 7.4 2.8 6.0 3.2 0.9 1.9 .. 3.9 2.5 1.6 .. 2.5 3.7 .. .. .. 2.6 .. .. .. 4.1 .. .. .. 4.7 1.3 .. 11.0 .. .. 10.4 3.0 4.5 3.9 3.4 .. 1.1 4.8 3.8 3.7 6.6 .. 5.9 7.7 7.4 2.5 7.0 ..

4.6 4.7 4.4 3.7 3.0 .. 7.0 5.6 7.8 2.1 5.8 3.7 1.7 1.8 .. 3.5 2.2 3.2 .. 4.1 3.2 .. .. .. 3.7 .. .. .. 3.6 .. .. .. 5.3 1.7 .. 9.0 .. .. 9.3 3.5 5.2 4.0 .. .. 1.1 5.5 3.0 3.8 5.1 .. 6.1 9.4 6.8 3.9 6.4 ..

30 50 8 –74 –161 –412 67 96 83 84 83 95 –12 18 13 76 –477 64 .. 87 94 .. .. –534 62 .. .. .. –117 .. .. .. –57 99 .. 89 5 0 67 5 9 13 29 .. –112 –460 –740 21 59 .. –48 –6 44 1 84 ..

53 57 18 –54 –106 –333 88 97 85 88 80 95 –108 18 6 82 –565 39 .. 60 97 .. .. –365 48 .. .. .. –50 .. .. .. –51 98 .. 95 2 –26 75 13 22 18 45 .. –117 –752 –546 25 79 .. –62 23 53 12 86 ..

2.6 58.5 675.3 165.2 212.4 49.3 29.8 34.6 398.9 8.0 1,070.7 10.2 252.7 5.8 244.6 241.2 42.2 11.0 0.2 12.7 9.1 .. 0.5 37.8 21.4 10.6 0.9 0.6 55.3 0.4 2.6 1.2 305.4 20.9 10.0 23.5 1.0 4.1 0.0 0.6 150.0 23.6 2.6 1.1 88.7 31.7 11.5 67.9 3.1 2.4 2.3 21.7 44.3 347.6 42.3 11.8

4.8 54.2 1,070.9 269.6 310.3 76.3 42.2 63.1 428.2 10.8 1,184.5 15.6 121.3 9.4 188.9 427.0 47.9 4.6 0.4 6.0 15.2 .. 0.4 57.1 11.9 11.2 2.3 0.8 144.4 0.6 3.1 2.9 424.0 6.6 7.5 36.5 1.2 9.1 1.8 3.4 138.9 32.1 3.7 1.2 36.1 49.9 19.8 104.8 6.3 2.4 3.7 29.5 77.5 301.3 59.8 8.7

0.5 5.6 0.8 0.9 3.9 2.7 8.5 7.4 7.0 3.3 8.7 3.2 15.3 0.2 12.3 5.6 19.9 2.4 0.1 4.8 2.5 .. 0.2 8.8 5.8 5.5 0.1 0.1 3.0 0.0 1.3 1.1 3.7 4.8 4.7 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 10.0 6.8 0.7 0.1 0.9 7.5 7.1 0.6 1.3 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.7 9.1 4.3 3.3

0.7 5.4 1.1 1.3 4.9 3.3 11.1 10.0 7.4 4.2 9.3 3.2 8.1 0.3 8.5 9.1 21.9 0.9 0.1 2.5 3.5 .. 0.1 10.9 3.4 5.5 0.1 0.1 6.2 0.1 1.2 2.4 4.3 1.5 3.1 1.3 0.1 0.2 1.0 0.1 8.7 8.3 0.7 0.1 0.3 11.1 8.2 0.8 2.2 0.5 0.7 1.1 1.0 7.8 5.9 2.3

0.2 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.9 .. 0.6 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.4 0.9 3.5 0.2 .. 0.7 0.9 1.4 0.1 0.8 1.1 .. .. .. 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.1 1.0 0.2 0.5 2.4 2.9 0.3 .. .. 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 1.2 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.2 1.4 0.4 0.3

0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.9 .. 0.4 0.6 0.3 1.3 0.4 0.8 2.0 0.3 .. 0.7 1.3 0.7 0.1 0.4 0.9 .. .. .. 0.4 0.9 0.2 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.8 0.3 0.5 1.3 2.2 0.4 .. .. 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.2

2004 World Development Indicators

145

3.8
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Energy efficiency, dependency, and emissions
GDP per unit of energy use Net energy imports a Carbon dioxide emissions

1995 PPP $ per kg oil equivalent 1990 2001 1990 % of energy use 2001 1990 Total million metric tons 2000 Per capita metric tons 1990 2000 1990

kg per 1995 PPP $ of GDP 2000

2.3 1.5 .. 2.9 4.1 .. .. 3.1 2.5 4.3 .. 3.4 6.2 6.4 2.3 .. 3.7 7.1 2.4 0.9 1.2 5.3 5.2 1.4 6.3 5.1 1.7 .. 1.6 .. 5.0 3.4 8.9 0.7 2.4 2.8 .. 3.0 1.2 2.8 3.5 w 3.1 2.7 2.5 3.7 2.8 .. 1.9 5.4 3.8 3.8 2.5 4.3 5.3

3.4 1.6 .. 2.0 4.3 .. .. 2.9 3.1 4.5 .. 3.5 6.0 7.3 3.3 .. 4.0 7.0 3.5 1.7 1.2 4.8 4.2 1.3 7.0 4.9 1.3 .. 1.4 .. 5.8 4.0 9.7 0.7 2.4 4.0 .. 3.8 1.2 2.8 4.2 w 3.6 3.7 3.7 4.0 3.7 .. 2.2 5.7 3.4 4.6 2.5 4.7 5.8

35 –44 .. –506 39 21 .. .. 75 45 .. –26 62 24 17 .. 36 61 –89 83 8 40 22 –118 –11 51 –332 .. 50 –516 2 14 49 10 –239 –1 .. –273 10 9 0w –6 –32 –19 –97 –27 –7 –8 –35 –275 11 –29 24 56

23 –60 .. –331 44 33 .. 100 65 54 .. –35 74 44 –59 .. 33 56 –146 58 7 47 26 –111 16 64 –229 .. 41 –343 –11 25 55 –10 –294 –28 .. –537 6 14 0w –8 –36 –21 –98 –30 –3 –19 –42 –203 20 –37 26 63

155.1 1,984.0 0.5 177.9 2.9 130.5 0.3 41.9 44.7 12.3 0.0 291.1 211.8 3.9 3.5 0.4 48.5 42.7 35.8 20.6 2.3 95.7 0.7 16.9 13.3 143.8 28.0 0.8 600.0 60.9 569.3 4,815.9 3.9 113.3 113.8 22.5 .. 9.4 2.4 16.6 21,297.5 t 1,653.2 9,169.8 7,561.2 1,608.5 10,823.2 3,051.3 4,818.2 962.7 751.1 765.9 471.8 10,480.8 2,463.9

86.3 1,435.1 0.6 374.3 4.2 39.5 0.6 59.0 35.4 14.6 .. 327.3 282.9 10.2 5.2 0.4 46.9 39.1 54.2 4.0 4.3 198.6 1.8 26.4 18.4 221.6 34.6 1.5 342.8 58.9 567.8 5,601.5 5.4 118.6 157.7 57.5 .. 8.4 1.8 14.8 22,994.5 t 2,066.7 9,129.1 7,116.3 2,012.0 11,196.2 3,752.3 3,162.6 1,357.4 1,227.2 1,220.3 478.8 11,804.3 2,414.6

6.7 13.3 0.1 11.3 0.4 12.4 0.1 13.8 8.4 6.2 0.0 8.3 5.5 0.2 0.1 0.6 5.7 6.4 3.0 3.7 0.1 1.7 0.2 13.9 1.6 2.6 7.2 0.0 11.5 33.0 9.9 19.3 1.3 5.3 5.8 0.3 .. 0.7 0.3 1.6 4.1 w 0.8 3.8 3.6 5.7 2.5 1.9 10.3 2.2 3.3 0.7 0.9 11.8 8.4

3.8 9.9 0.1 18.1 0.4 3.7 0.1 14.7 6.6 7.3 .. 7.4 7.0 0.6 0.2 0.4 5.3 5.4 3.3 0.6 0.1 3.3 0.4 20.5 1.9 3.3 7.5 0.1 6.9 21.0 9.6 19.8 1.6 4.8 6.5 0.7 .. 0.5 0.2 1.2 3.8 w 0.9 3.4 3.0 6.2 2.2 2.1 6.7 2.7 4.2 0.9 0.7 12.4 8.0

1.1 1.7 0.1 1.0 0.3 .. 0.1 1.0 1.0 0.6 .. 0.9 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 1.2 2.6 0.2 0.4 0.1 2.1 0.4 0.5 1.4 0.1 1.7 .. 0.5 0.7 0.2 3.7 1.1 0.3 .. 1.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 w 0.5 1.0 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.4 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4

0.7 1.5 0.1 1.7 0.3 .. 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 .. 0.9 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.1 0.9 0.3 0.6 0.3 2.4 0.3 0.6 2.1 0.1 1.9 .. 0.4 0.6 0.2 3.5 1.2 0.4 .. 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.6 w 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 1.2 0.4 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4

a. A negative value indicates that a country is a net exporter.

146

2004 World Development Indicators

Energy efficiency, dependency, and emissions
About the data The ratio of GDP to energy use provides a measure of energy efficiency. To produce comparable and consistent estimates of real GDP across countries relative to physical inputs to GDP—that is, units of energy use—GDP is converted to 1995 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) rates. Differences in this ratio over time and across countries reflect in part structural changes in the economy, changes in the energy efficiency of particular sectors, and differences in fuel mixes. Because commercial energy is widely traded, it is necessary to distinguish between its production and its use. Net energy imports show the extent to which an economy’s use exceeds its domestic production. High-income countries are net energy importers; middle-income countries have been their main suppliers. Carbon dioxide emissions, largely a by-product of energy production and use (see table 3.7), account for the largest share of greenhouse gases, which are associated with global warming. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions result primarily from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacturing. In combustion, different fossil fuels release different amounts of carbon dioxide for the same level of energy use. Burning oil releases about 50 percent more carbon dioxide than burning natural gas, and burning coal releases about twice as much. Cement manufacturing releases about half a metric ton of carbon dioxide for each metric ton of cement produced. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, calculates annual anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. These calculations are based on data on fossil fuel consumption (from the World Energy Data Set maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division) and data on world cement manufacturing (from the Cement Manufacturing Data Set maintained by the U.S. Bureau of Mines). Emissions of carbon dioxide are often calculated and reported in terms of their content of elemental carbon. For this table these values were converted to the actual mass of carbon dioxide by multiplying the carbon mass by 3.664 (the ratio of the mass of carbon to that of carbon dioxide). Although the estimates of global carbon dioxide emissions are probably within 10 percent of actual emissions (as calculated from global average fuel chemistry and use), country estimates may have larger error bounds. Trends estimated from a consistent time series tend to be more accurate than individual values. Each year the CDIAC recalculates the entire time series from 1950 to the present, incorporating its most recent findings and the latest corrections to its database. Estimates do not include fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport Definitions

3.8

ENVIRONMENT

because of the difficulty of apportioning these fuels among the countries benefiting from that transport.

• GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 1995 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. • Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. • Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

3.8a
Per capita emissions of carbon dioxide vary, even among the five largest producers of emissions
Carbon dioxide emissions (billions of metric tons) 6 1990 5 4 3 2 1 0 United States China Russian Federation Japan India 2000

Per capita carbon dioxide emissions (metric tons) 20

15

Data sources
10

The underlying data on energy production and use
5 0 United States China Russian Federation Japan India

are from electronic files of the International Energy Agency. The data on carbon dioxide emissions are from the CDIAC, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in the U.S. state of Tennessee.

Source: Table 3.8.

2004 World Development Indicators

147

3.9
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Sources of electricity
Electricity production Access to electricity Sources of electricity a

% of billion kwh 1990 2001 population 2000 Hydropower 1990 2001 1990 Coal 2001

% of total Oil 1990 2001 1990 Gas 2001 Nuclear power 1990 2001

.. 3.2 16.1 0.8 51.0 9.0 154.3 49.3 19.7 7.7 37.6 70.3 0.0 2.1 6.5 .. 222.8 42.1 .. .. .. 2.7 481.9 .. .. 18.4 621.2 28.9 36.2 5.6 0.5 3.5 2.0 8.9 15.0 62.6 26.0 3.7 6.3 42.3 2.2 .. 11.8 1.2 54.4 416.8 1.0 .. 11.2 547.6 5.7 34.8 2.3 .. .. 0.6

.. 3.7 26.6 1.6 90.2 5.7 216.9 62.4 19.0 16.3 25.0 78.6 0.1 4.0 10.4 .. 327.9 43.5 .. .. .. 3.5 587.9 .. .. 43.9 1471.7 32.4 43.5 5.7 0.3 6.9 4.9 11.8 15.3 74.2 37.7 10.3 11.1 82.7 3.9 .. 8.5 1.8 74.5 546.0 1.4 .. 6.9 579.8 7.9 53.1 5.9 .. .. 0.5

2.0 .. 98.0 12.0 94.6 .. .. .. .. 20.4 .. .. 22.0 60.4 .. 22.0 94.9 .. 13.0 .. 15.8 20.0 .. .. .. 99.0 98.6 .. 81.0 6.7 20.9 95.7 50.0 .. 97.0 .. .. 66.8 80.0 93.8 70.8 17.0 .. 4.7 .. .. 31.0 .. .. .. 45.0 .. 66.7 .. .. 34.0

.. 89.1 0.8 86.2 35.6 33.8 9.2 63.9 8.9 11.4 0.0 0.4 .. 55.3 52.2 .. 92.8 4.5 .. .. .. 98.5 61.6 .. .. 55.3 20.4 .. 76.0 99.6 99.4 97.5 72.4 48.8 0.6 2.3 0.1 9.4 78.5 23.5 73.5 .. 0.0 88.4 20.0 12.8 72.1 .. 58.3 3.2 100.0 5.1 76.0 .. .. 76.5

.. 96.3 0.3 63.2 41.1 16.8 7.6 67.0 6.9 6.0 0.1 0.6 2.3 54.6 48.8 .. 81.7 4.0 .. .. .. 98.1 56.7 .. .. 49.4 18.9 .. 73.2 99.7 99.7 81.5 36.7 52.7 0.5 2.8 0.1 5.4 64.0 17.1 29.8 .. 0.1 98.7 17.7 13.6 63.1 .. 79.9 3.5 84.1 4.0 32.9 .. .. 51.7

.. .. .. .. 1.3 .. 77.1 14.2 .. .. .. 28.2 .. .. 47.8 .. 2.1 35.4 .. .. .. .. 17.1 .. .. 34.3 71.2 98.3 9.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. 71.8 90.3 1.2 .. .. .. .. 90.0 .. 33.0 8.5 .. .. .. 58.8 .. 72.4 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 1.7 .. 78.3 12.7 .. .. .. 16.2 .. .. 50.7 .. 3.1 45.4 .. .. .. .. 20.1 .. .. 16.5 76.2 61.5 7.3 .. .. .. .. 13.9 .. 71.7 47.3 5.3 .. .. .. .. 90.2 .. 23.5 4.5 .. .. .. 51.9 .. 66.8 8.5 .. .. ..

.. 10.9 5.4 13.8 9.7 43.3 2.7 3.8 91.1 4.3 52.1 1.9 100.0 5.3 .. .. 2.5 4.7 .. .. .. 1.5 3.4 .. .. 7.6 7.9 1.7 1.1 0.4 0.6 2.5 27.6 35.8 91.5 4.8 3.7 88.6 21.5 36.9 6.8 .. 4.5 11.6 3.1 2.1 11.2 .. 5.0 1.9 .. 22.3 9.0 .. .. 20.6

.. 3.7 2.9 36.8 2.0 .. 1.3 3.2 28.4 9.4 7.7 2.1 97.7 17.4 0.5 .. 5.4 1.3 .. .. .. 1.9 2.9 .. .. 1.6 3.2 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 1.4 0.3 18.0 93.9 0.5 11.1 88.9 36.0 14.7 45.0 .. 0.5 1.0 0.9 1.0 20.6 .. 0.4 1.1 15.9 16.0 44.1 .. .. 48.3

.. .. 93.7 .. 39.0 22.9 10.6 15.7 .. 84.3 47.9 7.7 .. 37.6 .. .. 0.0 20.6 .. .. .. .. 2.0 .. .. 1.3 0.5 .. 12.4 .. .. .. .. 15.4 0.2 1.0 2.7 .. .. 39.6 .. .. 5.5 .. 8.6 0.7 16.4 .. 36.6 7.4 .. 0.3 .. .. .. ..

.. .. 96.8 .. 46.7 48.6 12.1 13.6 64.8 84.6 92.2 20.1 .. 26.1 .. .. 2.6 4.4 .. .. .. .. 6.1 .. .. 28.7 0.4 38.1 18.0 .. .. .. 63.0 15.4 0.0 4.2 24.6 .. .. 68.2 .. .. 9.1 .. 15.5 3.1 15.8 .. 19.7 9.9 .. 11.6 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 14.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. 60.8 .. .. .. .. 1.0 34.8 .. .. .. .. 15.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 35.3 75.4 .. .. .. 27.8 .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 7.8 34.6 .. .. .. .. .. 59.0 .. .. .. .. 4.4 44.9 .. .. .. .. 13.0 .. .. .. 1.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 19.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 30.6 77.1 .. .. .. 29.5 .. .. .. .. .. ..

148

2004 World Development Indicators

Sources of electricity
Electricity production Access to electricity Sources of electricity a

3.9
Nuclear power 2001 1990 2001

ENVIRONMENT

% of billion kwh 1990 2001 population 2000 Hydropower 1990 2001 1990 Coal 2001

% of total Oil 1990 2001 1990 Gas

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

2.3 28.4 289.4 37.0 59.1 24.0 14.2 20.9 213.2 2.5 850.8 3.6 82.7 3.0 27.7 105.4 18.5 11.9 .. 3.8 1.5 .. .. 16.8 16.5 .. .. .. 23.0 .. .. .. 122.7 11.2 .. 9.6 0.5 2.5 1.4 0.9 71.9 32.3 1.4 .. 12.6 121.6 4.5 37.7 2.7 .. 27.2 13.8 25.2 134.4 28.4 ..

4.0 36.4 576.5 101.7 130.1 34.9 24.6 43.8 271.9 6.7 1,033.2 7.5 55.4 4.4 20.2 281.5 33.5 13.7 .. 4.3 8.2 .. .. 21.5 14.4 .. .. .. 71.4 .. .. .. 209.6 3.6 .. 16.1 8.8 5.7 1.4 1.9 93.7 39.9 2.5 .. 18.1 121.3 9.7 72.4 5.1 .. 45.4 20.8 46.2 143.7 46.2 ..

54.5 .. 43.0 53.4 97.9 95.0 .. 100.0 .. 90.0 .. 95.0 .. 7.9 20.0 .. 100.0 .. .. .. 95.0 5.0 .. 99.8 .. .. 8.0 5.0 96.9 .. .. 100.0 .. .. 90.0 71.1 7.2 5.0 34.0 15.4 .. .. 48.0 .. 40.0 .. 94.0 52.9 76.1 .. 74.7 73.0 87.4 .. .. ..

98.3 0.6 24.8 17.6 10.3 10.8 4.9 0.0 14.8 3.6 10.5 0.3 8.3 81.6 56.3 6.0 .. 77.4 .. 65.8 33.3 .. .. .. 1.9 .. .. .. 17.3 .. .. .. 19.1 2.3 .. 12.7 62.6 48.1 95.2 99.9 0.1 72.3 28.8 .. 34.9 99.6 .. 44.9 83.2 .. 99.9 75.8 24.0 1.1 32.3 ..

59.5 0.5 12.8 10.5 3.9 1.8 2.4 0.0 17.2 1.7 8.1 0.6 14.6 54.7 52.5 1.5 .. 90.9 .. 66.2 4.1 .. .. .. 2.3 .. .. .. 9.9 .. .. .. 13.6 2.0 .. 5.4 99.5 32.1 96.7 99.0 0.1 53.8 8.0 .. 38.2 99.3 .. 26.2 48.8 .. 99.9 84.7 15.4 1.6 30.4 ..

.. 30.5 67.5 28.8 .. .. 57.4 50.1 16.8 .. 14.5 .. 72.3 .. 40.1 16.8 .. 9.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4.7 .. .. .. 6.3 34.4 .. 23.0 13.9 1.6 1.5 .. 38.3 1.5 .. .. 0.2 0.2 .. 0.1 .. .. .. .. 7.7 97.5 32.1 ..

.. 24.5 78.3 28.9 .. .. 37.6 75.1 13.5 .. 23.1 .. 69.9 .. 42.5 39.2 .. 4.5 .. 1.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.4 .. .. .. 11.1 3.3 .. 72.2 .. .. 0.4 .. 28.5 3.7 .. .. .. 0.2 .. 0.4 .. .. .. 0.9 40.6 95.2 29.5 ..

1.7 4.8 2.7 46.8 37.3 89.2 10.0 49.9 48.2 92.4 29.7 87.8 8.8 7.6 3.6 17.9 17.1 .. .. 7.9 66.7 .. .. 100.0 7.4 .. .. .. 55.9 .. .. .. 57.3 26.4 .. 64.4 23.6 10.9 3.3 0.1 4.3 0.0 39.8 .. 36.5 0.0 18.4 20.6 14.7 .. 0.0 21.5 46.7 1.2 33.1 ..

38.6 11.5 1.2 23.6 21.2 98.2 21.1 24.8 27.6 96.7 11.3 89.2 4.9 34.4 5.0 8.5 76.6 .. .. 2.2 95.9 .. .. 100.0 5.0 .. .. .. 8.6 .. .. .. 44.2 0.9 .. 21.1 0.5 10.9 2.9 1.0 3.3 .. 82.0 .. 8.2 0.0 17.7 36.0 50.8 .. 0.0 9.7 21.3 1.7 20.2 ..

.. 15.7 2.9 3.8 52.5 .. 27.7 .. 18.6 .. 19.4 11.9 10.6 .. .. 9.1 82.9 13.6 .. 26.3 .. .. .. .. 2.2 .. .. .. 22.0 .. .. .. 10.6 36.9 .. .. 0.2 39.3 .. .. 50.9 17.6 .. .. 28.5 .. 81.6 33.6 .. .. .. 1.7 .. 0.1 .. ..

.. 24.3 3.6 34.2 74.9 .. 37.1 0.0 38.3 .. 24.9 10.2 10.6 .. .. 10.8 23.4 4.5 .. 30.5 .. .. .. .. 13.0 .. .. .. 78.1 .. .. .. 24.0 93.7 .. .. 0.0 57.0 .. .. 58.9 31.2 .. .. 53.6 0.2 82.3 34.3 .. .. .. 3.8 0.1 0.9 15.6 ..

.. 48.3 2.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 23.8 .. .. .. .. 50.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 88.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. 38.8 3.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 31.0 .. .. .. .. 39.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 79.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

149

3.9
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Sources of electricity
Electricity production Access to electricity Sources of electricity a

% of billion kwh 1990 2001 population 2000 Hydropower 1990 2001 1990 Coal 2001

% of total Oil 1990 2001 1990 Gas 2001 Nuclear power 1990 2001

64.3 53.9 .. 1008.5 889.3 .. .. .. .. 64.9 137.4 97.7 0.9 1.7 30.1 36.5 31.8 .. .. .. .. 15.7 33.1 100.0 23.4 31.9 .. 12.1 14.5 .. .. .. .. 165.4 211.5 66.1 151.2 234.7 .. 3.2 6.6 62.0 1.5 2.6 30.0 .. .. .. 146.0 161.7 .. 54.6 70.5 .. 11.6 25.5 85.9 16.8 14.4 .. 1.6 2.8 10.5 44.2 102.4 82.1 0.1 0.0 9.0 3.6 5.6 99.0 5.8 11.2 94.6 57.5 122.7 .. 13.2 10.8 .. .. .. 3.7 252.5 172.8 .. 17.1 40.2 96.0 317.8 383.5 .. 3,181.5 3,863.8 .. 7.4 9.3 98.0 50.9 47.9 .. 59.3 90.0 94.0 8.7 30.6 75.8 .. .. .. 1.7 3.1 50.0 8.0 8.2 12.0 9.4 7.9 39.7 11,696.7 s 15,442.7 s .. w 606.4 1,017.2 37.4 3,756.1 5,133.7 94.0 3,091.3 4,098.3 93.9 664.8 1,035.4 .. 4,362.5 6,150.9 65.1 789.5 1,849.8 87.3 2,143.0 1,855.8 .. 607.0 962.2 86.6 261.5 514.6 90.4 338.9 673.7 40.8 222.5 294.8 24.7 7,334.2 9,291.8 .. 1,652.7 2,066.1 ..

17.7 17.0 .. .. .. 31.1 .. .. 8.0 28.2 .. 0.6 16.8 99.8 63.2 .. 49.7 54.6 48.6 94.7 95.1 11.3 4.6 .. 0.8 40.2 0.0 .. 3.2 .. 1.6 8.6 94.2 12.3 62.3 61.7 .. .. 99.2 40.5 18.1 w 32.8 21.2 22.0 17.2 22.8 21.6 12.9 63.7 10.0 27.6 18.4 15.4 11.0

27.7 19.6 .. .. .. 36.5 .. .. 15.5 26.2 .. 1.0 17.5 47.0 48.3 .. 49.0 58.6 39.0 97.7 91.7 6.2 6.3 .. 0.5 19.6 0.0 .. 7.0 .. 1.1 5.2 99.4 12.5 67.2 59.5 .. .. 99.4 37.8 16.6 w 22.7 22.5 23.5 18.6 22.5 18.3 16.9 56.5 6.1 14.7 19.7 12.7 12.4

28.8 15.3 .. .. .. 65.4 .. .. 32.2 36.2 .. 94.3 40.1 .. .. .. 1.2 0.1 .. .. .. 25.0 .. .. .. 35.1 .. .. 26.2 .. 65.0 53.4 .. 4.9 .. 23.0 .. .. 0.5 59.5 38.0 w 38.9 34.7 34.9 33.6 35.3 60.8 31.6 3.8 0.8 57.7 72.6 39.7 34.4

37.2 18.4 10.0 35.1 15.0 19.0 9.9 3.4 45.7 42.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. 61.5 63.5 38.5 36.5 .. 98.0 100.0 2.0 0.1 60.9 1.9 1.0 1.6 1.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. 100.0 52.7 .. 45.1 19.5 3.4 2.2 4.9 8.5 34.0 2.5 0.9 0.2 2.0 .. .. .. .. .. 94.0 .. .. .. .. 30.6 5.7 10.5 1.0 10.0 .. 0.2 53.0 .. .. .. 36.8 51.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.1 0.8 1.7 0.3 0.2 .. 0.5 0.1 0.6 1.2 .. 32.4 19.9 18.9 41.1 .. .. .. 5.3 2.3 3.2 4.9 5.1 .. .. 19.2 23.5 2.9 40.2 70.5 .. 95.4 93.8 .. .. .. 0.1 0.1 99.0 99.4 .. 35.5 9.8 63.7 89.4 31.3 6.9 8.5 17.7 40.4 .. .. .. 100.0 100.0 .. .. .. .. .. 27.5 10.1 4.0 31.2 17.4 .. 3.7 7.9 96.3 92.1 34.8 10.9 1.9 1.6 37.2 51.3 4.1 3.5 12.0 16.7 .. 5.1 0.2 .. .. 4.2 6.9 11.4 75.9 71.8 .. 11.5 10.4 26.2 22.4 10.5 15.2 15.5 0.1 14.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. 100.0 100.0 .. .. 0.2 0.3 0.4 .. .. 61.8 .. 0.4 .. .. 38.8 w 11.3 w 7.4 w 13.9 w 18.3 w 49.2 13.0 8.8 13.1 16.4 38.8 15.2 10.1 20.4 20.9 42.5 13.1 6.7 21.8 19.7 24.0 24.9 23.4 14.2 25.8 40.5 14.9 9.8 19.4 20.2 65.1 13.2 5.2 3.6 9.5 31.0 12.7 4.3 29.5 31.4 4.8 19.0 17.7 9.5 15.5 2.3 51.7 41.3 37.4 50.3 67.1 4.7 5.6 8.1 8.8 69.1 3.4 2.9 1.7 4.4 37.6 9.2 5.9 10.6 17.1 27.0 9.5 6.9 8.7 15.3

.. 11.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. 51.4 32.9 .. 5.1 35.9 .. .. .. 46.7 43.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 29.2 .. 20.7 19.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 17.2 w 1.1 7.6 7.2 9.5 6.7 .. 12.3 2.1 .. 1.9 3.8 23.4 35.5

10.1 15.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. 53.7 36.3 .. 5.1 27.1 .. .. .. 44.6 38.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 44.1 .. 23.5 20.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 17.2 w 2.1 6.9 6.9 7.1 6.1 0.9 16.0 3.1 .. 3.2 3.6 24.5 35.3

a. Shares may not sum to 100 percent because some sources of generated electricity are not shown.

150

2004 World Development Indicators

Sources of electricity
About the data Use of energy in general, and access to electricity in particular, are important in improving people’s standard of living. But electricity generation also can damage the environment. Whether such damage occurs depends largely on how electricity is generated. For example, burning coal releases twice as much carbon dioxide—a major contributor to global warming—as does burning an equivalent amount of natural gas (see About the data for table 3.8). Nuclear energy does not generate carbon dioxide emissions, but it produces other dangerous waste products. The table provides information on electricity production by source. Shares may not sum to 100 percent because some sources of generated electricity (such as wind, solar, and geothermal) are not shown. The International Energy Agency (IEA) compiles data on energy inputs used to generate electricity. IEA data for countries that are not members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and

3.9

ENVIRONMENT

The IEA makes these estimates in consultation with national statistical offices, oil companies, electricity utilities, and national energy experts. The IEA occasionally revises its time series to reflect political changes. Since 1990, for example, it has constructed energy statistics for countries of the former Soviet Union. In addition, energy statistics for other countries have undergone continuous changes in coverage or methodology as more detailed energy accounts have become available in recent years. Breaks in series are therefore unavoidable. There is no single internationally accepted definition for access to electricity. The definition used here covers access at the household level—that is, the number of people who have electricity in their home. It includes commercially sold electricity, both on-grid and off-grid. For countries where access to electricity has been assessed through surveys by government agencies,

Development (OECD) are based on national energy data adjusted to conform to annual questionnaires completed by OECD member governments. In addition, estimates are sometimes made to complete major aggregates from which key data are missing, and adjustments are made to compensate for differences in definitions.

3.9a
Sources of electricity generation have shifted differently in different income groups
Sources of electricity generation, by income group (% of total production) Low-income countries

50 40 30 20 10 0 Hydropower
Lower-middle-income countries

1990

2001

the definition also includes self-generated electricity. The data do not capture unauthorized connections.

Definitions

• Electricity production is measured at the termiCoal Oil Gas Nuclear power

nals of all alternator sets in a station. In addition to hydropower, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear power generation, it covers generation by geothermal, solar, wind, and tide and wave energy as well as that from combustible renewables and waste. Production includes the output of electricity plants designed to produce electricity only, as well as that of combined heat and power plants. • Access to electricity refers to the number of people with access to electricity

50 40 30 20 10 0 Hydropower
Upper-middle-income countries

Coal

Oil

Gas

Nuclear power

(both on-grid and off-grid) as a percentage of the total population (see table 2.1). • Sources of electricity refer to the inputs used to generate electricity: hydropower, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear power. • Hydropower refers to electricity produced by hydroelectric power plants. • Oil refers to crude oil and petroleum products. • Gas refers to natural gas but not natural gas liquids. • Nuclear power refers to

50 40 30 20 10 0 Hydropower
High-income countries

Coal

Oil

Gas

Nuclear power

electricity produced by nuclear power plants.

50 40 30 20 10 0 Hydropower
Source: Table 3.9.

Data sources The data on electricity production are from the IEA’s electronic files and its annual publications Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries, Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, and Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Data on
Coal Oil Gas Nuclear power

access to electricity are from the IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2002: Energy and Poverty.

2004 World Development Indicators

151

3.10
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Urbanization
Urban population Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million Population in largest city Access to improved sanitation facilities

% of total millions 1980 2002 population 1980 2002 1980

% of total population 2000 2015

% of urban population 1980 2001

% of urban population 1990 2000

% of rural population 1990 2000

2.5 0.9 8.1 1.5 23.3 2.0 12.6 5.1 3.3 12.7 5.4 9.4 0.9 2.4 1.5 0.2 81.2 5.4 0.6 0.2 0.8 2.8 18.6 0.8 0.8 9.1 192.8 4.6 17.8 .. 0.8 1.1 2.8 2.3 6.6 7.6 4.3 2.9 3.7 17.9 2.0 0.3 1.0 4.0 2.9 39.5 0.3 0.1 2.6 64.7 3.4 5.6 2.6 0.9 0.1 1.3

6.4 1.4 18.2 4.7 33.6 2.1 18.0 5.4 4.2 35.5 6.9 10.1 2.9 5.6 1.8 0.9 143.5 5.4 2.0 0.7 2.2 7.9 24.8 1.6 2.0 13.5 481.8 6.8 33.2 .. 2.4 2.4 7.3 2.6 8.5 7.6 4.6 5.7 8.2 28.4 4.0 0.8 0.9 10.9 3.1 45.0 1.1 0.4 2.9 72.5 7.4 6.4 4.8 2.2 0.5 3.1

16 34 44 21 83 66 86 67 53 15 57 95 27 45 36 18 67 61 8 4 12 31 76 35 19 81 20 91 63 .. 42 47 35 50 68 75 84 51 47 44 44 14 70 10 60 73 50 20 52 83 31 58 37 19 17 24

23 44 58 35 88 67 91 68 52 26 70 97 44 63 44 50 82 68 17 10 18 50 79 42 25 86 38 100 76 .. 67 60 44 59 76 75 85 67 64 43 62 20 69 16 59 76 83 32 57 88 37 61 40 28 33 37

6 .. 8 13 42 34 61 27 26 6 14 12 .. 14 .. .. 32 12 .. .. .. 11 32 .. .. 33 13 91 26 8 27 .. 15 .. 20 12 27 34 23 23 16 .. .. 3 13 21 .. .. 22 39 9 31 11 12 .. 13

10 .. 6 20 41 34 56 26 24 13 18 11 .. 18 .. .. 34 15 .. .. .. 21 37 .. .. 36 14 100 32 10 41 .. 21 .. 20 12 26 61 32 23 22 .. .. 4 23 21 .. .. 24 41 10 30 28 25 .. 22

14 .. 7 25 40 35 55 26 26 18 20 11 .. 20 .. .. 34 16 .. .. .. 27 38 .. .. 37 17 100 35 12 44 .. 25 .. 20 12 26 67 37 24 25 .. .. 6 25 20 .. .. 29 43 14 29 32 32 .. 28

39 .. 20 62 43 51 26 40 48 26 24 13 .. 33 .. .. 16 20 45 .. 44 19 16 .. .. 41 6 100 21 .. 263 56 44 28 29 15 32 50 29 38 35 .. .. 30 24 23 .. .. 42 10 30 54 29 75 .. 55

45 22 16 60 37 55 22 38 47 38 24 11 8 28 31 27 13 22 45 54 53 23 20 42 38 42 3 100 21 .. 158 43 54 42 27 16 29 47 27 35 35 63 42 27 31 22 55 100 .. 9 27 49 72 60 74 62

.. .. .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. 81 .. .. 46 73 .. 87 82 .. .. 65 .. 97 100 38 70 98 57 .. 96 .. .. .. 70 .. .. .. .. 70 88 96 87 .. .. 24 100 .. .. .. .. .. 56 .. 82 94 87 33

25 99 99 70 87 .. 100 100 90 71 .. .. 46 86 .. 88 84 100 39 68 56 92 100 38 81 96 69 .. 96 54 .. 89 71 .. 99 .. .. 70 92 100 89 66 93 33 100 .. 55 41 100 .. 74 .. 83 94 95 50

.. .. .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. 31 .. .. 6 26 .. 41 38 .. .. 89 .. 64 99 16 4 92 18 .. 55 .. .. .. 29 .. .. .. .. 60 49 79 62 .. .. 6 100 .. .. .. .. .. 64 .. 62 41 33 19

8 85 81 30 47 .. 100 100 70 41 .. .. 6 42 .. 43 43 100 27 90 10 66 99 16 13 97 27 .. 56 6 .. 97 35 .. 95 .. .. 60 74 96 76 1 .. 7 100 .. 43 35 99 .. 70 .. 79 41 44 16

152

2004 World Development Indicators

Urbanization
Urban population Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million Population in largest city

3.10
% of rural population 1990 2000 2000

ENVIRONMENT

Access to improved sanitation facilities

% of total millions 1980 2002 population 1980 2002 1980

% of total population 2000 2015

% of urban population 1980 2001

% of urban population 1990

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

1.2 6.1 158.5 32.9 19.4 8.5 1.9 3.4 37.6 1.0 89.0 1.3 8.0 2.7 9.8 21.7 1.2 1.4 0.4 1.7 2.2 0.2 0.7 2.1 2.1 1.0 1.6 0.6 5.8 1.2 0.4 0.4 44.8 1.6 0.9 8.0 1.6 8.1 0.2 1.0 12.5 2.6 1.5 0.7 19.1 2.9 0.3 23.2 1.0 0.4 1.3 11.2 18.0 20.6 2.9 2.1

3.7 6.6 294.5 91.0 42.9 16.3 2.3 6.0 38.8 1.5 100.5 4.1 8.3 11.0 13.7 39.5 2.2 1.7 1.1 1.4 4.0 0.5 1.5 4.8 2.4 1.2 5.1 1.7 14.3 3.6 1.7 0.5 75.4 1.8 1.4 16.8 6.3 14.0 0.6 3.0 14.5 3.4 3.0 2.5 60.7 3.4 2.0 48.9 1.7 1.0 3.2 19.7 48.1 24.2 6.8 2.9

35 57 23 22 50 66 55 89 67 47 76 60 54 16 57 57 91 38 12 68 74 13 35 69 61 53 19 9 42 18 28 42 66 40 52 41 13 24 23 7 88 83 50 13 27 71 32 28 50 13 42 65 37 58 29 67

55 65 28 43 65 68 60 92 67 57 79 79 56 35 61 83 96 34 20 60 90 29 46 88 69 60 31 15 59 32 60 42 75 42 57 57 34 29 32 13 90 86 57 22 46 75 77 34 57 18 57 73 60 63 67 76

.. 19 8 8 21 29 .. 37 24 .. 34 29 6 5 11 40 60 .. .. .. 40 .. .. 26 .. .. 6 .. 7 .. .. .. 28 .. .. 15 6 7 .. .. 14 .. .. .. 8 .. .. 15 .. .. 22 25 14 18 19 34

.. 18 10 10 23 31 .. 35 19 .. 38 29 8 8 14 47 60 .. .. .. 47 .. .. 34 .. .. 10 .. 6 .. .. .. 28 .. .. 18 17 9 .. .. 14 .. .. .. 12 .. .. 21 .. .. 23 29 16 18 57 36

.. 19 12 13 24 34 .. 33 20 .. 39 32 9 10 16 45 55 .. .. .. 48 .. .. 34 .. .. 13 .. 6 .. .. .. 25 .. .. 20 21 11 .. .. 14 .. .. .. 15 .. .. 25 .. .. 26 30 17 19 68 37

33 34 5 18 26 39 48 41 14 .. 25 49 12 32 19 38 67 .. .. 49 55 .. .. 38 .. .. 33 .. 16 40 .. .. 29 .. 49 26 35 27 .. .. 8 30 36 37 13 22 .. 22 62 .. 52 39 33 16 46 51

28 28 6 13 17 31 44 35 11 46 26 30 13 22 24 26 46 43 62 53 53 46 34 37 24 36 35 33 10 34 39 35 25 37 56 21 19 33 38 26 8 34 35 35 15 23 28 22 73 28 41 39 22 14 60 48

88 100 44 66 .. .. .. .. .. 99 .. 100 .. 91 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 97 .. .. 70 96 .. 95 44 100 87 .. .. 88 .. .. 84 69 100 .. 97 71 69 100 98 77 .. 92 96 77 85 .. .. ..

93 100 61 69 86 93 .. .. .. 99 .. 100 100 96 99 76 .. 100 67 .. 100 72 .. 97 .. .. 70 96 .. 93 44 100 88 100 46 86 68 84 96 73 100 .. 95 79 66 .. 98 95 99 92 94 79 93 .. .. ..

41 98 6 38 .. .. .. .. .. 99 .. 95 .. 77 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 96 .. .. 25 70 .. 62 19 100 26 .. .. 31 .. .. 14 15 100 .. 53 4 44 .. 61 17 .. 80 91 21 63 .. .. ..

55 98 15 46 79 31 .. .. .. 99 .. 98 98 82 100 4 .. 100 19 .. 87 40 .. 96 .. .. 30 70 98 58 19 99 34 98 2 44 26 57 17 22 100 .. 72 5 45 .. 61 43 83 80 93 49 69 .. .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

153

3.10
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Urbanization
Urban population Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million Population in largest city Access to improved sanitation facilities

% of total millions 1980 2002 population 1980 2002 1980

% of total population 2000 2015

% of urban population 1980 2001

% of urban population 1990 2000

% of rural population 1990 2000

10.9 12.4 97.0 105.0 0.2 0.5 6.2 19.1 2.0 4.8 4.5 4.2 0.8 2.0 2.4 4.2 2.6 3.1 0.9 1.0 1.4 2.6 13.3 26.5 27.2 31.9 3.1 4.4 3.9 12.4 0.1 0.3 6.9 7.4 3.6 4.9 4.1 8.9 1.4 1.7 2.7 12.0 8.0 12.5 0.6 1.6 0.7 1.0 3.3 6.5 19.5 46.4 1.3 2.2 1.1 3.7 30.9 33.2 0.7 2.8 50.0 53.1 167.6 224.0 2.5 3.1 6.5 9.3 12.0 21.9 10.3 20.1 .. .. 1.6 4.7 2.3 4.1 1.6 4.8 1,741.3 s 2,953.1 s 348.3 763.1 785.9 1,438.9 629.7 1,190.5 156.2 248.4 1,134.2 2,202.0 288.6 701.8 249.2 301.0 231.8 401.1 83.4 177.2 201.1 392.9 80.2 227.8 607.1 751.1 209.5 237.3

49 70 5 66 36 46 24 100 52 48 22 48 73 22 20 18 83 57 47 34 15 17 23 63 52 44 47 9 62 71 89 74 85 41 79 19 .. 19 40 22 39 w 22 39 35 66 32 21 59 65 48 22 21 73 73

55 73 6 87 49 52 38 100 58 49 28 58 78 23 38 27 83 67 52 28 34 20 34 75 67 67 45 15 68 88 90 78 92 37 87 25 .. 25 40 37 48 w 31 53 49 75 42 38 64 76 58 28 33 78 78

9 18 .. 19 17 11 .. 100 .. .. .. 27 20 .. 6 .. 17 .. 28 .. 5 10 .. .. 18 19 .. .. 14 .. 25 38 42 11 28 14 .. .. 9 9 .. w .. .. 16 .. .. .. 16 29 21 8 .. .. 26

9 19 .. 25 22 14 .. 89 .. .. .. 32 17 .. 9 .. 18 .. 28 .. 12 12 .. .. 20 27 .. .. 15 .. 23 38 37 9 29 13 .. .. 16 14 .. w .. .. 18 .. .. .. 18 32 22 12 .. .. 27

10 21 .. 24 27 15 .. 83 .. .. .. 36 17 .. 11 .. 18 .. 31 .. 18 15 .. .. 21 30 .. .. 17 .. 23 37 35 8 30 14 .. .. 22 19 .. w .. .. 21 .. .. .. 20 32 24 14 .. .. 27

18 8 .. 17 48 25 47 100 .. .. 27 13 16 .. 30 .. 20 20 26 .. 30 59 .. .. 35 23 .. 42 7 34 15 9 49 28 21 33 .. 15 23 39 18 w 17 18 16 29 18 13 15 27 30 9 27 18 17

16 8 76 25 46 30 43 100 15 26 48 12 13 16 24 28 22 19 27 30 19 61 46 6 30 21 23 39 7 35 15 8 43 24 15 24 .. 31 41 40 16 w 18 15 13 26 16 9 15 24 26 11 26 18 16

.. .. .. .. 86 .. .. .. .. 100 .. 93 .. 94 87 .. 100 100 .. .. 84 95 71 .. 96 97 .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. 52 .. 69 86 70 75 w 58 75 72 .. 68 61 .. 85 .. 52 75 .. ..

