# CHAPTER 3: ELECTROMAGNETISM 3.1 Analysing the magnetic effect of a current-carrying conductor.

[ … /33 x 100 = ……% ] A student is able to : • State what an electromagnet is. • Draw the magnetic field pattern due to a current in a : i) straight wire, ii) coil, iii) solenoid. • State the factors that affect the strength of the magnetic field of an electromagnet. • Describe the application of electromagnet in an electric bell.

3.1.1

Magnetic field due to a current in a straight wire 1. Right-hand Grip Rule states that the thumb of the right hand points to the direction of __________________ and the other four curled fingers points to direction of its __________________

2. Using the Right hand grip rule, draw the direction of current flow and pattern of magnetic fields lines formed.

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3.1.2

Magnetic Field due to a Current in a Circular Coil 1. Draw the direction of current flows and pattern of magnetic fields lines formed.

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2. The direction of magnetic field lines can also be determined using the ____________ 3.1.3 Magnetic Field due to a Current in a Solenoid on an iron core.

1. A _______________is a combination of coils of wire wound around on some surface or

Q P

i.

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2. Draw the direction of current flow. To check the poles formed: Look from end P of the solenoid, the direction of current flow is _______________, the polarity at end P is _____________ ii. Look from end Q of the solenoid, the current flow is ___________________, the polarity at end Q is ______________ iii. Now draw the direction of the compass needle in the space provided

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3.1.4

Factors that affects the strength of an electromagnet 1. Based on the apparatus shown below, the higher the number of paper clips attracted to the solenoid, the ___________the strength of that electromagnet.

Factors

Condition

Number of paper clips attracted

The strength of electromagnetic field

Number of turns Electric current Use of normal iron-core Use of soft-iron core

increase increase

-nil-

3.1.5

Application of Electromagnet in an electric bell.

1. Label the diagram of an electric bell as shown below.

i. When the switch is closed and current flows in the solenoid, the soft iron core is__________________. ii. The soft iron armature is________ towards the electromagnet and the hammer hits the gong iii. At the same time, the contact is ______ and the soft iron core ______ its magnetism. iv. The __________ brings the armature back to its original position v. The contact is restored and the process is repeated.

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3.2 Understanding the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field. [ ……/ 40 x 100 = ………% ] A student is able to : • Describe how a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field experiences a force. • Draw the pattern of the combined magnetic field due to a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field. • Explain the factors that affect the magnitude of the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field. • Describe how a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field experiences a turning force. • Describe how a direct current motor works. • State factors that affect the speed of rotation of an electric motor. 3.2.1 Force Acting on a Current-carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field 1. If a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field as shown in the experiment, the conductor will experiences a ________.

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2. Draw the catapult field ( combination of the two magnetic fields) below and show the direction of force, F acting on the conductor.

N

N

+
S

=
S

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3. _______________________can be used to determine the direction of the force acting on the conductor.

Thumb

(

)

First Finger (

)

Centre Finger (

)

4. The factors that affect the magnitude of the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field are: I.____________________________________ ii.____________________________________ iii.____________________________________

3.2.2

Turning Effect of a Current-carrying Coil in a Magnetic Field 1. Consider a current-carrying coil ABCD placed between the poles of a magnet as shown in the figure below. As the current flows through the coil from A to B, an _______ force acts on the arm AB whereas a __________ force acts on the arms CD according to Fleming’s Left Hand rule.

commutator

Carbon brush

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2. Draw the catapult field formed and show with arrows the direction of the forces acting on arms AB and CD.