86 .. 12 100 94 100 88 100 100 .. .. 93 .. 97 87 .. 100 100 98 97 99 96 69 .. 96 97 .. 93 100 .. 100 100 95 97 71 82 .. 89 99 71 81 w 71 82 81 .. 78 72 .. 86 94 66 76 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 38 .. .. .. .. .. .. 80 .. 82 48 .. 100 100 .. .. 84 75 24 .. 48 70 .. .. .. .. 100 100 .. .. .. 23 .. 21 48 50 27 w 20 29 28 .. 24 24 .. 41 .. 11 45 .. ..

10 .. 8 100 48 99 53 .. 100 .. .. 80 .. 93 48 .. 100 100 81 88 86 96 17 .. 62 70 .. 77 98 .. 100 100 85 85 48 38 .. 21 64 57 38 w 31 43 42 64 36 36 .. 52 72 21 46 .. ..

154

2004 World Development Indicators

Urbanization
About the data The population of a city or metropolitan area depends on the boundaries chosen. For example, in 1990 Beijing, China, contained 2.3 million people in 87 square kilometers of “inner city” and 5.4 million in 158 square kilometers of “core city.” The population of “inner city and inner suburban districts” was 6.3 million, and that of “inner city, inner and outer suburban districts, and inner and outer counties” was 10.8 million. (For most countries the last definition is used.) Estimates of the world’s urban population would change significantly if China, India, and a few other populous nations were to change their definition of urban centers. According to China’s State Statistical Bureau, by the end of 1996 urban residents accounted for about 43 percent of China’s population, while in 1994 only 20 percent of the population was considered urban. In addition to the continuous migration of people from rural to urban areas, one of the main reasons for this shift was the rapid growth in the hun-

3.10

ENVIRONMENT

dreds of towns reclassified as cities in recent years. Because the estimates in the table are based on national definitions of what constitutes a city or metropolitan area, cross-country comparisons should be made with caution. To estimate urban populations, the United Nations’ ratios of urban to total population were applied to the World Bank’s estimates of total population (see table 2.1). The urban population with access to improved sanitation facilities is defined as people with access to at least adequate excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. The rural population with access is included to allow comparison of rural and urban

3.10a
More people now live in urban areas in low-income countries than in high-income countries . . .
Urban population, by income group (millions) 1,200 1980 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income 2002

access. This definition and the definition of urban areas vary, however, so comparisons between countries can be misleading.

Definitions

• Urban population is the midyear population of areas defined as urban in each country and reported to the United Nations (see About the data). • Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million is the percentage of a country’s population living in metropolitan areas that in 1990 had a population of more than 1 million. • Population in largest city is the percentage of a country’s urban population living in that country’s largest metropolitan area. • Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the urban or rural population with access to at least adequate excreta disposal facilities (private or shared but not public) that can effectively
Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income

. . . and the urban population is growing fastest in low- and lower-middle-income countries
Urban population as share of total population, by income group (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but pro-

Source: Table 3.10.

tected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained.

3.10b
Latin America was as urban as the average high-income country in 2002
Urban population as share of total population, by region (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 East Asia & Pacific Source: Table 3.10. Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 1980 2002 High-income countries, 2002

Data sources The data on urban population and the population in urban agglomerations and in the largest city come from the United Nations Population Division’s World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001 Revision. The total population figures are World Bank estimates. The data on access to sanitation in urban and rural areas are from the World Health Organization.

2004 World Development Indicators

155

3.11
Algeria Argentina Armenia Bangladesh

Urban environment
City Urban population Secure tenure House price to annual income ratio Work trips by public transportation Travel time to work Households with access to services Wastewater treated

thousands 2000

% of population 1998 a

1998 a

% 1998 a

minutes 1998 a

Potable water % 1998 a

Sewerage connection % 1998 a

Electricity % 1998 a

Telephone % 1998 a

% 1998 a

Barbados Belize Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil

Bulgaria

Burkina Faso

Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile

Colombia

Congo Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba

Czech Republic Dem. Rep. of Congo Dominican Republic Ecuador

Algiers 2,562 b Buenos Aires 2,996 b Córdoba 1,322 b Rosario 1,248 b Yerevan 1,250 b Chittagong 2,301 b Dhaka 10,000 b Sylhet 242 b Tangail 152 b Bridgetown .. Belize City 55 b Santa Cruz de la Sierra 1,065 c Sarajevo 522 c Belém 1,638 c Icapui .. Maranguape .. Porto Alegre 3b Recife 3,088 b Rio de Janeiro 10,192 b Santo Andre 1,658 b Bourgas .. Sofia 1,200 b Troyan 24 b Veliko Tarnovo .. Bobo-Dioulasso .. Koudougou .. Ouagadougou 1,130 c Bujumbura 373 b Phnom Penh 1,000 b Douala 1,148 b Yaoundé 968 b Hull 254 b Bangui .. N’Djamena 998 c Gran Concepción .. Santiago de Chile 5,737 b Tome .. Valparaiso 851 b Viña del mar 851 b Armenia .. Marinilla 170 b Medellin 2,901 b Brazzaville 989 b Abidjan 3,201 b Zagreb 2,497 b Baracoa .. Camaguey .. Cienfuegos .. Ciudad Habana .. Pinar Del Rio .. Santa Clara .. Brno .. Prague 1,193 b Kinshasa 5,398 b Santiago de los Caballeros 691 b Ambato 286 b

93.2 92.1 85.0 .. 100.0 .. .. .. 85.7 99.7 .. 87.0 .. .. 91.7 .. .. .. .. 80.3 .. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .. 100.0 97.0 .. .. .. 100.0 94.0 .. .. .. .. 91.8 92.7 94.1 94.5 .. 87.9 .. 96.5 96.2 84.7 96.3 .. 96.4 98.8 .. 99.3 94.9 .. ..

.. 5.10 6.80 5.7 4.0 8.1 16.7 6.0 13.9 4.4 .. 29.3 .. .. 4.5 .. .. 12.5 .. 23.4 5.1 13.2 3.7 5.4 .. .. .. .. 8.9 13.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5.0 8.5 .. .. 14.5 7.8 .. .. 4.0 8.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. 59 44 .. 84 27 9 10 .. .. .. .. 100 .. .. 30 .. 46 .. 43 61 79 44 46 .. .. 2 48 0 .. 42 16 66 35 57 60 .. 55 .. 42 18 38 55 .. 56 .. 2 .. 58 .. 7 50 55 72 .. ..

75 42 32 22 30 45 45 50 30 .. .. 29 12 .. 30 20 .. 35 .. 40 32 32 22 30 .. .. .. 25 45 40 45 .. 60 .. 35 38 .. .. .. 60 15 35 20 45 31 .. 60 80 83 80 48 25 22 57 30 ..

.. 100 99 98 98 44 60 29 12 98 .. 53 95 .. 88 73 99 89 88 98 100 95 99 98 24 30 30 26 45 34 34 100 31 42 100 100 92 98 97 90 98 100 56 26 98 83 72 100 100 97 95 100 99 72 75 90

.. 98 40 67 98 .. 22 0 0 5 .. 33 90 .. .. .. 87 41 80 95 93 91 82 98 .. .. .. 62 75 1 1 100 .. 0 91 99 52 92 97 50 93 99 0 15 97 3 47 73 85 48 42 96 100 0 80 81

.. 100 99 93 100 95 90 93 90 99 .. 98 100 .. 90 .. 100 100 10 100 100 100 100 100 29 26 47 57 76 95 95 100 18 13 95 99 98 97 98 99 100 100 52 41 100 93 97 100 100 100 100 100 100 66 .. 91

.. 70 80 76 88 .. 7 40 12 78 .. 59 .. .. 33 .. .. 29 .. 79 .. 89 45 96 6 7 11 19 40 9 9 100 11 6 69 73 58 63 65 97 65 87 18 5 94 32 .. 9 14 .. 43 69 100 1 71 87

80 .. 49 1 36 .. .. .. .. 7 .. 53 .. .. .. .. .. 33 .. .. 93 94 .. 50 .. .. 19 21 .. 5 24 100 0 21 6 3 57 100 93 .. .. .. .. 45 .. .. .. 2 .. .. .. 100 .. .. 80 ..

156

2004 World Development Indicators

Urban environment
City Urban population Secure tenure House price to annual income ratio Work trips by public transportation Travel time to work

3.11
Wastewater treated
Telephone % 1998 a % 1998 a

ENVIRONMENT

Households with access to services

thousands 2000

% of population 1998 a

1998 a

% 1998 a

minutes 1998 a

Potable water % 1998 a

Sewerage connection % 1998 a

Electricity % 1998 a

Ecuador

El Salvador Estonia Gabon Gambia Georgia Ghana Guatemala Guinea Indonesia

Iraq Italy Jamaica Jordan Kenya

Korea, Rep

Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mauritania Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Myanmar Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Oman Panama Paraguay Peru

Cuenca Guayaquil Manta Puyo Quito Tena San Salvador Riik Tallin Libreville Banjul Tbilisi Accra Kumasi Quetzaltenango Conakry Jakarta Semarang Surabaya Baghdad Aversa Kingston Montego Bay Amman Kisumu Mombasa Nairobi Hanam Pusan Seoul Kuwait City Bishkek Vientiane Riga Sin El Fil Monrovia Tripoli Vilnius Antananarivo Lilongwe Penang Nouakchott Ciudad Juárez Chisinau Ulaanbaatar Casablanca Rabat Yangon Leon Niamey Ibadan Lagos Muscat Colón Asunción Cajamarca

.. 2,317 b 126 b 40 b 1,531 b .. 1,863 b .. 397 c 523 c 50 b 1,310 c 1,500 b 780 b 333 b 1,824 c 9,489 b 1,076 b 2,373 b 4,797 c .. 655 c .. 1,621 b 134 b .. 2,310 c 124 b 3,843 b 10,389 b 1,165 c 60 b 562 b 775 c .. b 651 b 1,773 b 578 b 1,507 c 765 c .. 881 c 1,018 b .. 627 b 3,292 b 646 b 3,692 b .. 731 c 1,731 c 13,427 c 887 b 132 b 1,262 c ..

91.0 45.8 .. .. 93.8 .. 90.5 99.5 98.8 .. 91.8 100.0 .. 77.7 .. .. 95.5 80.2 97.6 .. .. .. .. 97.3 97.3 .. .. .. 100.0 98.6 .. 94.8 92.2 97.4 .. 57.6 .. 100.0 .. .. .. 89.9 .. .. 51.6 .. .. .. 98.8 87.4 85.8 93.0 .. .. 90.2 90.0

4.6 3.4 .. 2.1 2.4 6.3 3.5 .. 6.4 .. 11.4 9.4 14.0 13.7 4.3 .. 14.6 .. 3.4 .. .. .. .. 6.1 8.5 .. .. 3.7 4.0 5.7 6.5 .. 23.2 15.6 8.3 28.0 0.8 20.0 .. .. 7.2 5.4 .. .. 7.8 .. .. 8.3 .. .. .. .. .. 14.2 10.7 3.9

.. 89 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 80 55 .. 54 51 .. 26 .. .. 18 .. .. .. .. 21 43 47 71 .. 39 71 21 95 2 .. 50 80 18 52 .. 27 55 45 24 80 80 .. 40 69 .. .. 46 48 .. .. .. ..

25 45 30 15 33 5 .. .. 35 30 22 .. 21 21 15 45 .. .. 35 .. .. .. .. 25 24 20 57 .. 42 60 10 35 27 .. 10 60 20 37 .. 5 40 50 23 23 30 30 20 45 15 30 45 60 20 15 25 20

97 70 70 80 85 80 82 92 98 55 23 .. .. 65 60 30 50 34 41 .. .. 97 78 98 38 .. 89 81 98 100 100 30 87 95 80 .. 97 89 .. 65 99 .. 89 100 60 83 93 78 78 33 26 .. 80 .. 46 86

92 42 52 30 70 60 80 90 98 0 12 98 .. .. 55 32 65 .. 56 .. .. .. .. 81 31 .. .. 68 69 99 98 23 .. 93 30 .. 90 89 .. 12 .. .. 77 95 60 93 97 81 .. 0 12 .. 90 .. 8 69

97 .. 98 90 96 .. 98 98 100 95 24 100 .. 95 80 54 99 85 89 .. .. 88 86 99 49 .. .. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 98 .. 99 100 .. 50 100 .. 96 100 100 91 52 85 84 51 41 41 89 .. 86 81

48 44 40 60 55 .. 70 55 86 45 .. 58 .. 51 40 6 .. .. 71 .. .. .. .. 62 .. .. .. 100 100 .. 98 20 87 70 80 .. 6 77 .. 10 98 .. 45 83 90 .. .. 17 21 4 .. .. 53 .. 17 38

82 9 .. .. .. .. .. .. 10 44 .. .. .. .. .. .. 16 .. .. .. 90 20 15 54 65 50 52 81 69 99 .. 15 20 .. .. .. 40 54 .. .. 20 .. .. 71 96 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 62

2004 World Development Indicators

157

3.11
Peru

Urban environment
City Urban population Secure tenure House price to annual income ratio Work trips by public transportation Travel time to work Households with access to services Wastewater treated

thousands 2000

% of population 1998 a

1998 a

% 1998 a

minutes 1998 a

Potable water % 1998 a

Sewerage connection % 1998 a

Electricity % 1998 a

Telephone % 1998 a

% 1998 a

Philippines Poland

Qatar Russian Federation

Rwanda Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Singapore Slovenia Spain Sweden

Switzerland Syria Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Uruguay West Bank and Gaza Yemen Zimbabwe

Huanuco Huaras Iquitos Lima Tacna Tumbes Cebu Bydgoszcz Gdansk Katowice Poznan Doha Astrakhan Belgorod Kostroma Moscow Nizhny Novgorod Novomoscowsk Omsk Pushkin Surgut Veliky Novgorod Kigali Apia Belgrad Singapore Ljubljana Madrid Pamplona Amal Stockholm Umea Basel Damascus Bangkok Chiang Mai Lomé Port of Spain Tunis Ankara Entebbe Jinja Montevideo Gaza Aden Sana’a Bulawayo Chegutu Gweru Harare Mutare

747 b 54 b 347 b 7,431 b .. .. 2,189 b .. 893 c 3,487 c .. 391 c .. .. .. 9,321 c 1,458 c .. 1,216 c .. .. .. 358 b 34 b 1,182 b 3,164 b 273 b 4,577 b .. 13 b 736 b 104 b 170 b 2,335 b 5,647 b 499 b 663 b .. 2,023 b 2,837 b 65 b 92 b 1,670 b 367 b 1,200 b 1,200 b 900 b .. .. 1,634 b 149 b

.. .. 97.3 80.6 .. .. 95.0 60.5 .. 27.8 65.5 .. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 .. .. 96.5 100.0 98.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 77.2 96.5 64.0 78.6 .. 91.3 74.0 82.0 88.0 87.3 .. .. 99.4 51.5 94.0 99.9 ..

30.0 6.7 5.6 10.4 4.0 .. 13.3 4.3 4.4 1.7 5.8 .. 5.0 4.0 6.9 5.1 6.9 4.2 3.9 9.6 4.5 3.4 11.4 10.0 13.5 3.1 7.8 .. .. 2.9 6.0 5.3 12.3 10.3 8.8 6.8 .. .. 5.0 4.5 10.4 15.4 5.6 5.4 .. .. .. 3.4 .. .. ..

.. .. 25 82 .. .. .. 35 56 29 51 .. 66 .. 68 85 79 61 86 60 81 75 32 .. 72 53 20 16 .. .. 48 .. .. 33 28 5 40 44 .. .. 65 49 60 .. 78 78 75 20 .. 32 70

20 15 10 .. 25 20 35 18 20 36 25 .. 35 25 20 62 35 25 43 15 57 30 45 .. 40 30 30 32 .. .. 28 16 .. 40 60 30 30 .. .. 32 20 12 45 .. 20 20 15 22 15 45 20

57 .. 73 75 65 60 41 95 99 99 95 .. 81 90 88 100 98 99 87 99 98 97 36 60 95 100 100 .. 100 100 100 100 100 98 99 95 .. .. 75 97 48 65 98 85 .. 30 100 100 100 100 88

28 .. 60 71 58 35 92 87 94 94 96 .. 79 89 84 100 98 93 87 99 98 97 20 0 86 100 100 .. .. 100 100 100 100 71 100 60 70 .. 47 98 13 43 79 38 .. 9 100 68 100 100 88

80 71 82 99 74 80 80 100 100 100 100 .. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 57 98 100 100 100 .. 100 100 100 100 100 95 100 100 51 .. 95 100 42 55 100 99 96 96 98 9 90 88 74

32 .. 62 .. 16 25 25 85 56 75 86 .. 51 51 46 102 64 62 41 89 50 51 6 96 86 100 97 .. .. .. .. .. 99 10 60 75 18 .. 27 .. 0 5 75 38 .. .. .. 3 61 42 4

.. .. .. 4 64 .. .. 28 100 67 78 .. 92 96 96 98 98 97 89 100 93 95 20 .. 20 100 98 100 79 100 100 100 100 3 .. 70 .. .. 83 80 30 30 34 .. 30 30 80 69 95 .. 100

a. Data are preliminary. b. Data are for 1998 and are from United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. c. Data are for 2000 and are from the United Nations Population Division’s World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001 Revision.

158

2004 World Development Indicators

Urban environment
About the data Definitions Despite the importance of cities and urban agglomerations as home to almost half the world’s people, data on many aspects of urban life are sparse. The available data have been scattered among international agencies with different mandates, and compiling comparable data has been difficult. Even within cities it is difficult to assemble an integrated data set. Urban areas are often spread across many jurisdictions with no single agency responsible for collecting and reporting data for the entire area. Adding to the difficulties of data collection are gaps and overlaps in the data collection and reporting responsibilities of different administrative units. Creating a comprehensive, comparable international data set is further complicated by differences in the definition of an urban area and by uneven data quality. The United Nations Global Plan of Action calls for monitoring the changing role of the world’s cities and human settlements. The international agency with the mandate to assemble information on urban areas is the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS, or Habitat). Its Urban Indicators Programme is intended to provide data for monitoring and evaluating the performance of urban areas and for developing government policies and strategies. These data are collected through questionnaires completed by city officials in more than a hundred countries. The table shows selected indicators for more than 160 cities from the UNCHS data set. A few more indicators are included on the World Development Indicators CD-ROM. The selection of cities in the UNCHS database does not reflect population weights or the economic importance of cities and is therefore biased toward smaller cities. Moreover, it is based on demand for participation in the Urban Indicators Programme. As a result, the database excludes a large number of major cities. The table reflects this bias as well as the criterion of data availability for the indicators shown. The data should be used with care. Because different data collection methods and definitions may have been used, comparisons can be misleading. In addition, the definitions used here for access to potable water and urban population are more stringent than those used for tables 3.5 and 3.10 (see Definitions).

3.11
boundaries.

ENVIRONMENT

• Urban population refers to the population of the urban agglomeration, a contiguous inhabited territory without regard to administrative

• Secure tenure refers to the percentage of the population protected from involuntary removal from land or residence—including subtenancy, residence in social housing, and residences owned, purchased, or privately rented—except through due legal process. • House price to annual income ratio is the average house price divided by the average household income. • Work trips by public transportation are the percentage of trips to work made by bus or minibus, tram, or train. Buses or minibuses are road vehicles other than cars taking passengers on a farepaying basis. Other means of transport commonly used in developing countries, such as taxi, ferry, rickshaw, or animal, are not included. • Travel time to work is the average time in minutes, for all modes, for a one-way trip to work. Train and bus times include average walking and waiting times, and car times include parking and walking to the workplace. • Households with access to services are the percentage of households in formal settlements with access to potable water and connections to sewerage, electricity, and telephone service. Households with access to potable water are those with access to safe or potable drinking water within 200 meters of the dwelling. • Potable water is water that is free from contamination and safe to drink without further treatment. • Wastewater treated is the percentage of all wastewater undergoing some form of treatment.

3.11a
The use of public transportation for work trips varied widely across cities in 1998 Share of total work trips (%) 2 16 16 18 20 21 21 24 26 27 Share of total work trips (%) 95 85 84 82 80 80 80 80 79 78 Data sources The data are from the Global Urban Indicators database of the UNCHS and the United Nations Population Division’s World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001 Revision.
Source: Table 3.11.

Country Lao PDR Spain Canada Libya Slovenia Kuwait Jordan Mexico Guinea Malawi

City Vientiane Madrid Hull Tripoli Ljubljana Kuwait City Amman

Country Kyrgyz Republic Russian Federation Armenia Peru Gabon Liberia Mongolia Moldova Bulgaria Yemen, Rep.

City Bishkek Moscow Yerevan Lima Libreville Monrovia

Ulaanbaatar Chisinau Sofia Aden

Ciudad Juarez Conakry Lilongwe

2004 World Development Indicators

159

3.12
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Traffic and congestion
Motor vehicles Passenger cars Two-wheelers Road traffic Fuel prices

per 1,000 people 1990 1999–2001

per kilometer of road 1990 1999–2001 1990

per 1,000 people 1999–2001 1990

per 1,000 people 1999–2001

million vehicle kilometers 1990 1999–2001

$ per liter Super 2002 Diesel 2002

.. 11 .. 19 181 5 530 421 52 1 61 423 3 41 114 18 88 163 4 .. 1 10 605 1 2 81 5 66 .. .. 18 87 24 .. 37 246 368 75 35 29 33 1 211 1 441 494 32 13 107 405 .. 248 .. 4 7 ..

.. 66 .. .. 181 .. .. 536 52 1 112 515 .. 53 .. 69 .. 273 .. .. 6 .. 580 1 .. 133 12 77 51 .. .. .. .. 274 32 364 420 .. 48 .. 61 .. 404 2 461 575 .. .. 70 .. .. 328 52 .. .. ..

.. 3 .. .. 27 2 11 30 7 0 13 30 2 6 24 3 8 39 3 .. 0 3 20 0 0 13 4 253 .. .. 3 7 6 .. 16 46 27 48 8 33 14 1 22 2 29 32 4 5 27 53 .. 22 .. 1 2 ..

.. 11 .. .. 37 .. .. 22 17 .. .. 35 .. 8 .. 11 .. 60 .. .. 49 .. 20 0 .. 25 11 279 19 .. .. 13 .. 44 6 67 31 0 14 .. 36 .. 11 3 31 38 .. .. 15 .. .. .. 119 .. .. ..

.. 2 .. 14 134 1 450 387 36 0 59 385 2 25 101 10 .. 146 2 .. 0 6 468 1 1 52 1 42 .. .. 12 55 15 .. 18 228 320 21 31 21 17 1 154 1 386 405 19 6 89 386 .. 171 .. 2 4 ..

.. 43 .. .. 140 .. .. 495 42 0 145 462 .. .. .. 30 .. 234 .. .. .. .. 458 0 .. 87 7 57 43 .. .. .. .. 247 16 335 359 .. 43 .. 30 .. 339 1 403 477 .. .. 55 516 .. 254 1 .. .. ..

.. 3 .. .. 1 .. 18 71 5 1 .. 14 34 9 .. .. .. 55 9 .. 9 .. 12 0 0 2 3 4 8 .. .. 14 .. .. 19 113 9 .. 2 6 0 .. 66 0 12 55 .. .. 5 18 .. 120 .. .. .. ..

.. 1 .. .. .. .. 18 77 1 1 52 29 .. 3 .. 1 28 64 .. .. 134 .. 11 .. .. 2 26 5 12 .. .. 22 .. 14 16 73 13 .. 2 .. 5 .. 5 0 35 40 .. .. 1 56 .. 220 12 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 43,119 .. 138,501 .. .. .. 10,026 .. .. 1,139 .. .. .. .. .. .. 314 .. .. 1,494 .. .. .. 8,192 50,945 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 36,304 .. 10,306 .. 2,002 .. .. .. 39,750 422,000 .. .. 4,620 446,000 .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. 29 .. .. 27,458 .. .. .. .. .. 4,964 156,633 .. .. .. .. .. 213 .. .. 7,210 .. 73,500 .. .. .. 840,960 10,781 41,587 .. .. 551,139 .. 15,168 .. 7,753 45,165 .. 17,528 .. 4,244 .. 6,539 26,450 46,010 519,400 .. .. .. 589,500 15,320 79,377 4,547 .. .. ..

0.34 0.80 0.22 0.19 0.63 0.42 0.50 0.84 0.37 0.52 0.50 1.04 0.54 0.69 0.74 0.41 0.55 0.68 0.83 0.58 0.63 0.68 0.51 1.00 0.79 0.58 0.42 1.47 0.44 0.70 0.69 0.64 0.85 0.89 0.90 0.81 1.09 0.49 0.55 0.19 0.46 0.36 0.58 0.52 1.12 1.05 0.69 0.46 0.48 1.03 0.28 0.78 0.48 0.66 .. 0.54

0.27 0.51 0.10 0.13 0.46 0.29 0.48 0.73 0.16 0.29 0.36 0.80 0.41 0.42 0.74 0.38 0.31 0.59 0.62 0.54 0.44 0.57 0.43 0.87 0.77 0.39 0.37 0.77 0.24 0.69 0.48 0.44 0.60 0.74 0.45 0.71 0.94 0.27 0.27 0.80 0.33 0.25 0.56 0.32 0.80 0.80 0.53 0.40 0.41 0.82 0.23 0.68 0.32 0.56 .. 0.30

160

2004 World Development Indicators

Traffic and congestion
Motor vehicles Passenger cars Two-wheelers Road traffic

3.12
Fuel prices
$ per liter Super 2002 Diesel 2002

ENVIRONMENT

per 1,000 people 1990 1999–2001

per kilometer of road 1990 1999–2001 1990

per 1,000 people 1999–2001 1990

per 1,000 people 1999–2001

million vehicle kilometers 1990 1999–2001

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

22 212 4 16 34 14 270 210 529 .. 469 60 76 12 .. 79 .. 44 9 135 321 11 14 .. 160 132 6 4 124 3 10 59 119 53 21 37 4 .. 71 .. 405 524 19 6 30 458 130 6 75 .. .. .. 10 168 222 ..

60 271 10 25 .. .. 408 275 606 .. 572 .. 86 11 .. 255 .. .. .. 281 .. .. .. .. 345 170 .. .. .. .. .. 106 159 82 31 51 .. .. 82 .. 428 696 30 .. .. 511 .. 9 .. .. .. 43 32 307 347 ..

10 21 2 10 14 6 10 74 99 .. 52 26 8 5 .. 60 .. 10 3 6 183 4 4 .. 12 30 2 4 26 2 3 35 41 17 1 15 2 .. 1 .. 58 19 5 4 21 22 9 4 18 .. .. .. 4 18 34 ..

28 16 .. .. .. .. .. 108 74 .. 62 .. 16 4 .. 120 .. .. .. 11 .. .. .. .. 17 27 .. 0 .. .. .. 64 44 24 2 26 .. .. 2 .. 58 .. 8 .. .. 25 .. 5 .. .. .. 13 12 32 .. ..

.. 188 2 7 25 1 227 174 476 .. 283 .. 50 10 .. 48 .. 44 6 106 300 3 7 .. 133 121 4 2 101 2 7 44 82 48 6 28 3 .. 39 .. 368 436 10 5 12 380 83 4 60 .. .. .. 7 138 162 ..

51 237 6 .. .. .. 349 233 542 .. 413 .. 67 8 .. 171 .. 38 .. 235 .. .. .. .. 317 .. .. .. .. .. .. 78 107 64 18 41 .. .. 38 .. 384 578 12 .. .. 411 .. 5 .. .. .. 27 10 259 321 ..

.. 16 15 34 36 .. 6 8 45 .. 146 0 .. 1 .. 32 .. .. 18 76 13 .. .. .. 52 1 .. .. 167 .. .. 54 3 45 22 1 .. .. 1 .. 44 24 3 .. 5 48 3 8 2 .. .. .. 6 36 5 ..

14 14 29 59 .. .. 8 12 125 .. 110 .. 8 1 .. 59 .. 4 .. 9 .. .. .. .. 5 .. .. .. 233 .. .. 101 .. .. 10 1 .. .. 2 .. 25 20 5 .. .. 55 .. 15 3 .. .. .. 16 21 77 ..

3,288 22,898 .. .. .. .. 24,205 18,212 344,726 .. 628,581 1,098 18,248 5,170 .. 30,464 .. 5,220 .. 3,932 .. .. .. .. .. 3,102 41,500 .. .. .. .. .. 55,095 .. 340 .. 1,889 .. 1,896 .. 90,150 .. 108 178 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6,189 59,608 28,623 ..

.. 23,670 .. .. .. .. .. 37,010 67,916 .. 775,723 490,248 .. .. .. 67,266 4,450 1,933 .. .. .. .. .. .. 872 .. .. .. .. .. .. 78 .. 557 2,093 16,834 .. .. 2,317 .. 109,955 35,200 440 .. .. 32,589 .. 234,515 .. .. .. .. 9,548 138,100 47,943 ..

0.63 0.94 0.66 0.27 0.07 0.02 0.90 0.90 1.05 0.52 0.91 0.52 0.35 0.70 0.55 1.09 0.20 0.39 0.36 0.70 0.65 0.50 .. 0.10 0.69 0.85 1.08 0.66 0.35 0.69 0.63 .. 0.62 0.45 0.38 0.87 0.46 0.36 0.45 0.66 1.12 0.55 0.54 0.77 0.20 1.23 0.31 0.52 0.51 0.53 0.56 0.74 0.35 0.83 0.97 ..

0.46 0.85 0.41 0.19 0.02 0.01 0.80 0.62 0.86 0.44 0.66 0.17 0.29 0.56 0.41 0.51 0.18 0.25 0.30 0.65 0.25 0.47 .. 0.08 0.59 0.63 0.65 0.62 0.19 0.55 0.39 .. 0.47 0.31 0.37 0.55 0.43 0.28 0.43 0.34 0.81 0.33 0.41 0.55 0.19 1.18 0.26 0.35 0.36 0.34 0.34 0.48 0.27 0.68 0.71 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

161

3.12
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Traffic and congestion
Motor vehicles Passenger cars Two-wheelers Road traffic Fuel prices

per 1,000 people 1990 1999–2001

per kilometer of road 1990 1999–2001 1990

per 1,000 people 1999–2001 1990

per 1,000 people 1999–2001

million vehicle kilometers 1990 1999–2001

$ per liter Super 2002 Diesel 2002

72 87 2 165 11 137 10 130 194 306 2 139 360 21 9 66 464 491 26 3 5 46 24 .. 48 50 .. 2 63 121 400 758 138 .. .. .. .. 34 14 .. 118 w 7 40 25 149 26 9 97 100 48 4 21 505 429

160 176 .. .. 14 163 0 168 266 465 .. .. 467 37 .. 71 494 534 29 .. .. .. .. .. 79 85 .. .. .. .. 391 779 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. w 11 52 34 213 37 17 199 108 .. 10 .. 668 553

11 14 1 19 6 31 4 142 57 42 1 26 43 4 22 18 29 46 10 1 2 36 11 .. 19 8 .. .. 20 52 64 30 45 .. .. .. .. 8 3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

18 48 .. .. 2 39 .. .. 34 46 .. .. 54 7 .. 21 21 54 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14 .. .. .. .. 62 34 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

56 65 1 98 8 133 7 89 163 289 1 97 309 7 8 35 426 449 10 0 1 14 16 .. 23 34 .. 1 63 97 341 573 122 .. .. .. .. 14 8 .. 91 w 4 26 13 114 16 4 82 .. 31 2 14 396 379

139 132 .. .. 11 150 0 122 236 426 .. .. 408 12 .. 35 450 493 9 .. .. .. .. .. 53 63 .. .. 104 .. 384 481 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. w 8 40 26 166 28 10 152 72 .. 6 .. 436 494

13 .. .. 0 0 3 2 40 61 8 .. 8 79 24 .. 3 11 114 .. .. .. 86 8 .. .. 10 .. 0 .. .. 14 17 74 .. .. 45 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

14 43 .. .. 0 3 0 32 8 6 .. 4 92 42 .. 3 31 102 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 15 .. 3 46 .. 3 15 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

23,907 39,184 .. 59,522 .. .. .. .. .. 4,013 .. 1,428 996 .. .. .. .. 543 5,620 9,449 .. .. .. .. 100,981 201,896 3,468 15,630 .. .. .. .. 61,040 128,200 48,660 54,707 .. .. .. 1,730 .. .. 45,769 .. .. .. .. .. .. 14,635 27,041 52,631 .. .. .. .. 59,500 .. .. .. 399,000 462,400 2,527,441 2,653,043 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8,681 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.64 0.35 0.84 0.24 0.75 0.74 0.51 0.85 0.74 0.76 0.35 0.43 0.83 0.54 0.30 0.47 1.06 0.89 0.53 0.36 0.67 0.36 0.56 0.40 0.29 1.02 0.02 0.83 0.47 0.29 1.18 0.40 0.46 0.38 0.05 0.34 0.99 0.21 0.72 0.85 0.58 m 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.60 0.54 0.36 0.64 0.54 0.29 0.54 0.64 0.87 1.00

0.57 0.25 0.84 0.10 0.53 0.66 0.50 0.38 0.70 0.67 0.29 0.40 0.72 0.31 0.24 0.44 0.96 0.93 0.18 0.24 0.61 0.32 0.46 0.21 0.19 0.78 0.01 0.70 0.34 0.30 1.20 0.39 0.20 0.26 0.05 0.27 0.52 0.10 0.60 0.72 0.44 m 0.41 0.39 0.36 0.43 0.40 0.31 0.56 0.36 0.18 0.34 0.51 0.66 0.80

162

2004 World Development Indicators

Traffic and congestion
About the data Definitions Traffic congestion in urban areas constrains economic productivity, damages people’s health, and degrades the quality of their lives. The particulate air pollution emitted by motor vehicles—the dust and soot in exhaust—is proving to be far more damaging to human health than was once believed. (For information on particulate matter and other air pollutants, see table 3.13.) In recent years ownership of passenger cars has increased, and the expansion of economic activity has led to the transport by road of more goods and services over greater distances (see table 5.9). These developments have increased demand for roads and vehicles, adding to urban congestion, air pollution, health hazards, traffic accidents, and injuries. Congestion, the most visible cost of expanding vehicle ownership, is reflected in the indicators in the table. Other relevant indicators—such as average vehicle speed in major cities or the cost of traffic congestion, which takes a heavy toll on economic productivity—are not included because data are incomplete or difficult to compare. The data in the table—except for those on fuel prices—are compiled by the International Road Federation (IRF) through questionnaires sent to national organizations. The IRF uses a hierarchy of sources to gather as much information as possible. The primary sources are national road associations. Where such an association lacks data or does not respond, other agencies are contacted, including road directorates, ministries of transport or public works, and central statistical offices. As a result, the compiled data are of uneven quality. The coverage of each indicator may differ across countries because of differences in definitions. Comparability also is limited when time-series data are reported. Moreover, the data do not capture the quality or age of vehicles or the condition or width of roads. Thus comparisons over time and between countries should be made with caution. The data on fuel prices are compiled by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) from its global network of regional offices and representatives as well as other sources, including the Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil Club (for Europe) and a project of the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE, for Latin America). Local prices have been converted to U.S. dollars using the exchange rate on the survey date as listed in the international monetary table of the Financial Times. For countries with multiple exchange rates, the market, parallel, or black market rate was used rather than the official exchange rate.

3.12

ENVIRONMENT

• Motor vehicles include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but not two-wheelers. Population figures refer to the midyear population in the year for which data are available. Roads refer to motor ways, highways, main or national roads, and secondary or regional roads. A motorway is a road specially designed and built for motor traffic that separates the traffic flowing in opposite directions. • Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than twowheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver). • Two-wheelers refer to mopeds and motorcycles. • Road traffic is the number of vehicles multiplied by the average distances they travel. • Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of gasoline and of diesel fuel. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars (see About the data).

3.12a
The 10 countries with the most vehicles per 1,000 people in 2001—and the 10 with the fewest Vehicles per 1,000 people Country United States New Zealand Italy Canada France Japan Austria Switzerland Belgium Norway Motor vehicles 779 696 606 580 575 572 536 534 515 511 Country Mongolia Nicaragua Syrian Arab Republic Indonesia India Pakistan Cambodia Uganda Ethiopia Bangladesh Motor vehicles 31 30 29 25 10 9 6 5 2 1 Data sources The data on vehicles and traffic are from the IRF’s electronic files and its annual World Road Statistics. The data on fuel prices are from the
Note: Data are for the most recent year available between 1999 and 2001. Source: Table 3.12.

GTZ’s electronic files.

2004 World Development Indicators

163

3.13
Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada

Air pollution
City City population Particulate matter Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide About the data In many towns and cities exposure to air pollution is the main environmental threat to human health.
micrograms per thousands 2000 cubic meter 1999 micrograms per cubic meter 1995–2001 a microgram per cubic meter 1995–2001 a

Long-term exposure to high levels of soot and small particles in the air contributes to a wide range of health effects, including respiratory diseases, lung

Chile China

Colombia Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. Finland France Germany

Ghana Greece Hungary Iceland India

Córdoba Melbourne Perth Sydney Vienna Brussels Rio de Janeiro São Paulo Sofia Montreal Toronto Vancouver Santiago Anshan Beijing Changchun Chengdu Chongquing Dalian Guangzhu Guiyang Harbin Jinan Kunming Lanzhou Liupanshui Nanchang Pinxiang Quingdao Shanghai Shenyang Taiyuan Tianjin Urumqi Wuhan Zhengzhou Zibo Bogota Zagreb Havana Prague Copenhagen Guayaquil Quito Cairo Helsinki Paris Berlin Frankfurt Munich Accra Athens Budapest Reykjavik Ahmedabad Bangalore

1,370 3,293 1,245 3,855 1,904 983 5,902 9,984 1,177 3,519 4,535 1,880 4,522 3,132 9,302 3,766 4,401 3,945 4,389 495 2,103 4,545 3,037 2,037 2,044 2,330 1,594 1,754 2,316 10,367 5,881 2,811 7,333 1,467 4,842 2,214 3,139 5,442 908 2,270 1,211 1,371 2,120 1,598 7,941 1,095 9,851 3,555 668 1,275 1,938 3,229 1,958 164 4,154 5,180

52 15 15 22 39 31 40 46 83 22 26 15 73 99 106 88 103 147 60 74 84 91 112 84 109 70 94 80 .. 87 120 105 149 61 94 116 88 33 39 28 27 24 26 34 178 22 15 25 22 22 31 50 26 21 104 56

.. .. 5 28 14 20 129 43 39 10 17 14 29 115 90 21 77 340 61 57 424 23 132 19 102 102 69 75 190 53 99 211 82 60 40 63 198 .. 31 1 14 7 15 22 69 4 14 18 11 8 .. 34 39 5 30 ..

97 30 19 81 42 48 .. 83 122 42 43 37 81 88 122 64 74 70 100 136 53 30 45 33 104 .. 29 .. 64 73 73 55 50 70 43 95 43 .. .. 5 33 54 .. .. .. 35 57 26 45 53 .. 64 51 42 21 ..

cancer, and heart disease. Particulate pollution, on its own or in combination with sulfur dioxide, leads to an enormous burden of ill health. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides lead to the deposition of acid rain and other acidic compounds over long distances. Acid deposition changes the chemical balance of soils and can lead to the leaching of trace minerals and nutrients critical to trees and plants. Where coal is the primary fuel for power plants, steel mills, industrial boilers, and domestic heating, the result is usually high levels of urban air pollution— especially par ticulates and sometimes sulfur dioxide—and, if the sulfur content of the coal is high, widespread acid deposition. Where coal is not an important primary fuel or is used in plants with effective dust control, the worst emissions of air pollutants stem from the combustion of petroleum products. The data on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are based on reports from urban monitoring sites. Annual means (measured in micrograms per cubic meter) are average concentrations observed at these sites. Coverage is not comprehensive because not all cities have monitoring systems. The data on particulate matter concentrations are estimates, for selected cities, of average annual concentrations in residential areas away from air pollution “hotspots,” such as industrial districts and transport corridors. The data have been extracted from a complete set of estimates developed by the World Bank’s Development Research Group and Environment Department in a study of annual ambient concentrations of particulate matter in world cities with populations exceeding 100,000 (Pandey and others 2003). Pollutant concentrations are sensitive to local conditions, and even in the same city different monitoring sites may register different concentrations. Thus these data should be considered only a general indication of air quality in each city, and cross-country comparisons should be made with caution. The current World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines for annual mean concentrations are 50 micrograms per cubic meter for sulfur dioxide and 40 micrograms for nitrogen dioxide. The WHO has set no guidelines for particulate matter concentrations below which there are no appreciable health effects.

164

2004 World Development Indicators

Air pollution
City City population Particulate matter Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide Definitions

3.13

ENVIRONMENT

• City population is the number of residents of the city or metropolitan area as defined by national
micrograms per thousands 2000 cubic meter 1999 micrograms per cubic meter 1995–2001 a microgram per cubic meter 1995–2001 a

authorities and reported to the United Nations. • Particulate matter refers to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter that are

India

Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Ireland Italy

Japan

Kenya Korea, Rep

Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Singapore Slovak Republic South Africa

Spain Sweden Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

United States

Venezuela, RB

Calcutta Chennai Delhi Hyderabad Kanpur Lucknow Mumbai Nagpur Pune Jakarta Tehran Dublin Milan Rome Torino Osaka Tokyo Yokohama Nairobi Pusan Seoul Taegu Kuala Lumpur Mexico City Amsterdam Auckland Oslo Manila Lodz Warsaw Lisbon Bucharest Moscow Omsk Singapore Bratislava Capetown Durban Johannesburg Barcelona Madrid Stockholm Zurich Bangkok Ankara Istanbul Kiev Birmingham London Manchester Chicago Los Angeles New York Caracas

13,822 6,002 10,558 5,448 2,546 2,093 15,797 2,087 3,128 10,845 7,689 991 1,381 2,713 969 2,626 12,483 3,366 2,383 4,075 11,548 2,417 1,530 18,017 1,131 989 805 10,432 873 1,716 3,318 2,070 8,811 1,206 3,163 456 2,942 1,364 2,344 1,645 3,068 916 980 7,296 3,702 9,286 2,622 2,344 7,812 2,325 9,024 16,195 20,951 3,488

153 .. 187 51 136 136 79 69 58 103 71 23 36 35 53 39 43 32 49 43 45 49 24 69 37 15 23 60 45 49 30 25 27 28 41 22 15 29 30 43 37 15 24 82 53 62 45 17 23 19 27 38 23 18

49 15 24 12 15 26 33 6 .. 209 20 31 .. .. 19 18 100 .. 60 44 81 24 74 10 3 8 33 21 16 8 10 109 20 20 21 21 31 19 11 24 3 11 11 55 120 14 9 25 26 14 9 26 33

34 17 41 17 14 25 39 13 .. .. .. 248 .. .. 63 68 13 .. 51 60 62 .. 130 58 20 43 .. 43 32 52 71 .. 34 30 27 72 .. 31 43 66 20 39 23 46 .. 51 45 77 49 57 74 79 57

capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. The state of a country’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. • Sulfur dioxide is an air pollutant produced when fossil fuels containing sulfur are burned. It contributes to acid rain and can damage human health, particularly that of the young and the elderly. • Nitrogen dioxide is a poisonous, pungent gas formed when nitric oxide combines with hydrocarbons and sunlight, producing a photochemical reaction. These conditions occur in both natural and anthropogenic activities. Nitrogen dioxide is emitted by bacteria, motor vehicles, industrial activities, nitrogenous fertilizers, combustion of fuels and biomass, and aerobic decomposition of organic matter in soils and oceans.

Data sources
City population data are from the United Nations Population Division. The data on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are from the WHO’s Healthy Cities Air Management Information System and the World Resources Institute, which relies on various national sources as well as, among others, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) OECD Environmental Data Compendium 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report 1995, the Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) Executive International database, and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements’ (UNCHS) Urban Indicators database. The data on particulate matter concentrations are from a recent World Bank study by Kiran D. Pandey, Katharine Bolt, Uwe Deichman, Kirk Hamilton, Bart Ostro, and David Wheeler, “The Human Cost of Air Pollution: New Estimates for Developing Countries” (2003).

a. Data are for the most recent year available.

2004 World Development Indicators

165

3.14
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Government commitment
Environmental strategies or action plans Biodiversity assessments, strategies or action plans Participation in treaties a

3.14a
The Kyoto Protocol on climate change
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in

Law Climate change b Ozone layer CFC control of the Sea c Biological diversity b Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997 and was open for signature from March 1998 onward.

.. 1993 2001 .. 1992 .. 1992 .. 1998 1991 .. .. 1993 1994 .. 1990 .. .. 1993 1994 1999 .. 1990 .. 1990 .. 1994 .. 1998 .. .. 1990 1994 2001 .. 1994 1994 .. 1993 1992 1994 1995 1998 1994 1995 1990 .. 1992 1998 .. 1992 .. 1994 1994 1993 1999

.. .. .. .. .. .. 1994 .. .. 1990 .. .. .. 1988 .. 1991 1988 1994 .. 1989 .. 1989 1994 .. .. 1993 1994 .. 1988 1990 1990 1992 1991 2000 .. .. .. 1995 1995 1988 1988 .. .. 1991 .. .. 1990 1989 .. .. 1988 .. 1988 1988 1991 ..

2002 1995 1994 2000 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1994 2000 1996 1994 1995 2000 1994 1994 1995 1994 1997 1996 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 .. 1995 1995 1997 1994 1995 1996 1994 1994 1994 1999 1994 1995 1996 1995 1994 1994 1994 1994 1998 1994 1994 1994 1995 1994 1996 1994 1996 1996

.. 1999 1992 2000 1990 1999 1987 1987 1996 1990 1986 1988 1993 1994 1992 1991 1990 1990 1989 1997 2001 1989 1986 1993 1989 1990 1989 .. 1990 1994 1994 1991 1993 1991 1992 1993 1988 1993 1990 1988 1992 .. 1996 1994 1986 1987 1994 1990 1996 1988 1989 1988 1987 1992 2002 2000

.. 1999 1992 2000 1990 1999 1989 1989 1996 1990 1988 1988 1993 1994 1992 1991 1990 1990 1989 1997 2001 1989 1988 1993 1994 1990 1991 .. 1993 1994 1994 1991 1993 1991 1992 1993 1988 1993 1990 1988 1992 .. 1996 1994 1988 1988 1994 1990 1996 1988 1989 1988 1989 1992 2002 2000

.. 2003 f 1996 1994 1996 2002 f 1995 1995 .. 2001 .. 1998 1997 1995 1994 g 1994 1994 1996 .. .. .. 1994 2003 .. .. 1997 1996 .. .. 1994 .. 1994 1994 1994 g 1994 1996 .. .. .. 1994 .. .. .. .. 1996 1996 1998 1998 1996 f 1994 f 1994 1995 1997 1994 1994 1996

2002 .. 1994 f .. 1995 .. 1998 .. 1995 2001 1993 d 2003 f 1993 .. 1994 2002 2000 e 2000 f 1994 2001 f 1993 .. 1997 2002 1994 2002 f 1995 1999 2002 f .. 1996 2003 f 1994 2002 1996 2002 1993 .. 1997 2001 f 1995 f 2002 f 1995 2002 f 1993 2002 1995 .. 1994 .. 1994 2002 1993 2002 e .. .. 1995 2001 f 1995 .. 1996 .. 1994 2002 1995 .. 1997 .. 1994 .. 1994 e 2001 e 1994 2002 1996 2002 f 1993 2000 1994 .. 1994 1998 1996 f .. 1994 2002 1994 .. 1994 d 2002 1994 2002 e 2000 .. 1994 2001 f 1994 f 1999 f 1994 2002 1994 2003 f 1994 2002 1995 1999 1993 2000 f 1996 .. 1996 ..

At the heart of the protocol are its legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets for industrial and transition economies (known as “Annex I Parties”), which accounted for at least 55 percent of carbon dioxide emissions in 1990. The emissions targets amount to an aggregate reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by all Annex I Parties of at least 5 percent from 1990 levels during the commitment period, 2008–12. All Annex I Parties have individual emissions targets, which were decided in Kyoto after intensive negotiation and are listed in the protocol’s Annex B. The protocol’s rules focus on: • Commitments, including legally binding emissions targets and general commitments. • Implementation, including domestic steps and three novel implementing mechanisms. • Minimization of impacts on developing countries, including use of an Adaptation Fund. • Accounting, reporting, and review, including indepth review of national reporting. • Compliance, including a Compliance Committee to assess and deal with problem cases. In addition to emissions targets for Annex I Parties, the Kyoto Protocol also contains a set of general commitments that apply to all parties, such as: • Improving the quality of emissions data. • Mounting national mitigation and adaptation programs. • Promoting environmentally friendly technology transfer. • Cooperating in scientific research and international climate observation networks. • Supporting education, training, public awareness, and capacity building initiatives. The Protocol is subject to ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession by Parties to the Convention, which bind the parties to the protocol’s commitments, once the protocol comes into force. The table contains the latest information on dates of signature and ratification from the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the depository of the Kyoto Protocol. The dates are those of the receipt of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession. As of November 2003, 84 parties had signed the Kyoto Protocol and 120 parties had ratified or accepted it.

166

2004 World Development Indicators

Government commitment
Environmental strategies or action plans Biodiversity assessments, strategies or action plans Participation in treaties a

3.14
Chlorofluorocarbon-12

ENVIRONMENT

3.14b
Global atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons have leveled off
Parts per trillion 600

Law Climate change b Ozone layer CFC control of the Sea c Biological diversity b Kyoto Protocol

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

1993 1995 1993 1993 .. .. .. .. .. 1994 .. 1991 .. 1994 .. .. .. 1995 1995 .. .. 1989 .. .. .. .. 1988 1994 1991 .. 1988 1990 .. 2002 1995 .. 1994 .. 1992 1993 1994 1994 1994 .. 1990 .. .. 1994 1990 1992 .. .. 1989 1993 1995 ..

.. .. 1994 1993 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1992 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1991 .. 1988 1989 .. .. 1988 .. .. 1988 .. 1989 .. .. .. .. .. 1991 1992 1994 .. 1991 .. 1993 .. 1988 1989 1991 .. ..

1996 1994 1994 1994 1996 .. 1994 1996 1994 1995 1994 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1995 2000 1995 1995 1995 1995 2003 1999 1995 1998 1999 1994 1994 1995 1994 1994 1994 1995 1994 1996 1995 1995 1995 1994 1994 1994 1996 1995 1994 1994 1995 1994 1995 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 ..

1993 1988 1991 1992 1990 .. 1988 1992 1988 1993 1988 1989 1998 1988 1995 1992 1992 2000 1998 1995 1993 1994 1996 1990 1995 1994 1996 1991 1989 1994 1994 1992 1987 1996 1996 1995 1994 1993 1993 1994 1988 1987 1993 1992 1988 1986 1999 1992 1989 1992 1992 1989 1991 1990 1988 ..

1993 1989 1992 1992 1990 .. 1988 1992 1988 1993 1988 1989 1998 1988 1995 1992 1992 2000 1998 1995 1993 1994 1996 1990 1995 1994 1996 1991 1989 1994 1994 1992 1988 1996 1996 1995 1994 1993 1993 1994 1988 1988 1993 1992 1988 1988 1999 1992 1989 1992 1992 1993 1991 1990 1988 ..

1994 2002 1995 1994 .. 1994 1996 .. 1995 1994 1996 1995 f .. 1994 .. 1996 1994 .. 1998 .. 1995 .. .. .. 2003 f 1994 g 2001 .. 1997 1994 1996 1994 1994 .. 1997 .. 1997 1996 1994 1998 1996 1996 2000 .. 1994 1996 1994 1997 1996 1997 1994 .. 1994 1998 1997 ..

1995 1994 1994 1994 1996 .. 1996 1995 1994 1995 1993 d 1994 1994 1994 1995 e 1995 2002 1996 e 1996 e 1996 1995 1995 2000 2001 1996 1997 f 1996 1994 1994 1995 1996 1993 1993 1996 1993 1995 1995 1995 1997 1994 1994 d 1993 1996 1995 1994 1993 1995 1994 1995 1993 1994 1993 1994 1996 1994 ..

2000 2002 f 2002 f .. .. .. 2002 .. 2002 1999 f 2002 d 2003 f .. .. .. 2002 .. 2003 f 2003 f 2002 .. 2000 f 2002 f .. 2003 .. 2003 f 2001 f 2002 2002 .. 2001 f 2000 2003 f 1999 f 2002 f .. 2003 f 2003 f .. 2002 f 2002 1999 .. .. 2002 .. .. 1999 2002 1999 2002 2003 2002 2002 e ..

500

400

300

Chlorofluorocarbon-11

200

100

Chlorofluorocarbon-113

0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2001

Note: Chlorofluorocarbon-11, chlorofluorocarbon-12, and chlorofluorocarbon-113 are potent depletors of stratospheric ozone. Source: World Resources Institute and others 2002.

2004 World Development Indicators

167

3.14
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe

Government commitment
Environmental strategies or action plans Biodiversity assessments, strategies or action plans Participation in treaties a

3.14c
Global focus on biodiversity and climate change
Allocation of funds for Global Environment Facility programs, February 1991–January 2004 Total allocation: $19,944 million

Law Climate change b Ozone layer CFC control of the Sea c Biological diversity b Kyoto Protocol

By region
Regional projects 1%

1995 1999 1991 .. 1984 .. 1994 1993 .. 1994 .. 1993 .. 1994 .. .. .. .. 1999 .. 1994 .. 1991 .. 1994 1998 .. 1994 1999 .. 1995 1995 .. .. .. .. .. 1996 1994 1987

.. 1994 .. .. 1991 .. .. 1995 .. .. .. .. .. 1991 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1988 .. .. .. 1988 .. .. 1988 .. .. 1994 1995 .. .. .. 1993 .. 1992 .. ..

1994 1995 1998 1995 1995 2001 1995 1997 1994 1996 .. 1997 1994 1994 1994 1997 1994 1994 1996 1998 1996 1995 1995 1994 1994 .. 1995 1994 1997 1996 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1995 .. 1996 1994 1994

1993 1986 2001 1993 1993 1992 2001 1989 1993 1992 2001 1990 1988 1989 1993 1992 1986 1987 1989 1996 1993 1989 1991 1989 1989 1991 1993 1988 1986 1989 1987 1986 1989 1993 1988 1994 .. 1996 1990 1992

1993 1988 2001 1993 1993 1992 2001 1989 1993 1992 2001 1990 1988 1989 1993 1992 1988 1988 1989 1998 1993 1989 1991 1989 1989 1991 1993 1988 1988 1989 1988 1988 1991 1993 1989 1994 .. 1996 1990 1992

1997 1997 .. 1996 1994 2001 g 1995 1994 1996 1994 g 1994 1997 1997 1994 1994 .. 1996 .. .. .. 1994 .. 1994 1994 f 1994 .. .. 1994 1999 .. 1997 f .. 1994 .. .. 1994 .. 1994 1994 1994

1994 1995 1996 2001 e 1995 2002 1995 e 1996 1994 e 1996 .. 2000 1994 1994 1996 1995 1994 1995 1996 1997 e 1996 .. 1996 d 1996 1993 1997 1996 e 1993 1995 2000 1994 .. 1994 1995 e 1994 1995 .. 1996 1993 1995

2001 .. .. .. 2001 f .. .. .. 2002 2002 .. 2002 f 2002 2002 f .. .. 2002 2003 .. .. 2002 f 2002 .. 1999 2003 f .. 1999 2002 f .. .. 2002 .. 2001 1999 .. 2002 .. .. .. ..

Global projects 12% Europe & Central Asia 15% Africa 19%

Asia 38%

Latin America & Caribbean 20%

By focal area
Multiple areas 6% International waters 11% Ozone depletion 2% Persistent organic pollutants 1%

Biodiversity 26%

Climate change 54%

Source: Global Environment Facility data.

a. Ratification of the treaty. b. The years shown refer to the year the treaty entered into force in that country. c. Convention became effective November 16, 1994. d. Acceptance. e. Approval. f. Accession. g. Succession.

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2004 World Development Indicators

Government commitment
About the data Definitions National environmental strategies and participation in international treaties on environmental issues provide some evidence of government commitment to sound environmental management. But the signing of these treaties does not always imply ratification, nor does it guarantee that governments will comply with treaty obligations. In many countries efforts to halt environmental degradation have failed, primarily because governments have neglected to make this issue a priority, a reflection of competing claims on scarce resources. To address this problem, many countries are preparing national environmental strategies—some focusing narrowly on environmental issues, and others integrating environmental, economic, and social concerns. Among such initiatives are conservation strategies and environmental action plans. Some countries have also prepared country environmental profiles and biodiversity strategies and profiles. National conservation strategies—promoted by the World Conservation Union (IUCN)—provide a comprehensive, cross-sectoral analysis of conservation and resource management issues to help integrate environmental concerns with the development process. Such strategies discuss current and future needs, institutional capabilities, prevailing technical conditions, and the status of natural resources in a country. National environmental action plans, supported by the World Bank and other development agencies, describe a country’s main environmental concerns, identify the principal causes of environmental problems, and formulate policies and actions to deal with them (table 3.14a). These plans are a continuing process in which governments develop comprehensive environmental policies, recommend specific actions, and outline the investment strategies, legislation, and institutional arrangements required to implement them. Biodiversity profiles—prepared by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the IUCN—provide basic background on species diversity, protected areas, major ecosystems and habitat types, and legislative and administrative support. In an effort to establish a scientific baseline for measuring progress in biodiversity conservation, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) coordinates global biodiversity assessments. To address global issues, many governments have also signed international treaties and agreements launched in the wake of the 1972 United Nations Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm and the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit) in Rio de Janeiro, which produced Agenda 21—an array of actions to address environmental challenges: • The Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at levels that will prevent human activities from interfering dangerously with the global climate. • The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer aims to protect human health and the environment by promoting research on the effects of changes in the ozone layer and on alternative substances (such as substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons) and technologies, monitoring the ozone layer, and taking measures to control the activities that produce adverse effects. • The Montreal Protocol for CFC Control requires that countries help protect the earth from excessive ultraviolet radiation by cutting chlorofluorocarbon consumption by 20 percent over their 1986 level by 1994 and by 50 percent over their 1986 level by 1999, with allowances for increases in consumption by developing countries. • The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which became effective in November 1994, establishes a comprehensive legal regime for seas and oceans, establishes rules for environmental standards and enforcement provisions, and develops international rules and national legislation to prevent and control marine pollution. • The Convention on Biological Diversity promotes conser vation of biodiversity among nations through scientific and technological cooperation, access to financial and genetic resources, and transfer of ecologically sound technologies. But 10 years after Rio the World Summit on Sustainable Development recognized that many of the proposed actions have yet to materialize. To help developing countries comply with their obligations under these agreements, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created to focus on global improvement in biodiversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion. The UNEP, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the World Bank manage the GEF according to the policies of its governing body of country representatives. The World Bank is responsible for the GEF Trust Fund and is chair of the GEF. Data sources

3.14

ENVIRONMENT

• Environmental strategies and action plans provide a comprehensive, cross-sectoral analysis of conservation and resource management issues to help integrate environmental concerns with the development process. They include national conservation strategies, national environmental action plans, national environmental management strategies, and national sustainable development strategies. The year shown for a country refers to the year in which a strategy or action plan was adopted. • Biodiversity assessments, strategies, and action plans include biodiversity profiles (see About the data). • Participation in treaties covers five international treaties (see About the data). • Climate change refers to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (signed in New York in 1992). • Ozone layer refers to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (signed in 1985). • CFC control refers to the Montreal Protocol for

Chlorofluorocarbon Control (formally, the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, signed in 1987). • Law of the Sea refers to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (signed in Montego Bay, Jamaica, in 1982). • Biological diversity refers to the Convention on Biological Diversity (signed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992). The year shown for a country refers to the year in which a treaty entered into force in that country. • Kyoto Protocol refers to the protocol on climate change adopted at the third conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997 (for more details see box 3.14a).

The data are from the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Ozone Secretariat of the UNEP, the World Resources Institute, the UNEP, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center, and Center for International Earth Science Information Network.

2004 World Development Indicators

169

3.15
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Toward a broader measure of savings
Gross national savings a Consumption of fixed capital Net national savings Education expenditure Energy depletion Mineral depletion Net forest depletion Carbon dioxide damage Particulate emissions damage Adjusted net savings

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

.. 13.8 .. 23.3 22.3 13.9 19.7 21.4 21.5 28.5 18.6 23.4 9.2 12.2 7.5 .. 19.7 15.4 8.0 11.0 18.5 .. 23.2 .. .. 24.5 43.7 32.1 13.7 .. 34.6 15.1 20.5 21.2 .. 23.0 23.4 20.4 .. 15.1 14.2 21.7 20.2 15.4 27.0 21.1 40.7 .. 15.0 20.4 20.4 19.7 14.8 17.1 .. ..

.. 9.1 11.1 10.4 11.1 8.5 16.2 14.4 15.0 5.8 9.3 14.5 8.1 9.1 8.5 11.8 10.8 10.3 6.7 6.4 7.3 8.9 13.0 7.8 7.2 10.0 9.0 12.9 10.5 6.8 12.5 5.9 9.2 11.5 .. 12.2 15.4 5.3 10.6 9.5 10.4 5.2 14.2 6.1 16.1 12.4 12.9 8.4 15.7 14.8 7.1 8.7 10.1 8.1 7.7 1.9

.. 4.7 .. 12.9 11.2 5.3 3.5 7.0 6.5 22.7 9.3 8.9 1.1 3.1 –1.0 .. 8.9 5.1 1.3 4.6 11.2 .. 10.2 .. .. 14.4 34.7 19.2 3.2 .. 22.2 9.2 11.3 9.7 .. 10.7 8.0 15.1 .. 5.6 3.8 16.6 6.0 9.3 11.0 8.7 27.8 .. –0.7 5.5 13.3 11.0 4.7 9.0 .. ..

.. 2.8 4.5 4.4 3.2 1.8 5.2 5.0 3.0 1.3 5.4 3.0 2.7 4.8 .. 5.6 4.7 3.0 2.4 3.9 1.8 2.3 6.9 1.6 1.4 3.4 2.0 2.8 3.1 0.9 5.9 5.2 4.5 .. 6.1 4.4 7.7 1.7 3.2 4.4 2.2 1.4 6.3 4.0 7.0 5.6 2.2 3.4 4.3 4.4 2.8 3.1 1.6 2.0 .. 1.5

.. 1.0 33.4 36.3 5.4 0.0 1.2 0.1 38.7 0.8 2.2 0.0 0.1 5.9 0.1 0.0 2.9 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.2 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.7 0.0 6.5 1.8 47.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 .. 0.1 0.3 0.0 13.8 4.6 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.8 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0

.. 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.2 1.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 4.7 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.0

.. 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 10.4 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.0 .. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.6 0.0 0.0 12.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.0 0.9 1.9 0.0 0.9

.. 0.3 1.3 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.6 0.2 5.2 0.4 3.4 0.3 0.4 1.1 2.4 0.6 0.5 2.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.7 2.2 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.6 .. 1.2 0.2 0.9 1.2 1.0 0.3 0.5 2.2 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.3

.. 0.1 0.7 .. 1.6 2.0 0.1 0.2 1.0 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.4 .. 0.2 2.1 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.4 .. 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 .. 0.3 0.6 0.3 .. 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.4 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.7 2.5 0.1 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.2

.. 6.1 .. –19.6 b 6.5 4.0 5.4 11.5 –35.3 21.7 9.2 11.4 1.8 –0.5 .. .. 9.0 3.3 1.8 –2.3 11.9 .. 12.3 .. .. 11.2 30.7 21.8 –1.0 .. .. 13.5 14.1 .. .. 13.8 15.0 15.4 .. 2.7 4.9 16.9 9.4 –0.5 17.5 14.0 1.5 .. –0.5 9.5 11.3 12.8 4.2 6.5 .. ..

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2004 World Development Indicators

Toward a broader measure of savings
Gross national savings a Consumption of fixed capital Net national savings Education expenditure Energy depletion Mineral depletion Net forest depletion Carbon dioxide damage

3.15
Particulate emissions damage Adjusted net savings
% of GNI 2002 % of GNI 2002

ENVIRONMENT

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

23.3 23.5 22.3 18.2 38.9 .. 28.0 13.4 19.8 20.7 27.2 26.2 25.5 13.7 .. 27.3 19.4 17.4 .. 19.6 2.1 22.0 .. .. 17.4 12.9 8.5 0.8 34.5 3.2 .. 27.7 18.3 14.4 26.7 26.1 27.7 12.4 39.6 22.1 22.2 19.4 11.2 .. 13.1 32.0 .. 25.6 24.2 .. 14.2 17.2 24.5 16.6 19.3 ..

5.6 11.8 9.7 5.4 9.7 .. 12.5 13.2 13.6 11.6 15.8 10.6 10.0 7.9 .. 12.0 6.7 8.2 8.0 10.8 10.3 6.5 8.2 .. 10.1 9.8 7.9 7.0 11.7 8.4 8.1 10.8 10.5 7.3 12.1 10.0 8.3 .. 11.5 2.4 15.0 10.8 .. 7.1 8.3 15.9 11.5 7.7 7.6 8.6 9.0 10.4 7.9 11.2 15.3 7.4

17.7 11.7 12.6 12.7 29.2 .. 15.5 0.2 6.1 9.1 11.4 15.6 15.5 5.7 .. 15.3 12.7 9.2 .. 8.9 –8.2 15.4 .. .. 7.2 3.1 0.6 –6.3 22.8 –5.2 .. 16.9 7.8 7.2 14.6 16.1 19.4 .. 28.1 19.8 7.2 8.6 .. .. 4.8 16.1 .. 17.9 16.6 .. 5.2 6.7 16.5 5.4 4.0 ..

3.5 4.3 3.2 0.6 3.5 .. 5.7 6.9 4.7 5.8 3.6 5.6 4.4 6.1 .. 3.7 5.0 5.1 1.8 6.1 2.5 6.4 .. .. 5.2 4.9 1.9 4.4 4.1 2.1 3.7 3.3 4.6 10.3 5.7 4.9 3.8 0.9 8.5 3.2 4.9 6.9 3.7 2.3 0.5 6.9 4.1 2.3 4.8 .. 3.9 2.6 2.9 7.5 5.3 ..

0.0 0.3 2.3 8.6 29.7 .. 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 33.4 0.0 .. 0.0 42.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 0.0 0.0 38.7 4.2 40.3 3.6 0.0 10.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0

0.2 0.0 0.3 1.2 0.2 .. 0.1 0.1 0.0 1.2 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 .. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 .. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 2.3 0.2 0.0 .. 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.0 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 .. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 .. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 3.3 .. 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. 0.0 4.2 0.0 0.0 0.9 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.5 0.7 1.7 0.9 2.1 .. 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.2 1.2 4.4 0.4 .. 0.7 0.8 2.6 0.2 0.7 0.6 0.0 1.1 .. 0.9 2.0 0.3 0.3 1.0 0.2 2.4 0.4 0.5 3.3 4.8 0.7 0.3 .. 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.6 1.2 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.7 1.3 0.3 0.2

0.2 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.7 .. 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.2 .. 0.8 2.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.0 .. 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.5 .. .. 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.4 .. 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.8 0.1 .. 1.0 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.4 ..

20.4 14.6 9.8 2.1 0.1 .. 20.6 6.7 10.3 12.4 14.4 18.2 –18.3 11.0 .. 17.5 –27.3 10.5 .. 13.9 –6.8 18.9 .. .. 10.5 5.8 2.0 –3.7 16.8 –3.8 .. .. 6.5 13.6 12.7 19.9 22.4 .. 35.6 18.2 11.3 14.2 .. .. –34.7 18.4 .. 13.4 20.4 .. 8.3 6.0 18.0 10.5 8.6 ..

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3.15
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Toward a broader measure of savings
Gross national savings a Consumption of fixed capital Net national savings Education expenditure Energy depletion Mineral depletion Net forest depletion Carbon dioxide damage Particulate emissions damage Adjusted net savings

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

% of GNI 2002

19.9 30.6 12.2 28.9 11.5 .. .. 42.7 23.2 25.2 .. 16.5 24.0 19.9 13.1 7.2 21.4 26.8 24.3 5.0 14.5 30.4 8.0 28.9 22.7 16.7 36.3 15.8 27.1 .. 14.4 14.4 13.5 17.2 26.6 33.6 .. 24.1 .. .. 19.5 w 21.5 27.7 30.8 21.4 26.6 38.8 22.7 19.3 23.4 23.1 15.9 17.4 21.1

9.8 10.4 7.3 10.0 8.4 9.6 7.1 14.4 11.2 11.7 .. 13.3 12.8 5.1 8.3 8.9 13.4 14.9 10.4 7.4 7.5 14.9 7.8 11.9 10.1 7.0 9.7 7.6 19.0 .. 11.3 11.8 11.1 9.9 7.4 8.1 7.3 9.5 8.2 9.0 12.5 w 8.4 10.1 9.9 10.6 9.8 9.2 10.5 10.3 10.0 9.0 10.2 13.1 13.8

10.0 20.1 4.9 18.9 3.2 .. .. 28.3 12.0 13.5 .. 3.2 11.1 14.8 4.8 –1.7 8.0 12.0 13.9 –2.5 7.0 15.5 0.2 17.0 12.6 9.8 26.6 8.2 8.1 .. 3.1 2.6 2.4 7.3 19.2 25.4 .. 14.6 .. .. 7.0 w 13.1 17.6 20.9 10.8 16.8 29.6 12.2 9.0 13.4 14.0 5.8 4.3 7.4

3.6 3.6 3.5 7.2 3.7 .. 0.9 2.3 4.6 5.3 .. 7.6 4.6 2.9 0.9 5.1 8.3 4.9 2.6 2.0 2.4 3.6 4.2 3.3 6.6 2.2 .. 1.9 6.4 .. 5.3 5.4 3.0 9.4 4.3 2.8 .. .. 2.0 6.9 4.7 w 2.6 3.8 3.2 5.0 3.6 2.2 4.8 4.2 5.2 2.9 5.1 5.0 4.8

2.3 25.5 0.0 42.2 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 27.5 0.4 0.0 0.8 0.0 21.9 3.6 0.3 53.6 0.0 7.6 .. 0.6 0.9 0.0 51.7 27.0 6.7 0.0 36.0 0.0 0.3 1.9 w 5.9 7.7 6.6 9.7 7.4 3.4 9.7 5.2 26.3 2.2 8.1 0.7 0.0

0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.3 0.1 w 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 3.9 0.0 0.3 0.0 5.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 .. 0.3 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.9 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 5.6 0.0 .. 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 w 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 .. 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.7 .. ..

1.4 3.1 0.3 0.8 0.6 1.7 0.4 0.6 1.2 0.5 .. 2.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.7 3.8 0.3 1.1 1.0 1.9 0.7 0.7 4.8 0.2 6.3 .. 0.2 0.4 0.3 10.9 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.1 0.4 1.1 0.5 w 1.3 1.4 1.7 0.7 1.4 1.8 2.1 0.5 1.3 1.5 1.1 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.6 0.0 1.0 .. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.2 .. 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.0 0.3 1.2 0.3 0.0 1.0 .. 0.1 0.3 1.9 0.6 0.0 0.4 .. 0.5 .. 0.5 0.3 w 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.2

9.7 –5.7 4.2 –17.9 .. .. .. 29.6 15.2 18.2 .. 5.2 15.0 16.3 4.8 3.1 16.0 16.6 –13.6 –4.8 8.5 16.5 –1.4 –3.4 13.9 9.8 .. 4.3 –0.5 .. 7.5 6.4 3.0 –46.6 –4.8 19.3 .. .. .. .. 8.8 w 6.7 11.3 14.6 4.5 10.5 25.5 .. 6.3 –10.0 11.3 0.0 .. ..

a. The cutoff date for these data is February 2004; later revisions are not captured in this table. b. Adjusted net savings do not include particulate emission damage.

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Toward a broader measure of savings
About the data Definitions Adjusted net savings measure the change in value of a specified set of assets, excluding capital gains. If a country’s net savings are positive and the accounting includes a sufficiently broad range of assets, economic theory suggests that the present value of social welfare is increasing. Conversely, persistently negative adjusted net savings indicate that an economy is on an unsustainable path. Adjusted net savings are derived from standard national accounting measures of gross national savings by making four adjustments. First, estimates of capital consumption of produced assets are deducted to obtain net national savings. Second, current expenditures on education are added to net national savings (in standard national accounting these expenditures are treated as consumption). Third, estimates of the depletion of a variety of natural resources are deducted to reflect the decline in asset values associated with their extraction and harvest. And fourth, deductions are made for damage from carbon dioxide and particulate emissions. The exercise treats education expenditures as an addition to savings effort. But because of the wide variability in the effectiveness of government education expenditures, these figures cannot be construed as the value of investments in human capital. The accounting for human capital is also incomplete because depreciation of human capital is not estimated. There are also gaps in the accounting of natural resource depletion and pollution costs. Key estimates missing on the resource side include the value of fossil water extracted from aquifers, net depletion of fish stocks, and depletion and degradation of soils. Important pollutants affecting human health and economic assets are excluded because no internationally comparable data are widely available on damage from ground-level ozone or from sulfur oxides. Estimates of resource depletion are based on the calculation of unit resource rents. An economic rent represents an excess return to a given factor of production—in this case the returns from resource extraction or harvest are higher than the normal rate of return on capital. Natural resources give rise to rents because they are not produced; in contrast, for produced goods and services competitive forces will expand supply until economic profits are driven to zero. For each type of resource and each country, unit resource rents are derived by taking the difference between world prices and the average unit extraction or harvest costs (including a “normal” return on capital). Unit rents are then multiplied by the physical quantity extracted or harvested in order to arrive at a depletion figure. This figure is one of a range of depletion estimates that are possible, depending on the assumptions made about future quantities, prices, and costs, and there is reason to believe that it is at the high end of the range. Some of the largest depletion estimates in the table should therefore be viewed with caution. A positive net depletion figure for forest resources implies that the harvest rate exceeds the rate of natural growth; this is not the same as deforestation, which represents a change in land use (see Definitions for table 3.4). In principle, there should be an addition to savings in countries where growth exceeds harvest, but empirical estimates suggest that most of this net growth is in forested areas that cannot be exploited economically at present. Because the depletion estimates reflect only timber values, they ignore all the external and nontimber benefits associated with standing forests. Pollution damage from emissions of carbon dioxide is calculated as the marginal social cost per unit multiplied by the increase in the stock of carbon dioxide. The unit damage figure represents the present value of global damage to economic assets and to human welfare over the time the unit of pollution remains in the atmosphere. Pollution damage from particulate emissions is estimated by valuing the human health effects from exposure to particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter. The estimates are calculated as willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions (in particular, mortality relating to cardiopulmonary disease in adults, lung cancer in adults, and acute respiratory infections in children). Data sources

3.15

ENVIRONMENT

• Gross national savings are calculated as the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers. • Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production. • Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital. • Education expenditure refers to public current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. • Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers coal, crude oil, and natural gas. • Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to tin, gold, lead, zinc, iron, copper, nickel, silver, bauxite, and phosphate. • Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth. • Carbon dioxide emissions damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted. • Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions. • Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage.

Gross national savings are derived from the World Bank’s national accounts data files, described in the Economy section. Consumption of fixed capital is from the United Nations Statistics Division’s National Accounts Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables, 1997, extrapolated to 2002. The education expenditure data are from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Statistical Yearbook 1997, extrapolated to 2002. The wide range of data sources and estimation methods used to arrive at resource depletion estimates are described in a World Bank working paper, “Estimating National Wealth” (Kunte and others 1998). The unit damage figure for carbon dioxide emissions is from Fankhauser (1995). The estimates of damage from particulate emissions are from Pandey and others (2003). The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens (1999).

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4 ECONOMY

I

n 2002 the world economy grew by 1.9 percent, a slight increase from 1.3 percent in

2001, but below the 2.7 percent annual average in the 1990s. The world’s recorded

output—and income—grew by more than $1.1 trillion. Lower-middle-income economies saw the fastest growth, followed by low-income economies. Upper-middle-income economies, affected by slowing investment and widespread uncertainty in financial markets, experienced negative growth. High-income economies, accounting for 81 percent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP), almost doubled their growth over 2001, from 0.9 percent to 1.6 percent (figure 4a).

Over the past decade economic growth was fastest in East Asia and Pacific (averaging 7.3 percent a year) and South Asia (5.4 percent). Leading this growth were China and India, each accounting for more than 70 percent of its region’s output. These two regions even did comparatively well in 2002, with East Asia registering 6.7 percent growth—demonstrating its continuing recovery from the financial crisis in 1998, when annual growth fell to 0.7 percent—and South Asia recording 4.3 percent growth, a slight decline over 2001.

4a
Output declined in the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia in the 1990s, but recovered in the early 2000s, averaging 3.5
6

Economic growth varies by region
Average annual growth (%) 8 1980–90 1990–2000 2001 2002

percent

growth

for

2001–02.
4

Several countries of the former Soviet Union, such as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, have been and Turkmenistan, growth
0 2

registering

rates of more than 7 percent, buoyed by increased exports of natural gas and petroleum

–2 East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia South Asia SubMiddle East Saharan & North Africa Africa Latin America & Caribbean High income

products. But in Russia growth declined from 5 percent in 2001 to 4.3 percent in 2002.

Note: No data are available for Europe and Central Asia for 1980–90. Source: World Bank data files.

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In Latin America and the Caribbean and the Middle East and North Africa growth was faster in the 1990s than in the 1980s. But in Latin America growth decelerated sharply in 2001 and turned negative in 2002, with Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela experiencing large declines in growth and with Mexico growing only 0.9 percent and Brazil only 1.5 percent. However, the heavily indebted poor countries, many in SubSaharan Africa, registered 4.1 percent growth in 2002, following 4.7 percent growth in 2001. As a result, Sub-Saharan Africa did better in 2001 and 2002 than in the 1990s, when growth declined sharply. With two decades of high growth, the East Asia and Pacific region has nearly reached the GDP level of the Latin America and Caribbean region (figure 4b). By contrast GDP in the Europe and Central Asia region, almost equal to that of Latin America and the Caribbean in 1990, is now only about half its size after half a decade of negative growth. Steady growth has also moved South Asia ahead of the Middle East and North Africa, but GDP per capita lags far behind in this populous region. Patterns of change Most developing economies are following familiar patterns of growth, with agriculture giving way first to manufacturing and later to services as the main source of income. But some, such as Jordan and Panama, have moved directly from agriculture to service-based economies. For most economies services have been the fastest growing sector. In 1990–2002 the service sector grew by 3.6 percent a year in developing and transition economies and by 3 percent in high-income economies. Among developing regions South Asia had the fastest growth in services in the 1990s, at 7 percent a year, and Europe and Central Asia the slowest, at 0.8 percent (table 4.1).

In developing economies ser vices generated more than half of GDP in 2002, compared with 71 percent in highincome economies (table 4.2). But in East Asia and Pacific ser vices produced only 38 percent of GDP in 2002, and from 1990 to 2002 growth in manufacturing, at 9.8 percent a year, outpaced growth in ser vices, at 6.4 percent. This trend reflects the rapid growth of manufacturing in China (11.9 percent a year), which also had rapid expansion in ser vices (8.8 percent a year). The contribution of trade After expanding by 6.7 percent a year in 1990–2001, global trade (exports plus imports) grew by only 3.7 percent in 2002. High-income economies, which account for more than 75 percent of global trade, grew by only 2.3 percent in 2002, recovering from a slowdown in 2001. But trade by low-income economies grew by 5.6 percent. Trade in ser vices has grown rapidly, but trade in merchandise—primary commodities and manufactured goods— continues to dominate. In 2002 merchandise accounted for 81 percent of all exports of goods and commercial services, and manufactured goods for 78 percent of merchandise exports (tables 4.5 and 4.7). Exporters of primary nonfuel commodities saw their trade volumes increase, but a continuing decline in their terms of trade left them with less income (table 4.4). The economies of Sub-Saharan Africa were hit particularly hard. The structure of trade in services is also changing. Transport services are being replaced in importance by travel services. In the 1990s high-income countries were the main exporters of financial services. Now, many developing countries are emerging as exporters of these new services along with computer, information, and business services. The share of low- and middle-income economies in these new service exports is increasing slowly, rising by 1.1 percentage points between 1990 and 2002 (table 4.7). Increased globalization has enabled greater labor mobility, and worker remittances have been steadily growing in countries like India, resulting in favorable current account balances and increased reserves. India has the ninth largest reserves, ahead of many high-income countries. Japan has the largest reserves, followed by China. The increase in the price of gold from $277 in 2001 to $343 in 2002 resulted in a considerable increase in the reserves of many countries (table 4.15). Steady trends in consumption, investment, and saving Most of the world’s output goes to final consumption by households (including individuals) and governments. The share of final consumption in world output has remained fairly constant over time, averaging about 80 percent in 1990–2002 (table 4.9). Growth of per capita household consumption expenditure provides an important indicator of the potential for reducing poverty. In 1990–2002 per capita consumption grew by 5.5 percent a year in East Asia and Pacific but rose by only 0.1 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. It rose by 1.7 in Europe and Central Asia and by 2.7 percent in South Asia (table 4.10).

4b
With two decades of rapid growth, East Asia and Pacific has caught up with Latin America and the Caribbean
Gross domestic product (1995 $ billions) 2,000 Latin America & Caribbean East Asia & Pacific 1,500 Europe & Central Asia 1,000 South Asia Middle East & North Africa 500 Sub-Saharan Africa

0 1980

1985

1990

1995

2002

Source: World Bank data files.

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Output that is not consumed goes to exports (less imports) and gross capital formation (investment). Investment is financed out of domestic and foreign savings. In 2002 the global savings rate averaged 20 percent of total output. But global averages disguise large differences between countries. Savings rates are consistently lower in Sub-Saharan Africa. And they tend to be volatile in countries dependent on commodity exports. Gross domestic savings in the Middle East and North Africa rose from 23 percent of GDP in 1999 to 30 percent in 2000 and 29 percent in 2002, buoyed by higher oil prices. The highest savings rate was in East Asia and Pacific, where gross domestic savings averaged above 35 percent during most of the past decade and was 37 percent in 2002 (table 4.9). In 1990–2002 the rate of gross capital formation increased by about 6.9 percent a year in East Asia and Pacific and 6.5 percent in South Asia, but declined by 6.6 percent in Europe and Central Asia. East Asia and Pacific continued to have the highest investment rate in the world, at 32 percent of GDP in 2002. By contrast, investment averaged only 18 percent of GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa (tables 4.9 and 4.10). Fiscal affairs Developing countries have had larger overall central government deficits than high-income countries. But with the exception of East Asia and Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean, deficits have been falling. The South Asia region has the largest deficit among the developing regions. Central governments of developing economies had expenditures averaging 21 percent of GDP in 1999 and revenues (mainly from taxes on goods and services) averaging 17 percent of GDP, leaving a fiscal deficit of about 3 percent of GDP after taking grants into account (table 4.11). Government expenditures go mostly to the purchase of goods and services (including the wages and salaries of public employees) and to subsidies and current transfers to private and public enterprises and local governments. The rest go to interest payments and capital expenditures. In 2000 subsidies and current transfers accounted for 59 percent of government spending in high-income economies and 51 percent in Europe and Central Asia, but only 14 percent in the Middle East and North Africa (table 4.12). The sources of government revenue have been changing. Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains generated 23 percent of current revenues in 1990, but their share fell to 18 percent in 2000, whereas taxes on goods and services rose from 27 percent to 34 percent. High-income economies depended more on income taxes (26 percent) than did low- and middleincome economies, which derived 35 percent of their revenue from taxes on goods and services and 9 percent from taxes on trade (table 4.13). Governments, because of their size, have a large effect on economic performance. High taxes and subsidies can distort economic behavior, and large fiscal deficits make it harder to manage the growth of the money supply and thus increase the likelihood of inflation. As governments have adopted policies

leading to greater fiscal stability, inflation rates and interest rates have tended to decline (table 4.14). External debt increases In 2002 the external debt of low- and middle-income economies increased by $74 billion, or about 3 percent of their total debt stock, reversing the decline in 2001. Middle-income economies accounted for 75 percent of the increase. The increase was $47 billion in Europe and Central Asia, $12 billion in South Asia, $11 billion in the Middle East and North Africa, and $8 billion in Sub-Saharan Africa. By contrast, debt stocks fell by $2 billion in East Asia, and $1 billion in Latin America and the Caribbean (table 4.16). Debt management indicators are shown in table 4.17. Data on the economy The indicators in this section measure changes in the size and structure of the global economy and the varying effects of these changes on national economies. They include measures of macroeconomic performance (gross domestic product, consumption, investment, and international trade) and of stability (central government budgets, prices, the money supply, the balance of payments, and external debt). Other important economic indicators appear throughout the book, especially in the States and markets section (credit, investment, financial markets, tax policies, exchange rates) and the Global links section (trade and tariffs, foreign investment, and aid flows). Most of the indicators in this section remain the same as last year, with a few exceptions. Tables 4.7 and 4.8 now break out insurance and financial services and computer, information, and communications services. Balance of payments data (table 4.15) are presented in calendar years for all countries except Bhutan and Myanmar, which are still in fiscal years. Thus for countries whose data were previously reported in fiscal years, such as Egypt, India, and Pakistan, this year’s data will not be comparable with previous data. The switch from fiscal year to calendar year was made so that data will be consistent among countries and with the calendar year data in tables 4.5 and 4.6. In table 4.17 the gross national income (GNI) and export values used as denominators for calculating the ratio of the present value of debt are three-year averages instead of single year values. The switch, made to even out fluctuations in GNI and exports, is consistent with the methodology followed in other World Bank publications. Workers’ remittances are not included as part of exports. And because the level of public and publicly guaranteed debt is the primary concern of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Debt Initiative and of the Millennium Development Goals, public and publicly guaranteed debt service replaces total debt service as a ratio of GNI and as a ratio of exports, and multilateral debt service as a ratio of public and publicly guaranteed debt replaces public and publicly guaranteed debt service as a ratio of central government current revenue. The indicators dropped are still available on the World Development Indicators CD-ROM.
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4.a
Recent economic performance Gross domestic product Exports of goods and services Imports of goods and services GDP deflator Current account balance Total reserves a
months annual % growth 2002 2003 2002 annual % growth 2003 2002 annual % growth 2003 % growth 2002 2003 % of GDP 2002 2003 $ millions 2003 of import coverage 2003

Algeria Argentina Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Cameroon Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Estonia Ghana Guatemala Honduras India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Latvia Lesotho Lithuania

4.1 –10.9 12.9 10.6 4.4 2.8 3.9 3.1 1.5 4.8 4.4 2.1 8.0 1.6 3.0 4.1 3.4 3.0 2.1 6.0 4.5 2.2 2.5 4.3 3.7 6.7 1.1 4.9 9.8 1.0 6.1 4.5 6.7

6.8 7.0 12.0 9.3 5.3 2.4 3.5 3.7 –0.2 4.7 4.2 4.0 8.2 2.5 5.0 –1.3 2.5 3.1 2.2 4.5 4.7 2.4 1.5 6.8 4.1 6.2 3.0 3.0 9.0 1.3 7.0 3.9 6.3

4.7 3.1 29.0 16.6 –2.3 12.4 5.3 –4.8 7.8 6.2 1.6 5.6 29.4 –4.4 5.1 13.0 0.9 –10.4 5.7 6.0 –1.7 –3.2 2.1 9.9 –1.2 2.5 –5.3 11.6 22.6 –18.5 6.3 43.0 19.4

6.8 3.7 40.2 8.1 –0.4 14.6 11.5 6.9 14.2 14.3 3.8 5.7 22.7 5.4 8.5 8.0 1.8 14.0 3.4 3.8 2.7 5.2 –2.5 6.9 4.0 2.5 .. 4.1 26.7 5.7 8.2 0.0 23.1

17.8 –50.1 14.2 49.8 –11.2 7.7 –1.9 3.8 –12.8 4.7 3.4 0.4 27.5 0.6 7.0 13.9 17.2 –10.8 0.5 10.2 –4.4 4.2 2.1 17.9 –8.3 16.1 3.6 0.7 4.3 –16.7 4.5 15.0 16.1

4.6 39.1 33.8 39.2 0.8 –7.1 10.6 6.9 –1.9 21.2 –2.6 7.1 31.0 3.3 4.5 –7.0 1.7 0.2 5.2 7.9 7.7 2.9 1.3 14.2 2.0 13.1 .. 6.6 42.4 8.8 5.1 0.7 21.9

1.0 30.6 2.3 0.7 3.2 2.7 2.1 5.5 8.5 3.9 0.7 2.6 –0.3 6.1 9.1 6.4 11.8 4.0 1.3 4.1 22.8 8.0 6.2 3.0 7.2 21.5 8.0 0.5 5.8 8.7 1.8 9.0 0.0

7.3 10.7 4.0 5.9 4.4 3.7 1.1 5.6 10.1 2.5 1.1 3.0 1.1 7.4 9.3 28.0 8.8 3.9 2.8 4.4 27.6 5.5 9.8 4.3 6.6 23.4 10.0 0.8 6.6 7.2 3.0 9.8 0.0

.. 9.4 –6.3 –12.6 1.6 –4.4 –38.2 .. –1.7 –4.4 .. –0.9 2.8 –2.0 –5.6 –4.0 –5.0 0.7 –2.7 –12.3 –0.5 –5.1 –4.1 0.9 4.3 .. –14.2 5.0 –2.8 .. –7.7 –15.1 –5.2

10.9 6.1 –7.1 –26.9 0.6 –0.9 –17.7 9.0 0.4 –7.0 –3.1 –1.4 1.1 –2.5 –5.9 4.5 –3.3 1.9 .. –12.9 –0.5 –4.3 –7.6 –0.3 3.9 –1.5 –11.6 4.4 –1.7 –1.4 –8.3 –12.2 –5.9

.. 1,313 550 732 2,454 843 1,418 5,853 35,869 5,774 114 18,707 410,049 10,586 1,300 665 1,072 .. 1,607 1,386 811 2,667 1,492 78,222 36,246 23,706 1,037 3,940 4,852 1,564 .. 417 ..