AB N

CD S

3. Complete and draw the four stages of the motion of a direct current motor in operation

N

Coil
S

Degree : 00 Current flow through carbon brushes: Yes / No Arm AB : upwards / downwards Arm CD : upwards / downwards Rotation : clockwise direction

1 B A
current

4 3

2 D

C

Degree : No

0

Current flow through carbon brushes : Yes / Arm AB : right / left Arm CD : right / left Rotation : ____________due to inertia

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Degree : No

0

Current flow through carbon brushes : Yes / Arm AB : upwards / downwards Arm CD : upwards / downwards Rotation : _____________

Degree : No

0

Current flow through carbon brushes : Yes / Arm AB : right / left Arm CD : right / left Rotation : _____________due to inertia

3.2.3

The speed of rotation of an electric motor can be increased by: 1. ___________________________________ 2. ___________________________________ 3. ___________________________________ 4. ___________________________________

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3. 3 Analysing electromagnetic induction.

[ ……./ 39 x 100 = …………..% ]

A student is able to : • Describe electromagnetic induction. • Indicate the direction of the induced current in a: i) straight wire, ii) solenoid • Explain the factors that affect the magnitude of the induced current. • Describe applications of electromagnetic induction. • Compare direct current and alternating current. 3.3.1 Electromagnetic Induction 1. When a conductor is moved to cut through the magnetic flux, an _______________ is produced. 2. It requires a _____________motion between the magnet and the coil to produce an induced current. 3. The production of electric current by a changing magnetic field is called ____________________________________. 3.3.2 Induced e.m.f by a moving conductor

Action The wire is moved upwards The wire is moved downwards The wire is move horizontally Magnet is moved upwards

Observation Galvanometer deflect to left

Inference

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___________________rule can be used to determine the direction of the ___________ induced current produced Thumb ( )

First finger (

)

Center finger (

)

3.3.3

Induced e.m.f by coil

Fill in the blanks to explain what happens when the bar magnet is moved in and out of the solenoid

Magnetic field lines are being cut . _________ induced

No deflection on the galvanometer. ____________ is induced

Moving the coil towards a magnet also induces _____________ ___________ induced in opposite direction

____________law states that the direction of the induced current is such that it always _______ ___ the change producing it.

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3.3.4

Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction 1. Faraday’s Law states that the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. is _________________ to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage with the solenoid 2. The magnitude of the induced current in a conductor increases when: I. ____________________________________________________ II. ____________________________________________________ III. ____________________________________________________ 3. The magnitude of the induced current in a coil increases when: I. _________________________________________________ II. _________________________________________________ III. _________________________________________________

3.3.5

Applications of electromagnetic induction 1. A generator is basically the inverse of a motor. It consists of a rectangular coil rotating in a magnetic field. The axle is turned by some mechanical force from _____________ , ___________ or wind turbine. 2. The d.c generator and a.c generator make use of electromagnetic induction to produce _______________________

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3.3.6

Alternating and direct current ( a.c / d.c ) Complete the table of comparison below. AC Current Graphs DC Current

Current, I/A

Current, I/A

Time, t/s

Time, t/s

Direction

Examples of sources 1. 2. 1. 2.

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3. 4 Transformer

[ ……/ 33 x 100 = …………..% ]

A student is able to : • describe the structure and the operating principle of a simple transformer. • compare and contrast a step-up transformer and a step-down transformer. • • • • • 3.4.1 state that

Vp Np = for an ideal transformer. Vs Ns

state that VpIp = VsIs for an ideal transformer. describe the energy losses in a transformer. describe ways to improve the efficiency of a transformer. solve problems involving transformers Operating principle of a transformer 1. Complete the diagram below

1. When an alternating current flows in the primary coil, it produces _______________ which link the primary coil and the secondary coil 2. The magnetic flux linkage to the ___________________ coil is cut. 3. The changing magnetic flux cut by the secondary coil ___________ a current in the secondary coil. 4. When the current in the primary coil decreases, the magnetic field will __________ and again be cut by the secondary coil. An e.m.f. acting in the opposite direction is induced in the secondary coil. Hence, an ___________________ of the same frequency is induced in the secondary coil.