.. 0.6 4.3 1.8 2.8 4.4 4.1 29.0 5.1 5.4 0.4 9.1 10.7 6.1 1.7 0.9 1.4 .. .. 2.4 2.4 4.3 4.5 8.8 7.0 7.6 2.2 6.5 4.0 4.1 .. 4.5 ..

continues on page 180

178

2004 World Development Indicators

ECONOMY

4.b
Key macroeconomic indicators Nominal exchange rate Real effective exchange rate Money and quasi money Gross domestic credit Real interest rate Shortterm debt a
% of % 2002 2003 exports 2002 2003

local currency units per $ 2003 % change 2002 2003 1995 = 100 2002 2003 2002 annual % growth 2003 2002 annual % growth

Algeria Argentina Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Cameroon Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Estonia Ghana Guatemala Honduras India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Latvia Lesotho Lithuania

72.6 2.9 566.0 4,923.0 58.8 7.8 1.5 4.4 2.9 1.5 519.4 599.4 8.3 2,780.8 418.5 37.3 1.0 6.2 8.8 12.4 8,753.9 8.0 17.7 45.6 8,465.0 8,272.1 60.5 0.7 144.2 76.1 0.5 6.6 2.8

2.4 232.2 4.1 2.5 1.6 9.8 –16.0 –21.7 52.2 –15.1 –16.0 8.6 0.0 24.5 10.8 23.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 –15.6 15.3 –2.4 6.3 –0.3 –14.0 354.2 7.4 0.0 2.9 –1.9 –6.9 –28.8 –17.2

–8.9 –12.5 –3.2 0.6 1.5 4.5 –17.0 –18.7 –18.2 –17.8 –17.0 –15.9 0.0 –2.9 10.5 75.8 0.0 36.7 0.0 –16.9 5.8 3.0 4.9 –5.0 –5.3 4.0 19.2 0.0 –6.7 –1.2 –8.9 –23.1 –16.6

101.7 .. 95.9 .. .. 115.4 .. .. .. 135.6 102.1 90.7 121.4 90.4 109.4 112.1 113.8 .. .. .. 81.0 .. .. .. .. 198.1 .. .. .. .. .. 60.8 ..

91.1 .. 85.8 .. .. 97.7 .. .. .. 143.2 106.5 85.3 111.8 77.2 98.1 73.0 111.7 .. .. .. 81.6 .. .. .. .. 187.3 .. .. .. .. .. 68.6 ..

.. 19.7 34.0 14.6 13.3 –6.9 9.4 –1.1 23.0 12.2 15.9 –0.3 19.4 13.6 20.9 10.3 .. 12.6 –3.1 11.2 48.9 11.8 13.7 16.8 4.5 27.5 12.0 8.6 30.1 11.7 19.9 8.8 16.9

.. 26.8 13.7 30.8 14.7 6.4 8.0 .. 2.3 19.6 3.7 9.8 20.4 10.2 17.3 72.6 .. .. 2.0 10.9 .. 21.3 17.3 11.9 8.4 23.0 12.6 16.2 43.0 12.2 20.6 1.5 18.3

.. 97.1 –8.1 84.2 12.2 4.9 27.7 –55.8 21.5 27.4 4.4 6.5 29.3 14.2 26.5 22.6 .. 13.1 –1.4 27.6 22.8 16.1 7.0 16.0 5.4 29.4 30.0 6.2 30.2 9.2 38.3 120.5 22.3

.. –4.0 –15.0 27.1 6.7 3.4 21.3 .. 7.3 37.3 2.1 2.5 19.5 11.5 19.2 57.3 .. .. 10.5 28.7 .. 7.2 30.3 9.8 3.3 42.5 68.3 4.4 35.8 9.3 38.4 –67.9 44.1

7.4 16.2 18.5 16.5 12.4 17.5 10.4 9.9 50.1 5.3 17.2 5.0 5.6 9.7 15.8 18.4 2.9 9.4 .. 2.5 .. 8.2 15.5 8.2 11.0 .. 9.7 9.7 .. 9.0 6.1 6.7 6.9

8.2 7.6 13.9 16.7 5.7 9.7 7.1 5.9 44.9 1.9 14.9 0.4 1.7 5.9 4.1 3.9 4.9 –0.8 .. –1.6 .. 1.8 5.4 1.7 3.7 .. 4.3 4.7 .. .. –0.5 0.9 0.8

.. 46.6 1.6 2.9 5.3 21.5 3.2 0.5 31.2 9.6 .. 16.0 12.8 22.1 20.0 19.3 30.3 17.3 16.9 27.9 22.6 16.9 16.3 5.2 34.1 6.5 16.9 8.0 9.9 22.7 101.1 0.7 27.5

continues on page 181

2004 World Development Indicators

179

4.a
Recent economic performance Gross domestic product Exports of goods and services Imports of goods and services GDP deflator Current account balance Total reserves a
months annual % growth 2002 2003 2002 annual % growth 2003 2002 annual % growth 2003 % growth 2002 2003 % of GDP 2002 2003 $ millions 2003 of import coverage 2003

Macedonia, FYR Malawi Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Moldova Morocco Nicaragua Pakistan Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Romania Russian Federation Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Slovak Republic South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Syrian Arab Republic Thailand Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Ukraine Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Zambia Zimbabwe

0.7 1.8 4.1 4.4 0.9 7.2 3.2 1.0 2.8 0.8 –2.3 4.9 4.4 1.0 4.3 4.3 1.1 4.0 4.4 3.0 4.0 1.6 2.7 5.3 2.7 1.7 7.8 4.8 –10.8 4.2 –8.9 3.3 –5.6

3.0 5.9 4.6 4.5 1.5 6.0 5.5 2.3 5.8 2.5 1.5 4.0 4.2 3.5 4.8 6.5 6.3 3.0 3.9 3.0 5.5 2.2 0.9 6.4 4.0 6.0 4.8 7.5 –1.0 1.0 –12.0 4.2 –13.6

–4.4 –3.8 3.6 9.4 1.4 14.6 6.3 –3.3 10.3 –4.2 –9.3 6.8 3.6 3.1 16.9 10.2 1.7 12.3 5.9 –1.4 5.6 1.6 2.1 10.9 –9.6 –2.1 4.8 9.1 –10.9 –8.8 –7.8 11.4 –0.8

9.3 –0.6 5.3 2.6 –0.3 11.8 0.6 –5.1 18.8 2.3 5.1 9.7 3.5 13.6 8.2 3.7 1.5 27.7 8.5 –0.9 5.5 –6.0 –17.8 6.8 10.2 4.0 4.2 5.0 10.0 2.8 –10.9 11.1 –10.0

10.7 17.6 6.2 5.2 1.6 13.9 5.6 –0.5 4.5 5.3 –15.0 2.4 4.7 –5.3 12.1 19.1 1.9 26.3 5.3 3.1 11.2 1.6 –2.4 11.3 2.5 –2.4 20.0 3.7 –28.3 –12.6 –26.7 3.5 –4.8

3.5 –16.6 10.6 4.1 –0.9 13.3 7.4 –7.1 20.2 8.1 6.3 8.8 6.2 8.3 6.4 2.7 –0.1 22.9 7.1 –0.7 7.9 –4.0 5.4 6.9 6.9 3.0 11.6 10.4 –3.0 –1.7 –37.5 4.1 –5.0

3.6 17.5 3.6 5.1 4.6 8.1 0.6 5.3 3.1 1.2 14.6 0.6 4.9 1.7 24.2 15.2 2.7 25.5 3.9 8.5 8.3 13.5 4.4 0.8 0.8 2.3 43.8 3.2 18.8 45.5 31.6 19.9 107.5

0.4 6.9 3.0 5.3 3.5 11.9 1.5 6.1 4.0 1.2 8.8 3.1 3.3 1.0 16.0 14.0 0.8 16.5 5.0 4.1 5.1 9.0 1.5 1.4 2.7 2.3 25.2 5.1 22.9 30.0 30.0 20.1 ..

–8.6 –10.6 7.6 5.7 –2.2 –6.4 4.1 –22.2 6.6 –1.3 5.3 –2.1 5.4 –2.6 –3.3 8.6 –9.5 –8.8 .. 0.3 –1.6 –3.8 .. 6.0 .. –3.5 –0.8 7.7 2.2 3.0 8.0 .. ..

–5.5 –12.5 8.3 3.3 –1.8 –8.2 0.7 –17.6 5.9 –3.8 0.3 –2.1 2.6 –0.1 –4.9 9.9 –6.6 –8.3 –5.6 0.5 –2.2 –6.3 0.1 9.6 5.9 –3.5 –3.2 6.5 2.7 6.7 8.6 –14.8 0.6

861 .. .. 1,151 52,705 258 .. 447 9,630 1,269 859 11,026 16,115 31,747 7,794 74,098 555 3,325 12,126 7,495 2,200 272 4,450 42,100 3,401 .. 36,832 6,874 1,486 1,743 15,844 245 ..

4.2 .. .. 5.1 3.1 1.9 .. 2.5 7.0 2.9 3.1 10.1 3.9 6.4 4.3 8.9 2.9 4.5 7.0 2.4 3.2 1.8 6.8 6.8 8.2 .. 5.8 3.4 5.8 6.9 12.2 1.5 ..

Note: Data for 2003 are the latest preliminary estimates and may differ from those in earlier World Bank publications. a. International reserves including gold valued at London gold price. Source: World Bank staff estimates.

180

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ECONOMY

4.b
Key macroeconomic indicators Nominal exchange rate Real effective exchange rate Money and quasi money Gross domestic credit Real interest rate Shortterm debt a
% of % 2002 2003 exports 2002 2003

local currency units per $ 2003 % change 2002 2003 1995 = 100 2002 2003 2002 annual % growth 2003 2002 annual % growth

Macedonia, FYR 52.2 Malawi 108.4 Malaysia 3.8 Mauritius 26.1 Mexico 11.2 Moldova 13.2 Morocco 8.7 Nicaragua 15.6 Pakistan 57.2 Panama 1.0 Paraguay 6,115.0 Peru 3.5 Philippines 55.6 Poland 3.7 Romania 32,595.0 Russian Federation 29.5 Senegal 519.4 Serbia and Montenegro .. Slovak Republic 33.0 South Africa 6.6 Sri Lanka 96.7 Swaziland 6.6 Syrian Arab Republic 11.2 Thailand 39.6 Trinidad and Tobago 6.3 Tunisia 1.2 Turkey 1,396,638.0 Ukraine 5.3 Uruguay 29.3 Uzbekistan .. Venezuela, RB 1,596.0 Zambia 4,770.7 Zimbabwe 826.4

–15.3 29.5 0.0 –3.9 12.8 5.6 –12.1 6.0 –3.8 0.0 51.7 2.0 3.3 –3.7 6.0 5.5 –16.0 .. –17.4 –28.8 3.8 –28.8 0.0 –2.4 0.2 –9.1 13.3 0.6 84.2 .. 83.7 13.2 0.0

–16.0 34.6 0.0 –10.6 9.0 –4.4 –13.9 6.0 –2.3 0.0 –13.9 –1.5 4.7 –2.6 –2.7 –7.3 –17.0 .. –17.6 –23.1 0.0 –23.1 0.0 –8.3 –0.4 –9.4 –15.0 0.0 7.7 .. 13.9 10.1 1,401.7

72.6 115.0 91.3 .. .. 100.2 103.4 111.6 90.0 .. 75.6 .. 85.6 133.4 110.2 109.0 .. .. 105.8 62.6 .. .. .. .. 126.6 96.2 .. 112.4 87.9 .. 132.9 115.8 ..

71.6 85.4 81.7 .. .. 97.5 103.4 95.3 83.9 .. 68.2 .. 74.4 115.9 133.6 117.7 .. .. 106.2 84.8 .. . . .. 118.8 91.9 .. 96.5 66.3 .. 114.0 114.3 ..

15.7 20.7 3.1 12.5 4.6 38.6 6.4 13.3 16.8 –0.3 3.1 5.1 10.4 –2.8 38.2 33.9 8.2 .. 4.1 14.5 13.4 13.1 18.5 1.4 5.7 4.4 29.1 42.3 28.2 .. 15.8 31.1 191.7

11.1 30.8 8.2 11.2 5.1 30.4 8.5 .. 18.4 .. 7.5 –3.7 5.1 4.0 27.2 39.0 .. .. 10.0 7.7 .. 7.8 .. 6.6 .. 7.6 11.6 47.4 –1.6 .. 54.2 16.8 472.6

–14.7 75.8 7.5 7.0 18.1 25.2 4.3 4.7 1.6 –4.5 13.8 –3.1 5.5 2.6 39.9 26.5 –5.2 .. –7.0 7.8 8.1 –206.4 0.1 7.8 11.0 4.6 28.3 28.9 71.6 .. 19.6 12.1 128.7

12.5 44.9 9.1 9.4 2.1 23.6 3.2 .. 11.0 .. –25.9 –8.8 7.6 7.9 48.5 28.8 .. .. –9.9 29.3 .. 164.7 .. 2.0 .. 5.9 15.4 39.3 4.0 .. –3.2 –6.2 485.0

14.3 28.1 2.7 15.1 3.4 14.3 12.5 17.0 .. 9.7 21.0 14.1 4.1 10.7 .. 0.4 .. .. 6.1 6.6 4.5 4.0 4.4 6.1 11.6 .. .. 21.4 91.4 .. 3.8 21.1 –34.2

8.0 35.8 0.0 10.9 0.8 0.2 .. .. .. 7.8 25.8 8.7 1.3 .. .. –9.9 .. .. –2.2 5.1 .. –0.9 .. 2.6 .. .. .. 3.4 .. .. –31.9 5.0 49.7

5.0 27.1 7.6 29.4 5.3 6.2 10.9 42.8 9.7 4.4 15.6 22.8 12.2 14.8 2.9 12.9 16.8 61.7 24.2 19.8 6.8 5.6 66.7 13.9 18.5 5.6 25.7 2.4 50.0 11.0 12.7 9.5 ..

Note: Data for 2003 are preliminary and may not cover the entire year. a. More recent data on short-term debt are available on a Web site maintained by the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the World Bank: www.oecd.org/dac/debt. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics; World Bank, Debtor Reporting System.

2004 World Development Indicators

181

4.1
Afghanistan Albania a Algeria a Angola Argentina a Armenia a Australia a Austria a Azerbaijan a Bangladesh a Belarus a Belgium a Benin Bolivia a Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil a Bulgaria a Burkina Faso Burundi a Cambodia a Cameroon a Canada a Central African Republic a Chad a Chile a China Hong Kong, China a Colombia a Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica a Côte d’Ivoire Croatia a Cuba Czech Republic a Denmark a Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. a El Salvador Eritrea a Estonia a Ethiopia a Finland a France a Gabon Gambia, The a Georgia a Germany a Ghana Greece a Guatemala Guinea a Guinea-Bissau a Haiti a

Growth of output
Gross domestic product Agriculture Industry Services

Total average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

Manufacturing average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

.. 1.5 2.7 3.6 –0.7 .. 3.4 2.3 .. 3.7 .. 2.1 2.5 –0.2 .. 11.0 2.7 3.4 3.6 4.4 .. 3.4 3.2 1.4 6.1 4.2 10.3 6.8 3.7 1.6 3.3 3.0 0.7 .. .. .. 2.0 3.1 2.1 5.4 0.2 .. 2.2 2.3 3.3 2.4 0.9 3.6 0.4 2.3 3.0 0.9 0.8 .. 4.0 –0.2

.. 5.4 2.2 2.7 2.7 0.4 3.8 2.2 1.2 4.9 –0.1 2.1 4.9 3.6 .. 5.1 2.7 –0.7 4.0 –1.8 6.6 2.4 3.2 2.1 2.5 5.9 9.7 3.8 2.3 –4.4 1.6 4.9 2.8 1.3 3.9 1.3 2.5 6.0 1.9 4.5 4.3 4.3 1.0 4.6 2.9 1.9 2.5 3.3 –4.3 1.6 4.3 2.6 4.0 4.3 0.7 –1.0

.. 1.9 4.1 0.5 0.7 .. 3.2 1.4 .. 2.1 .. 2.2 5.1 1.5 .. 2.5 2.8 –2.1 3.1 3.1 .. 2.2 2.3 1.6 2.3 5.9 5.9 .. 2.9 2.5 3.4 3.1 0.3 .. .. .. 2.6 –1.0 4.5 2.7 –1.1 .. .. 0.6 –0.4 1.3 1.2 0.9 .. 1.6 1.0 –0.1 1.2 .. 4.7 –0.1

.. 3.7 3.6 1.4 2.9 1.4 3.8 4.0 0.8 3.1 –3.5 2.6 5.7 2.7 .. –1.2 3.4 3.0 3.7 –0.7 3.2 5.6 0.8 4.0 3.8 2.1 3.9 .. –1.5 0.3 1.3 3.6 3.4 –1.3 3.5 3.7 2.8 3.9 –0.4 3.2 0.9 –1.4 –2.5 2.2 1.5 1.9 –0.5 4.3 –0.9 1.6 3.5 0.3 2.7 4.6 3.1 –4.4

.. 2.1 2.6 6.3 –1.3 .. 3.1 1.8 .. 6.0 .. 2.4 3.4 –2.3 .. 11.4 2.0 5.2 3.8 4.5 .. 5.9 2.9 1.4 8.1 3.5 11.1 .. 5.0 0.9 5.2 2.8 4.4 .. .. .. 2.0 3.0 1.3 3.3 0.2 .. .. 3.1 3.2 1.4 1.5 4.7 .. 1.4 3.3 1.3 –0.2 .. 2.2 –1.7

.. 2.5 2.0 5.2 1.8 –4.2 2.8 2.7 1.8 7.1 –0.7 2.0 4.5 3.8 .. 4.3 2.2 –3.3 2.8 –2.6 14.8 0.7 3.0 1.4 4.6 5.4 12.6 .. 1.4 –6.8 2.9 5.5 4.2 –1.0 5.0 –0.3 2.4 6.7 2.0 4.6 4.9 11.5 –0.7 4.0 4.4 1.5 2.4 2.9 7.8 –0.1 3.2 1.9 3.9 4.8 –2.5 –2.6

.. .. 4.1 –11.1 –0.8 .. 1.9 2.5 .. 5.2 .. .. 5.1 –1.1 .. 11.4 1.6 .. 2.0 5.7 .. 5.0 3.8 5.0 .. 3.4 10.8 .. 3.5 1.6 6.8 3.0 3.0 .. .. .. 1.3 2.3 0.1 .. –0.1 .. .. 2.7 .. 1.3 1.8 7.8 .. .. 3.9 .. 0.0 .. .. –1.7

.. 8.7 –1.9 1.6 0.9 –2.0 2.2 2.8 –14.1 6.9 0.4 2.8 6.0 3.5 .. 4.0 1.6 .. 1.6 –8.0 17.8 2.7 4.0 0.7 .. 3.8 11.9 .. –1.5 .. –0.7 5.8 3.4 –1.5 4.7 .. 2.2 4.6 1.1 6.5 5.0 8.1 7.1 4.0 6.9 2.4 0.6 1.7 .. 0.2 –1.4 1.9 2.6 4.4 –1.8 –8.1

.. –0.4 3.0 1.4 0.0 .. 3.8 2.8 .. 3.8 .. 1.8 0.7 –0.2 .. 14.3 3.3 4.7 3.8 5.6 .. 2.1 3.2 1.0 6.7 2.9 13.5 .. 3.1 1.3 2.2 3.3 –0.1 .. .. .. 1.9 4.2 1.8 7.8 0.7 .. .. 4.9 3.6 3.0 0.1 2.7 .. 3.0 5.7 0.9 0.9 .. 3.5 0.9

.. 9.2 2.3 –1.4 3.1 –2.5 4.3 1.9 1.8 4.6 0.5 1.9 4.4 3.8 .. 7.2 2.8 –3.3 4.6 –1.0 5.8 0.6 3.2 –1.1 1.7 4.5 8.8 .. 3.7 –10.5 0.5 4.6 2.0 2.5 3.2 2.1 2.5 6.0 2.5 4.6 4.8 4.6 2.7 6.9 2.5 2.1 3.2 4.1 15.5 2.6 5.4 3.0 4.5 3.3 –0.0 0.8

182

2004 World Development Indicators

Growth of output
Gross domestic product Agriculture Industry

4.1
Services
average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

ECONOMY

Total average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

Manufacturing average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

Honduras a Hungary a India a Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. a Iraq Ireland a Israel Italy a Jamaica Japan a Jordan a Kazakhstan a Kenya a Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic a Lao PDR a Latvia a Lebanon a Lesotho a Liberia a Libya a Lithuania a Macedonia, FYR a Madagascar a Malawi a Malaysia Mali a Mauritania a Mauritius a Mexico a Moldova a Mongolia Morocco Mozambique a Myanmar Namibia a Nepal a Netherlands a New Zealand a Nicaragua Niger Nigeria a Norway a Oman Pakistan a Panama a Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru a Philippines Poland a Portugal a Puerto Rico

2.7 1.3 5.7 6.1 1.7 –6.8 3.2 3.5 2.5 2.0 4.1 2.5 .. 4.2 .. 8.9 1.3 .. 3.7 3.5 .. 4.5 –7.0 –7.0 .. .. 1.1 2.5 5.3 0.8 1.8 6.0 1.1 2.8 5.4 4.2 –0.1 0.6 1.3 4.6 2.4 1.9 –1.9 –0.1 1.6 3.0 8.4 6.3 0.5 1.9 2.5 –0.1 1.0 .. 3.2 4.0

3.1 2.2 5.8 3.6 3.8 .. 7.8 4.6 1.7 0.7 1.3 4.7 –1.6 1.9 .. 5.6 2.9 –2.2 6.3 –1.0 4.9 3.5 7.4 .. –0.9 –0.1 2.1 3.1 6.2 4.2 4.4 5.2 3.0 –7.1 1.5 2.6 6.9 7.4 3.7 4.7 2.9 3.2 4.3 2.6 2.4 3.6 4.3 3.6 4.2 3.1 1.8 4.1 3.5 4.3 2.8 4.3

2.7 1.7 3.1 3.6 4.5 .. .. .. –0.5 0.9 1.3 6.8 .. 3.3 .. 3.0 14.7 .. 3.5 2.3 .. 2.8 .. .. .. .. 2.5 2.0 3.4 3.3 1.7 2.6 0.8 .. 1.4 6.7 6.6 0.5 1.9 4.0 3.6 4.1 –2.2 1.7 3.3 0.1 7.9 4.0 2.5 1.8 3.6 3.0 1.0 .. 1.5 1.8

2.1 –0.8 2.7 1.9 4.2 .. .. .. 1.2 –0.1 –2.9 –2.4 –5.4 1.2 .. 1.8 .. 2.5 4.9 –4.0 1.7 2.0 6.5 .. –1.0 –0.2 1.9 6.8 0.3 2.5 3.7 0.4 1.6 –8.1 3.2 0.1 5.1 5.7 2.8 2.7 1.7 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.5 1.8 .. 3.8 2.7 3.2 2.1 5.3 2.0 1.1 –0.2 ..

3.3 0.2 6.9 7.3 3.3 .. .. .. 1.8 2.4 4.2 1.7 .. 3.9 .. 11.4 1.0 .. 6.1 4.3 .. 5.3 .. .. .. .. 0.9 2.9 6.8 4.3 4.9 9.2 1.1 .. 6.6 3.0 –4.5 0.5 0.0 8.8 1.6 1.0 –2.3 –1.7 –1.1 4.0 10.3 7.7 –1.3 1.9 0.3 0.1 –0.9 .. 3.4 3.6

3.5 3.9 6.0 4.5 –2.0 .. .. .. 1.2 –0.8 –0.0 4.9 –5.4 1.5 .. 6.2 .. –7.6 10.9 –5.1 –0.8 4.8 –11.2 .. 4.2 –2.1 2.1 0.7 7.5 8.2 2.4 5.4 3.5 –9.5 0.1 3.3 14.1 10.5 2.7 6.4 1.7 2.2 3.0 2.2 0.9 3.2 .. 3.9 4.3 3.7 3.0 4.4 3.5 5.8 2.9 ..

3.7 .. 7.4 12.8 4.5 .. .. .. 2.1 2.7 .. 0.5 .. 4.9 .. 12.1 2.3 .. 8.9 4.4 .. 9.8 .. .. .. .. 2.1 3.6 9.3 6.8 –2.1 10.4 1.5 .. .. 4.1 .. –0.2 3.7 9.3 .. .. –3.2 –2.7 0.7 0.2 20.6 8.1 0.4 0.1 4.0 –0.2 0.2 .. .. 3.6

4.1 7.6 6.6 5.9 5.5 .. .. .. 1.4 –2.0 0.7 5.6 5.3 1.8 .. 7.6 .. –13.4 12.6 –4.6 –2.4 6.0 .. .. 6.7 –4.0 2.2 –1.0 8.8 –2.2 –1.0 5.3 4.0 –1.1 .. 2.8 18.9 7.9 3.3 7.5 2.4 2.0 1.7 2.8 1.2 2.3 .. 4.0 2.9 3.8 0.8 3.3 3.1 8.3 2.3 ..

2.5 2.1 6.9 6.5 –1.0 .. .. .. 3.0 1.6 4.2 2.3 .. 4.9 .. 8.4 2.1 .. 3.3 3.2 .. 4.0 .. .. .. .. 0.3 3.3 4.9 1.9 0.4 5.1 1.4 .. 8.4 4.2 9.1 0.8 3.6 3.9 2.6 2.0 –1.5 –0.7 3.7 2.8 5.9 6.8 0.7 2.0 3.1 –0.4 2.8 .. 2.5 4.6

3.9 2.1 7.9 3.4 8.1 .. .. .. 1.9 1.7 2.2 4.8 –1.4 2.9 .. 5.6 .. –3.0 6.5 3.6 3.0 3.8 –12.5 .. 5.5 1.3 2.4 2.1 6.4 3.5 5.9 6.3 3.0 0.4 0.8 2.9 3.4 7.2 4.2 5.8 3.2 3.6 5.5 2.3 2.8 3.8 .. 4.3 4.4 2.6 1.0 3.7 4.2 4.4 2.3 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

183

4.1
Romania a Russian Federation a Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone a Singapore Slovak Republic a Slovenia a Somalia a South Africa a Spain a Sri Lanka a Sudan Swaziland a Sweden a Switzerland a Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan a Tanzania b Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey a Turkmenistan a Uganda a Ukraine a United Arab Emirates a United Kingdom a United States a Uruguay a Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza a Yemen, Rep. Zambia a Zimbabwe a World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Growth of output
Gross domestic product Agriculture Industry Services

Total average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

Manufacturing average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

1.3 .. 2.2 –1.3 3.1 .. 0.5 6.7 2.0 .. 2.1 1.0 3.1 4.0 2.3 6.7 2.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 .. 7.6 1.7 –0.8 3.3 5.3 .. 2.9 .. –2.1 3.2 3.5 0.5 .. 1.1 4.6 .. .. 1.0 3.6 3.3 w 4.7 2.9 4.0 0.8 3.2 7.5 .. 1.7 1.4 5.5 1.6 3.3 2.4

–0.2 –2.7 1.7 2.1 3.9 0.1 –3.8 6.7 2.3 4.1 .. 2.2 2.8 4.8 5.5 3.2 2.3 1.0 4.7 –6.8 3.5 3.7 2.0 3.5 4.6 3.1 –1.0 6.9 –6.6 4.2 2.6 3.3 2.0 0.8 1.1 7.6 –0.8 5.9 1.1 1.1 2.7 w 4.3 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.4 7.3 –0.5 2.9 3.2 5.4 2.6 2.5 2.0

1.9 .. 0.5 12.5 2.8 .. 3.1 –5.3 1.6 .. 3.3 2.9 3.1 2.2 1.8 2.3 1.4 .. –0.6 –2.8 .. 3.9 5.6 –5.9 2.8 1.2 .. 2.1 .. 9.6 2.4 3.2 0.1 .. 3.1 2.8 .. .. 3.6 3.1 2.6 w 3.0 3.5 3.7 2.8 3.4 4.6 .. 2.3 5.0 3.1 2.3 1.9 1.3

–1.4 –1.9 4.3 1.7 1.8 .. –3.6 –3.1 2.5 –0.1 .. 1.2 0.7 1.6 9.0 1.9 –0.7 .. 4.5 –4.6 3.4 1.5 3.3 3.3 1.8 1.1 –3.2 3.9 –4.0 .. –1.1 3.8 1.6 1.3 1.3 4.2 –4.2 5.6 3.5 2.9 1.8 w 2.7 2.1 2.2 1.4 2.3 3.1 –0.8 2.3 2.9 2.9 2.8 1.2 1.4

–1.0 .. 2.5 –3.8 4.3 .. 1.7 5.2 2.0 .. 1.0 0.7 2.7 4.6 1.6 12.0 2.8 .. 6.6 5.5 .. 9.8 1.1 –5.5 3.1 7.7 .. 5.0 .. –4.2 3.3 3.0 –0.2 .. 1.7 4.4 .. .. 1.0 3.2 3.1 w 5.6 2.7 4.0 –0.1 3.1 8.5 .. 1.4 –0.4 6.9 1.3 3.1 1.7

–0.3 –4.5 –1.0 1.8 5.3 .. –4.0 7.3 –3.4 4.7 .. 1.3 2.5 6.1 6.1 3.3 4.5 .. 8.7 –11.7 4.1 4.9 2.8 3.8 4.7 3.1 –1.6 11.2 –7.9 .. 1.2 3.4 –0.0 –2.1 1.8 11.4 –6.7 6.5 –2.8 –1.1 2.1 w 4.7 3.4 3.6 2.9 3.6 9.7 –2.2 2.6 1.8 5.9 1.9 1.8 1.1

.. .. 2.6 6.2 4.6 .. .. 6.6 .. .. –1.7 1.1 .. 6.3 4.8 15.7 .. .. .. 5.6 .. 9.5 1.7 –10.1 3.7 7.9 .. 3.9 .. 3.1 .. .. 0.4 .. 4.4 1.9 .. .. 4.1 2.8 .. w 7.9 3.7 4.4 1.9 4.2 9.5 .. 1.4 4.9 7.3 1.7 .. ..

.. .. –3.7 5.4 4.6 .. 5.0 6.9 4.3 4.7 .. 1.6 3.9 7.0 2.0 2.6 8.6 .. 9.6 –10.8 3.3 6.1 4.2 5.5 5.5 3.8 .. 13.0 –7.2 .. .. 3.9 –1.3 .. 1.3 11.2 –0.5 3.0 1.5 –2.0 2.9 w 5.7 5.3 5.7 4.0 5.3 9.8 .. 2.0 4.6 6.3 1.9 2.3 1.5

.. .. 3.6 0.6 2.8 .. –0.9 7.6 0.6 .. 0.9 2.4 3.3 4.7 4.5 4.8 2.4 .. 1.6 3.4 .. 7.3 –0.3 6.7 3.5 4.5 .. 2.8 .. 3.6 3.1 3.3 1.0 .. 0.5 7.1 .. .. –0.2 3.0 3.5 w 5.4 3.1 4.4 1.1 3.4 8.6 .. 1.9 1.9 6.4 2.4 3.5 2.9

1.0 –0.6 0.5 2.4 4.1 .. –2.9 6.8 7.7 4.0 .. 2.8 3.0 5.3 3.1 3.5 1.8 .. 3.3 –0.3 3.3 3.1 0.4 3.3 5.3 3.4 –3.2 7.9 –8.0 .. 3.4 3.7 3.1 1.9 0.5 7.1 2.4 5.8 3.0 2.0 3.1 w 5.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.6 6.4 0.8 3.0 4.2 7.0 2.8 3.0 2.4

a. Components are at basic prices. b. Data cover mainland Tanzania only.

184

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Growth of output
About the data Definitions An economy’s growth is measured by the change in the volume of its output or in the real incomes of persons resident in the economy. The 1993 United Nations System of National Accounts (1993 SNA) offers three plausible indicators from which to calculate growth: the volume of gross domestic product (GDP), real gross domestic income, and real gross national income. The volume of GDP is the sum of value added, measured at constant prices, by households, government, and the industries operating in the economy. This year’s edition of World Development Indicators continues to follow the practice of past editions, measuring the growth of the economy by the change in GDP measured at constant prices. Each industry’s contribution to the growth in the economy’s output is measured by the growth in value added by the industry. In principle, value added in constant prices can be estimated by measuring the quantity of goods and services produced in a period, valuing them at an agreed set of base year prices, and subtracting the cost of intermediate inputs, also in constant prices. This double-deflation method, recommended by the 1993 SNA and its predecessors, requires detailed information on the structure of prices of inputs and outputs. In many industries, however, value added is extrapolated from the base year using single volume indexes of outputs or, more rarely, inputs. Particularly in the service industries, including most of government, value added in constant prices is often imputed from labor inputs, such as real wages or the number of employees. In the absence of well-defined measures of output, measuring the growth of services remains difficult. Moreover, technical progress can lead to improvements in production processes and in the quality of goods and services that, if not properly accounted for, can distort measures of value added and thus of growth. When inputs are used to estimate output, as is the case for nonmarket services, unmeasured technical progress leads to underestimates of the volume of output. Similarly, unmeasured changes in the quality of goods and services produced lead to underestimates of the value of output and value added. The result can be underestimates of growth and productivity improvement, and overestimates of inflation. These issues are highly complex, and only a few high-income countries have attempted to introduce any GDP adjustments for these factors. Informal economic activities pose a particular measurement problem, especially in developing countries, where much economic activity may go unrecorded. Obtaining a complete picture of the economy requires Changes in the System of National Accounts World Development Indicators adopted the terminology of the 1993 SNA in 2001. Although most countries continue to compile their national accounts according to the SNA version 3 (referred to as the 1968 SNA), more and more are adopting the 1993 SNA. Some low-income countries still use concepts from the even older 1953 SNA guidelines, including valuations such as factor cost, in describing major economic aggregates. Countries that use the 1993 SNA are identified in Primary data documentation. Rebasing national accounts When countries rebase their national accounts, they update the weights assigned to various components to better reflect the current pattern of production or uses of output. The new base year should represent normal operation of the economy—that is, it should be a year without major shocks or distortions—but the choice of base year is often constrained by lack of data. Some developing countries have not rebased their national accounts for many years. Using an old base year can be misleading because implicit price and volume weights become progressively less relevant and useful. To obtain comparable series of constant price data, the World Bank rescales GDP and value added by industrial origin to a common reference year, currently 1995. This process gives rise to a discrepancy between the rescaled GDP and the sum of the rescaled components. Because allocating the discrepancy would give rise to distortions in the growth rates, the discrepancy is left unallocated. As a result, the weighted average of the growth rates of the components generally will not equal the GDP growth rate. Growth rates of GDP and its components are calculated using constant price data in the local currency. Regional and income group growth rates are calculated after converting local currencies to constant price U.S. dollars using an exchange rate in the common reference year. The growth rates in the table are average annual compound growth rates. Methods of computing growth rates and the alternative conversion factor are described in Statistical methods. Data sources estimating household outputs produced for home use, sales in informal markets, barter exchanges, and illicit or deliberately unreported activities. The consistency and completeness of such estimates depend on the skill and methods of the compiling statisticians and the resources available to them.

4.1

ECONOMY

• Gross domestic product (GDP) at purchaser prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated capital assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Value added is the net output of an industry after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 3. • Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1–5 and includes forestry and fishing. • Industry covers mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas (ISIC divisions 10–45). • Manufacturing corresponds to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15–37. • Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50–99. This sector is derived as a residual (from GDP less agriculture and industry) and may not properly reflect the sum of service output, including banking and financial services. For some countries it includes product taxes (minus subsidies) and may also include statistical discrepancies.

The national accounts data for most developing countries are collected from national statistical organizations and central banks by visiting and resident World Bank missions. The data for highincome economies come from data files of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (for information on the OECD’s national accounts series, see its monthly Main Economic Indicators). The World Bank rescales constant price data to a common reference year. The complete national accounts time series is available on the World Development Indicators 2004 CD-ROM. The United Nations Statistics Division publishes detailed national accounts for United Nations member countries in National Accounts Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables and publishes updates in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.

2004 World Development Indicators

185

4.2
Afghanistan Albania a Algeria a Angola Argentina a Armenia a Australia a Austria a Azerbaijan a Bangladesh a Belarus a Belgium a Benin Bolivia a Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil a Bulgaria a Burkina Faso Burundi a Cambodia a Cameroon a Canada a Central African Republic a Chad a Chile a China Hong Kong, China a Colombia a Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica a Côte d’Ivoire Croatia a Cuba Czech Republic a Denmark a Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. a El Salvador Eritrea a Estonia a Ethiopia a Finland a France a Gabon Gambia, The a Georgia a Germany a Ghana Greece a Guatemala Guinea a Guinea-Bissau a Haiti a

Structure of output
Gross domestic product Agriculture Industry Services

Total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 % of GDP 2002 1990 % of GDP 2002

Manufacturing % of GDP 1990 2002 1990 % of GDP 2002

.. 2,102 62,045 10,260 141,352 2,257 310,588 161,692 4,991 30,129 17,370 197,174 1,845 4,868 .. 3,791 461,952 20,726 3,120 1,132 1,115 11,152 574,204 1,488 1,739 30,323 354,644 75,433 40,274 9,348 2,799 5,713 10,796 18,156 .. 34,880 133,361 7,074 10,356 43,130 4,807 477 4,649 8,609 137,224 1,215,893 5,952 317 7,738 1,671,312 5,886 84,075 7,650 2,818 244 2,864

.. 4,835 55,914 11,248 102,042 2,367 409,420 204,066 6,090 47,563 14,304 245,395 2,695 7,801 5,599 5,273 452,387 15,486 3,127 719 4,005 9,060 714,327 1,046 2,002 64,153 1,266,052 161,531 80,925 5,707 3,017 16,837 11,682 22,436 .. 69,514 172,928 21,651 24,311 89,854 14,284 642 6,507 6,059 131,508 1,431,278 4,971 357 3,396 1,984,095 6,160 132,824 23,277 3,213 203 3,435

.. 36 11 18 8 17 4 4 30 30 24 2 36 17 .. 5 8 17 28 56 .. 25 3 48 29 9 27 0 17 30 13 18 32 10 .. 6 4 13 13 19 17 31 17 49 6 4 7 29 32 2 45 11 26 24 61 ..

52 25 10 8 11 26 4 2 16 23 11 1 36 15 18 2 6 13 32 49 36 43 .. 57 38 9 15 0 14 56 6 8 26 8 7 4 3 12 9 17 9 12 5 40 3 3 8 26 21 1 34 7 22 24 62 ..

.. 48 48 41 36 52 29 34 33 21 47 33 13 39 .. 57 39 49 20 19 .. 29 32 20 18 41 42 25 38 28 41 29 23 34 .. 49 27 31 38 29 27 12 50 13 35 30 43 13 33 39 17 28 20 33 19 ..

24 19 53 68 32 37 26 32 52 26 37 27 14 33 37 48 21 28 18 19 28 20 .. 22 17 34 51 13 30 19 63 29 20 30 46 40 27 33 28 33 30 25 30 12 33 25 46 14 23 30 24 22 19 37 13 ..

.. .. 11 5 27 33 14 23 19 13 39 .. 8 18 .. 5 25 .. 15 13 .. 15 17 11 14 20 33 17 21 11 8 22 21 28 .. .. 18 18 19 18 22 8 42 8 .. 21 6 7 24 28 10 .. 15 5 8 ..

18 10 8 4 21 23 12 22 20 16 31 19 9 15 23 4 13 17 13 .. 20 11 .. 9 15 16 35 5 16 4 5 22 13 21 37 .. 17 16 11 19 23 12 19 .. 26 18 5 5 .. 23 9 12 13 4 10 ..

.. 16 40 41 56 31 67 62 37 48 29 65 51 44 .. 39 53 34 52 25 .. 46 65 33 53 50 31 74 45 42 46 53 44 56 .. 45 69 55 49 52 56 57 34 38 59 66 50 58 35 59 38 61 54 43 21 ..

24 56 37 24 57 37 71 66 32 51 52 72 50 52 45 50 73 59 50 31 36 38 .. 21 45 57 34 87 56 25 30 62 53 62 47 57 71 55 63 50 61 63 65 48 64 72 46 60 56 69 42 70 58 39 25 ..

186

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of output
Gross domestic product Agriculture Industry

4.2
Services
% of GDP 1990 2002

ECONOMY

Total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 % of GDP 2002 1990 % of GDP 2002

Manufacturing % of GDP 1990 2002

Honduras a Hungary a India a Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. a Iraq Ireland a Israel Italy a Jamaica Japan a Jordan a Kazakhstan a Kenya a Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic a Lao PDR a Latvia a Lebanon a Lesotho a Liberia a Libya a Lithuania a Macedonia, FYR a Madagascar a Malawi a Malaysia Mali a Mauritania a Mauritius a Mexico a Moldova a Mongolia Morocco Mozambique a Myanmar Namibia a Nepal a Netherlands a New Zealand a Nicaragua Niger Nigeria a Norway a Oman Pakistan a Panama a Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru a Philippines Poland a Portugal a Puerto Rico

3,049 33,056 316,937 114,426 120,404 48,657 47,301 52,490 1,102,437 4,592 3,053,143 4,020 26,931 8,551 .. 252,622 18,428 2,659 866 7,279 2,838 615 384 28,905 10,259 4,472 3,081 1,881 44,024 2,421 1,020 2,383 262,710 3,549 .. 25,821 2,463 .. 2,350 3,628 294,290 43,618 1,009 2,481 28,472 116,107 10,535 40,010 5,313 3,221 5,265 26,294 44,331 58,976 71,466 30,604

6,564 65,843 510,177 172,911 108,243 .. 121,449 103,689 1,184,273 7,871 3,993,433 9,301 24,637 12,330 .. 476,690 35,369 1,603 1,680 8,406 17,294 714 562 19,131 13,796 3,791 4,400 1,901 94,900 3,364 969 4,533 637,203 1,624 1,119 36,093 3,599 .. 2,904 5,549 417,910 58,581 4,003 2,171 43,540 190,477 20,309 59,071 12,296 2,814 5,508 56,517 77,954 189,021 121,595 67,897

22 15 31 19 24 .. 9 .. 4 7 2 8 27 29 .. 9 1 34 61 22 .. 24 .. .. 27 9 29 45 15 46 30 13 8 43 17 18 37 57 12 52 4 7 31 35 33 4 3 26 9 29 28 9 22 8 9 1

13 4 23 17 12 .. 3 .. 3 6 1 2 9 16 .. 4 .. 39 51 5 12 16 .. .. 7 12 32 37 9 34 21 7 4 24 30 16 23 57 11 41 3 .. 18 40 37 2 .. 23 6 27 22 8 15 3 4 1

26 39 28 39 29 .. 35 .. 34 40 39 28 45 19 .. 43 52 36 15 46 .. 33 .. .. 31 46 13 29 42 16 29 33 28 33 30 32 18 11 38 16 30 28 21 16 41 36 58 25 15 30 25 27 34 50 32 42

31 31 27 44 39 .. 42 .. 29 31 31 26 39 19 .. 41 .. 26 23 25 21 43 .. .. 31 30 13 15 47 30 29 31 27 25 16 30 34 10 31 22 26 .. 25 17 29 38 .. 23 14 42 29 28 33 30 30 43

16 23 17 21 12 .. 28 .. 25 19 27 15 9 12 .. 29 12 28 10 34 .. 14 .. .. 21 36 11 19 24 9 10 25 21 .. .. 18 10 8 14 6 19 19 17 7 6 13 4 17 9 9 17 18 25 .. 22 40

20 23 16 25 14 .. 33 .. 21 14 21 16 16 13 .. 29 .. 11 18 15 10 20 .. .. 20 19 11 10 31 3 9 23 19 17 5 17 13 7 11 8 16 .. 14 7 4 .. .. 16 6 9 15 16 23 18 .. 40

51 46 41 41 48 .. 56 .. 63 52 58 64 29 52 .. 48 47 30 24 32 .. 43 .. .. 42 46 59 26 43 39 42 54 64 24 52 50 44 32 50 32 65 65 48 49 26 61 39 49 76 41 47 64 44 42 60 57

56 65 51 38 49 .. 54 .. 69 63 68 72 53 65 .. 55 .. 35 26 71 67 41 .. .. 62 57 55 49 44 36 50 62 69 51 54 54 43 33 58 38 71 .. 57 43 34 60 .. 53 80 32 49 64 53 66 66 56

2004 World Development Indicators

187

4.2
Romania a Russian Federation a Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone a Singapore Slovak Republic a Slovenia a Somalia a South Africa a Spain a Sri Lanka a Sudan Swaziland a Sweden a Switzerland a Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan a Tanzania b Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey a Turkmenistan a Uganda a Ukraine a United Arab Emirates a United Kingdom a United States a Uruguay a Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza a Yemen, Rep. Zambia a Zimbabwe a World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Structure of output
Gross domestic product Agriculture Industry Services

Total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 % of GDP 2002 1990 % of GDP 2002

Manufacturing % of GDP 1990 2002 1990 % of GDP 2002

38,299 516,814 2,584 116,778 5,699 .. 650 36,902 15,485 12,673 917 112,014 509,968 8,032 13,167 882 245,941 228,415 12,309 2,629 4,259 85,345 1,628 5,068 12,291 150,642 3,232 4,304 81,456 34,132 989,564 5,750,800 9,286 13,361 48,592 6,472 .. 4,828 3,288 8,784 21,676,054 t 765,007 3,229,351 2,326,049 905,385 3,991,257 674,196 1,099,616 1,098,727 424,126 404,808 298,443 17,683,764 5,503,913

45,749 346,520 1,732 188,479 5,037 15,681 783 86,969 23,682 21,960 .. 104,242 653,075 16,567 13,516 1,186 240,313 267,445 20,783 1,212 9,382 126,905 1,384 9,628 21,024 183,665 7,672 5,803 41,477 70,960 1,566,283 10,383,100 12,129 7,932 94,340 35,086 3,396 9,984 3,697 8,304 32,312,146 t 1,123,865 5,139,306 3,426,319 1,708,823 6,259,154 1,833,073 1,132,845 1,668,800 670,722 649,079 319,288 26,052,812 6,648,492

24 17 33 6 20 .. 32 .. 7 6 65 5 6 26 .. 13 4 .. 28 33 46 12 34 3 16 18 32 57 26 2 2 2 9 33 5 39 .. 24 21 16 5w 29 14 16 9 16 24 17 9 15 31 18 3 3

13 6 41 5 15 15 53 0 4 3 .. 4 3 20 39 16 2 1 23 24 44 9 40 2 10 13 29 32 15 .. 1 2 9 35 3 23 6 15 22 17 4w 24 9 10 6 11 15 9 7 11 23 18 2 2

50 48 25 49 19 .. 13 .. 59 46 .. 40 35 26 .. 42 32 .. 24 38 18 37 23 46 30 30 30 11 45 64 35 28 35 33 50 23 .. 27 51 33 34 w 30 39 39 39 38 40 44 36 38 27 34 33 34

38 34 21 51 22 32 32 36 29 36 .. 32 30 26 18 50 28 27 28 24 16 43 22 42 29 27 51 22 38 .. 26 23 27 22 43 39 13 40 26 24 29 w 30 34 34 34 33 47 32 26 41 26 29 27 28

34 .. 18 9 13 .. 5 .. .. 35 5 24 .. 15 .. 35 .. .. 20 25 9 27 10 9 17 20 .. 6 44 8 23 19 28 .. 20 12 .. 9 36 23 22 w 17 24 26 21 23 29 .. 23 13 17 17 22 24

17 .. 11 10 14 .. 5 28 21 27 .. 19 18 16 9 38 23 .. 25 21 8 34 9 7 19 17 .. 10 23 .. 17 15 17 9 6 21 11 5 12 13 19 w 17 21 22 18 20 32 .. 15 13 16 15 19 21

26 35 43 45 61 .. 55 .. 33 49 .. 55 59 48 .. 45 64 .. 48 29 36 50 44 51 54 52 38 32 30 35 63 70 56 34 44 39 .. 49 28 50 60 w 41 47 44 53 46 37 39 55 47 43 48 64 62

49 60 37 44 63 53 16 64 67 61 .. 64 66 54 43 35 70 72 49 52 39 48 38 56 60 60 20 46 47 .. 73 75 64 44 54 38 80 44 52 59 68 w 46 57 56 60 55 38 59 67 48 51 54 71 70

a. Components are at basic prices. b. Data cover mainland Tanzania only.

188

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of output
About the data An economy’s gross domestic product (GDP) represents the sum of value added by all producers in that economy. Value added is the value of the gross output of producers less the value of intermediate goods and services consumed in production, before taking account of the consumption of fixed capital in the production process. Since 1968 the United Nations System of National Accounts has called for estimates of value added to be valued at either basic prices (excluding net taxes on products) or producer prices (including net taxes on products paid by producers but excluding sales or value added taxes). Both valuations exclude transport charges that are invoiced separately by producers. Some countries, however, report such data at purchaser prices—the prices at which final sales are made (including transport charges)—which may affect estimates of the distribution of output. Total GDP as shown in the table and elsewhere in this book is measured at purchaser prices. Value added by industry is normally measured at basic prices. When value added is measured at producer prices, this is noted in Primary data documentation. While GDP estimates based on the production approach are generally more reliable than estimates compiled from the income or expenditure side, different countries use different definitions, methods, and reporting standards. World Bank staff review the quality of national accounts data and sometimes make adjustments to increase consistency with international guidelines. Nevertheless, significant discrepancies remain between international standards and actual practice. Many statistical offices, especially those in developing countries, face severe limitations in the resources, time, training, and budgets required to produce reliable and comprehensive series of national accounts statistics. agricultural inputs that cannot easily be allocated to specific outputs are frequently “netted out” using equally crude and ad hoc approximations. For further discussion of the measurement of agricultural production, see About the data for table 3.3. Ideally, industrial output should be measured through regular censuses and surveys of firms. But in most developing countries such surveys are infrequent, so earlier survey results must be extrapolated using an appropriate indicator. The choice of sampling unit, which may be the enterprise (where responses may be based on financial records) or the establishment (where production units may be recorded separately), also affects the quality of the data. Moreover, much industrial production is organized in unincorporated or owner-operated ventures that are not captured by surveys aimed at the formal sector. Even in large industries, where regular surveys are more likely, evasion of excise and other taxes and nondisclosure of income lower the estimates of value added. Such problems become more acute as countries move from state control of industry to private enterprise, because new firms enter business and growing numbers of established firms fail to report. In accordance with the System of National Accounts, output should include all such unreported activity as well as the value of illegal activities and other unrecorded, informal, or smallscale operations. Data on these activities need to be collected using techniques other than conventional surveys of firms. In industries dominated by large organizations and enterprises, such as public utilities, data on output, employment, and wages are usually readily available and reasonably reliable. But in the service industry the many self-employed workers and one-person businesses are sometimes difficult to locate, and they have little incentive to respond to surveys, let Data problems in measuring output Among the difficulties faced by compilers of national accounts is the extent of unreported economic activity in the informal or secondary economy. In developing countries a large share of agricultural output is either not exchanged (because it is consumed within the household) or not exchanged for money. Agricultural production often must be estimated indirectly, using a combination of methods involving estimates of inputs, yields, and area under cultivation. This approach sometimes leads to crude approximations that can differ from the true values over time and across crops for reasons other than climatic conditions or farming techniques. Similarly, Dollar conversion To produce national accounts aggregates that are measured in the same standard monetary units, the value of output must be converted to a single common currency. The World Bank conventionally uses the U.S. dollar and applies the average official exchange rate repor ted by the International alone report their full earnings. Compounding these problems are the many forms of economic activity that go unrecorded, including the work that women and children do for little or no pay. For further discussion of the problems of using national accounts data, see Srinivasan (1994) and Heston (1994). Data sources Definitions

4.2

ECONOMY
189

Monetary Fund for the year shown. An alternative conversion factor is applied if the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate effectively applied to transactions in foreign currencies and traded products.

• Gross domestic product (GDP) at purchaser prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Value added is the net output of an industry after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 3. • Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1–5 and includes forestry and fishing. • Industry covers mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas (ISIC divisions 10–45). • Manufacturing corresponds to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15–37. • Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50–99. This sector is derived as a residual (from GDP less agriculture and industry) and may not properly reflect the sum of service output, including banking and financial services. For some countries it includes product taxes (minus subsidies) and may also include statistical discrepancies.

The national accounts data for most developing countries are collected from national statistical organizations and central banks by visiting and resident World Bank missions. The data for highincome economies come from data files of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (for information on the OECD’s national accounts series, see its monthly Main Economic Indicators). The complete national accounts time series is available on the World Development Indicators 2004 CD-ROM. The United Nations Statistics Division publishes detailed national accounts for United Nations member countries in National Accounts Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables and publishes updates in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.

2004 World Development Indicators

4.3

Structure of manufacturing
Manufacturing value added Food, beverages, and tobacco Textiles and clothing Machinery and transport equipment Chemicals Other manufacturing a

$ millions 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

Afghanistan .. Albania .. Algeria 6,452 Angola 513 Argentina 37,868 Armenia 681 Australia 38,868 Austria 33,386 Azerbaijan 1,092 Bangladesh 3,839 Belarus 6,630 Belgium .. Benin 145 Bolivia 826 Bosnia and Herzegovina .. Botswana 181 Brazil 89,966 Bulgaria .. Burkina Faso 460 Burundi 134 Cambodia 58 Cameroon 1,581 Canada 91,674 Central African Republic 154 Chad 239 Chile 5,613 China 116,573 Hong Kong, China 12,639 Colombia 8,034 Congo, Dem. Rep. 1,029 Congo, Rep. 234 Costa Rica 1,107 Côte d’Ivoire 2,257 Croatia 4,770 Cuba .. Czech Republic .. Denmark 20,757 Dominican Republic 1,270 Ecuador 1,988 Egypt, Arab Rep. 7,296 El Salvador 1,044 Eritrea 35 Estonia 1,632 Ethiopia 624 Finland .. France 228,263 Gabon 332 Gambia, The 18 Georgia 1,773 Germany 456,400 Ghana 575 Greece .. Guatemala 1,151 Guinea 126 Guinea-Bissau 19 Haiti ..

.. 376 3,897 264 46,877 418 42,528 37,189 675 6,933 3,444 39,986 198 1,121 480 253 80,280 1,985 281 60 583 940 117,240 81 152 10,663 375,455 9,197 12,207 205 112 3,677 1,591 3,219 .. .. 23,156 3,325 2,171 17,969 3,031 67 830 .. 27,771 215,860 205 18 .. 385,839 449 11,441 2,542 121 21 ..

.. 24 13 .. 20 .. 18 15 .. 24 .. 17 .. 28 12 51 14 22 .. 83 .. 61 15 57 .. 25 15 8 31 .. .. 47 .. 22 .. .. 22 .. 22 19 36 .. .. 62 13 13 45 .. .. .. .. 22 .. .. .. 51

.. .. 33 .. 30 .. .. 12 .. 22 .. 19 .. 31 .. .. .. 20 .. .. .. 47 13 .. .. 32 14 7 33 .. .. 46 42 .. .. .. .. .. 38 18 29 .. .. 54 7 .. .. .. .. .. .. 28 .. .. .. 46

.. 33 17 .. 10 .. 6 7 .. 38 .. 7 .. 5 15 12 12 9 .. 9 .. –13 6 6 .. 7 15 36 15 .. .. 8 .. 15 .. .. 4 .. 10 15 14 .. .. 21 4 6 2 .. .. .. .. 20 .. .. .. 9

.. .. 8 .. 7 .. .. 3 .. 33 .. 6 .. 4 .. .. .. 10 .. .. .. 15 3 .. .. 4 11 20 9 .. .. 6 10 .. .. .. .. .. 6 12 28 .. .. 12 2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 11 .. .. .. 19

.. .. .. .. 13 .. 20 28 .. 7 .. .. .. 1 18 .. 27 19 .. .. .. 1 26 2 .. 5 24 21 9 .. .. 7 .. 20 .. .. 24 .. 5 9 4 .. .. 1 24 31 1 .. .. .. .. 12 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 15 .. .. 41 .. 16 .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. 5 .. .. .. 1 36 .. .. 5 30 33 5 .. .. 6 3 .. .. .. .. .. 3 12 3 .. .. 7 24 .. .. .. .. .. .. 11 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 12 .. 7 7 .. 17 .. 13 .. 3 7 .. .. 5 .. 2 .. 5 10 6 .. 10 13 2 14 .. .. 9 .. 8 .. .. 12 .. 8 14 24 .. .. 2 8 9 7 .. .. .. .. 10 .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. 12 .. .. 6 .. 10 .. 16 .. 3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 8 .. .. 14 12 4 17 .. .. 12 12 .. .. .. .. .. 4 16 16 .. .. 5 2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 11 .. .. .. ..

.. 44 70 .. 46 .. 48 43 .. 15 .. 62 .. 63 49 36 48 45 .. 7 .. 46 44 28 .. 52 34 33 31 .. .. 30 .. 36 .. .. 39 .. 56 43 23 .. .. 14 52 41 45 .. .. .. .. 36 .. .. .. 40

.. .. 59 .. 36 .. .. 38 .. 19 .. 59 .. 60 .. .. .. 65 .. .. .. 32 39 .. .. 45 33 37 35 .. .. 29 33 .. .. .. .. .. 50 42 24 .. .. 22 64 .. .. .. .. .. .. 38 .. .. .. 34

190

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of manufacturing
Manufacturing value added Food, beverages, and tobacco Textiles and clothing Machinery and transport equipment Chemicals

4.3
Other manufacturing a
% of total 1990 2000

ECONOMY

$ millions 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

443 1,025 6,613 9,534 48,808 66,024 23,643 37,393 14,503 15,456 .. .. 11,982 28,130 .. .. 247,930 203,247 853 1,018 810,232 1,040,351 520 1,125 1,941 3,139 864 1,163 .. .. 72,837 144,376 2,142 .. 703 105 85 292 2,524 926 .. 1,560 71 131 .. .. .. .. 2,113 1,995 1,411 621 314 430 313 197 10,665 29,447 200 86 94 78 491 918 49,992 107,195 .. 183 .. 58 4,753 5,858 230 442 .. .. 292 342 209 486 51,978 55,742 7,574 8,479 170 553 163 122 1,562 1,635 13,450 17,076 396 .. 6,184 8,637 502 713 289 286 883 1,033 3,926 7,707 11,008 16,878 .. 28,625 13,631 18,926 12,126 23,375

45 14 12 27 12 20 27 14 8 41 9 28 .. 38 .. 11 4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20 .. 38 13 .. .. 30 22 .. 33 22 .. .. .. 37 21 28 .. 37 15 18 .. 24 51 .. 55 23 39 21 15 16

42 19 13 19 .. .. 16 12 10 48 11 28 .. 48 .. 8 7 .. .. 39 .. .. .. .. .. 32 .. 44 10 .. .. 31 25 .. .. 36 .. .. .. 35 23 31 .. 20 30 16 12 23 51 .. .. 26 33 26 .. 8

10 9 15 15 20 16 4 9 13 5 5 7 .. 10 .. 12 3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26 .. 10 6 .. .. 46 5 .. 37 17 .. .. .. 31 3 8 .. 29 46 2 .. 27 8 .. 16 11 11 9 21 5

22 8 12 17 .. .. 1 9 12 7 3 6 .. 8 .. 8 4 .. .. 12 .. .. .. .. .. 18 .. 8 4 .. .. 48 4 .. .. 16 .. .. .. 34 2 .. .. 9 11 2 5 26 5 .. .. 10 9 6 .. 3

3 26 25 12 20 4 29 32 34 .. 40 4 .. 10 .. 32 2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14 .. 1 31 .. .. 2 24 .. 1 8 .. .. .. 1 25 13 .. .. 13 25 .. 9 2 .. .. 8 13 26 13 18

2 26 20 25 .. .. 31 32 26 .. 39 5 .. 9 .. 45 4 .. .. 15 .. .. .. .. .. 15 .. 5 46 .. .. 2 28 .. .. 8 .. .. .. 3 25 14 .. .. 8 29 4 13 .. .. .. 6 15 23 .. 15

5 12 14 9 8 11 16 9 7 .. 10 15 .. 9 .. 9 3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 .. 18 11 .. .. 4 18 .. 1 12 .. .. .. 5 16 7 .. .. 4 9 .. 15 8 .. .. 9 12 7 6 44

5 7 22 11 .. .. 36 5 8 .. 10 17 .. 8 .. 9 2 .. .. 6 .. .. .. .. .. 11 .. 16 11 .. .. 5 15 .. .. 13 .. .. .. 6 14 13 .. .. 26 8 5 16 6 .. .. 10 13 6 .. 58

36 39 34 37 40 49 24 37 37 54 37 47 .. 33 .. 36 88 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 31 .. 33 39 .. .. 17 32 .. 27 41 .. .. .. 25 35 44 .. 34 22 46 .. 25 31 .. 29 49 26 37 45 17

29 40 33 28 .. .. 16 42 44 46 36 45 .. 28 .. 30 83 .. .. 29 .. .. .. .. .. 24 .. 28 30 .. .. 15 28 .. .. 27 .. .. .. 23 35 43 .. 71 25 46 74 22 37 .. .. 49 29 38 .. 15

2004 World Development Indicators

191

4.3
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania b Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Structure of manufacturing
Manufacturing value added Food, beverages, and tobacco Textiles and clothing Machinery and transport equipment Chemicals Other manufacturing a

$ millions 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

% of total 1990 2000

9,152 4,768 .. .. 473 205 10,049 18,235 747 566 .. .. 31 28 .. 24,407 .. 4,075 4,008 4,468 41 .. 24,043 21,643 .. 95,110 1,077 2,459 .. 1,059 250 348 .. 47,689 .. .. 2,508 4,579 653 237 361 624 23,217 41,212 162 118 438 599 2,075 3,537 26,882 26,994 .. 643 230 527 32,977 5,099 2,643 .. 206,727 232,507 1,040,600 1,520,300 2,597 3,392 .. 645 9,809 15,621 793 5,786 .. 591 449 493 1,048 329 1,799 1,003 4,475,773 t 5,826,313 t 112,968 149,818 698,289 1,114,738 490,903 806,107 170,285 302,007 755,166 1,263,141 188,907 514,058 .. .. 243,987 307,798 47,699 81,370 61,101 85,928 42,805 37,493 3,708,270 4,573,059 1,221,575 1,119,610

19 .. .. .. 60 .. .. 4 .. 12 .. 14 18 51 .. 69 10 10 35 .. 51 24 .. 30 19 16 .. .. .. .. 13 12 31 .. 17 .. .. .. 44 28

.. 16 .. .. 44 28 .. 2 .. 11 .. 14 14 42 .. .. 7 9 27 .. 45 .. .. .. 18 13 .. .. .. .. .. .. 37 .. 22 .. .. .. .. 30

18 .. .. .. 3 .. .. 3 .. 15 .. 8 8 24 .. 8 2 4 29 .. 3 30 .. 3 20 15 .. .. .. .. 5 5 18 .. 5 .. .. .. 11 19

.. 2 .. .. 5 8 .. 1 .. 9 .. 7 7 26 .. .. 1 3 24 .. 0 .. .. .. 33 18 .. .. .. .. .. .. 12 .. 2 .. .. .. .. 7

14 .. .. .. 5 .. .. 53 .. 16 .. 18 25 4 .. 1 32 34 .. .. 6 19 .. 3 5 16 .. .. .. .. 32 31 9 .. 5 .. .. .. 7 9

.. 19 .. .. 3 13 .. 62 .. 16 .. 20 23 8 .. .. 39 27 .. .. 5 .. .. .. 9 17 .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 .. .. .. .. .. .. 29

4 .. .. .. 9 .. .. 10 .. 9 .. 9 10 4 .. 0 9 .. .. .. 11 2 .. 19 4 10 .. .. .. .. 11 12 10 .. 9 .. .. .. 9 6

.. 9 .. .. 26 11 .. 14 .. 11 .. 9 10 4 .. .. 11 .. .. .. 7 .. .. .. 9 11 .. .. .. .. .. .. 8 .. .. .. .. .. .. 6

45 .. .. .. 23 .. .. 29 .. 48 .. 50 39 17 .. 22 47 53 36 .. 28 26 .. 44 52 43 .. .. .. .. 38 40 32 .. 64 .. .. .. 29 38

.. 54 .. .. 21 40 .. 20 .. 52 .. 50 47 19 .. .. 42 60 49 .. 43 .. .. .. 31 41 .. .. .. .. .. .. 39 .. 76 .. .. .. .. 28

a. Includes unallocated data. b. Data cover mainland Tanzania only.

192

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of manufacturing
About the data
The data on the distribution of manufacturing value added by industry are provided by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). UNIDO obtains data on manufacturing value added from a variety of national and international sources, including the United Nations Statistics Division, the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the International Monetary Fund. To improve comparability over time and across countries, UNIDO supplements these data with information from industrial censuses, statistics supplied by national and international organizations, unpublished data that it collects in the field, and estimates by the UNIDO Secretariat. Nevertheless, coverage may be less than complete, particularly for the informal sector. To the extent that direct information on inputs and outputs is not available, estimates may be used that may result in errors in industry totals. Moreover, countries use different reference periods (calendar or fiscal year) and valuation methods (basic, producer, or purchaser prices) to estimate value added. (See also About the data for table 4.2.) The data on manufacturing value added in U.S. dollars are from the World Bank’s national accounts files. These figures may differ from those used by UNIDO to calculate the shares of value added by industry, in part because of differences in exchange rates. Thus estimates of value added in a particular industry calculated by applying the shares to total manufacturing value added will not match those from UNIDO sources. The classification of manufacturing industries in the table accords with the United Nations International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 2. First published in 1948, the ISIC has its roots in the work of the League of Nations Committee of Statistical Experts. The committee’s efforts, interrupted by the Second World War, were taken up by the United Nations Statistical Commission, which at its first session appointed a committee on industrial classification. The latest revision, ISIC revision 3, was completed in 1989, and many countries have now switched to it. But revision 2 is still widely used for compiling cross-country data. Concordances matching ISIC categories to national systems of classification and to related systems such as the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) are readily available. In establishing a classification system, compilers must define both the types of activities to be described and the organizational units whose activities are to be reported. There are many possibilities, and the choices made affect how the resulting statistics can be interpreted and how useful they are in analyzing economic behavior. The ISIC emphasizes commonalities in the production process and is explicitly not intended to measure outputs (for which there is a newly developed Central Product Classification). Nevertheless, the ISIC views an activity as defined by “a process resulting in a homogeneous set of products” (United Nations 1990 [ISIC, series M, no. 4, rev. 3], p. 9). Firms typically use a multitude of processes to produce a final product. For example, an automobile manufacturer engages in forging, welding, and painting as well

4.3

ECONOMY

as advertising, accounting, and many other service activities. In some cases the processes may be carried out by different technical units within the larger enterprise, but collecting data at such a detailed level is not practical. Nor would it be useful to record production data at the very highest level of a large, multiplant, multiproduct firm. The ISIC has therefore adopted as the definition of an establishment “an enterprise or part of an enterprise which independently engages in one, or predominantly one, kind of economic activity at or from one location…for which data are available…” (United Nations 1990, p. 25). By design, this definition matches the reporting unit required for the production accounts of the United Nations System of National Accounts.

Definitions

• Manufacturing value added is the sum of gross output less the value of intermediate inputs used in production for industries classified in ISIC major division 3. • Food, beverages, and tobacco correspond to ISIC division 31. • Textiles and clothing correspond to ISIC division 32. • Machinery and transport equipment comprise ISIC groups 382–84. • Chemicals correspond to ISIC groups 351 and 352. • Other manufacturing covers wood and related products (ISIC division 33), paper and related products (ISIC division 34), petroleum and related products (ISIC groups 353–56), basic metals and mineral products (ISIC divisions 36 and 37), fabricated metal products and professional goods (ISIC groups 381 and 385), and other industries (ISIC group 390). When data for textiles and clothing, machinery and transport equipment, or chemicals are shown in the table as not available, they are included in “other manufacturing.”

4.3a
Manufacturing continues to show strong growth in East Asia
Value added in manufacturing (1990 = 100)
350

East Asia & Pacific
300

Data sources
250

The data on value added in manufacturing in U.S. dollars are from the World Bank’s national

200

South Asia Middle East & North Africa

accounts files. The data used to calculate shares of value added by industry are provided to the World Bank in electronic files by UNIDO. The most

150

Latin America & Caribbean
100

recent published source is UNIDO’s International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics 2003. The ISIC

Sub-Saharan Africa

system is described in the United Nations’ International Standard Industrial Classification of

50

All Economic Activities, Third Revision (1990). The
1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

1990

discussion of the ISIC draws on Jacob Ryten’s paper “Fifty Years of ISIC: Historical Origins and Future Perspectives” (1998).

Manufacturing continues to be the dominant sector in East Asia and Pacific. Growing by an average 10 percent a year in 1990–2002, value added in manufacturing has more than tripled. Source: World Bank data files.

2004 World Development Indicators

193

4.4
Afghanistan Albania a Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia a Australia a Austria a Azerbaijan a Bangladesh Belarus a Belgium a, b Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria a Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada a Central African Republic Chad Chile China† Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia a Cuba Czech Republic a Denmark a Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia a Ethiopia Finland a France a Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany a, c Ghana Greece a Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti †Data for Taiwan, China

Growth of merchandise trade
Export volume Import volume Export value Import value Net barter terms of trade

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001 1995 = 100 1990 2001

–9.7 .. 3.3 10.0 4.9 .. 6.3 6.6 .. 8.4 .. 4.5 11.9 3.1 .. 14.9 6.2 .. –0.3 3.4 .. 8.4 6.4 –0.0 8.7 9.1 .. 15.3 7.9 14.8 7.3 3.7 2.6 .. –1.1 .. 4.1 –0.9 7.1 2.1 –4.6 .. .. –0.4 2.3 3.6 2.6 –4.2 .. 4.5 –17.2 5.0 –1.1 .. –2.1 –0.4 ..

–3.9 .. 2.3 5.6 8.8 .. 7.1 .. .. 28.2 .. 6.2 2.3 3.2 .. 9.3 5.4 .. 11.4 10.3 .. 2.3 8.7 18.8 1.5 10.7 13.4 7.7 4.3 –10.0 5.7 12.6 3.0 .. –1.0 .. 5.2 3.3 5.6 2.8 3.0 26.0 .. 6.8 9.3 6.4 3.4 –13.2 .. 5.9 10.0 8.9 8.2 4.7 17.1 12.2 5.3

–1.8 .. –8.0 –1.8 –6.8 .. 6.0 .. .. 3.0 .. 4.0 –10.0 –1.3 .. 9.3 0.8 .. 3.8 0.9 .. 4.8 7.4 4.2 10.7 –2.9 .. 13.8 –2.1 37.8 –2.5 5.2 –2.1 .. –0.5 .. 3.1 0.8 –1.9 8.0 4.5 .. .. 3.6 4.4 3.7 –3.5 –6.0 .. 4.9 –20.1 6.4 0.1 .. –0.3 –4.6 ..

–0.2 .. 2.0 7.3 13.6 .. 8.7 .. .. 23.3 .. 5.4 6.6 8.1 .. 5.3 14.7 .. 1.6 6.0 .. 5.5 8.7 3.2 3.6 9.3 8.1 8.2 7.6 –6.1 1.8 13.8 3.5 .. 3.1 .. 6.0 12.8 6.5 1.1 7.5 7.1 .. 3.1 4.3 5.6 2.8 0.1 .. 4.3 9.7 8.9 10.2 –1.9 –5.5 12.7 6.8

–10.5 .. –4.4 16.5 2.2 .. 6.6 10.2 .. 8.0 .. 7.8 18.7 –1.9 .. 18.7 5.2 –12.3 7.8 2.5 .. 2.4 6.8 3.5 9.4 8.1 .. 16.7 7.7 7.7 2.1 4.7 1.8 .. –0.9 .. 8.4 –2.1 –0.5 –3.3 –4.7 .. .. –1.0 7.4 7.5 –3.9 –0.0 .. 9.2 –2.6 5.8 –2.3 .. 4.2 –1.2 ..

–4.7 13.3 3.0 6.6 9.2 –6.8 4.7 5.3 –6.4 14.2 13.9 6.3 2.4 4.4 .. 8.5 5.6 2.2 10.4 –5.6 .. –0.3 7.8 3.0 1.8 8.6 12.8 7.3 6.7 –6.7 7.5 14.8 5.0 1.6 –1.5 9.9 3.6 3.9 6.0 3.7 8.9 24.4 17.4 9.2 6.9 3.8 0.7 –13.7 .. 3.7 10.6 2.1 8.9 0.8 13.3 11.8 6.6

–0.1 .. –2.7 3.7 –6.6 .. 6.4 8.7 .. 3.5 .. 6.4 –4.8 –0.4 .. 9.1 –1.8 –14.0 4.4 2.2 .. 0.1 7.9 7.8 12.5 2.8 .. 14.7 –0.2 26.7 –0.7 4.4 –1.5 .. 1.5 .. 6.3 3.3 –1.3 12.6 2.4 .. .. 3.9 6.9 6.5 1.1 2.4 .. 7.1 –0.4 6.6 0.5 .. 5.3 –2.9 ..

–1.1 17.2 1.2 8.0 13.4 0.5 5.4 3.8 4.0 9.6 14.1 4.5 6.9 8.4 .. 1.7 10.9 5.6 1.5 –6.3 .. 2.1 7.0 –0.7 6.2 8.9 10.3 7.7 8.5 –0.5 1.4 12.8 3.6 7.7 2.3 10.0 3.8 12.9 7.9 3.8 10.6 5.8 18.9 7.7 4.4 3.2 2.4 –0.4 .. 3.2 9.0 4.2 11.0 –2.3 –3.2 13.7 7.2

99 .. 128 118 97 .. 117 .. .. 100 .. 100 100 115 .. 109 60 .. 91 79 .. 90 100 124 116 84 .. 101 95 108 122 72 82 .. 96 .. 100 97 141 86 69 91 .. 90 100 97 126 100 .. 102 94 108 98 135 143 116 102

100 .. 174 109 108 .. 105 .. .. 92 .. .. 82 111 .. 130 91 .. 83 44 .. 95 103 54 110 69 81 102 109 125 156 95 103 .. 92 .. 102 104 114 85 80 97 .. 79 88 96 113 100 .. 95 101 107 83 100 70 89 117

194

2004 World Development Indicators

Growth of merchandise trade
Export volume Import volume Export value Import value

4.4
Net barter terms of trade
1995 = 100 1990 2001

ECONOMY

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

Honduras Hungary a India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland a Israel a Italy a Jamaica Japan a Jordan Kazakhstan a Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic a Lao PDR a Latvia a Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania a Macedonia, FYR a Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova a Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia a Nepal a Netherlands a New Zealand a Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway a Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland a Portugal a Puerto Rico

4.1 3.4 4.2 8.1 17.1 2.3 9.3 6.9 4.3 1.6 5.1 7.8 .. 1.7 .. 12.3 .. .. .. .. –5.6 6.3 –3.5 0.1 .. .. –2.2 2.3 14.6 4.4 4.1 11.5 15.4 .. 3.1 5.6 –9.5 –5.9 .. .. 4.5 3.5 –4.8 –5.2 –4.4 4.2 11.0 7.9 –0.6 4.6 12.6 2.7 17.3 4.8 11.9 ..

2.5 10.9 11.2 8.6 –0.9 29.5 15.1 9.6 5.4 4.6 2.3 5.3 .. 4.1 .. 15.4 20.0 .. .. 7.2 2.4 13.9 7.4 –4.1 .. .. 4.7 3.0 10.7 11.5 2.1 2.4 14.8 .. .. 6.7 18.8 16.7 2.1 .. 6.8 4.4 10.1 3.7 2.6 6.3 11.0 3.0 6.1 2.5 1.2 9.6 21.9 9.8 .. ..

1.6 1.3 4.7 .. –2.4 –4.5 4.8 5.8 5.3 3.0 6.6 1.1 .. 2.5 .. 11.7 .. .. .. .. –7.5 3.5 –7.6 –6.6 .. .. –4.4 –0.1 .. 3.0 –2.9 11.8 0.8 .. .. 3.1 –2.7 –10.0 .. .. 4.5 4.3 –3.5 –5.2 –21.4 3.5 .. 2.6 –6.6 .. 10.1 –2.0 18.3 1.5 .. ..

12.3 12.0 12.6 .. –7.5 9.8 11.2 8.2 4.7 7.3 5.1 3.9 .. 6.6 .. 9.3 .. .. .. .. 8.6 1.6 9.7 0.3 .. .. 6.2 –2.3 .. 5.3 4.3 3.1 12.3 .. .. 7.2 3.0 13.7 4.8 .. 6.7 5.5 8.8 –2.2 2.8 7.4 .. 1.9 6.4 .. 2.3 9.3 16.5 17.2 .. ..

1.6 1.4 7.3 –0.8 7.2 –4.0 12.8 8.3 8.7 1.1 8.9 6.0 .. –1.1 .. 15.0 .. .. 11.0 .. –5.6 3.8 –3.1 –7.3 .. .. –1.0 2.0 8.6 6.1 8.2 14.3 5.8 .. 5.0 6.1 –9.6 –7.2 .. 8.1 4.6 6.2 –5.8 –5.4 –8.4 5.3 –2.2 8.0 –0.6 4.8 11.5 –1.5 3.9 1.4 15.1 ..

6.3 12.8 9.1 7.1 1.2 29.4 13.4 10.5 4.2 2.2 3.3 6.7 12.4 5.6 .. 9.1 16.3 4.9 13.2 10.7 4.1 12.2 4.6 –2.2 9.5 1.8 9.7 1.1 14.0 7.5 –2.4 3.1 15.4 –0.2 –1.7 6.6 12.9 16.0 0.3 10.8 5.2 3.5 9.5 0.2 3.7 5.5 14.8 4.0 9.1 5.9 2.7 8.3 17.1 9.9 4.7 ..

0.5 0.1 4.2 .. 0.2 –2.2 7.0 5.9 6.9 2.8 5.1 –1.9 .. 1.7 .. 12.0 .. .. 6.6 .. –5.5 3.4 –7.2 –4.4 .. .. –2.4 3.2 .. 2.7 –1.8 12.8 6.3 .. 5.0 3.6 0.1 –5.1 .. 6.9 4.4 5.4 –3.1 –3.5 –15.6 6.2 .. 2.9 –3.6 .. 4.2 1.3 2.9 –3.2 10.3 ..

13.2 13.2 9.5 .. –6.5 10.3 10.4 7.3 3.2 6.8 4.3 5.2 5.1 5.6 .. 6.5 .. 4.7 10.5 17.4 8.9 –0.4 8.8 1.8 13.2 4.4 7.4 –0.9 .. 3.8 0.2 3.1 13.0 2.6 0.8 5.2 1.6 21.3 3.6 8.2 5.0 4.8 11.0 0.9 3.5 3.5 .. 2.5 7.3 .. 3.6 9.2 10.3 16.7 4.7 ..

81 106 79 .. 170 132 107 97 98 105 91 80 .. 68 .. 96 .. .. .. .. 105 97 112 145 .. .. 102 141 .. 122 96 104 109 .. .. 95 115 117 115 .. 98 103 119 136 162 111 .. 91 69 .. 87 93 109 86 .. ..

102 96 91 .. 225 162 99 106 102 87 88 85 .. 88 .. 69 .. .. .. .. 112 100 89 200 .. .. 148 96 .. 95 96 113 107 .. .. 115 79 65 98 .. 99 106 71 77 157 157 .. 83 100 .. 84 78 118 95 .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

195

4.4
Romania a Russian Federation a Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic a Slovenia a Somalia South Africa a, d Spain a Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden a Switzerland a Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine a United Arab Emirates United Kingdom a United States a Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. a Zambia Zimbabwe

Growth of merchandise trade
Export volume Import volume Export value Import value Net barter terms of trade

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001

average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2001 1995 = 100 1990 2001

.. .. 3.3 –6.3 1.2 .. –2.7 12.2 .. .. –1.5 1.6 2.7 4.6 –3.0 7.7 4.4 3.7 19.4 .. .. 13.7 –1.2 –10.9 4.9 19.4 .. –13.5 .. 8.9 4.5 3.6 4.4 .. 3.4 .. .. .. –0.5 4.1

.. .. –4.2 1.6 6.8 .. –36.3 10.8 .. .. –0.5 5.0 10.9 6.9 17.1 1.2 8.4 .. 1.2 .. 6.5 9.1 9.3 3.6 5.8 10.8 .. 15.6 .. 2.1 6.2 6.2 5.3 .. 5.1 .. .. .. 6.2 8.7

.. .. 2.3 .. 0.4 .. –3.0 8.5 .. .. –11.1 –0.9 10.5 1.7 –7.7 2.3 5.0 .. –1.0 .. .. 11.3 0.6 –20.4 1.6 15.4 .. –6.7 .. –1.3 6.7 7.2 1.2 .. –4.0 .. .. .. 2.1 3.4

.. .. 1.2 .. 5.5 .. –8.0 7.1 .. .. 2.3 7.7 9.2 10.2 11.2 3.8 6.2 .. 8.2 .. –0.8 2.2 5.7 10.2 4.8 9.6 .. 24.1 .. 9.2 6.8 8.8 8.8 .. 5.3 .. .. .. 4.3 9.6

–4.0 .. –0.3 –13.3 3.6 .. –2.4 9.9 .. .. –1.1 0.7 10.8 5.4 –2.5 4.6 8.0 9.5 2.4 .. .. 13.8 1.1 –9.4 3.4 14.1 .. –8.3 .. –0.8 5.9 5.7 4.5 .. –4.4 .. .. .. 0.9 2.9

8.7 9.1 –1.4 3.5 3.7 .. –24.8 8.6 9.8 7.5 –2.4 2.3 7.9 10.1 14.0 2.2 4.9 2.5 0.8 .. 7.1 9.6 7.1 7.3 5.9 8.8 .. 13.0 7.0 4.0 4.7 6.6 4.0 .. 5.7 .. .. .. –1.4 2.4

–3.8 .. 3.3 .. 1.4 .. –8.7 8.1 .. .. –9.2 –1.4 10.6 2.2 –6.4 –0.5 6.7 8.8 –8.5 .. .. 12.6 2.0 –12.3 2.7 9.3 .. 3.4 .. 0.7 8.5 8.2 –1.3 .. –3.3 .. .. .. –0.0 –0.4

7.4 2.5 –0.8 .. 3.3 .. –2.7 6.6 10.7 8.3 1.7 5.0 6.0 12.3 9.9 4.8 3.7 1.9 10.2 .. 0.7 4.7 5.0 11.3 5.1 8.8 .. 19.0 6.3 11.2 4.9 9.1 8.3 .. 5.6 .. .. .. 1.9 3.1

.. .. 36 .. 109 .. 73 111 .. .. 99 99 96 83 123 100 99 .. 131 .. 110 102 134 117 103 104 .. 74 .. 174 101 98 100 .. 142 .. .. .. 109 100

.. .. 72 .. 91 .. .. 92 .. .. 82 100 99 .. 141 100 89 .. .. .. 95 78 107 172 99 93 .. 78 .. 213 104 99 87 .. 132 .. .. .. 56 104

a. Data are from the International Monetary Fund’s International Financial Statistics database. b. Includes Luxembourg. c. Data prior to 1990 refer to the Federal Republic of Germany before unification. d. Data refer to the South African Customs Union (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland).

196

2004 World Development Indicators

Growth of merchandise trade
About the data Definitions Data on international trade in goods are available from each country’s balance of payments and customs records. While the balance of payments focuses on the financial transactions that accompany trade, customs data record the direction of trade and the physical quantities and value of goods entering or leaving the customs area. Customs data may differ from data recorded in the balance of payments because of differences in valuation and the time of recording. The 1993 System of National Accounts and the fifth edition of the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) Balance of Payments Manual (1993) attempted to reconcile the definitions and reporting standards for international trade statistics, but differences in sources, timing, and national practices limit comparability. Real growth rates derived from trade volume indexes and terms of trade based on unit price indexes may therefore differ from those derived from national accounts aggregates. Trade in goods, or merchandise trade, includes all goods that add to or subtract from an economy’s material resources. Thus the total supply of goods in an economy is made up of gross output plus imports less exports (currency in circulation, titles of ownership, and securities are excluded, but nonmonetary gold is included). Trade data are collected on the basis of a country’s customs area, which in most cases is the same as its geographic area. Goods provided as part of foreign aid are included, but goods destined for extraterritorial agencies (such as embassies) are not. Collecting and tabulating trade statistics are difficult. Some developing countries lack the capacity to report timely data; this is a problem especially for countries that are landlocked and those whose territorial boundaries are porous. As a result, it is necessary to estimate their trade from the data reported by their partners. (For further discussion of the use of partner country reports, see About the data for table 6.2.) Countries that belong to common customs unions may need to collect data through direct inquiry of companies. In some cases economic or political concerns may lead national authorities to suppress or misrepresent data on certain trade flows, such as oil, military equipment, or the exports of a dominant producer. In other cases reported trade data may be distorted by deliberate under- or over-invoicing to effect capital transfers or avoid taxes. And in some regions smuggling and black market trading result in unreported trade flows. By international agreement customs data are reported to the United Nations Statistics Division, Data sources which maintains the Commodity Trade (COMTRADE) database. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) compiles a variety of international trade statistics, including price and volume indexes, based on the COMTRADE data. The IMF and the World Trade Organization also compile data on trade prices and volumes. The growth rates and terms of trade for low- and middle-income economies shown in the table were calculated from index numbers compiled by UNCTAD. Volume measures for high-income economies were derived by deflating the value of trade using deflators from the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. In some cases price and volume indexes from different sources may vary significantly as a result of differences in estimation procedures. All indexes are rescaled to a 1995 base year. Terms of trade were computed from the same indicators. The terms of trade measures the relative prices of a country’s exports and imports. There are a number of ways to calculate terms of trade. The most common is the net barter (or commodity) terms of trade, constructed as the ratio of the export price index to the import price index. When a country’s net barter terms of trade increase, its exports are becoming more valuable or its imports cheaper.

4.4

ECONOMY

• Export and import volumes are average annual growth rates calculated for low- and middle-income economies from UNCTAD’s quantum index series and for high-income economies from export and import data deflated by the IMF’s trade price deflators. • Export and import values are average annual growth rates calculated from UNCTAD’s value indexes or from current values of merchandise exports and imports. • Net barter terms of trade are calculated as the ratio of the export price index to the corresponding import price index measured relative to the base year 1995.

The main source of trade data for developing countries is UNCTAD’s annual Handbook of International Trade and Development Statistics. The IMF’s International Financial Statistics includes data on the export and import values and deflators for high-income and selected developing economies.

2004 World Development Indicators

197

4.5
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium a Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China† Hong Kong, China b Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti †Data for Taiwan, China

Structure of merchandise expor ts
Merchandise exports Food Agricultural raw materials Fuels Ores and metals Manufactures

$ millions 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

235 230 12,930 3,910 12,353 .. 39,752 41,265 .. 1,671 .. 117,703 288 926 276 1,784 31,414 5,030 152 75 86 2,002 127,629 120 188 8,372 62,091 82,390 6,766 2,326 981 1,448 3,072 4,597 5,100 12,170 36,870 2,170 2,714 3,477 582 15 .. 298 26,571 216,588 2,204 31 .. 421,100 897 8,105 1,163 671 19 160 67,245

101 330 19,130 7,600 25,352 508 65,034 78,694 2,168 6,093 8,100 224,185 365 1,310 950 2,510 60,362 5,745 166 30 1,500 1,700 252,394 160 180 18,340 325,565 201,150 12,001 1,210 2,215 5,258 4,390 4,899 1,500 38,403 57,045 5,183 5,030 4,381 2,992 14 4,336 415 44,836 331,780 2,560 15 326 613,093 1,840 10,353 2,232 750 51 280 135,065

.. .. 0 0 56 .. 22 3 .. 14 .. .. 15 19 .. .. 28 .. .. .. .. 20 9 .. .. 24 13 3 33 .. .. 58 .. 13 .. .. 27 21 44 10 57 .. .. .. 2 16 .. .. .. 5 51 30 67 .. .. 14 4

.. 4 0 .. 46 16 22 6 3 7 8 9 23 34 .. 3 28 10 22 88 .. 21 7 .. .. 26 5 2 19 .. .. 31 59 11 59 3 19 41 43 9 33 .. 12 69 2 11 1 81 26 4 45 24 53 2 .. .. 1

.. .. 0 0 4 .. 10 4 .. 7 .. .. 56 8 .. .. 3 .. .. .. .. 14 9 .. .. 9 3 0 4 .. .. 5 .. 6 .. .. 3 0 1 10 1 .. .. .. 10 2 .. .. .. 1 15 3 6 .. .. 1 2

.. 7 0 .. 2 2 5 2 1 1 4 1 71 3 .. 0 4 3 56 1 .. 20 5 .. .. 10 1 0 6 .. .. 3 14 4 0 2 3 .. 7 0 1 .. 8 15 6 1 12 1 2 1 10 3 4 0 .. .. 1

.. .. 96 93 8 .. 21 1 .. 1 .. .. 15 25 .. .. 2 .. .. .. .. 50 10 .. .. 1 8 0 37 .. .. 1 .. 9 .. .. 3 0 52 29 2 .. .. .. 1 2 .. .. .. 1 9 7 2 .. .. 0 1

.. 1 97 .. 17 4 22 2 89 0 20 4 0 27 .. 0 4 9 3 .. .. 47 13 .. .. 1 3 1 36 .. .. 1 11 9 1 4 6 16 40 34 5 .. 5 0 3 2 83 0 9 1 11 11 7 1 .. .. 1

.. .. 0 6 2 .. 20 3 .. .. .. .. 0 44 .. .. 14 .. .. .. .. 7 9 .. .. 55 2 1 0 .. .. 1 .. 5 .. .. 1 0 0 9 3 .. .. .. 4 3 .. .. .. 3 17 7 0 .. .. 0 1

.. 3 0 .. 4 18 16 3 0 0 1 3 0 20 .. 5 8 11 0 10 .. 4 4 .. .. 41 2 2 1 .. .. 1 0 3 29 1 1 2 0 5 3 .. 2 1 3 2 2 0 27 2 17 8 1 68 .. .. 1

.. .. 3 0 29 .. 24 88 .. 77 .. .. 13 5 .. .. 52 .. .. .. .. 9 59 .. .. 11 72 95 25 .. .. 27 .. 68 .. .. 60 78 2 42 38 .. .. .. 83 77 .. .. .. 89 8 54 24 .. .. 85 93

.. 86 2 .. 31 61 29 82 6 92 64 79 6 17 .. 91 54 61 19 1 .. 7 63 .. .. 18 90 95 38 .. .. 63 21 73 10 89 66 34 10 35 58 .. 72 14 85 81 2 17 35 86 16 52 35 28 .. .. 94

198

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of merchandise expor ts
Merchandise exports Food Agricultural raw materials Fuels Ores and metals

4.5
Manufactures
% of total 1990 2002

ECONOMY

$ millions 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

831 10,000 17,969 25,675 19,305 12,380 23,743 12,080 170,304 1,158 287,581 1,064 .. 1,031 1,857 65,016 7,042 .. 79 .. 494 62 868 13,225 .. 1,199 319 417 29,452 359 469 1,194 40,711 .. 661 4,265 126 325 1,085 204 131,775 9,394 330 282 13,596 34,047 5,508 5,615 340 1,177 959 3,230 8,117 14,320 16,417 ..