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3.4.2

Step-up and step-down transformers

1. The output voltage depends on the ___________ of the number of turns of primary and secondary coils. 2. For an ideal transformer, the relationship between the _______________ and the _________ of the number of turns in primary and secondary coils is given as follows:

Input voltage,Vp = Number of turns in primary coil, Np Output voltage,Vs Number of turns in secondary coil, Ns

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If Ns is greater than Np, then Vs is ____________ than Vp This type of transformer is a ________________ transformer

4. If Ns is less than Np, then Vs is ________ than Vp. This type of transformer is a ________________transformer 5. For example, if the turns ratio is 1:50, the output voltage is stepped up _____ times .

Np Input voltage

Ns

Np

Ns

Output voltage

_________ transformer

______ transformer

If we consider an ideal transformer, there is ____loss of energy. Power supplied to the primary coil

= =
=

Power used in the secondary coil

=
Comparing with the transformer equation

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3.4.3

Energy losses in a transformer 1. An ideal transformer has _________ efficiency. 2. But in practice, the efficiency of a tranformer is ______ than100%. 3. The efficiency of a transformer is expressed as follows: Efficiency = x 100%

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4. Factors that affect the efficiency of a transfomer and ways to improve it: Complete the table below:

Type of losses

Causes
• Changing magnetic flux induces current in

Way to reduce

the soft iron core.
• Heat is produced. • As the number of turn increases, the

Heat loss

resistance of conductor also increases.
• Heat is produced. • The core is magnetized and demagnetized

alternately due to a.c current in primary coil
• Energy lost as heat. • Leakage of magnetic flux in the primary

Flux leakage

coil

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3.5

Understanding the generation and transmission of electricity [ …../ 40 x 100 = …………]

A student is able to : • list sources of energy used to generate electricity. • describe the transmission of electricity. • describe the energy loss in electricity transmission cables and deduce the advantage of high voltage transmission. • state the importance of the National Grid Network. • solve problems involving electricity transmission • explain the importance of renewable energy • explain the effects on the environment caused by the use of various sources to generate electricity.

3.5.1: Generation and Transmission of Electricity 1. Sources of Energy The generation of electricity comes from many sources such as : a. …………………… b. …………………… c. …………………… d. …………………… e. …………………… f. …………………… g. …………………… h. …………………… 3.5.2 Transmission of Electricity 1. The diagram below shows a model of the transmission of electricity from an ac source.

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2. Complete the diagram below which shows the transmission of electricity to consumers.

transmission ____ kV __ kV
Heavy industry

__ kV
Light industry

__ V

___V
My house

Building s

_________ transformer

_________ transformer

__________ transformers

__ kV Power plant 3. The _________________ is a network of underground cables or pylon connecting all
the power stations and substations in the whole country to the consumers. This network starts at electrical power plant and ends at our houses. 4. The advantages of the National Grid Network are: -- energy loss as ______ is reduced,and increases the efficiency of transmission -- efficient ________ distribution according to requirements when demand is high/ low -- good energy management when there is a _____________/ interruption of supply 5. Electrical energy is transmitted from the power station to the consumer using long transmission cables. This will bring to power loss as ______ energy. Power loss can be calculated as follow

Pheat =I R
6. i. 7.

2

I = current flows in the cable R = resistance of the cable

The power loss can be reduced by: Reducing the ____________ of the cables ii. Reducing the current or _____________ the voltage in the cable ______________ play an important role in the transmission of electricity at a higher voltage.

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3.5.3

Renewable energy 1. 2. Energy plays a very important role in economic development but the reserves of fossil fuels such as oil and gas are very limited. Hence, there is modern trend of the nations harnessing the ______________ energy. Renewable energy sources are continually replenished naturally and they are sustainable. 3. Give the example of renewable energy: i ……………………… ii. …………………….. iii. ……………………. iv. …………………….. v. ……………………. vi. ……………………. vii. ……………………... 4. Give the example of non-renewable energy: i. Fossil fuels a) _____ b) _____ c) _____ 5. Give the benefits of using renewable energy in our nation: i. Avoid ____________ of fossil fuels ii. Cleaner sources for little _____________ iii. Avoid harming _________ and fauna iv. Avoid the disruption of _________________ balance

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