1,270 34,337 49,251 57,130 24,440 13,520 88,224 29,513 250,975 1,105 416,726 2,743 9,709 2,094 724 162,470 15,426 486 298 2,284 1,046 395 220 10,970 5,560 1,112 785 478 93,265 947 315 1,755 160,682 667 501 7,930 682 3,015 1,096 568 244,304 14,363 596 303 15,107 60,971 11,172 9,913 846 1,550 1,030 7,688 36,265 41,010 25,621 ..

82 23 16 11 .. .. 22 8 6 19 1 11 .. 49 .. 3 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. .. 73 93 12 36 .. 32 12 .. .. 26 .. 51 .. 13 20 47 77 .. 1 7 1 9 75 22 52 21 19 13 7 ..

64 7 12 12 4 .. 7 4 7 23 1 15 5 32 .. 2 .. 18 .. 10 19 .. .. .. 12 16 .. 87 8 .. .. 26 5 64 6 21 23 .. 36 10 19 49 72 38 0 7 6 11 79 15 75 30 5 8 7 ..

4 3 4 5 .. .. 2 3 1 0 1 0 .. 6 .. 1 0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. .. 4 2 14 62 .. 1 2 .. .. 3 .. 36 .. 3 4 18 14 .. 1 2 0 10 1 9 38 3 2 3 6 ..

5 1 1 4 0 .. 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 11 .. 1 .. 23 .. 24 6 .. .. .. 4 1 .. 2 2 .. .. 0 1 3 15 1 4 .. 1 0 4 13 4 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 14 3 0 1 3 ..

1 3 3 44 .. .. 1 1 2 1 0 0 .. 13 .. 1 93 .. .. .. .. .. .. 94 .. .. 1 0 18 .. .. 1 38 .. .. 4 .. 0 .. .. 10 4 0 .. 97 48 92 1 0 0 0 10 2 11 3 ..

0 1 5 24 86 .. 0 0 2 3 0 0 56 31 .. 4 .. 20 .. 1 0 .. .. .. 23 4 .. 0 9 .. .. 0 9 0 1 3 10 .. 1 .. 1 2 2 0 100 61 77 2 6 29 0 8 1 5 2 ..

4 6 5 4 .. .. 1 2 1 10 1 38 .. 3 .. 1 0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. .. 8 0 2 0 .. 0 6 .. .. 15 .. 2 .. 0 3 6 1 .. 0 10 1 0 1 58 0 47 8 9 3 ..

6 2 4 5 1 .. 0 1 1 10 1 17 18 2 .. 1 .. 6 .. 6 6 .. .. .. 2 8 .. 0 1 .. .. 0 1 2 43 8 55 .. 9 0 2 4 3 56 0 6 1 0 1 51 1 38 1 4 2 ..

9 63 71 35 .. .. 70 87 88 69 96 51 .. 29 .. 94 6 .. .. .. .. .. .. 5 .. .. 14 5 54 2 .. 66 43 .. .. 52 .. 10 .. 83 59 23 8 .. 1 33 5 79 21 10 10 18 38 59 80 ..

26 86 75 54 9 .. 88 93 88 64 93 68 19 24 .. 92 .. 33 .. 59 69 .. .. .. 58 70 .. 10 79 .. .. 73 84 31 36 66 8 .. 52 67 74 28 19 3 0 22 15 85 12 2 15 21 50 82 86 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

199

4.5
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore b Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa c Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia d Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Structure of merchandise expor ts
Merchandise exports Food Agricultural raw materials Fuels Ores and metals Manufactures

$ millions 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

4,960 13,869 40,000 106,858 110 56 44,417 73,940 761 1,055 2,929 2,275 138 49 52,730 125,177 6,355 14,367 6,681 9,471 150 145 23,549 29,723 55,642 119,131 1,912 4,699 374 1,850 556 820 57,540 81,137 63,784 87,876 4,212 5,540 .. 738 331 875 23,068 68,853 268 429 2,080 4,594 3,526 6,799 12,959 34,561 .. 2,950 152 442 .. 17,954 23,544 47,275 185,172 279,647 393,592 693,860 1,693 1,861 .. 3,184 17,497 26,890 2,404 16,530 .. .. 692 3,240 1,309 970 1,726 1,760 3,452,501 t 6,454,929 t 101,140 211,197 550,042 1,447,025 317,249 859,842 232,440 587,183 651,141 1,658,222 155,939 606,270 136,412 357,686 143,154 347,667 125,520 184,863 27,728 70,831 68,415 90,905 2,800,647 4,796,707 1,229,213 2,031,196

1 .. .. 1 53 7 .. 5 .. 7 .. 7 15 34 61 .. 2 3 14 .. .. 29 23 5 11 22 .. .. .. 8 7 11 40 .. 2 .. .. 75 .. 44 10 w 16 17 20 14 17 15 .. 26 4 16 .. 8 10

3 2 56 1 16 .. .. 2 4 4 .. 11 15 21 18 15 3 3 13 4 61 15 23 5 7 10 0 73 13 1 5 8 49 .. 2 .. .. .. 10 26 7w 16 8 8 9 9 7 6 22 4 13 17 7 9

3 .. .. 0 3 .. .. 3 .. 2 .. 3 2 6 38 .. 7 1 4 .. .. 5 21 0 1 3 .. .. .. 1 1 4 21 .. 0 .. .. 10 .. 7 3w 6 4 4 5 5 6 .. 4 1 5 .. 3 2

3 4 5 0 3 .. .. 0 2 1 .. 3 1 2 6 12 5 0 5 13 13 3 11 0 1 1 10 11 2 .. 0 2 13 .. 0 .. .. .. 3 12 2w 4 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 6 2 1

18 .. .. 92 12 2 .. 18 .. 3 .. 6 5 1 .. .. 3 0 45 .. .. 1 0 67 17 2 .. .. .. 5 8 3 0 .. 80 .. .. 8 .. 1 8w 23 23 10 39 23 14 .. 24 79 2 .. 5 3

8 56 0 89 23 .. .. 8 6 1 .. 12 3 0 72 1 3 0 72 14 0 3 1 49 9 2 81 7 9 92 8 2 1 .. 82 .. .. .. 2 1 7w 16 24 21 27 23 8 25 17 75 4 29 4 2

4 .. .. 0 9 7 .. 2 .. 3 .. 9 2 2 0 .. 3 3 1 .. .. 1 45 1 2 4 .. .. .. 39 3 3 0 .. 7 .. .. 7 .. 16 4w 6 6 5 6 6 3 .. 12 2 4 .. 3 2

4 8 36 0 6 .. .. 1 3 4 .. 11 2 2 0 0 3 4 1 56 9 1 17 0 1 2 0 2 8 4 2 2 0 .. 4 .. .. .. 72 22 2w 5 3 5 2 4 2 5 8 1 3 8 2 2

73 .. .. 7 23 79 .. 72 .. 86 .. 36 75 54 1 .. 83 94 36 .. .. 63 9 27 69 68 .. .. .. 46 79 74 39 .. 10 .. .. 1 .. 31 74 w 49 48 59 35 48 59 .. 34 15 71 .. 79 81

81 22 3 10 51 .. .. 85 85 90 .. 63 78 74 3 76 81 93 7 13 17 74 43 46 82 84 7 8 67 4 79 81 37 .. 13 .. .. .. 14 38 78 w 58 60 60 60 60 79 57 48 19 77 35 82 83

Note: Components may not sum to 100 percent because of unclassified trade. a. Includes Luxembourg. b. Includes re-exports. c. Data on total merchandise exports for 1990 refer to the South African Customs Union (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland); those for 2002 refer to South Africa only. Data on export commodity shares refer to the South African Customs Union. d. Data for 2002 include the intratrade of the Baltic states and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

200

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of merchandise expor ts
About the data Data on merchandise trade come from customs reports of goods movement into or out of an economy or from reports of the financial transactions related to merchandise trade recorded in the balance of payments. Because of differences in timing and definitions, estimates of trade flows from customs reports are likely to differ from those based on the balance of payments. Moreover, several international agencies process trade data, each making estimates to correct for unreported or misreported data, and this leads to other differences in the available data. The most detailed source of data on international trade in goods is the Commodity Trade (COMTRADE) database maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division. In addition, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) collects customs-based data on exports and imports of goods. The value of exports is recorded as the cost of the goods delivered to the frontier of the exporting country for shipment—the free on board (f.o.b.) value. Many countries report trade data in U.S. dollars. When countries report in local currency, the United Nations Statistics Division applies the average official exchange rate for the period shown. Countries may report trade according to the general or special system of trade (see Primary data documentation). Under the general system expor ts comprise outward-moving goods that are (a) goods wholly or partly produced in the country; (b) foreign goods, neither transformed nor declared for domestic consumption in the country, that move outward from customs storage; and (c) goods previously included as imports for domestic consumption but subsequently exported without transformation. Under the special system exports comprise categories a and c. In some compilations categories b and c are classified as re-exports. Because of differences in reporting practices, data on exports may not be fully comparable across economies. The data on total exports of goods (merchandise) in this table come from the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO uses two main sources, national statistical offices and the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. It supplements these with the COMTRADE database and publications or databases of regional organizations, specialized agencies, and economic groups (such as the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Eurostat, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). It also consults private sources, such as country reports of the Economist Intelligence Unit and press clippings. In recent years country Web sites and direct contacts through email have helped to improve the collection of up-to-date statistics for many countries, reducing the proportion of estimated figures. The WTO database now covers most of the major traders in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, which together with the high-income countries account for nearly 90 percent of total world trade. There has also been a remarkable improvement in the availability of recent, reliable, and standardized figures for countries in Europe and Central Asia. The shares of exports by major commodity group were estimated by World Bank staff from the COMTRADE database. The values of total exports reported here have not been fully reconciled with the estimates of exports of goods and services from the national accounts (shown in table 4.9) or those from the balance of payments (table 4.15). The classification of commodity groups is based on the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Definitions

4.5

ECONOMY

revision 1. Most countries now report using later revisions of the SITC or the Harmonized System. Concordance tables are used to convert data reported in one system of nomenclature to another. The conversion process may introduce some errors of classification, but conversions from later to early systems are generally reliable. Shares may not sum to 100 percent because of unclassified trade.

• Merchandise exports are the f.o.b. value of goods provided to the rest of the world, valued in U.S. dollars. • Food corresponds to the commodities in SITC sections 0 (food and live animals), 1 (beverages and tobacco), and 4 (animal and vegetable oils and fats) and SITC division 22 (oil seeds, oil nuts, and oil kernels). • Agricultural raw materials correspond to SITC section 2 (crude materials except fuels) excluding divisions 22, 27 (crude fertilizers and minerals excluding coal, petroleum, and precious stones), and 28 (metalliferous ores and scrap). • Fuels correspond to SITC section 3 (mineral fuels). • Ores and metals correspond to the commodities in SITC divisions 27, 28, and 68 (nonferrous metals). • Manufactures correspond to the commodities in SITC sections 5 (chemicals), 6 (basic manufactures), 7 (machinery and transport equipment), and 8 (miscellaneous manufactured goods), excluding division 68.

4.5a
Some developing country regions are increasing their share of merchandise exports
Merchandise exports

Data sources The WTO publishes data on world trade in its Annual Report. The IMF publishes estimates of 2002
East Asia & Pacific 9% Europe & Central Asia 6% Latin America & Caribbean 5% Middle East & North Africa 3% Sub-Saharan Africa 1% South Asia 1% High income 75%

1990
East Asia & Pacific 5% Europe & Central Asia 4% Latin America & Caribbean 4% Middle East & North Africa 4% Sub-Saharan Africa 2% South Asia 1%

total expor ts of goods in its International Financial Statistics and Direction of Trade Statistics, as does the United Nations Statistics Division in its Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. And the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) publishes data on the structure of exports and imports in its Handbook of International Trade and Development

High income 80%

Statistics. Tariff line records of exports and
The share of developing economies in world merchandise exports increased by 5 percentage points between 1990 and 2002. East Asia and Pacific was the biggest gainer, capturing an additional 4 percentage points. Source: International Monetary Fund data files.

imports are compiled in the United Nations Statistics Division’s COMTRADE database.

2004 World Development Indicators

201

4.6
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium a Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China† Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti †Data for Taiwan, China

Structure of merchandise impor ts
Merchandise imports Food Agricultural raw materials Fuels Ores and metals Manufactures

$ millions 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

936 380 9,780 1,578 4,076 .. 41,985 49,146 .. 3,618 .. 119,702 265 687 360 1,946 22,524 5,100 536 231 164 1,400 123,244 154 285 7,742 53,345 84,725 5,590 1,739 621 1,990 2,097 4,500 4,600 12,880 33,333 3,006 1,861 12,412 1,263 278 .. 1,081 27,001 234,436 918 188 .. 355,686 1,205 19,777 1,649 723 86 332 54,782

950 1,516 10,791 3,795 8,988 991 72,689 77,984 1,665 7,914 8,980 210,548 653 1,770 3,425 1,950 49,720 7,897 577 129 1,989 1,796 227,463 110 780 17,093 295,203 207,168 12,738 980 850 7,175 3,075 10,714 4,161 40,756 49,381 8,882 6,431 12,552 5,190 375 5,863 1,594 33,577 329,322 1,080 225 725 493,712 2,790 31,273 6,078 620 82 1,130 112,602

.. .. 24 .. 4 .. 5 5 .. 19 .. .. 38 12 .. .. 9 8 .. .. .. 19 6 .. .. 4 9 8 7 .. .. 8 .. 12 .. .. 12 .. 9 32 14 .. .. .. 5 10 .. .. .. 10 11 15 10 .. .. .. 7

.. 20 28 .. 5 21 5 7 14 16 11 9 20 13 .. 14 7 5 15 13 .. 18 6 .. .. 8 3 4 12 .. .. 8 23 9 18 4 12 12 9 28 18 .. 12 11 6 9 18 35 19 7 20 12 13 23 .. .. 4

.. .. 5 .. 4 .. 2 3 .. 5 .. .. 4 2 .. .. 3 3 .. .. .. 0 2 .. .. 2 6 2 4 .. .. 2 .. 4 .. .. 3 .. 3 7 3 .. .. .. 2 3 .. .. .. 3 1 3 2 .. .. .. 5

.. 1 3 .. 2 1 1 3 1 7 2 2 5 1 .. 1 2 1 1 3 .. 1 1 .. .. 1 4 1 2 .. .. 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 4 2 .. 3 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 .. .. 2

.. .. 1 .. 8 .. 6 6 .. 16 .. .. 1 1 .. .. 27 36 .. .. .. 2 6 .. .. 16 2 2 6 .. .. 10 .. 10 .. .. 7 .. 2 3 15 .. .. .. 12 10 .. .. .. 8 17 8 17 .. .. .. 11

.. 9 1 .. 5 18 8 6 18 5 26 9 17 5 .. 7 15 5 25 12 .. 13 5 .. .. 16 7 2 2 .. .. 7 21 12 20 14 4 23 4 4 13 .. 7 12 12 9 4 12 23 8 9 15 13 19 .. .. 11

.. .. 2 .. 6 .. 1 4 .. 3 .. .. 1 1 .. .. 5 4 .. .. .. 1 3 .. .. 1 3 2 3 .. .. 2 .. 4 .. .. 2 .. 2 2 4 .. .. .. 4 4 .. .. .. 4 0 3 2 .. .. .. 6

.. 2 1 .. 3 3 1 3 2 2 4 3 1 1 .. 2 3 6 1 2 .. 1 2 .. .. 1 5 2 2 .. .. 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 3 1 .. 2 1 5 3 1 1 1 3 2 3 1 0 .. .. 5

.. .. 68 .. 78 .. 84 81 .. 56 .. .. 56 85 .. .. 56 49 .. .. .. 78 81 .. .. 75 80 85 77 .. .. 66 .. 64 .. .. 73 .. 84 56 63 .. .. .. 76 74 .. .. .. 72 70 70 69 .. .. .. 69

.. 68 67 .. 84 57 84 81 65 69 51 77 56 80 .. 72 73 65 58 70 .. 66 84 .. .. 73 80 91 81 .. .. 83 54 75 60 77 77 62 84 51 65 .. 76 74 73 78 75 51 57 71 68 68 71 56 .. .. 76

202

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of merchandise impor ts
Merchandise imports Food Agricultural raw materials Fuels Ores and metals

4.6
Manufactures
% of total 1990 2002

ECONOMY

$ millions 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

935 10,340 23,580 21,837 20,322 7,660 20,669 16,793 181,968 1,928 235,368 2,600 .. 2,223 2,930 69,844 3,972 .. 185 .. 2,529 672 570 5,336 .. 1,206 651 575 29,258 602 388 1,618 43,548 .. 924 6,922 878 270 1,163 672 126,098 9,501 638 388 5,627 27,231 2,681 7,411 1,539 1,193 1,352 2,634 13,042 11,570 25,263 ..

2,940 37,612 56,595 31,288 22,190 12,000 51,906 35,517 242,957 3,500 337,194 4,962 6,491 3,277 1,718 152,126 8,960 589 431 4,053 6,447 779 675 5,700 7,739 1,921 1,150 674 79,869 928 440 2,168 173,087 1,052 659 11,644 1,340 2,324 1,450 1,419 219,788 15,077 1,795 430 7,547 34,812 6,005 11,233 2,982 1,100 1,770 7,523 35,229 55,113 38,451 ..

10 8 3 5 .. .. 11 8 12 15 15 26 .. 9 .. 6 17 .. .. .. .. .. .. 23 .. .. 11 9 7 26 .. 12 15 .. .. 10 .. 13 .. 15 13 7 19 .. 6 6 19 17 12 18 8 24 10 8 12 ..

16 3 6 11 11 .. 7 6 9 15 13 17 8 12 .. 6 .. 13 .. 13 18 .. .. .. 9 14 .. 12 5 .. .. 19 6 13 18 14 14 .. 13 13 12 9 15 44 20 7 21 12 13 18 12 13 8 6 13 ..

1 4 4 5 .. .. 2 2 6 1 7 2 .. 3 .. 8 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 .. .. 1 1 1 1 .. 3 4 .. .. 6 .. 1 .. 7 2 1 1 .. 1 2 1 4 1 0 0 2 2 3 4 ..

1 1 3 6 2 .. 1 1 3 1 3 2 1 2 .. 3 .. 2 .. 2 2 .. .. .. 3 2 .. 2 1 .. .. 2 1 3 1 3 1 .. 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 ..

16 14 27 9 .. .. 6 9 11 20 25 18 .. 20 .. 16 1 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. .. 17 11 5 19 .. 8 4 .. .. 17 .. 5 .. 9 10 8 19 .. 0 4 4 21 16 7 14 12 15 22 11 ..

13 7 33 21 3 .. 3 9 9 18 19 15 13 17 .. 21 .. 26 .. 9 18 .. .. .. 20 14 .. 17 5 .. .. 10 3 22 22 16 16 .. 10 16 9 9 13 13 1 4 2 27 17 22 17 14 9 9 10 ..

1 4 8 4 .. .. 2 3 5 1 9 1 .. 2 .. 7 2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. 1 1 4 1 .. 1 3 .. .. 6 .. 0 .. 2 3 3 1 .. 2 6 1 4 1 1 1 1 3 4 2 ..

1 2 5 3 2 .. 1 2 4 1 5 2 3 1 .. 6 .. 4 .. 2 2 .. .. .. 1 2 .. 1 3 .. .. 1 2 1 1 2 0 .. 2 3 3 2 0 2 2 5 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 ..

71 70 51 77 .. .. 76 77 64 61 44 51 .. 66 .. 63 79 .. .. .. .. .. .. 74 .. .. 69 78 82 53 .. 76 75 .. .. 61 .. 81 .. 67 71 81 59 .. 67 82 69 54 70 73 77 61 53 63 71 ..

69 84 52 59 82 .. 81 82 70 63 58 62 75 67 .. 64 .. 55 .. 74 60 .. .. .. 64 44 .. 69 83 .. .. 67 87 61 59 65 47 .. 74 49 74 79 68 40 76 81 69 53 68 58 69 70 56 80 73 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

203

4.6
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa b Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia c Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Structure of merchandise impor ts
Merchandise imports Food Agricultural raw materials Fuels Ores and metals Manufactures

$ millions 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

% of total 1990 2002

7,600 17,857 33,100 60,520 288 203 24,069 32,310 1,219 1,560 4,634 6,320 149 264 60,774 116,441 6,670 16,492 6,142 10,937 95 195 18,399 29,267 87,715 154,701 2,688 6,104 618 1,790 663 925 54,264 66,219 69,681 83,672 2,400 5,220 .. 715 1,027 1,687 33,045 64,721 581 650 1,262 4,040 5,513 9,527 22,302 49,663 .. 2,453 288 1,710 .. 16,993 11,199 32,180 222,977 345,321 516,987 1,202,430 1,343 1,964 .. 3,160 7,335 11,834 2,752 19,000 .. .. 1,571 2,590 1,220 1,270 1,847 1,440 3,532,918 t 6,590,272 t 106,125 197,606 502,597 1,364,003 323,769 821,000 179,974 543,003 609,669 1,561,609 160,493 535,235 150,809 371,275 119,568 343,449 104,010 142,093 39,124 84,787 57,515 84,770 2,913,452 5,028,663 1,247,461 1,884,219

12 .. .. 15 29 12 .. 6 .. 9 .. 8 11 19 13 .. 6 6 31 .. .. 5 22 19 11 8 .. .. .. 14 10 6 7 .. 11 .. .. 27 .. 4 9w 8 10 10 10 10 7 .. 11 19 9 .. 9 11

6 23 16 16 26 .. .. 4 5 6 .. 5 10 14 19 20 8 6 16 10 15 5 22 9 10 4 12 14 6 11 8 5 14 .. 13 .. .. .. 14 11 8w 11 9 9 7 9 6 10 9 16 8 10 8 9

4 .. .. 1 2 5 .. 2 .. 4 .. 2 3 2 1 .. 2 2 2 .. .. 5 1 1 4 4 .. .. .. 1 3 2 4 .. 4 .. .. 1 .. 3 3w 4 4 4 2 4 4 .. 3 3 4 .. 3 3

1 1 4 1 2 .. .. 0 2 3 .. 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 4 1 2 3 1 1 3 4 0 3 1 1 2 1 4 .. 1 .. .. .. 2 2 2w 4 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2

38 .. .. 0 16 17 .. 16 .. 11 .. 1 12 13 20 .. 9 5 3 .. .. 9 8 11 9 21 .. .. .. 3 6 13 18 .. 3 .. .. 40 .. 16 11 w 17 10 11 8 11 6 .. 13 4 23 .. 11 9

11 2 16 0 15 .. .. 13 13 7 .. 13 11 14 5 2 9 4 3 37 13 12 15 23 9 14 1 16 39 1 4 10 15 .. 2 .. .. .. 7 8 10 w 24 9 10 7 11 9 12 9 5 30 16 10 9

6 .. .. 3 2 3 .. 2 .. 4 .. 1 4 1 0 .. 3 3 1 .. .. 4 1 6 4 5 .. .. .. 4 4 3 2 .. 4 .. .. 1 .. 2 4w 5 3 3 3 4 3 .. 3 3 6 .. 4 4

3 2 2 3 2 .. .. 2 3 4 .. 2 3 2 1 1 3 5 3 0 1 3 2 1 2 5 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 .. 2 .. .. .. 2 2 3w 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 1 3 3

39 .. .. 81 51 63 .. 73 .. 67 .. 75 71 65 66 .. 79 84 62 .. .. 75 67 62 72 61 .. .. .. 77 75 73 69 .. 77 .. .. 31 .. 73 71 w 64 71 69 76 70 77 .. 69 70 54 .. 71 72

78 70 62 79 55 .. .. 80 76 79 .. 70 74 68 74 72 75 84 64 51 69 76 60 65 75 68 80 66 48 86 79 78 65 .. 82 .. .. .. 75 76 75 w 57 75 72 81 73 76 72 78 72 54 66 75 74

Note: Components may not sum to 100 percent because of unclassified trade. a. Includes Luxembourg. b. Data on total merchandise imports for 1990 refer to the South African Customs Union (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland); those for 2002 refer to South Africa only. Data on import commodity shares refer to the South African Customs Union. c. Data for 2002 include the intratrade of the Baltic states and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

204

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of merchandise impor ts
About the data Definitions Data on imports of goods are derived from the same sources as data on exports. In principle, world exports and imports should be identical. Similarly, exports from an economy should equal the sum of imports by the rest of the world from that economy. But differences in timing and definitions result in discrepancies in reported values at all levels. For further discussion of indicators of merchandise trade, see About the data for tables 4.4 and 4.5. The value of imports is generally recorded as the cost of the goods when purchased by the importer plus the cost of transport and insurance to the frontier of the importing country—the cost, insurance, and freight (c.i.f.) value, corresponding to the landed cost at the point of entry of foreign goods into the country. A few countries, including Australia, Canada, and the United States, collect import data on a free on board (f.o.b.) basis and adjust them for freight and insurance costs. Many countries collect and report trade data in U.S. dollars. When countries report in local currency, the United Nations Statistics Division applies the average official exchange rate for the period shown. Countries may report trade according to the general or special system of trade (see Primary data documentation). Under the general system imports include goods imported for domestic consumption and imports into bonded warehouses and free trade zones. Under the special system imports comprise goods imported for domestic consumption (including transformation and repair) and withdrawals for domestic consumption from bonded warehouses and free trade zones. Goods transported through a country en route to another are excluded. The data on total imports of goods (merchandise) in this table come from the World Trade Organization (WTO). For further discussion of the WTO’s sources and methodology, see About the data for table 4.5. The shares of imports by major commodity group were estimated by World Bank staff from the United Nations Statistics Division’s Commodity Trade (COMTRADE) database. The values of total imports reported here have not been fully reconciled with the estimates of imports of goods and services from the national accounts (shown in table 4.9) or those from the balance of payments (table 4.15). The classification of commodity groups is based on the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) revision 1. Most countries now report using later revisions of the SITC or the Harmonized System. Concordance tables are used to convert data reported in one system of nomenclature to another. The conversion process may introduce some errors of classification, but conversions from later to early systems are generally reliable. Shares may not sum to 100 percent because of unclassified trade.

4.6

ECONOMY

• Merchandise imports are the c.i.f. value of goods purchased from the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. • Food corresponds to the commodities in SITC sections 0 (food and live animals), 1 (beverages and tobacco), and 4 (animal and vegetable oils and fats) and SITC division 22 (oil seeds, oil nuts, and oil kernels). • Agricultural raw materials correspond to SITC section 2 (crude materials except fuels) excluding divisions 22, 27 (crude fertilizers and minerals excluding coal, petroleum, and precious stones), and 28 (metalliferous ores and scrap). • Fuels correspond to SITC section 3 (mineral fuels). • Ores and metals correspond to the commodities in SITC divisions 27, 28, and 68 (nonferrous metals). • Manufactures correspond to the commodities in SITC sections 5 (chemicals), 6 (basic manufactures), 7 (machinery and transport equipment), and 8 (miscellaneous manufactured goods), excluding division 68.

4.6a
Top 10 developing country exporters in 2002
Merchandise exports ($ billions) 350 1990 300 250 200 2002

Data sources The WTO publishes data on world trade in its Annual Report. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) publishes estimates of total imports of goods in its International Financial Statistics and Direction of Trade Statistics, as does the United

150 100 50 0 China Mexico Russian Malaysia Federation Saudi Arabia Thailand Brazil Indonesia India Poland

Nations Statistics Division in its Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. And the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) publishes data on the structure of exports and imports in its Handbook of International Trade and Development Statistics. Tariff line records of exports and imports are compiled in the United Nations Statistics Division’s COMTRADE database.

China led the developing economies in merchandise exports in 2002, followed by Mexico. The top 10 economies accounted for 63 percent of exports of developing economies and 16 percent of world exports. Note: No data are available for the Russian Federation for 1990. Source: World Trade Organization data files.

2004 World Development Indicators

205

4.7
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium a Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Structure of ser vice expor ts
Commercial service exports Transport Travel Insurance and financial services Computer, information, communications, and other commercial services
% of total services 2002 1990 2002

% of total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 services 2002 1990

% of total services 2002 1990

% of total services

.. 32 479 65 2,264 .. 9,833 22,755 .. 296 .. 26,646 109 133 .. 183 3,706 837 34 7 50 369 18,350 17 23 1,786 5,748 .. 1,548 .. 65 583 425 .. .. .. 12,731 1,086 508 4,812 301 73 200 261 4,562 74,948 214 53 .. 51,545 79 6,514 313 91 4 43

.. 552 .. 203 2,878 176 17,443 34,647 321 305 1,276 48,970 133 220 300 .. 8,844 2,553 32 4 593 .. 36,272 .. .. 3,878 39,381 43,333 1,789 .. 158 1,854 506 5,549 .. 7,024 27,182 2,966 917 9,127 749 54 1,979 450 6,400 85,912 .. .. 354 99,622 539 20,125 1,048 43 .. ..

.. 20.0 41.7 48.8 51.1 .. 35.5 6.4 .. 12.9 .. 27.5 33.4 35.8 .. 20.4 36.4 27.5 37.1 38.7 .. 42.6 23.0 50.9 18.4 40.0 47.1 .. 31.3 .. 53.9 16.3 62.4 .. .. .. 32.5 5.6 47.6 50.1 26.2 85.7 74.7 80.6 38.4 21.7 33.4 8.8 .. 28.6 49.2 4.9 7.4 14.2 5.4 19.8

.. 3.4 .. 6.6 24.3 36.5 23.9 16.7 66.1 30.4 55.7 20.8 14.7 27.3 10.0 .. 18.0 30.2 14.6 23.1 15.0 .. 19.0 .. .. 55.7 14.5 30.5 30.1 .. 23.6 13.2 19.0 10.6 .. 24.7 54.5 2.4 36.9 30.6 41.6 18.2 54.4 55.6 24.2 21.9 .. .. 52.0 25.8 21.3 40.0 8.8 20.4 .. ..

.. 11.1 13.4 20.6 39.9 .. 43.2 59.0 .. 6.4 .. 14.0 50.2 43.6 .. 64.1 37.3 38.2 34.1 51.4 .. 14.4 34.7 16.0 34.1 29.8 30.2 .. 26.2 .. 12.9 48.9 12.1 .. .. .. 26.2 66.8 37.0 22.9 25.2 1.0 13.7 2.1 25.8 27.0 1.4 87.9 .. 27.8 5.6 39.7 37.6 32.6 .. 78.9

.. 88.2 .. .. 53.3 35.9 49.2 32.1 15.9 18.6 15.1 15.5 63.4 37.1 37.3 .. 22.6 52.3 61.6 30.6 76.5 .. 29.4 .. .. 18.9 51.8 15.1 53.8 .. 16.1 62.6 10.0 68.7 .. 42.2 21.6 92.2 48.8 41.2 32.8 64.2 28.0 16.0 24.7 38.1 .. .. 35.5 19.3 66.5 49.6 58.6 .. .. ..

.. 2.2 5.9 4.6 0.0 .. 4.2 2.9 .. 0.1 .. 18.2 6.9 10.0 .. 8.2 3.1 3.1 .. 1.6 .. 9.4 .. 18.8 0.2 4.9 3.9 .. 17.1 .. .. 1.5 8.3 .. .. .. 2.3 0.2 9.3 1.0 7.5 .. 0.1 0.7 0.1 14.8 5.7 0.1 .. 1.0 2.7 0.1 1.9 0.1 .. 1.3

.. 2.0 .. 13.7 0.2 3.8 5.1 6.4 .. 4.7 0.5 27.8 2.3 16.8 13.8 .. 6.7 1.1 0.4 28.7 .. .. 8.4 .. .. 2.4 0.7 8.3 2.0 .. 2.5 1.2 13.3 1.9 .. 2.8 .. .. 0.2 1.2 4.2 1.0 1.0 1.6 0.2 2.5 .. .. 4.9 11.8 1.1 1.1 5.3 1.7 .. ..

.. 66.7 39.0 26.1 9.0 .. 17.2 31.7 .. 80.6 .. 40.3 9.5 10.6 .. 7.3 23.2 31.2 28.9 8.3 .. 33.6 42.3 14.3 47.3 25.3 18.7 .. 25.5 .. 33.1 34.8 17.2 .. .. .. 39.0 27.3 6.1 26.1 41.1 13.3 11.5 16.6 35.6 36.4 59.4 3.3 .. 42.6 42.6 55.2 53.0 53.1 94.6 0.0

.. 6.4 .. 79.7 22.1 23.8 21.8 44.8 18.0 46.3 28.7 35.9 19.6 18.8 38.9 .. 52.7 16.5 23.4 17.6 8.4 .. 43.1 .. .. 23.0 33.1 46.1 14.1 .. 57.8 23.0 57.7 18.8 .. 30.4 23.9 5.4 14.1 26.9 21.3 16.6 16.6 26.8 51.0 37.5 .. .. 7.6 43.2 11.1 9.3 27.3 77.9 .. ..

206

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of ser vice expor ts
Commercial service exports Transport Travel Insurance and financial services

4.7
Computer, information, communications, and other commercial services
% of total services 1990 2002

ECONOMY

% of total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 services 2002 1990

% of total services 2002 1990

% of total services 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

121 2,677 4,610 2,488 343 .. 3,286 4,546 48,579 976 41,384 1,430 .. 774 .. 9,155 1,054 .. 11 290 .. 34 .. 83 .. .. 129 37 3,769 71 14 478 7,222 .. 48 1,871 103 94 106 166 28,478 2,415 34 22 965 12,452 68 1,218 907 198 404 714 2,897 3,200 5,054 ..

463 7,726 24,553 6,517 1,357 .. 28,134 10,825 59,374 1,888 64,909 1,473 1,432 791 .. 27,080 1,372 118 127 1,235 .. 31 .. .. 1,451 220 158 49 14,753 140 .. 1,132 12,474 201 179 4,098 249 405 230 303 54,573 5,041 270 .. .. 19,116 349 1,536 2,254 285 506 1,430 3,029 10,030 9,720 ..

35.1 1.6 20.8 2.8 10.5 .. 31.1 30.8 21.0 18.0 .. 26.0 .. 32.0 .. 34.7 87.5 .. 74.8 94.9 .. 14.1 .. 83.8 .. .. 32.1 46.1 31.8 31.0 35.3 32.9 12.4 .. 41.8 9.6 61.3 10.3 .. 3.6 45.4 43.4 19.2 5.2 3.9 68.7 15.3 59.3 64.9 11.2 18.3 43.4 8.5 57.3 15.6 ..

11.7 8.9 10.3 16.2 49.4 .. 5.7 19.6 15.4 19.5 37.0 19.6 47.6 54.1 .. 48.3 82.3 31.7 18.0 62.5 .. 1.3 .. .. 45.1 36.3 26.8 32.7 19.3 17.0 .. 24.1 9.2 54.4 21.8 19.0 22.4 19.8 .. 15.6 32.4 23.8 9.5 .. .. 56.8 45.5 54.1 55.7 7.5 13.8 19.9 20.8 32.6 18.7 ..

24.0 36.8 33.8 86.5 8.2 .. 44.4 30.7 33.9 77.0 .. 35.7 .. 60.2 .. 34.5 12.5 .. 24.3 2.5 .. 51.2 .. 7.7 .. .. 31.3 42.6 44.7 54.3 64.7 51.1 76.5 .. 10.4 68.4 .. 20.9 81.0 65.6 14.6 42.7 35.5 59.5 2.5 12.6 84.7 12.0 18.9 12.0 21.1 30.4 16.1 11.2 70.4 ..

62.9 42.4 12.3 81.1 36.9 .. 11.0 19.4 45.3 64.0 5.4 53.4 43.4 39.0 .. 19.5 8.6 30.2 82.0 13.1 .. 64.0 .. .. 34.8 17.7 22.9 67.3 48.2 62.9 .. 54.0 71.0 23.2 72.7 64.6 25.6 31.0 95.2 47.5 14.1 57.6 42.0 .. .. 11.4 41.0 6.3 23.4 1.8 11.6 56.1 57.4 43.0 61.4 ..

12.9 0.2 2.7 .. 6.4 .. .. .. 5.5 1.4 .. .. .. 0.7 .. 0.1 .. .. 0.9 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.3 0.1 0.1 4.9 .. 0.1 4.6 .. 4.6 0.8 .. 0.5 5.9 .. 0.8 –0.3 .. 13.5 0.3 0.4 .. 1.4 3.8 0.5 .. 11.2 0.5 4.0 0.7 ..

3.9 2.1 1.5 0.0 10.7 .. 22.3 0.1 3.3 2.0 4.2 .. 0.8 0.5 .. 3.3 7.9 3.3 .. 5.5 .. –0.0 .. .. 0.7 2.2 0.7 .. 1.4 2.9 .. 1.8 9.7 1.9 0.8 0.7 .. .. 0.6 .. 2.0 0.9 0.9 .. .. 4.7 4.5 2.3 12.6 1.8 5.3 6.8 2.2 3.5 2.3 ..

28.0 61.4 42.7 10.7 74.9 .. 24.5 38.8 39.6 3.6 .. 38.3 .. 7.1 .. 30.7 –0.0 .. .. 2.6 .. 34.7 .. 8.5 .. .. 36.3 11.2 23.5 9.8 –0.0 15.8 6.5 .. 43.2 21.2 38.7 68.3 13.1 30.8 39.2 14.2 45.3 21.8 93.3 18.3 –0.0 27.3 12.4 76.3 60.5 15.0 74.9 27.6 13.3 ..

21.4 46.7 75.9 2.7 2.9 .. 61.0 60.8 36.1 14.4 53.4 27.1 8.2 6.4 .. 28.8 1.2 34.8 .. 18.9 .. 34.7 .. .. 19.4 43.8 49.6 0.0 31.0 17.3 .. 20.0 10.1 20.6 4.7 15.7 52.1 49.2 4.2 36.9 51.4 17.7 47.7 .. .. 27.1 9.0 37.3 8.2 88.9 69.3 17.2 19.5 20.9 17.7 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

207

4.7
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU
a. Includes Luxembourg.

Structure of ser vice expor ts
Commercial service exports Transport Travel Insurance and financial services Computer, information, communications, and other commercial services
% of total services 2002 1990 2002

% of total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 services 2002 1990

% of total services 2002 1990

% of total services

610 2,326 .. 13,453 31 48 3,031 5,184 356 .. .. .. 45 .. 12,719 29,599 .. 2,218 1,219 2,286 .. .. 3,290 4,391 27,649 62,109 425 1,247 134 45 102 113 13,453 23,508 18,233 27,856 740 1,481 .. 60 131 609 6,292 15,232 114 53 322 563 1,575 2,603 7,882 14,738 .. .. .. 230 .. 4,583 .. .. 53,830 123,130 132,880 272,630 460 752 .. .. 1,121 960 .. 2,948 .. .. 82 129 94 114 253 .. 750,300 s 1,511,226 s 14,230 40,966 78,877 225,630 49,966 144,059 28,911 81,571 93,107 266,596 22,049 82,632 15,237 77,656 25,004 46,516 14,513 22,615 6,816 27,994 9,487 10,833 657,193 1,244,630 300,015 480,820

50.5 .. 56.1 .. 19.1 .. 9.7 17.5 .. 22.6 .. 21.6 17.2 39.7 14.1 24.5 35.8 16.3 29.7 .. 19.9 21.1 26.9 50.7 23.0 11.7 .. .. .. .. 25.2 28.1 36.9 .. 40.9 .. .. 27.2 68.9 44.3 25.0 w 24.6 26.9 27.0 26.7 26.6 26.1 21.9 28.7 26.7 27.9 28.1 24.8 23.9

41.4 40.8 25.7 .. .. .. .. 38.6 44.9 26.2 .. 23.3 15.1 41.2 36.7 9.4 22.0 11.6 16.6 75.7 10.1 21.4 23.1 36.8 23.5 19.0 .. 16.2 73.8 .. 14.5 17.0 34.6 .. 36.0 .. .. 15.7 37.2 .. 22.4 w 15.7 23.3 24.0 22.2 22.2 17.1 31.4 21.4 19.9 14.2 26.3 22.5 21.0

17.4 .. 32.8 .. 42.7 .. 76.2 36.6 .. 55.0 .. 55.8 67.2 30.2 15.7 29.2 21.7 40.6 43.3 .. 36.4 68.7 50.7 29.4 64.8 40.9 .. .. .. .. 29.0 37.9 51.8 .. 44.2 .. .. 48.8 13.5 25.3 32.9 w 38.3 42.0 42.1 41.8 41.4 48.5 32.8 50.5 30.5 30.1 39.7 31.7 33.2

14.4 31.1 65.3 .. .. .. .. 14.8 19.5 47.4 .. 62.1 54.4 29.1 50.9 23.3 19.1 28.2 73.1 2.7 71.8 51.9 20.4 35.7 58.5 57.5 .. 76.0 17.2 .. 17.2 31.3 46.7 .. 45.7 .. .. 29.3 58.3 .. 30.5 w 28.2 46.9 47.6 45.6 44.2 54.0 41.8 50.2 38.7 13.8 48.9 27.4 32.1

5.6 .. 1.0 .. 0.5 .. 0.1 0.7 .. 1.2 .. 10.8 4.3 4.2 0.5 .. 9.1 23.3 .. .. 0.5 0.2 13.7 .. 1.5 1.7 .. .. .. .. 16.4 3.5 1.0 .. 0.2 .. .. .. 4.1 1.2 6.6 w 2.5 3.2 3.6 2.6 3.1 1.3 1.7 4.5 .. 2.4 5.8 7.1 7.2

4.4 1.7 .. .. .. .. .. 2.5 2.2 2.0 .. 5.4 4.2 3.6 0.9 .. 4.3 34.7 .. 1.9 3.9 0.6 2.8 14.0 2.4 1.7 .. 1.6 0.5 .. 23.7 6.9 10.0 .. 0.1 .. .. .. 4.5 .. 8.3 w 1.5 2.5 1.9 3.7 2.4 0.8 2.1 6.2 1.2 1.7 4.2 9.5 8.6

26.6 .. 10.0 .. 37.6 .. 14.1 45.3 .. 21.2 .. 11.9 11.3 25.9 69.7 46.3 33.5 19.7 27.0 .. 43.1 10.0 8.6 19.9 10.7 47.4 .. .. .. .. 29.4 30.5 10.3 .. 14.7 .. .. 24.0 13.4 29.2 36.3 w 35.1 28.5 28.1 29.2 29.5 24.2 44.0 16.5 41.8 39.7 26.8 37.2 35.8

39.7 26.3 9.0 .. .. .. .. 44.0 33.4 24.4 .. 9.1 26.4 26.0 11.5 67.3 54.5 25.5 10.3 19.6 14.3 26.1 53.6 13.6 15.6 21.8 .. 6.2 8.4 .. 44.6 44.9 8.7 .. 18.1 .. .. 55.0 0.1 .. 39.2 w 54.6 27.3 26.6 28.7 31.3 28.1 24.7 22.6 40.5 70.3 19.5 40.9 38.3

208

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of ser vice expor ts
About the data Definitions Balance of payments statistics, the main source of information on international trade in services, have many weaknesses. Some large economies—such as the former Soviet Union—did not report data on trade in services until recently. Disaggregation of important components may be limited, and it varies significantly across countries. There are inconsistencies in the methods used to report items. And the recording of major flows as net items is common (for example, insurance transactions are often recorded as premiums less claims). These factors contribute to a downward bias in the value of the service trade reported in the balance of payments. Efforts are being made to improve the coverage, quality, and consistency of these data. Eurostat and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, for example, are working together to improve the collection of statistics on trade in services in member countries. In addition, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has implemented the new classification of trade in services introduced in the fifth edition of its Balance of Payments Manual (1993). Still, difficulties in capturing all the dimensions of international trade in services mean that the record is likely to remain incomplete. Cross-border intrafirm service transactions, which are usually not captured in the balance of payments, have increased in recent years. One example of such transactions is transnational corporations’ use of mainframe computers around the clock for data processing, exploiting time zone differences between their home country and the host countries of their affiliates. Another important dimension of service trade not captured by conventional balance of payments statistics is establishment trade—sales in the host country by foreign affiliates. By contrast, crossborder intrafirm transactions in merchandise may be reported as exports or imports in the balance of payments. The data on exports of services in this table and on imports of services in table 4.8, unlike those in editions before 2000, include only commercial services and exclude the category “government services not included elsewhere.” The data are compiled by the IMF based on returns from national sources. Data on total trade in goods and services from the IMF’s Balance of Payments database are shown in table 4.15.

4.7

ECONOMY

• Commercial service exports are total service exports minus exports of government services not included elsewhere. International transactions in ser vices are defined by the IMF’s Balance of Payments Manual (1993) as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. Definitions may vary among reporting economies. • Transport covers all transport services (sea, air, land, internal waterway, space, and pipeline) performed by residents of one economy for those of another and involving the carriage of passengers, movement of goods (freight), rental of carriers with crew, and related support and auxiliary services. Excluded are freight insurance, which is included in insurance services; goods procured in ports by nonresident carriers and repairs of transport equipment, which are included in goods; repairs of harbors, railway facilities, and airfield facilities, which are included in construction services; and rental of carriers without crew, which is included in other services. • Travel covers goods and services acquired from an economy by travelers in that economy for their own use during visits of less than one year for business or personal purposes. Travel ser vices include the goods and services consumed by travelers, such as meals, lodging, and transport (within the economy visited), including car rental. • Insurance and financial services cover freight insurance on goods exported and other direct insurance such as life insurance, financial intermediation services such as commissions, foreign exchange transactions, and brokerage services; and auxiliary services such as financial market operational and regulatory services. • Computer, information, communications, and other commercial services include such activities as international telecommunications and postal and courier services; computer data; news-related serv-

4.7a
Top 10 developing country exporters of commercial services in 2002
Commercial services exports ($ billions) 40 1990 2002

ice transactions between residents and nonresi30

dents; construction services; royalties and license fees; miscellaneous business, professional, and

20

technical services; and personal, cultural, and recreational services.

10

0 China India Malaysia Thailand Turkey Russian Mexico Federation Poland Brazil Egypt, Arab Rep.

Data sources The data on exports of commercial services are from the IMF. The IMF publishes balance of payments data in its International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook.

Major exporters of merchandise trade also tend to be major exporters of commercial services. The exceptions are the fuel exporters—Saudi Arabia and Indonesia. These top 10 developing country exporters accounted for 61 percent of commercial services exports of developing economies and 11 percent of world commercial services exports in 2002. Note: No data are available for the Russian Federation for 1990. Source: International Monetary Fund data files.

2004 World Development Indicators

209

4.8
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium a Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Structure of ser vice impor ts
Commercial service imports Transport Travel Insurance and financial services Computer, information, communications, and other commercial services
% of total services 2002 1990 2002

% of total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 services 2002 1990

% of total services 2002 1990

% of total services

.. 29 1,155 1,288 2,876 .. 13,388 14,104 .. 554 .. 25,924 113 291 .. 371 6,733 600 196 59 64 1,018 27,479 166 223 1,982 4,113 .. 1,683 .. 748 540 1,518 .. .. .. 10,106 435 755 3,327 296 .. 123 348 7,432 59,560 984 35 .. 84,336 226 2,756 363 243 17 71

.. 561 .. 3,176 4,360 217 17,740 34,416 1,283 1,391 892 42,856 186 500 228 .. 13,631 1,986 135 33 372 .. 41,932 .. .. 4,771 46,080 24,800 3,249 .. 917 1,188 1,341 2,399 .. 6,372 25,116 1,241 1,505 6,013 960 24 1,404 558 8,130 68,171 .. .. 316 149,107 546 10,306 996 156 .. ..

.. 26.3 58.1 38.3 32.6 .. 33.9 8.4 .. 71.1 .. 23.3 46.9 61.7 .. 57.5 44.4 40.5 64.7 62.6 24.5 45.3 21.1 49.7 45.1 47.4 78.9 .. 34.9 .. 18.4 41.2 32.1 .. .. .. 38.3 40.0 41.6 44.0 45.9 .. 76.3 76.5 26.1 29.4 23.2 65.1 .. 20.3 55.1 34.0 41.0 57.5 54.5 47.9

.. 22.8 .. 12.4 21.8 60.0 33.8 10.4 13.5 71.2 15.3 19.5 67.9 58.4 59.4 .. 26.6 44.1 65.1 55.2 57.4 .. 21.6 .. .. 45.0 29.5 26.6 37.0 .. 13.1 38.6 39.6 18.7 .. 14.0 47.4 60.3 43.2 29.6 43.4 27.6 54.3 57.2 30.4 26.2 .. .. 33.0 20.4 48.8 46.0 51.5 30.1 .. ..

.. .. 12.9 3.0 40.7 .. 31.5 54.9 .. 14.1 .. 21.1 12.8 20.6 .. 15.0 22.4 31.5 16.6 29.0 .. 27.5 39.8 30.6 31.2 21.5 11.4 .. 27.0 .. 15.2 28.8 11.1 .. .. .. 36.5 33.1 23.2 3.9 20.5 .. 15.4 3.3 37.2 20.7 13.9 23.1 .. 46.3 5.9 39.5 27.4 12.2 19.8 52.1

.. 65.1 .. 2.1 53.4 24.9 34.4 27.5 8.2 14.5 62.6 24.7 9.3 14.8 21.3 .. 17.6 31.0 16.1 42.1 10.3 .. 28.2 .. .. 16.5 33.4 50.1 33.0 .. 7.7 29.0 21.6 32.6 .. 25.1 27.6 23.8 24.2 21.1 19.9 49.5 16.4 8.1 24.2 28.9 .. .. 47.1 35.8 22.0 32.0 26.8 19.7 .. ..

.. 2.9 9.8 2.6 1.7 .. 4.8 4.6 .. 6.6 .. 14.7 5.7 10.0 .. 5.5 2.7 4.5 5.1 6.3 .. 7.2 .. 8.9 4.4 3.3 2.3 .. 13.7 .. 1.6 6.0 4.7 .. .. .. 1.6 4.1 8.1 4.6 12.0 .. 0.3 3.4 1.8 19.2 5.3 9.0 .. 1.0 11.2 5.4 3.4 5.5 5.6 ..

.. 9.0 .. 2.9 2.0 5.2 4.5 6.5 1.0 7.4 1.7 19.1 10.2 18.7 12.5 .. 9.2 4.0 14.7 1.4 4.7 .. 11.3 .. .. 8.0 7.2 4.8 13.1 .. 3.9 7.4 11.1 5.5 .. 12.4 .. 9.1 5.1 7.1 13.0 1.9 1.1 5.4 1.2 4.5 .. .. 5.8 3.4 5.4 4.2 11.3 5.8 .. ..

.. 70.8 19.2 56.1 26.7 .. 29.8 32.1 .. 8.3 .. 40.8 34.6 7.6 .. 22.0 30.5 23.5 13.6 2.2 75.5 20.1 39.2 10.7 19.2 27.9 7.4 .. 24.4 .. 64.9 24.0 52.0 .. .. .. 23.6 22.8 27.2 47.5 21.5 .. 8.0 16.8 34.8 30.7 57.6 2.8 .. 32.4 27.8 21.0 28.2 24.8 20.0 ..

.. 3.1 .. 82.6 22.9 9.9 27.4 55.6 77.2 6.8 20.5 36.7 12.6 8.1 6.7 .. 46.6 20.9 4.2 1.3 27.7 .. 38.9 .. .. 30.5 29.8 18.5 17.0 .. 75.4 24.9 27.7 43.2 .. 48.5 25.0 6.8 27.5 42.2 23.7 21.0 28.2 29.3 44.2 40.5 .. .. 14.1 40.4 23.9 17.8 10.4 44.4 .. ..

210

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of ser vice impor ts
Commercial service imports Transport Travel Insurance and financial services

4.8
Computer, information, communications, and other commercial services
% of total services 1990 2002

ECONOMY

% of total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 services 2002 1990

% of total services 2002 1990

% of total services 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

213 2,264 5,943 5,898 3,703 .. 5,145 4,825 46,602 667 84,281 1,118 .. 598 .. 10,050 2,805 .. 25 120 .. 48 .. 926 .. .. 172 268 5,394 352 126 407 10,063 .. 155 940 206 73 341 159 28,995 3,251 73 209 1,901 12,247 719 1,863 666 393 361 1,070 1,721 2,847 3,772 ..

601 7,093 18,464 16,779 1,577 .. 40,393 11,269 61,485 1,603 106,612 1,480 3,635 764 .. 35,145 4,880 142 5 698 .. 45 .. .. 878 270 317 222 16,248 414 .. 779 17,031 231 260 1,903 607 364 226 205 56,478 4,682 315 .. .. 16,459 1,678 2,093 1,204 662 294 2,371 4,311 9,089 6,578 ..

45.4 8.8 57.5 47.4 47.3 .. 24.3 39.6 23.7 47.9 .. 52.0 .. 66.2 .. 39.8 31.9 .. 73.0 82.3 .. 67.9 .. 41.9 .. .. 43.5 81.8 46.9 57.4 76.9 51.6 25.0 .. 56.2 58.3 57.7 35.4 46.9 40.8 37.7 40.6 70.7 68.3 33.6 44.6 36.6 67.0 66.6 35.6 61.6 43.5 56.9 52.4 48.4 ..

51.3 14.6 13.7 30.7 72.4 .. 4.4 37.3 22.2 38.3 29.6 48.3 19.1 48.8 .. 30.4 35.8 38.0 99.0 33.3 .. 68.0 .. .. 33.8 37.2 45.4 50.1 36.3 64.0 .. 36.6 11.7 33.0 38.3 45.0 26.0 82.1 37.1 34.9 22.8 35.2 55.1 .. .. 34.2 37.1 66.4 51.1 26.1 59.4 39.7 51.9 20.0 33.1 ..

17.6 25.9 6.6 14.2 9.2 .. 22.6 29.7 22.1 17.0 .. 30.1 .. 6.4 .. 27.5 65.5 .. .. 10.9 .. 24.7 .. 45.7 .. .. 23.4 5.9 26.9 15.8 18.3 23.0 54.9 .. 0.8 19.9 .. 22.6 17.9 28.5 25.4 29.5 20.1 10.4 30.3 30.0 6.5 23.1 14.8 12.8 19.8 27.6 6.4 14.9 23.0 ..

21.7 24.3 18.7 19.6 13.0 .. 9.3 22.6 27.5 16.1 25.0 28.2 20.8 18.7 .. 25.8 61.9 6.9 1.0 32.9 .. 30.7 .. .. 37.1 16.5 28.6 35.2 16.1 8.6 .. 26.2 35.6 37.3 45.8 23.4 18.8 7.6 24.6 38.8 23.0 31.8 22.1 .. .. 30.8 21.9 12.2 14.8 5.8 22.0 26.0 20.2 35.2 34.6 ..

15.0 1.0 5.8 4.0 10.8 .. 1.9 4.4 10.4 6.7 .. 5.2 .. 8.9 .. 0.3 1.2 .. 6.3 4.8 .. 5.6 .. 4.1 .. .. 3.5 8.7 .. 1.9 3.1 5.5 6.2 .. 6.3 6.0 4.3 2.5 6.8 3.2 1.0 2.5 7.9 4.3 3.1 1.7 4.1 1.3 10.2 4.0 11.4 10.9 3.4 1.0 5.1 ..

.. 4.4 1.7 1.1 13.5 .. 11.3 3.4 3.9 8.5 4.6 6.8 2.5 10.0 .. 1.7 1.5 15.1 .. 8.7 .. 1.1 .. .. 4.3 3.4 1.5 0.0 3.3 3.5 .. 4.8 39.5 2.3 2.7 2.4 3.2 .. 5.8 .. 4.1 4.0 4.0 .. .. 4.4 7.1 5.7 20.6 7.3 17.4 10.3 7.9 6.1 5.0 ..

22.0 64.3 30.1 34.5 32.8 .. 51.2 26.2 43.8 28.4 .. 12.7 .. 18.5 .. 32.4 1.4 .. 20.6 2.1 .. 1.7 .. 8.3 .. .. 29.5 3.7 26.2 24.9 1.7 19.9 14.0 .. 36.8 15.9 38.1 39.5 28.5 27.5 35.9 27.5 1.4 17.1 32.9 23.6 52.8 8.6 8.4 47.6 7.3 18.0 33.2 31.8 23.5 ..

26.9 56.8 65.9 48.6 1.1 .. 75.0 36.8 46.4 37.1 40.9 16.7 57.5 22.4 .. 42.1 0.8 40.0 .. 25.1 .. 0.1 .. .. 24.7 42.9 24.5 14.7 44.3 23.9 .. 32.4 13.3 27.3 13.2 29.2 52.0 10.3 32.5 26.3 50.1 29.0 18.8 .. .. 30.6 34.0 15.8 13.5 60.8 1.1 23.9 20.1 38.6 27.3 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

211

4.8
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU
a. Includes Luxembourg.

Structure of ser vice impor ts
Commercial service imports Transport Travel Insurance and financial services Computer, information, communications, and other commercial services
% of total services 2002 1990 2002

% of total $ millions 1990 2002 1990 services 2002 1990

% of total services 2002 1990

% of total services

787 2,304 .. 23,577 94 124 12,694 7,159 368 .. .. .. 67 .. 8,575 27,155 .. 1,779 1,034 1,719 .. .. 3,593 5,221 15,197 37,620 620 966 202 784 171 134 16,959 23,732 11,093 16,980 702 1,468 .. 103 288 647 6,160 16,573 217 129 460 339 682 1,353 2,794 6,283 .. .. 195 530 .. 3,143 .. .. 44,713 101,408 97,950 205,580 363 619 .. .. 2,390 3,767 .. 3,698 .. .. 639 883 370 328 460 .. 779,679 s 1,475,405 s 28,313 52,561 92,233 240,279 45,983 154,902 46,250 85,376 120,546 292,840 24,308 104,321 9,321 73,106 32,757 60,676 26,605 18,791 9,176 23,023 18,379 17,855 659,133 1,182,565 293,822 486,299

65.5 .. 69.0 18.1 60.1 .. 29.5 41.0 .. 42.5 .. 40.2 30.8 64.2 31.9 6.1 23.2 33.7 54.5 .. 58.0 58.0 56.9 51.7 51.4 32.2 .. 58.3 .. .. 33.2 36.3 48.2 .. 33.5 .. .. 27.6 76.8 51.8 28.3 w 50.4 40.6 50.4 30.8 42.9 56.0 36.0 37.2 33.3 60.4 44.1 25.7 25.4

36.2 12.1 71.9 33.5 .. .. .. 42.6 24.4 21.3 .. 45.6 24.6 34.2 87.5 15.4 14.8 25.6 47.5 79.0 27.3 43.0 71.8 34.4 48.3 30.7 .. .. 15.5 .. 24.2 28.5 41.7 .. 41.1 .. .. 44.2 67.7 .. 26.1 w 28.9 29.1 30.9 25.9 29.1 34.1 19.5 29.3 36.2 23.0 38.0 25.4 20.5

13.1 .. 23.7 .. 12.4 .. 32.7 21.0 .. 27.3 .. 31.5 28.0 11.9 25.4 20.6 37.1 53.0 35.5 .. 7.9 23.3 18.4 26.6 26.2 18.6 .. .. .. .. 41.0 38.9 30.7 .. 42.8 .. .. 9.9 14.6 14.4 28.6 w 13.9 22.5 19.1 25.8 20.5 18.2 19.5 35.9 7.9 11.3 19.2 30.1 31.5

17.2 50.9 19.2 .. .. .. .. 19.2 16.6 35.7 .. 34.6 17.7 27.3 11.7 24.6 30.4 38.9 45.6 1.7 52.2 19.9 3.7 44.5 19.2 29.9 .. .. 20.9 .. 41.4 29.6 28.7 .. 26.0 .. .. 8.8 13.3 .. 28.7 w 18.7 28.8 30.6 25.6 27.1 25.5 35.3 27.6 13.1 18.3 21.0 29.1 27.2

7.3 .. 0.0 2.2 8.8 .. 4.8 9.1 .. 2.5 .. 11.6 6.3 6.8 4.9 .. 7.9 1.4 4.4 .. 6.2 5.5 9.1 9.9 7.3 9.6 .. 6.5 .. .. 2.4 4.5 1.5 .. 4.3 .. .. 5.4 5.3 3.4 6.0 w 4.6 5.2 6.4 3.8 5.1 4.1 2.1 6.0 4.7 4.9 6.3 6.1 8.0

7.0 2.9 .. 3.7 .. .. .. 4.3 4.9 2.3 .. 9.7 6.9 2.8 0.1 8.7 3.6 4.8 .. 6.3 4.8 5.9 15.3 2.4 7.5 15.8 .. .. 8.1 .. 6.3 9.2 7.0 .. 7.6 .. .. 7.6 1.7 .. 6.8 w 2.4 9.0 7.1 12.4 7.9 5.4 6.0 17.7 5.4 2.5 6.0 6.5 6.4

14.1 .. 7.3 79.7 18.7 .. 33.0 29.0 .. 27.8 .. 16.7 34.9 17.1 37.8 73.4 31.7 12.0 5.7 .. 27.9 13.2 15.5 11.9 15.0 49.2 .. 35.2 .. .. 23.4 20.4 19.6 .. 19.4 .. .. 57.1 3.3 30.4 38.2 w 31.1 32.4 24.5 40.3 32.1 22.6 43.0 21.5 54.1 23.4 30.6 39.3 35.2

39.5 34.0 8.9 62.7 .. .. .. 33.9 54.1 40.7 .. 10.1 50.8 35.7 0.8 51.2 51.1 30.6 6.9 13.0 15.7 31.2 9.2 18.7 25.0 23.6 .. .. 55.5 .. 28.1 32.7 22.6 .. 25.2 .. .. 39.4 17.3 .. 38.6 w 49.9 33.1 31.5 36.0 35.9 35.1 39.2 25.7 45.3 56.2 35.0 39.3 45.9

212

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of ser vice impor ts
About the data Definitions Trade in ser vices differs from trade in goods because services are produced and consumed at the same time. Thus services to a traveler may be consumed in the producing country (for example, use of a hotel room) but are classified as imports of the traveler’s country. In other cases services may be supplied from a remote location; for example, insurance services may be supplied from one location and consumed in another. For further discussion of the problems of measuring trade in services, see About the data for table 4.7. The data on exports of services in table 4.7 and on imports of services in this table, unlike those in editions before 2000, include only commercial services and exclude the category “government services not included elsewhere.” The data are compiled by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) based on returns from national sources.

4.8

ECONOMY

• Commercial service imports are total service imports minus imports of government services not included elsewhere. International transactions in ser vices are defined by the IMF’s Balance of Payments Manual (1993) as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. Definitions may vary among reporting economies. • Transport covers all transport services (sea, air, land, internal waterway, space, and pipeline) performed by residents of one economy for those of another and involving the carriage of passengers, movement of goods (freight), rental of carriers with crew, and related support and auxiliary services. Excluded are freight insurance, which is included in insurance services; goods procured in ports by nonresident carriers and repairs of transport equipment, which are included in goods; repairs of harbors, railway facilities, and airfield facilities, which are included in construction services; and rental of carriers without crew, which is included in other services. • Travel covers goods and services acquired from an economy by travelers in that economy for their own use during visits of less than one year for business or personal purposes. Travel ser vices include the goods and services consumed by travelers, such as meals, lodging, and transport (within the economy visited), including car rental. • Insurance and financial services cover freight insurance on goods imported and other direct insurance such as life insurance, financial intermediation services such as commissions, foreign exchange transactions, and brokerage services; and auxiliary services such as financial market operational and regulatory services. • Computer, information, communications, and

4.8a
Developing economies are consuming less transport services
Commercial service imports (% of total)

other commercial services include such activities as international telecommunications, and postal and courier services; computer data; news-related service transactions between residents and nonresi2002 dents; construction services; royalties and license fees; miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services; and personal, cultural, and recreOther 32% ational services. Transport 43% Insurance and financial services 8% Other 36% Transport 29%

1990

Insurance and financial services 5%

Travel 20%

Travel 27%

Data sources The data on imports of commercial services are from the IMF. The IMF publishes balance of pay-

Between 1990 and 2002 travel, insurance and finance, and other services displaced transport as the most important categories of service imports for developing economies. Source: International Monetary Fund data files.

ments data in its International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook.

2004 World Development Indicators

213

4.9
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Structure of demand
Household final consumption expenditure General government final consumption expenditure
% of GDP 1990 2002

Gross capital formation

Exports of goods and services

Imports of goods and services

Gross domestic savings

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

.. 61 57 36 77 46 59 55 51 86 47 55 87 77 .. 33 59 60 82 95 91 67 56 86 88 62 50 57 66 79 62 61 72 74 .. 49 49 80 67 73 89 104 62 74 50 55 50 76 65 57 85 72 84 73 87 81

108 93 44 61 61 87 60 58 60 77 61 55 81 75 113 28 58 69 82 92 80 71 56 78 86 61 43 58 66 92 32 68 60 60 70 53 48 76 69 79 90 92 58 78 51 55 52 83 81 59 83 67 85 82 105 103

.. 19 16 34 3 18 19 19 18 4 24 20 11 12 .. 24 19 18 13 11 7 13 23 15 10 10 12 7 9 12 14 18 17 24 .. 23 26 5 11 11 10 22 16 18 22 22 13 14 10 20 9 15 7 9 10 8

9 8 15 .. a 12 10 18 19 15 5 21 21 13 15 .. a 33 19 18 13 13 6 12 19 12 8 12 13 10 21 4 18 15 11 22 23 21 26 10 10 10 8 38 20 19 22 24 .. a 13 10 19 10 16 8 7 13 .. a

.. 29 29 12 14 47 22 25 27 17 27 22 14 13 .. 37 20 26 18 15 8 18 21 12 16 25 35 28 19 9 16 27 7 10 .. 25 20 25 21 29 14 8 30 12 30 23 22 22 31 24 14 23 14 18 30 13

16 23 31 32 12 21 24 22 33 23 22 19 18 15 20 25 20 20 18 8 22 19 20 15 59 23 40 23 15 7 23 22 10 27 10 28 20 23 28 17 16 26 31 21 20 19 28 21 21 18 20 23 19 17 15 21

.. 15 23 39 10 35 17 40 44 6 46 71 14 23 .. 55 8 33 11 8 6 20 26 15 13 35 18 133 21 30 54 35 32 78 .. 45 36 34 33 20 19 11 60 8 23 21 46 60 40 25 17 18 21 31 10 18

57 19 36 77 28 30 20 52 44 14 70 82 14 22 26 51 16 53 9 7 59 27 44 12 12 36 29 151 20 18 81 42 48 46 16 65 45 26 24 16 27 29 84 16 38 27 59 54 27 35 43 21 16 24 45 13

.. 23 25 21 5 46 17 38 39 14 44 69 26 24 .. 50 7 37 24 28 13 17 26 28 28 31 14 124 15 29 46 41 27 86 .. 43 31 44 32 33 31 45 54 12 24 22 31 72 46 25 26 28 25 31 37 20

89 43 26 70 13 47 22 51 51 19 74 78 26 27 59 37 14 60 22 19 67 28 39 17 65 32 26 142 21 21 54 47 30 55 18 67 39 35 31 23 41 85 94 34 30 25 39 72 39 32 55 27 28 30 77 36

.. 21 27 30 20 36 22 26 31 10 29 24 2 11 .. 43 21 22 5 –5 2 21 21 –1 2 28 38 36 24 9 24 21 11 2 .. 28 25 15 22 16 1 –26 22 7 29 22 37 11 25 24 5 13 10 18 3 11

–16 –1 40 39 27 3 22 23 25 18 18 23 6 10 –13 38 22 13 5 –4 14 18 25 10 6 27 43 32 14 4 50 17 28 18 7 26 26 15 20 10 2 –30 22 2 28 21 48 4 9 22 7 17 7 11 –17 –3

214

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of demand
Household final consumption expenditure General government final consumption expenditure
% of GDP 1990 2002

4.9
Gross domestic savings
% of GDP 1990 2002

ECONOMY

Gross capital formation

Exports of goods and services

Imports of goods and services

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

66 61 66 59 62 .. 58 56 58 65 53 74 52 67 .. 53 57 71 .. 53 140 121 .. 48 57 72 86 72 52 80 69 64 70 77 58 65 101 89 51 84 50 61 59 84 56 49 27 74 60 59 77 74 72 48 63 65

74 67 65 71 50 .. 47 59 60 67 56 75 60 71 .. 62 56 67 .. 63 95 82 .. 58 62 77 84 88 44 77 79 66 70 86 64 62 59 88 48 78 50 60 78 84 55 67 43 74 63 .. 84 72 69 65 61 ..

14 11 12 9 11 .. 16 30 20 13 13 25 18 19 .. 10 39 25 9 9 25 23 .. 24 19 19 8 15 14 14 26 13 8 .. a 32 15 12 .. a 31 9 23 19 43 15 15 21 38 15 18 25 6 8 10 19 16 14

14 11 13 8 13 .. 15 31 19 20 17 23 12 19 .. 11 26 18 .. 21 14 33 .. 17 21 22 8 18 14 11 19 9 12 17 19 20 11 .. a 28 10 24 19 16 12 27 .. a 23 11 13 .. 8 10 12 19 21 ..

23 25 24 31 29 .. 21 25 22 26 33 32 32 20 .. 38 18 24 .. 40 18 49 .. 19 33 19 17 23 32 23 20 31 23 25 38 25 16 13 34 18 24 20 19 8 15 23 13 19 17 24 23 16 24 26 28 17

28 24 23 14 35 .. 24 18 20 34 26 23 27 14 .. 26 9 19 22 27 18 40 .. 14 22 20 14 12 24 20 31 22 20 23 31 23 45 12 24 25 20 20 32 13 23 19 13 15 25 .. 20 18 19 19 28 ..

36 31 7 25 22 .. 57 35 20 48 10 62 74 26 .. 29 45 29 11 48 18 16 .. 40 52 26 17 24 75 17 46 64 19 49 24 26 8 3 52 11 54 27 25 15 43 40 53 16 38 41 33 16 28 29 33 77

37 64 15 35 31 .. 98 37 27 39 10 46 47 27 .. 40 48 39 .. 45 14 51 .. 48 54 38 16 25 114 32 39 61 27 54 67 32 24 .. 48 16 62 33 23 16 38 41 57 19 28 .. 31 16 49 28 31 81

40 29 9 24 24 .. 52 45 20 52 9 93 75 31 .. 30 58 50 25 49 100 109 .. 31 61 36 28 33 72 34 61 71 20 51 53 32 36 5 67 22 51 27 46 22 29 34 31 23 34 49 39 14 33 22 39 101

53 67 16 29 29 .. 83 46 26 60 10 67 46 30 .. 39 40 43 .. 56 41 107 .. 36 60 57 23 43 97 41 68 57 29 79 81 37 38 .. 49 29 56 32 49 25 44 27 35 19 29 .. 43 17 49 31 41 100

20 28 23 32 27 .. 26 14 22 22 34 1 30 14 .. 37 4 4 .. 39 –64 –44 .. 27 24 9 6 13 34 6 5 23 22 23 9 19 –12 11 18 7 27 20 –2 1 29 30 35 11 21 16 17 18 18 33 21 21

12 22 22 21 37 .. 38 9 21 13 26 3 28 10 .. 27 18 15 .. 17 –9 –15 .. 26 17 0 8 –6 42 12 2 26 18 –3 16 18 30 12 23 12 26 22 6 4 17 33 34 14 24 .. 8 18 19 16 18 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

215

4.9
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania b Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Structure of demand
Household final consumption expenditure General government final consumption expenditure
% of GDP 1990 2002

Gross capital formation

Exports of goods and services

Imports of goods and services

Gross domestic savings

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

% of GDP 1990 2002

66 49 84 47 76 .. 83 47 54 55 112 57 60 76 .. 62 47 57 69 74 81 57 71 59 58 69 49 92 57 39 63 67 70 61 62 84 .. 74 64 63 59 w 67 59 58 63 61 54 55 65 59 69 63 59 56

76 51 87 37 76 89 93 42 55 55 .. 62 58 77 79 74 49 76 59 82 77 58 86 69 63 71 49 78 56 .. 66 70 73 58 65 66 79 70 84 72 63 w 69 58 57 61 59 51 61 63 53 68 66 64 57

13 21 10 29 15 .. 8 10 22 19 .. a 20 17 10 .. 18 29 14 14 9 18 9 14 12 16 11 23 8 17 16 20 17 12 25 8 12 .. 17 19 19 17 w 12 15 15 12 14 11 18 13 20 12 18 17 20

7 17 12 26 14 18 21 13 21 21 .. 19 18 9 .. a 17 28 .. a 11 9 13 11 10 10 16 13 15 16 20 .. 20 16 13 19 6 6 52 14 12 17 17 w 12 16 16 15 15 12 16 16 18 12 18 18 20

30 30 15 15 14 .. 10 36 33 17 16 17 27 23 .. 19 24 28 17 25 26 41 27 13 32 24 40 13 27 20 20 18 12 32 10 13 .. 15 17 17 24 w 23 25 27 21 25 34 28 19 23 23 17 24 24

23 21 19 20 20 16 9 21 31 23 .. 16 26 21 20 18 17 17 22 23 17 24 22 16 25 16 37 22 19 .. 16 18 12 20 17 32 4 17 17 8 20 w 20 23 25 19 23 32 21 19 23 22 18 19 20

17 18 6 41 25 .. 22 .. 27 84 10 24 16 29 .. 75 29 36 28 28 13 34 33 45 44 13 .. 7 28 65 24 10 24 29 39 36 .. 14 36 23 19 w 17 20 17 28 20 25 23 14 31 9 27 19 27

35 35 8 41 31 21 18 .. 73 58 .. 34 28 36 15 91 43 44 37 58 17 65 33 47 45 30 47 12 56 .. 26 10 22 38 29 56 12 38 29 24 24 w 25 32 29 39 31 41 40 21 34 17 33 22 36

26 18 14 32 30 .. 24 .. 36 74 38 19 20 38 .. 74 28 36 28 35 37 42 45 29 51 18 .. 19 29 40 27 11 18 48 20 45 .. 20 37 23 19 w 19 19 17 25 19 24 24 12 33 12 26 19 27

41 24 25 23 41 44 40 .. 80 56 .. 31 30 43 13 100 37 38 28 72 24 57 50 43 49 30 47 27 52 .. 28 14 20 34 17 60 47 39 42 22 23 w 25 28 26 33 28 37 38 19 29 18 34 22 33

21 30 6 24 9 .. 9 43 24 26 –12 23 23 14 .. 20 25 29 17 17 1 34 15 29 25 20 28 1 26 45 18 16 18 13 29 3 .. 9 17 17 24 w 21 26 27 24 25 34 26 21 21 20 19 24 23

17 32 1 37 10 –7 –14 45 24 25 .. 19 24 14 21 9 23 24 30 10 10 31 5 20 21 16 36 6 24 .. 14 14 14 24 29 28 –31 16 4 11 20 w 19 27 28 25 26 37 23 22 29 20 17 19 22

a. Data on general government final consumption expenditure are not available separately; they are included in household final consumption expenditure. b. Data cover mainland Tanzania only.

216

2004 World Development Indicators

Structure of demand
About the data Gross domestic product (GDP) from the expenditure side is made up of household final consumption expenditure, general government final consumption expenditure, gross capital formation (private and public investment in fixed assets, changes in inventories, and net acquisitions of valuables), and net exports (exports minus imports) of goods and services. Such expenditures are recorded in purchaser prices and include net taxes on products. Because policymakers have tended to focus on fostering the growth of output, and because data on production are easier to collect than data on spending, many countries generate their primary estimate of GDP using the production approach. Moreover, many countries do not estimate all the separate components of national expenditures but instead derive some of the main aggregates indirectly using GDP (based on the production approach) as the control total. Household final consumption expenditure (private consumption in the 1968 System of National Accounts, or SNA) is often estimated as a residual, by subtracting from GDP all other known expenditures. The resulting aggregate may incorporate fairly large discrepancies. When household consumption is calculated separately, many of the estimates are based on household surveys, which tend to be oneyear studies with limited coverage. Thus the estimates quickly become outdated and must be supplemented by estimates using price- and quantitybased statistical procedures. Complicating the issue, in many developing countries the distinction between cash outlays for personal business and those for household use may be blurred. World Development Indicators includes in household consumption the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households. General government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption in the 1968 SNA) includes expenditures on goods and services for individual consumption as well as those on services for collective consumption. Defense expenditures, including those on capital outlays (with certain exceptions), are treated as current spending. Gross capital formation (gross domestic investment in the 1968 SNA) consists of outlays on additions to the economy’s fixed assets plus net changes in the level of inventories. It is generally obtained from reports by industry of acquisition and distinguishes only the broad categories of capital formation. The 1993 SNA recognizes a third category of capital formation: net acquisitions of valuables. Included in gross capital formation under the 1993 SNA guidelines are capital outlays on defense establishments that may be used by the general public, such as schools, airfields, and hospitals, and intangibles such as computer software and mineral exploration outlays. Data on capital formation may be estimated from direct surveys of enterprises and administrative records or based on the commodity flow method using data from production, trade, and construction activities. The quality of data on fixed capital formation by government depends on the quality of government accounting systems (which tend to be weak in developing countries). Measures of fixed capital formation by households and corporations—particularly capital outlays by small, unincorporated enterprises—are usually unreliable. Estimates of changes in inventories are rarely complete but usually include the most important activities or commodities. In some countries these estimates are derived as a composite residual along with household final consumption expenditure. According to national accounts conventions, adjustments should be made for appreciation of the value of inventory holdings due to price changes, but this is not always done. In highly inflationary economies this element can be substantial. Data on exports and imports are compiled from customs reports and balance of payments data. Although the data from the payments side provide reasonably reliable records of cross-border transactions, they may not adhere strictly to the appropriate definitions of valuation and timing used in the balance of payments or correspond to the change-of-ownership criterion. This issue has assumed greater significance with the increasing globalization of international business. Neither customs nor balance of payments data usually capture the illegal transactions that occur in many countries. Goods carried by travelers across borders in legal but unreported shuttle trade may further distort trade statistics. Domestic savings, a concept used by the World Bank, represent the difference between GDP and total consumption. Domestic savings also satisfy the fundamental identity: exports minus imports equal domestic savings minus capital formation. Domestic savings differ from savings as defined in the national accounts; the SNA concept of savings represents the difference between disposable income and consumption. For further discussion of the problems in compiling national accounts, see Srinivasan (1994), Heston (1994), and Ruggles (1994). For a classic analysis of the reliability of foreign trade and national income statistics, see Morgenstern (1963). Data sources Definitions

4.9

ECONOMY

• Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owneroccupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. World Development Indicators includes in household consumption expenditure the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. In practice, household consumption expenditure may include any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. • General government final consumption expenditure includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security but excludes government military expenditures that potentially have wider public use and are part of government capital formation. • Gross capital formation consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy, net changes in the level of inventories, and net acquisitions of valuables. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and “work in progress.” • Exports and imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to, or received from, the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (factor services in the 1968 SNA) as well as transfer payments. • Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less total consumption.

The national accounts indicators for most developing countries are collected from national statistical organizations and central banks by visiting and resident World Bank missions. The data for high-income economies come from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development data files (see the OECD’s National Accounts of OECD Countries, Detailed Tables 1970–2001, volumes 1 and 2). The United Nations Statistics Division publishes detailed national accounts for United Nations member countries in National Accounts Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables and updates in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.

2004 World Development Indicators

217

4.10
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil a Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia a Cameroon Canada Central African Republic a Chad a Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. a Congo, Rep. a Costa Rica a Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic a Ecuador a Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon a Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala a Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Growth of consumption and investment
Household final consumption expenditure General government final consumption expenditure
Per capita average annual $ millions 1990 2002 % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

Gross capital formation

.. 1,271 35,265 3,674 109,038 1,097 182,448 89,789 3,186 24,988 8,223 109,154 1,602 3,741 .. 1,260 273,952 12,401 2,284 1,070 1,016 7,423 322,564 1,274 1,538 18,759 174,249 42,723 26,357 7,398 1,746 3,502 7,766 13,527 .. 17,195 65,430 5,633 6,988 30,933 4,273 496 2,539 6,382 68,341 672,960 2,961 240 5,231 950,047 5,016 60,164 6,398 2,068 212 2,332

.. 4,496 24,745 .. 62,158 2,121 247,950 117,605 3,587 36,548 8,781 135,445 2,183 5,835 .. 1,537 263,710 10,742 2,556 655 3,287 6,394 391,155 815 1,719 39,211 586,381 93,401 53,046 5,269 955 11,521 7,048 13,483 .. 36,165 82,827 16,408 16,837 71,236 12,847 592 3,727 4,756 66,204 784,209 3,040 296 2,799 1,168,773 5,093 89,446 19,794 2,625 213 3,334

.. .. 1.5 –3.6 .. .. 2.9 2.4 .. 3.0 .. 2.0 1.9 1.2 .. 6.3 1.2 3.1 2.6 3.4 .. 3.5 3.2 1.5 2.9 2.0 8.8 6.6 2.6 3.4 2.3 3.6 1.5 .. .. .. 1.4 3.9 1.1 4.6 0.8 .. .. 0.7 3.9 2.2 1.5 –2.4 .. 2.3 2.8 2.0 1.1 .. 0.8 0.9

.. 4.2 0.9 .. 0.5 1.1 3.7 2.3 11.3 2.8 0.9 1.9 3.4 3.4 .. 4.1 4.7 –1.0 3.9 –1.7 4.7 3.5 2.7 .. 2.0 6.2 8.7 3.5 1.8 –2.9 1.7 4.4 3.1 3.0 .. 2.7 1.8 5.6 2.2 4.3 4.8 –0.3 1.2 5.6 2.1 1.6 2.1 5.3 4.6 1.6 1.3 2.4 4.1 3.6 1.5 ..

.. .. –1.4 .. .. .. 1.4 2.2 .. 0.4 .. 1.9 –1.2 –0.9 .. 2.7 –0.7 3.2 0.1 0.5 .. 0.6 2.0 .. 0.2 0.3 7.2 5.2 0.5 0.4 –0.9 0.6 –2.1 .. .. .. 1.4 1.7 –1.5 2.0 –0.2 .. .. –2.4 3.4 1.7 –1.6 –5.9 .. 2.2 –0.6 1.5 –1.4 .. –1.9 ..

.. 4.8 –0.9 .. –0.7 2.5 2.5 2.0 10.3 1.0 1.2 1.6 0.7 0.9 .. 1.5 3.2 –0.3 1.4 –3.7 2.2 0.9 1.7 .. –1.1 4.7 7.6 1.8 –0.1 –5.4 –1.5 2.2 0.2 3.5 .. 2.8 1.4 3.8 0.3 2.3 2.8 –2.9 2.5 3.2 1.8 1.2 –0.6 1.8 5.0 1.3 –1.1 2.0 1.4 1.1 –1.4 ..

.. .. 0.7 8.4 .. .. 3.5 1.4 .. 2.9 .. 1.1 0.5 –3.8 .. 14.9 7.3 5.1 6.2 3.2 .. 6.8 2.4 –1.7 17.0 0.4 9.8 5.3 4.2 0.0 4.3 1.1 –0.1 .. .. .. 0.9 –3.2 –0.7 3.1 0.1 .. .. 4.0 3.2 2.6 –0.6 1.7 .. 1.5 2.4 1.1 2.6 .. 7.2 –4.4

.. 1.6 3.4 .. 1.3 –1.0 3.0 1.6 7.0 4.9 –1.0 1.6 5.8 3.4 .. 7.6 0.2 –5.8 –0.5 –1.6 7.7 2.8 0.5 .. –0.8 3.6 9.0 3.3 8.9 –15.9 –2.6 2.0 0.8 0.1 .. –1.0 2.2 13.6 –1.0 2.5 2.4 14.2 4.4 9.5 1.1 1.9 4.0 0.5 4.3 1.5 4.7 1.6 5.3 4.3 2.1 ..

.. –0.3 –1.8 –5.6 –5.2 .. 3.7 2.4 .. 6.9 .. 2.9 –5.3 0.8 .. 7.6 3.3 .. 8.6 6.9 .. –2.6 5.0 10.0 22.0 6.4 10.8 3.9 1.4 –5.1 –11.6 4.6 –10.4 .. .. .. 4.7 4.5 –1.3 0.0 2.2 .. .. 4.9 3.3 3.3 –5.7 0.0 .. 1.8 3.3 –0.7 –1.8 .. 12.9 –0.6

.. 20.5 0.3 .. 2.5 –6.2 6.4 2.0 8.0 9.0 –6.3 1.9 12.8 5.1 .. 2.6 0.6 .. 7.9 1.2 12.2 2.3 4.6 .. 18.0 6.2 10.7 4.3 0.8 0.3 2.3 5.5 4.5 5.7 .. 4.8 5.2 6.2 1.3 5.5 6.0 10.7 1.8 5.8 1.8 2.0 3.2 2.6 –8.3 0.4 1.1 4.5 6.3 2.3 –12.3 8.7

218

2004 World Development Indicators

Growth of consumption and investment
Household final consumption expenditure General government final consumption expenditure
Per capita average annual $ millions 1990 2002 % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

4.10
Gross capital formation
average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

ECONOMY

Honduras a Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan a Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania a Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova a Mongolia a Morocco Mozambique a Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua a Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama a Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru a Philippines Poland a Portugal Puerto Rico

2,026 20,290 215,762 65,010 74,476 .. 27,957 32,112 634,194 2,980 1,618,040 2,978 12,856 5,320 .. 132,113 10,459 1,896 .. 3,365 3,961 746 .. 13,999 5,826 3,021 2,663 1,345 22,806 1,943 705 1,519 182,791 1,780 .. 16,833 2,481 .. 1,204 3,060 145,871 26,632 592 2,079 15,816 57,047 2,810 29,512 3,022 1,902 4,063 19,376 31,566 28,281 44,679 19,827

4,858 42,860 328,706 122,193 54,403 .. 47,973 61,552 713,186 5,859 2,282,911 7,622 14,392 8,819 .. 286,818 19,720 1,083 .. 5,274 16,921 585 .. 10,970 8,577 2,924 3,703 1,665 41,971 2,230 762 2,983 445,791 1,403 744 23,952 2,124 .. 1,377 4,336 209,068 34,955 3,123 1,814 24,135 73,067 8,752 43,936 5,673 .. 4,649 40,717 53,307 123,535 67,078 ..

2.7 1.3 4.2 5.3 2.8 .. 2.2 .. 2.9 .. 3.6 1.9 .. 4.7 .. 7.9 –1.4 .. .. 2.3 .. 1.3 .. .. .. .. –0.7 1.5 3.3 0.6 1.4 6.2 1.1 .. .. 4.3 –1.6 0.6 1.3 .. 1.7 2.1 –3.6 0.0 –2.6 2.2 .. 4.3 2.1 0.4 2.4 0.7 2.6 .. 2.6 3.5

3.1 0.9 4.9 5.8 3.3 .. 5.7 4.2 1.7 .. 1.5 5.2 –5.5 2.2 .. 4.9 .. –4.7 .. –1.6 2.4 –0.4 .. .. 4.9 2.1 2.3 4.9 4.9 3.2 3.9 4.8 2.8 8.6 .. 2.7 1.5 3.9 5.1 .. 2.8 3.1 6.1 1.8 0.2 3.5 .. 4.4 4.1 5.2 3.2 3.6 3.7 4.8 2.8 ..

–0.5 1.7 2.0 3.4 –0.6 .. 1.9 .. 2.8 .. 3.0 –1.9 .. 1.2 .. 6.7 .. .. .. 1.8 .. –0.8 .. .. .. .. –3.4 –1.7 0.4 –1.9 –0.9 5.3 –1.0 .. .. 2.0 –3.1 .. –1.9 .. 1.1 1.2 –6.2 –3.1 –5.5 1.9 .. 1.6 –0.0 –2.1 –0.5 –1.5 0.2 .. 2.4 ..

0.3 1.1 3.1 4.3 1.7 .. 4.8 1.7 1.5 .. 1.2 1.4 –4.6 –0.3 .. 4.0 .. –5.6 .. –0.4 0.7 –1.5 .. .. 5.6 1.4 –0.6 2.9 2.4 0.7 1.1 3.6 1.1 8.9 .. 0.9 –0.7 .. 2.2 .. 2.2 2.0 3.2 –1.7 –2.7 2.9 .. 1.8 2.4 2.6 0.8 1.7 1.4 4.7 2.5 ..

3.3 1.9 7.3 4.6 –5.0 .. –0.3 .. 2.9 .. 3.6 1.9 .. 2.6 .. 5.2 2.2 .. .. 5.0 .. 3.6 .. .. .. .. 0.5 6.3 2.7 7.9 –3.8 3.3 2.4 .. .. 2.1 –1.1 .. 3.7 .. 2.2 1.6 3.4 4.4 –3.5 2.4 .. 10.3 1.2 –0.1 1.5 –0.9 0.6 .. 5.0 5.1

3.7 1.5 6.4 0.9 4.3 .. 4.6 3.0 0.4 .. 3.0 4.1 –4.5 7.5 .. 2.6 .. –6.5 .. 1.8 5.7 6.7 .. .. 1.6 1.5 0.6 –1.5 5.6 5.5 2.0 4.8 1.6 –9.2 .. 3.6 6.2 .. 3.0 .. 2.1 2.6 –2.6 0.8 –1.8 2.7 .. 0.8 2.6 2.2 4.0 4.6 3.3 3.1 2.9 ..

2.9 –0.9 6.2 7.7 –2.5 .. –0.4 .. 2.1 .. 5.5 –1.9 .. 0.4 .. 12.0 –4.5 .. .. 3.4 .. 5.0 .. .. .. .. 4.9 –2.8 3.1 3.6 6.9 10.3 –3.3 .. .. 1.2 3.8 –4.1 –3.2 .. 3.3 3.0 –4.8 –7.1 –8.5 0.9 25.5 5.8 –8.9 –0.9 –0.8 –3.8 –2.1 .. 3.0 6.9

5.2 7.6 6.9 –2.1 4.6 .. 9.8 –1.5 1.8 .. –0.1 0.3 –11.8 2.9 .. 1.3 .. –2.2 .. –6.5 4.1 1.0 .. .. 9.3 1.5 4.0 –13.7 3.5 3.5 9.1 4.0 4.6 –12.0 .. 3.9 14.0 15.3 6.5 .. 2.8 5.1 12.6 4.0 5.4 4.5 .. 1.4 8.0 1.3 –1.6 4.9 3.7 8.5 5.4 ..

2004 World Development Indicators

219

4.10
Romania a Russian Federation Rwanda a Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka a Sudan Swaziland a Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania b Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay a Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Growth of consumption and investment
Household final consumption expenditure General government final consumption expenditure
Per capita average annual $ millions 1990 2002 % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002 average annual % growth 1980–90 1990–2002

Gross capital formation

25,232 34,785 252,561 177,362 2,162 1,503 54,508 69,666 4,353 3,820 .. 13,915 546 728 17,019 37,360 8,350 13,133 6,917 11,697 .. .. 64,251 64,741 306,953 378,319 6,143 12,736 .. 8,339 547 883 116,475 116,993 130,900 149,886 8,458 12,289 1,940 932 3,526 7,365 48,270 71,743 1,158 1,184 2,975 6,424 7,152 13,152 103,324 130,631 1,616 2,918 4,002 4,528 46,497 23,251 12,726 .. 619,782 1,034,301 3,831,500 7,303,700 6,525 8,836 8,204 4,569 30,170 60,977 5,485 22,780 .. 2,756 3,561 6,882 2,078 3,110 5,543 6,020 12,863,243 t 20,040,617 t 513,634 757,325 1,879,875 2,964,278 1,323,786 1,913,292 558,438 1,046,796 2,389,174 3,715,003 361,814 932,055 604,731 689,168 722,234 1,098,409 238,847 361,722 283,645 432,695 186,935 203,372 10,474,011 16,329,652 3,115,871 3,795,770

.. .. 1.2 .. 2.1 .. –2.7 5.8 3.8 .. 1.3 2.4 2.6 4.0 0.0 5.3 2.2 1.6 3.6 .. .. 5.9 4.7 –1.3 2.9 .. .. 2.6 .. 4.6 4.0 3.8 0.7 .. 1.3 .. .. .. 1.8 3.7 3.3 w 3.4 2.4 3.3 .. 2.9 6.4 .. 1.3 .. 4.1 1.5 3.3 2.4

1.9 0.3 2.2 .. 2.9 .. –5.2 5.5 1.8 3.5 .. 2.7 2.5 4.7 .. 3.5 1.6 1.1 2.0 0.9 3.5 3.3 3.6 2.0 4.5 3.1 .. 6.0 –4.7 .. 3.3 3.5 3.2 .. 0.4 5.0 –1.0 3.6 –2.3 0.4 2.8 w 4.4 3.5 3.8 2.6 3.7 6.7 1.2 3.4 .. 4.6 2.6 2.6 1.9

.. .. –1.8 .. –0.8 .. –4.7 3.9 3.5 .. .. –0.2 2.3 2.9 .. 2.1 1.9 1.1 0.2 .. .. 4.1 1.3 –2.5 0.3 .. .. –0.6 .. .. 3.8 2.9 0.1 .. –1.2 .. .. .. –1.3 –0.0 1.5 w 1.0 0.8 1.6 .. 0.9 4.7 .. –0.7 .. 1.8 –1.3 2.7 2.1

2.2 0.5 0.8 .. 0.2 .. –7.3 2.6 1.6 3.5 .. 0.5 2.0 3.4 .. 0.4 1.3 0.5 –0.8 –0.3 0.7 2.5 0.8 1.5 2.9 1.2 .. 3.0 –4.1 .. 3.1 2.3 2.5 .. –1.7 3.6 –5.1 0.3 –4.5 –1.5 1.4 w 2.4 2.3 2.7 1.3 2.1 5.5 1.1 1.7 .. 2.7 0.1 1.9 1.5

.. .. 5.2 .. 3.3 .. –4.7 6.6 4.8 .. 7.0 3.5 4.9 7.3 –0.5 1.4 1.6 3.1 –3.6 4.1 .. 4.2 –1.2 –1.7 3.8 .. .. 2.0 .. –3.9 0.8 3.3 1.8 .. 2.0 .. .. .. –3.4 4.7 3.0 w 5.2 .. 5.5 .. 5.3 6.3 .. 5.6 .. 7.6 2.7 2.8 2.3

0.7 –1.5 0.7 .. 4.1 .. 3.2 9.3 1.4 3.9 .. 0.7 3.0 10.9 .. 3.4 0.5 1.0 0.3 –11.2 1.2 4.5 –2.1 1.3 4.2 4.4 .. 7.1 –3.1 .. 1.4 1.3 1.5 .. 0.4 3.4 13.6 2.2 –6.5 –2.9 1.9 w 3.8 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.3 6.8 –0.3 1.1 .. 5.8 1.4 1.8 1.7

.. .. 4.3 .. 5.2 .. 44.9 3.1 0.0 .. –2.6 –5.3 5.9 0.6 –1.8 –0.4 4.7 3.9 –5.3 –4.3 .. 9.5 2.7 –6.3 –1.8 .. .. 8.0 .. –8.7 6.4 4.0 –6.6 .. –5.3 .. .. .. –4.3 3.6 3.9 w 4.7 1.6 3.4 –2.5 2.1 8.4 .. –0.3 .. 6.0 –3.8 4.2 2.6

–2.7 –13.6 2.7 .. 8.0 .. 2.7 4.5 5.8 9.3 .. 3.1 3.4 5.3 10.8 1.5 2.0 1.0 2.1 –10.1 –0.3 –4.1 1.3 8.4 3.7 1.4 4.3 8.1 –13.9 .. 3.7 6.2 2.3 0.1 2.3 17.2 –22.7 7.5 6.4 –6.2 2.5 w 4.2 1.3 0.3 4.5 1.7 6.9 –6.6 2.6 .. 6.5 3.4 2.7 1.8

a. Household final consumption expenditure includes statistical discrepancy. b. Data cover mainland Tanzania only.

220

2004 World Development Indicators

Growth of consumption and investment
About the data Definitions Measures of growth in consumption and capital formation are subject to two kinds of inaccuracy. The first stems from the difficulty of measuring expenditures at current price levels, as described in About the data for table 4.9. The second arises in deflating current price data to measure volume growth, where results depend on the relevance and reliability of the price indexes and weights used. Measuring price changes is more difficult for investment goods than for consumption goods because of the one-time nature of many investments and because the rate of technological progress in capital goods makes capturing change in quality difficult. (An example is computers—prices have fallen as quality has improved.) Several countries estimate capital formation from the supply side, identifying capital goods entering an economy directly from detailed production and international trade statistics. This means that the price indexes used in deflating production and international trade, reflecting delivered or offered prices, will determine the deflator for capital formation expenditures on the demand side. The data in the table on household final consumption expenditure (private consumption in the 1968 System of National Accounts), in current U.S. dollars, are converted from national currencies using official exchange rates or an alternative conversion factor as noted in Primary data documentation. (For a discussion of alternative conversion factors, see Statistical methods.) Growth rates of household final consumption expenditure, household final consumption expenditure per capita, general government final consumption expenditure, and gross capital formation are estimated using constant price data.

4.10

ECONOMY

• Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. World Development Indicators includes in household consumption expenditure the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. In practice, household consumption expenditure may include any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. • General government final consumption expenditure includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security but excludes government military expenditures that potentially have wider public use and are part of government capital formation. • Gross capital formation consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy, net changes in the level of inventories, and net acquisitions of valuables. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and “work in progress.”

(Consumption and capital formation as shares of GDP are shown in table 4.9.) To obtain government consumption in constant prices, countries may deflate current values by applying a wage (price) index or extrapolate from the change in government employment. Neither technique captures improvements in productivity or changes in the quality of government services. Deflators for household consumption are usually calculated on the basis of the consumer price index. Many countries estimate household consumption as a residual that includes statistical discrepancies associated with the estimation of other expenditure items, including changes in inventories; thus these estimates lack detailed breakdowns of household consumption expenditures.

4.10a
Per capita consumption has risen in Asia, fallen in Africa
Per capita household consumption (1995 $)
600

East Asia & Pacific
500

400

Sub-Saharan Africa

Data sources The national accounts indicators for most develop-

South Asia
300

ing countries are collected from national statistical organizations and central banks by visiting and resident World Bank missions. Data for high-income

200

economies come from data files of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (see the OECD’s National Accounts of OECD Countries,

100 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

Detailed Tables, 1970–2001, volumes 1 and 2). The United Nations Statistics Division publishes detailed national accounts for United Nations member countries in National Accounts Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables and updates in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.

Starting from slightly lower per capita household consumption in 1980 than South Asia, East Asia and Pacific has raised consumption dramatically and lowered poverty. In Sub-Saharan Africa, by contrast, which had per capita household consumption of well more than twice that in East and South Asia in 1980, per capita household consumption has fallen below that of East Asia and Pacific. Source: World Bank data files.

2004 World Development Indicators

221

4.11
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Central government finances
Current revenue a Total expenditure Overall budget balance (including grants) Financing from abroad Domestic financing Debt and interest payments
Total debt % of % of GDP 1990 2001 % of GDP 1990 2001 % of GDP 1990 2001 % of GDP 1990 2001 % of GDP 1990 2001 GDP 2001 Interest % of current revenue 2001

.. .. .. .. 10.4 .. 24.9 34.0 .. .. 30.9 42.7 .. 13.7 .. 50.8 22.8 47.1 9.7 18.2 .. 15.4 21.5 .. 6.7 20.6 6.3 .. 12.6 10.1 22.5 23.0 22.0 33.0 .. .. 37.8 12.0 18.7 23.0 .. .. 26.2 17.3 30.5 39.7 20.6 19.4 .. 25.9 12.5 27.8 .. 16.0 .. ..

.. .. 35.5 .. 13.8 .. 23.9 37.2 17.6 9.3 28.5 .. .. 17.1 .. .. .. 33.0 .. 17.9 .. 15.7 21.1 .. .. 22.8 7.2 .. 12.4 0.0 31.2 22.2 17.0 40.2 .. 33.5 36.6 16.9 .. .. 2.0 .. 29.9 19.0 .. .. .. .. 10.4 .. .. .. .. 11.7 .. 7.9

.. .. .. .. 10.6 .. 23.2 37.6 .. .. 37.3 47.9 .. 16.4 .. 33.6 34.9 55.1 13.3 28.7 .. 21.2 26.1 .. 21.8 20.4 10.1 .. 11.6 18.8 35.6 25.6 24.5 37.6 .. .. 39.0 11.7 15.0 27.8 .. .. 23.7 27.1 30.2 41.8 20.2 23.6 .. 26.5 13.2 52.2 .. 22.9 .. ..

.. .. 31.2 .. 17.1 .. 23.5 40.3 22.6 12.7 29.6 .. .. 26.6 .. .. .. 34.4 .. 26.1 .. 15.5 19.8 .. .. 23.1 10.9 .. 18.8 0.1 25.7 23.6 16.5 45.3 .. 38.2 35.4 16.0 .. .. 2.5 .. 29.9 26.6 .. .. .. .. 10.9 .. .. .. .. 21.0 .. 10.5

.. .. .. .. –0.4 .. 2.0 –4.4 .. .. –4.8 –5.5 .. –1.7 .. 11.2 –5.8 –8.3 –1.2 –3.3 .. –5.9 –4.8 .. –4.7 0.8 –1.9 .. 3.9 –6.5 –14.1 –3.1 –2.9 –4.6 .. .. –0.7 0.6 3.8 –5.7 .. .. 0.4 –9.8 0.2 –2.1 3.2 –0.8 .. –1.5 0.2 –22.9 .. –3.3 .. ..

.. .. 4.0 .. –3.3 .. 1.4 .. –2.5 –2.8 –1.4 .. .. –6.7 .. .. .. 1.9 .. –4.7 .. 0.1 1.3 .. .. –0.3 –2.9 .. –7.0 –0.0 5.8 –1.2 0.9 –2.5 .. –1.9 1.6 1.0 .. .. –0.3 .. 2.5 –5.0 .. .. .. .. 0.1 .. .. .. .. –2.4 .. –2.3

.. .. .. .. 0.2 .. 0.2 0.5 .. .. 2.7 –0.3 .. 0.7 .. 0.0 .. –0.8 .. 4.9 .. 5.2 0.2 .. 5.0 .. 0.8 .. .. 0.0 .. 0.3 4.0 0.0 .. .. .. –0.0 .. –0.7 .. .. 0.0 2.8 0.7 1.1 2.7 .. .. 0.5 1.3 1.6 .. 4.1 .. ..

.. .. –2.6 .. 4.2 .. –0.5 .. .. 0.1 –0.1 .. .. 2.0 .. .. .. –0.2 .. 3.3 .. 0.2 0.6 .. .. 0.7 –0.1 .. 2.1 0.0 2.0 1.4 0.2 1.4 .. –0.2 .. –1.0 .. .. 0.4 .. –0.3 2.8 .. .. .. .. –0.2 0.6 .. .. .. 2.3 .. –0.2

.. .. .. .. 0.2 .. –2.2 3.9 .. .. 2.4 5.8 .. 1.0 .. –11.3 .. 9.1 .. –1.6 .. 1.2 4.6 .. –0.3 .. 1.1 .. .. 6.5 .. 2.8 0.4 4.7 .. .. .. –0.6 .. 6.4 .. .. –0.4 7.0 –0.8 1.0 –5.8 .. .. 1.0 –1.5 21.3 .. –0.8 .. ..

.. .. –1.4 .. –0.9 .. –0.9 .. .. 2.7 1.5 .. .. 4.7 .. .. .. –1.7 .. 1.5 .. –0.3 –1.9 .. .. –0.4 3.0 .. 4.9 0.0 –3.1 –0.2 –1.1 1.1 .. 2.1 .. –0.0 .. .. –0.1 .. –2.2 2.2 .. .. .. .. 0.0 –0.1 .. .. .. 0.2 .. 2.5

.. .. 50.4 .. .. .. 15.4 62.3 .. 40.1 11.4 .. .. 69.3 .. .. .. .. .. 183.9 .. 102.3 58.5 .. .. 15.6 12.7 .. 29.3 .. 160.6 38.4 102.5 .. .. 16.7 .. 20.7 .. .. 3.6 .. 2.6 101.4 .. .. .. .. 67.0 20.0 .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 9.8 .. 27.5 .. 5.3 8.9 2.5 15.7 2.5 .. .. 12.2 .. .. .. 11.2 .. 13.2 .. 19.2 12.4 .. .. 2.1 .. .. 26.8 .. 19.3 17.9 19.5 5.0 .. 2.7 10.8 4.5 .. .. 8.0 .. 0.6 10.8 .. .. .. .. 16.6 .. .. .. .. 37.1 .. 6.1

222

2004 World Development Indicators

Central government finances
Current revenue a Total expenditure Overall budget balance (including grants) Financing from abroad Domestic financing

4.11
Debt and interest payments
Total debt % of Interest % of current revenue 2001 GDP 2001

ECONOMY

% of GDP 1990 2001

% of GDP 1990 2001

% of GDP 1990 2001

% of GDP 1990 2001

% of GDP 1990 2001

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

.. 52.9 12.6 18.8 18.1 .. 33.6 39.4 38.2 26.6 14.0 26.1 .. 22.4 .. 17.5 58.7 .. .. .. .. 39.4 .. .. 31.9 .. 11.6 19.8 26.4 .. .. 24.3 15.3 .. 19.6 26.4 .. 10.5 31.3 8.4 45.3 42.1 33.5 .. .. 42.2 38.9 19.1 25.6 25.2 12.3 12.5 16.2 .. 31.3 ..

.. 37.1 13.0 21.2 21.0 .. .. 41.2 41.3 33.9 .. 25.1 11.4 .. .. .. 34.5 16.1 .. 25.8 19.5 .. .. .. 24.7 .. 11.7 .. .. .. .. 20.3 14.8 21.3 30.7 29.6 .. 5.3 32.4 11.2 .. 29.7 18.0 .. .. 40.1 27.0 15.6 22.5 23.0 17.2 15.8 15.3 29.6 .. ..

.. 52.1 16.3 18.4 19.9 .. 37.7 50.7 47.4 24.3 15.3 35.8 .. 27.5 .. 16.2 55.3 .. .. .. .. 51.7 .. .. 28.9 .. 16.0 25.4 29.3 .. .. 24.3 17.9 .. 23.1 28.8 .. 16.0 33.3 17.2 49.8 43.4 72.0 .. .. 41.1 39.5 22.4 23.7 34.7 9.4 20.6 19.6 .. 37.6 ..

.. 41.5 17.3 24.8 21.9 .. .. 47.3 41.9 38.8 .. 32.4 14.6 .. .. .. 44.2 17.7 .. 29.1 35.7 .. .. .. 26.6 .. 17.1 .. .. .. .. 24.5 15.9 22.8 30.7 32.5 .. 8.7 35.9 18.0 .. 29.1 27.3 .. .. 35.4 29.9 21.6 23.5 31.4 18.5 18.5 19.2 35.1 .. ..

.. 0.8 –7.6 0.4 –1.8 .. –2.4 –5.3 –10.2 3.6 –1.5 –3.5 .. –3.8 .. –0.7 .. .. .. .. .. –1.1 .. .. 1.4 .. –1.1 –1.6 –2.0 .. .. –0.4 –2.5 .. –6.4 –2.2 .. –5.1 –1.2 –6.8 –4.3 4.0 –35.6 .. .. 0.5 –0.8 –5.4 3.0 –3.5 2.9 –8.1 –3.5 .. –4.4 ..

.. –3.8 –4.7 –1.2 –0.6 .. .. –3.6 –1.6 –2.7 .. –2.5 –0.4 .. .. .. –9.7 0.4 .. –1.4 –16.2 .. .. .. –0.4 .. –2.4 .. .. .. .. 0.9 –1.3 1.1 –4.0 –2.5 .. –3.4 –3.5 –4.5 .. 0.3 –6.3 .. .. –3.8 –4.2 –4.7 0.3 –2.8 –0.8 –1.8 –4.0 –4.3 .. ..

.. –0.5 0.6 0.7 –0.0 .. .. 0.8 .. .. .. 3.0 .. 1.3 .. –0.2 .. .. .. .. .. 8.0 .. .. .. .. 2.1 .. –0.7 .. .. –0.5 0.3 .. 7.5 3.9 .. 0.0 .. 5.4 –0.3 .. 12.7 .. .. –0.6 –3.9 2.3 –3.4 0.4 –0.9 5.4 0.4 .. –1.3 ..

.. 3.3 0.1 0.5 0.1 .. .. –0.1 .. .. .. 0.2 0.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.2 8.1 .. .. .. 1.0 .. 1.7 .. .. .. .. –2.9 –0.9 –2.7 6.3 –1.5 .. –0.0 .. 1.8 .. .. 3.3 .. .. 3.7 3.1 2.2 1.4 1.7 .. 1.1 0.6 –1.5 .. ..

.. –0.3 7.1 –1.1 1.8 .. .. 4.6 .. .. .. 0.5 .. 4.5 .. 0.9 .. .. .. .. .. –6.9 .. .. .. .. –1.2 .. 2.8 .. .. 0.9 2.3 .. –1.1 –1.6 .. 5.1 .. 1.4 4.6 .. 22.9 .. .. 0.0 4.7 3.1 0.4 3.0 –2.1 2.7 3.1 .. 5.7 ..

.. 0.5 4.6 0.7 0.5 .. .. 3.7 .. .. .. 2.3 0.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. –0.8 8.1 .. .. .. –0.6 .. 0.5 .. .. .. .. 1.9 2.1 1.6 –2.3 4.0 .. 3.4 .. 2.7 .. .. 0.5 .. .. 0.1 1.1 2.5 –1.7 1.0 .. 0.8 3.4 5.7 .. ..

.. 53.1 57.7 45.2 .. .. .. 99.1 .. 142.5 .. 91.9 17.7 .. .. .. .. 99.3 .. 14.8 135.2 .. .. .. 23.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. 32.5 23.2 60.9 83.5 72.8 .. .. .. 63.8 .. 30.4 .. .. .. 19.9 19.9 90.0 .. 63.9 .. 44.3 64.9 38.8 .. ..

.. 12.9 37.1 21.6 0.7 .. .. 12.9 15.5 43.5 .. 13.3 10.0 .. .. .. 4.0 8.8 .. 3.9 74.4 .. .. .. 6.3 .. 12.1 .. .. .. .. 13.6 14.0 19.7 4.6 16.5 .. .. 7.0 10.2 .. 6.9 13.4 .. .. 3.8 4.6 58.4 20.7 19.0 7.5 13.6 31.2 9.5 .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

223

4.11
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU
a. Excluding grants.

Central government finances
Current revenue a Total expenditure Overall budget balance (including grants) Financing from abroad Domestic financing Debt and interest payments
Total debt % of % of GDP 1990 2001 % of GDP 1990 2001 % of GDP 1990 2001 % of GDP 1990 2001 % of GDP 1990 2001 GDP 2001 Interest % of current revenue 2001

34.4 .. 10.8 .. .. .. 5.6 26.7 .. 39.8 .. 26.3 29.3 21.0 .. 32.7 41.3 20.8 21.9 .. .. 18.5 .. .. 30.7 13.7 .. .. .. 1.6 36.0 18.9 23.8 .. 23.7 .. .. 18.9 .. 24.1 22.3 w 14.4 16.8 16.9 16.3 16.4 11.7 .. 18.6 .. 12.9 21.9 23.5 33.6

26.7 26.8 .. .. 17.8 .. 7.1 24.9 33.3 37.4 .. 27.7 .. 16.4 8.0 28.1 38.0 25.3 23.9 11.5 .. 17.5 .. .. 28.6 29.1 .. 10.9 26.6 3.4 36.0 20.8 25.1 .. 21.2 20.1 .. 23.9 .. .. .. w 16.0 17.7 .. 20.0 17.1 10.8 28.3 .. .. 13.5 23.6 .. ..

33.8 .. 18.9 .. .. .. 8.3 21.3 .. 38.6 .. 30.1 32.6 28.4 .. 25.5 38.1 23.3 21.8 .. .. 14.1 .. .. 34.6 17.4 .. .. .. 11.5 37.5 22.7 23.3 .. 20.7 .. .. 27.8 .. 27.3 25.3 w 17.1 21.4 23.0 17.1 20.7 13.8 .. 25.3 .. 16.4 25.3 26.2 37.2

30.4 24.4 .. .. 21.8 .. 20.9 22.2 39.1 38.9 .. 28.8 .. 26.1 8.5 30.1 37.9 26.6 23.2 11.6 .. 19.7 .. .. 32.0 49.5 .. 21.4 28.9 9.9 35.9 19.5 31.2 .. 25.1 24.3 .. 26.7 .. .. .. w 20.1 21.3 .. 22.3 20.6 15.0 33.0 .. .. 18.3 25.9 .. ..

0.9 .. –5.3 .. .. .. –2.5 10.8 .. 0.3 .. –4.1 –3.1 –7.8 .. 0.0 0.9 –0.9 0.3 .. .. 4.6 .. .. –5.4 –3.0 .. .. .. 0.4 0.6 –3.8 0.3 .. 0.0 .. .. –8.8 .. –5.3 –2.8 w –4.8 –2.7 –3.2 –1.1 –3.0 –0.9 .. –3.5 .. –7.3 –3.5 –2.8 –4.0

–3.0 3.4 .. .. –2.0 .. –8.5 5.2 –3.2 –1.0 .. –1.0 .. –9.8 –0.9 –0.9 0.1 2.9 0.7 0.1 .. –2.8 .. .. –2.6 –19.6 .. –2.2 –0.9 0.0 0.0 1.3 –4.6 .. –4.3 –2.9 .. –3.5 .. .. .. w –3.3 –3.2 .. –1.6 –3.3 –3.7 –3.4 .. .. –4.9 –1.6 .. ..

0.0 .. 2.5 .. .. .. 0.5 –0.1 .. 0.1 .. –0.0 0.7 3.6 .. –0.2 –0.3 0.0 .. .. .. –1.5 .. .. 1.8 –0.0 .. .. .. 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.4 .. 1.0 .. .. 3.2 .. 0.9 0.2 m .. .. .. .. 0.3 0.4 .. 0.2 0.9 2.3 0.9 0.2 0.5

0.8 –2.6 .. .. 1.6 .. 1.1 0.0 0.8 0.4 .. 3.4 .. 1.0 0.1 –0.6 –5.3 0.0 2.1 0.2 .. 0.4 .. .. 0.7 –1.9 .. 3.3 0.2 0.0 –0.4 –0.5 3.0 .. 0.3 1.0 .. 1.3 .. .. 1.1 m .. 0.1 0.4 1.0 1.3 1.4 .. .. 1.3 1.4 .. .. ..

–0.9 .. 2.8 .. .. .. 2.0 –10.6 .. –0.4 .. 4.1 2.4 4.2 .. 0.2 –0.7 0.9 .. .. .. –3.1 .. .. 3.6 3.0 .. .. .. –0.4 –0.8 3.6 –1.7 .. –1.0 .. .. 5.6 .. 4.4 0.9 m .. 0.5 1.1 0.2 0.7 2.8 .. 0.1 2.7 3.1 .. 1.0 3.1

2.2 –0.9 .. .. 0.4 .. 7.4 –5.2 2.4 0.6 .. –2.4 .. 8.8 0.8 1.5 5.2 –2.9 –2.8 –0.2 .. 2.4 .. .. 1.8 21.5 .. –1.2 0.7 –0.0 0.3 –0.8 1.6 .. 4.0 1.9 .. 2.2 .. .. 0.8 m .. 1.0 1.2 1.1 0.9 1.4 0.6 0.5 1.7 3.7 .. .. ..

.. 48.8 .. .. 72.8 .. 247.4 99.4 42.2 26.4 .. 46.8 .. 103.1 8.7 28.7 .. 26.7 .. 81.4 .. 29.8 .. .. 62.6 99.9 .. 39.6 36.5 .. .. 32.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. m .. 34.7 53.9 23.4 .. 52.3 40.5 .. .. 63.8 .. .. ..

11.5 9.5 .. .. 5.0 .. 81.8 1.3 9.3 4.1 .. 17.5 .. 40.8 9.4 2.0 11.4 3.6 .. 4.8 .. 7.1 .. .. 11.4 85.1 .. 10.7 7.2 .. 7.7 10.8 9.7 .. 13.4 4.3 .. 9.8 .. .. 11.3 m .. 9.8 11.4 9.3 11.8 13.9 9.3 13.4 12.2 38.9 .. 7.5 ..

224

2004 World Development Indicators

Central government finances
About the data Definitions Tables 4.11–4.13 present an overview of the size and role of central governments relative to national economies. The International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) Manual on Government Finance Statistics describes the government as the sector of the economy responsible for “implementation of public policy through the provision of primarily nonmarket services and the transfer of income, supported mainly by compulsory levies on other sectors” (1986, p. 3). The definition of government generally excludes nonfinancial public enterprises and public financial institutions (such as the central bank). A second edition of the Manual on Government Finance Statistics, harmonized with the 1993 System of National Accounts, was released in 2001. The new manual recommends an accrual accounting method instead of the earlier cash-based method. However, most countries still follow the previous manual. Units of government meeting this definition exist at many levels, from local administrative units to the highest level of national government. Inadequate statistical coverage precludes the presentation of subnational data, however, making cross-countr y comparisons potentially misleading. Central government can refer to one of two accounting concepts: consolidated or budgetary. For most countries central government finance data have been consolidated into one account, but for others only budgetary central government accounts are available. Countries reporting budgetary data are noted in Primary data documentation. Because budgetary accounts do not necessarily include all central government units, the picture they provide of central government activities is usually incomplete. A key issue is the failure to include the quasi-fiscal operations of the central bank. Central bank losses arising from monetary operations and subsidized financing can result in sizable quasi-fiscal deficits. Such deficits may also result from the operations of other financial intermediaries, such as public development finance institutions. Also missing from the data are governments’ contingent liabilities for unfunded pension and national insurance plans. Data on government revenues and expenditures are collected by the IMF through questionnaires distributed to member governments and by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Despite the IMF’s efforts to systematize and standardize the collection of public finance data, statistics on public finance are often incomplete, untimely, and not comparable across countries. Government finance statistics are reported in local currency. The indicators here are shown as percentages of GDP. Many countries report government finance data according to fiscal years; see Primary data documentation for the timing of these years. For further discussion of government finance statistics, see About the data for tables 4.12 and 4.13.

4.11

ECONOMY

• Current revenue includes all revenue from taxes and current nontax revenues (other than grants), such as fines, fees, recoveries, and income from property or sales. • Total expenditure includes nonrepayable current and capital expenditures. It does not include government lending or repayments to the government or government acquisition of equity for public policy purposes. • Overall budget balance is current and capital revenue and official grants received, less total expenditure and lending minus repayments.

• Financing from abroad (obtained from nonresidents) and domestic financing (obtained from residents) refer to the means by which a government provides financial resources to cover a budget deficit or allocates financial resources arising from a budget surplus. The data include all government liabilities— other than those for currency issues or demand, time, or savings deposits with government—or claims on others held by government, and changes in government holdings of cash and deposits. They exclude government guarantees of the debt of others. • Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic debt (such as debt held by monetary authorities, deposit money banks, nonfinancial public enterprises, and households) and foreign debt (such as debt to international development institutions and foreign governments). It is the gross amount of government liabilities not reduced by the amount of government claims against others. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. • Interest payments include interest payments on government debt—including longterm bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments—to both domestic and foreign residents.

4.11a
Some developing economies spend a large part of their current revenue on interest payments
Central government interest payments as share of current revenue (%) 100 80 60 40 20 1995 2001

Data sources The data on central government finances are from the IMF’s Government Finance Statistics

Yearbook, 2003 and IMF data files. Each country’s accounts are reported using the system of
0
e ta n a ca ka a a a y s Tu rk e ia n in e on in di no ne bi an nt Pa ki s Gu i ba pp om Le m In Sr iL Ja ge Co l Le on es ai

common definitions and classifications in the IMF’s Manual on Government Finance Statistics (1986). See these sources for complete and authoritative explanations of concepts, definitions, and data sources.
ili In d ra

Note: 2001 data refer to the most recent year for which data are available in 1998–2001. No data are available for Guinea for 1995. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics data files.

Si

Ph

er

Ar

2004 World Development Indicators

225

4.12
Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Hong Kong, China Colombia Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rep. Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt, Arab Rep. El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gabon Gambia, The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti

Central government expenditures
Goods and services Wages and salaries a Interest payments Subsidies and other current transfers Capital expenditure

% of total expenditure 1990 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001

.. .. .. .. 30 .. 27 25 .. .. 37 19 .. 63 .. 51 16 35 60 34 .. 51 21 .. 41 28 .. .. 26 73 56 57 .. 54 .. .. 20 39 42 42 .. .. 25 77 20 26 63 41 .. 32 50 31 .. 37 .. ..

.. .. 28 .. 18 .. .. 25 31 27 24 .. .. 41 .. .. .. 28 .. 50 .. 52 19 .. .. 27 .. .. 19 47 32 48 56 44 .. 14 22 53 .. .. 62 .. 40 52 .. .. .. .. 36 .. .. .. .. 29 .. 65

.. .. .. .. 23 .. 2 10 .. .. 2 14 .. 36 .. 23 9 3 51 22 .. 39 9 .. 28 18 .. .. 18 23 49 43 .. 22 .. .. 12 29 38 23 .. .. 8 40 10 17 37 21 .. 8 32 21 .. 18 .. ..

.. .. 20 .. 14 .. .. 10 11 18 11 .. .. 24 .. .. .. 8 .. 30 .. 32 9 .. .. 19 .. .. 14 17 20 37 35 24 .. 7 13 41 .. .. 37 .. 9 18 .. .. .. .. 11 .. .. .. .. 19 .. 42

.. .. .. .. 8 .. 8 9 .. .. 2 21 .. 6 .. 2 78 10 6 5 .. 5 20 .. 2 10 .. .. 10 7 22 12 .. 0 .. .. 15 4 23 14 .. .. 0 5 3 5 0 16 .. 5 11 20 .. 7 .. ..

.. .. 11 .. 22 .. 5 8 2 11 2 .. .. 8 .. .. .. 11 .. 9 .. 19 13 .. .. 2 .. .. 18 0 23 17 20 4 .. 2 11 5 .. .. 6 .. 1 8 .. .. .. .. 16 .. .. .. .. 21 .. 5

.. .. .. .. 57 .. 56 57 .. .. 46 56 .. 16 .. 25 39 52 11 10 .. 13 57 .. 3 51 .. .. 42 4 20 20 .. 42 .. .. 61 13 16 26 .. .. 73 9 70 63 6 9 .. 58 20 41 .. 4 .. ..

.. .. 34 .. 54 .. .. 61 50 25 61 .. .. 37 .. .. .. 51 .. 11 .. 15 66 .. .. 56 .. .. 41 35 8 27 12 46 .. 75 64 16 .. .. 15 .. 54 31 .. .. .. .. 48 .. .. .. .. 8 .. 8

.. .. .. .. 5 .. 9 9 .. .. 16 5 .. 15 .. 21 2 3 23 51 .. 26 2 .. 56 11 .. .. 22 16 2 11 .. 3 .. .. 3 44 18 17 .. .. 8 16 7 6 32 34 .. 5 19 8 .. 53 .. ..

.. .. 27 .. 5 .. .. 5 17 23 13 .. .. 14 .. .. .. 11 .. 23 .. 14 2 .. .. 15 .. .. 22 18 37 8 11 6 .. 9 3 22 .. .. 22 .. 6 19 .. .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. .. 36 .. 22

226

2004 World Development Indicators

Central government expenditures
Goods and services Wages and salaries a Interest payments Subsidies and other current transfers

4.12
Capital expenditure
% of total expenditure 1990 2001

ECONOMY

% of total expenditure 1990 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001

Honduras Hungary India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, Dem. Rep. Korea, Rep. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

.. 27 24 23 53 .. 19 38 17 47 14 55 .. 51 .. 35 62 .. .. .. .. 40 .. .. 12 .. 37 54 41 .. .. 47 25 .. 30 48 .. .. 73 .. 15 19 43 .. .. 19 76 44 64 61 54 30 44 .. 38 ..

.. 18 22 18 68 .. .. 34 20 51 .. 64 38 .. .. .. 58 66 .. 25 30 .. .. .. 46 .. 36 .. .. .. .. 44 24 25 35 46 .. .. 63 .. .. 53 33 .. .. 21 77 23 47 56 52 41 49 16 .. ..

.. 6 11 16 40 .. 14 14 13 21 .. 44 .. 31 .. 13 31 .. .. .. .. 22 .. .. 6 .. 25 23 26 .. .. 37 18 .. 7 35 .. .. 46 .. 9 12 23 .. .. 8 22 .. 49 34 36 17 29 .. 27 ..

.. 9 9 8 52 .. .. 15 16 32 .. 45 8 .. .. .. 35 29 .. 12 23 .. .. .. 16 .. 23 .. .. .. .. 32 17 12 10 36 .. .. 44 .. .. .. 16 .. .. 8 27 4 34 29 46 19 28 8 .. ..

.. 6 22 13 0 .. 21 18 21 29 19 18 .. 19 .. 4 0 .. .. .. .. 11 .. .. .. .. 9 14 20 .. .. 15 45 .. 1 16 .. .. 1 .. 9 15 0 .. .. 6 6 25 8 11 10 37 34 .. 18 ..

.. 12 28 19 1 .. .. 11 15 38 .. 10 8 .. .. .. 3 8 .. 3 41 .. .. .. 6 .. 8 .. .. .. .. 11 13 18 5 15 .. .. 6 6 .. 7 9 .. .. 4 4 42 20 14 7 12 25 8 .. ..

.. 64 43 21 22 .. 54 37 54 1 54 11 .. 10 .. 46 20 .. .. .. .. 5 .. .. 67 .. 9 8 16 .. .. 22 17 .. 56 8 .. .. 10 .. 70 64 14 .. .. 69 7 20 26 18 19 25 7 .. 33 ..

.. 57 41 39 10 .. .. 50 59 0 .. 8 42 .. .. .. 26 15 .. 65 12 .. .. .. 39 .. 6 .. .. .. .. 28 52 54 46 16 .. .. 17 .. .. 37 24 .. .. 70 6 27 24 24 25 36 18 72 .. ..

.. 4 11 43 25 .. 7 6 8 23 13 16 .. 20 .. 15 18 .. .. .. .. 45 .. .. 20 .. 43 24 24 .. .. 17 14 .. 13 28 .. 29 15 .. 6 2 4 .. .. 5 11 12 2 11 17 8 16 .. 12 ..

.. 13 9 24 21 .. .. 6 6 11 .. 18 12 .. .. .. 13 11 .. 6 17 .. .. .. 9 .. 38 .. .. .. .. 17 10 3 14 22 .. 39 14 .. .. 3 34 .. .. 5 13 7 9 6 16 12 8 4 .. ..

2004 World Development Indicators

227

4.12
Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Venezuela, RB Vietnam West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. Zambia Zimbabwe World Low income Middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Low & middle income East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Carib. Middle East & N. Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa High income Europe EMU

Central government expenditures
Goods and services Wages and salaries a Interest payments Subsidies and other current transfers Capital expenditure

% of total expenditure 1990 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001 1990

% of total expenditure 2001

26 .. 53 .. .. .. 77 51 .. 40 .. 53 19 33 .. 62 15 31 .. .. .. 60 .. .. 34 52 .. .. .. 88 30 28 35 .. 31 .. .. 64 .. 56 39 m .. 42 43 38 .. 42 .. 35 53 33 .. 25 20

33 37 .. .. 42 .. 60 50 25 41 .. 28 .. 38 74 57 18 28 .. 44 .. 55 .. .. 41 24 .. 30 30 78 29 21 26 .. 26 .. .. 54 .. .. 37 m .. 37 41 26 39 .. 30 41 50 23 .. 29 ..

12 .. 29 .. .. .. 35 27 .. 20 .. 23 13 17 .. 42 6 5 .. .. .. 35 .. .. 28 38 .. .. .. 33 13 10 20 .. 23 .. .. 55 .. 37 23 m .. 25 29 23 .. 27 .. 23 35 .. .. 13 13

12 11 .. .. 24 .. 46 24 14 23 .. 13 .. 21 34 32 6 4 .. 13 .. 30 .. .. 34 18 .. 9 13 35 6 8 15 .. 19 .. .. 39 .. .. 18 m .. 18 24 15 21 .. 12 19 35 9 .. .. ..

0 .. 5 .. .. .. 18 14 .. 1 .. 14 9 23 .. 3 11 3 .. .. .. 13 .. .. 10 18 .. .. .. 0 9 15 8 .. 16 .. .. 8 .. 16 10 m .. 11 13 9 .. 10 .. 10 10 23 .. 11 9

10 10 .. .. 4 .. 28 1 8 4 .. 17 .. 26 9 2 11 3 .. 5 .. 6 .. .. 10 50 .. 5 7 0 8 11 8 .. 11 4 .. 9 .. .. 9m .. 8 10 8 9 11 8 9 11 27 .. 7 ..

57 .. 16 .. .. .. 1 12 .. 52 .. 23 63 23 .. 11 72 61 .. .. .. 9 .. .. 35 16 .. .. .. 10 52 49 50 .. 37 .. .. 6 .. 18 23 m .. 23 21 26 .. 16 .. 25 11 23 .. 56 57

45 44 .. .. 24 .. 6 22 55 49 .. 50 .. 18 7 22 69 64 .. 35 .. 17 .. .. 25 20 .. 17 57 18 59 63 62 .. 42 .. .. 18 .. .. 31 m .. 42 23 54 26 .. 51 36 14 27 .. 59 ..

17 .. 33 .. .. .. 8 24 .. 7 .. 10 9 21 .. 24 2 5 27 .. .. 18 .. .. 22 13 .. .. .. 1 10 8 7 .. 16 .. .. 33 .. 10 13 m .. 16 17 11 .. 21 .. 11 23 12 .. 7 7

12 9 .. .. 29 .. 11 26 12 7 .. 5 .. 18 10 19 2 5 36 17 .. 22 .. .. 23 7 .. 47 6 4 4 5 4 .. 21 34 .. 17 .. .. 13 m .. 12 15 9 16 24 9 14 19 9 .. 5 ..

Note: Components include expenditures financed by grants in kind and other cash adjustments to total expenditure. a. Part of goods and services.

228

2004 World Development Indicators

Central government expenditures
About the data Definitions Government expenditures include all nonrepayable payments, whether current or capital, requited or unrequited. Total central government expenditure as presented in the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) Government Finance Statistics Yearbook is a more limited measure of general government consumption than that shown in the national accounts (see table 4.10) because it excludes consumption expenditures by state and local governments. At the same time, the IMF’s concept of central government expenditure is broader than the national accounts definition because it includes government gross capital formation and transfer payments. Expenditures can be measured either by function (health, defense, education) or by economic type (interest payments, wages and salaries, purchases of goods and ser vices). Functional data are often incomplete, and coverage varies by countr y because functional responsibilities stretch across levels of government for which no data are available. Defense expenditures, usually the central government’s responsibility, are shown in table 5.8. For more information on education expenditures, see table 2.10; for more on health expenditures, see table 2.14. The classification of expenditures by economic type can also be problematic. For example, the distinction between current and capital expenditure may be arbitrary, and subsidies to state-owned enterprises or banks may be disguised as capital financing. Subsidies may also be hidden in special contractual pricing for goods and services. Expenditure shares may not sum to 100 percent because adjustments to total expenditures financed by grants in kind and other cash adjustments (which may be positive or negative) are not shown separately. For further discussion of government finance statistics, see About the data for tables 4.11 and 4.13.

4.12

ECONOMY

• Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services, whether in the form of wages and salaries to employees or other purchases of goods and services. • Wages and salaries consist of all payments in cash, but not in kind (such as food and housing), to employees in return for services rendered, before deduction of withholding taxes and employee contributions to social security and pension funds. • Interest payments are payments made to domestic sectors and to nonresidents for the use of borrowed money. (Repayment of principal is shown as a financing item, and commission charges are shown as purchases of services.) Interest payments do not include payments by government as guarantor or surety of interest on the defaulted debts of others, which are classified as government lending. • Subsidies and other current transfers include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises and the cost to the public of covering the cash operating deficits on sales to the public by departmental enterprises. •