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Enverga University Foundation Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. 076-2009
Research on Digital Broadcasting
A Requirement In Partial Fulfillment of the requirement in ECEB4423 Broadcasting Engineering
Villamater,Jerome Dylan S. BS EcE IV
Engr. Erwin Ellazar
March 14, 2012
For 16:9 broadcasts. Each commercial broadcasting terrestrial television DTV channel in North America is permitted to be broadcast at a bit rate up to 19 megabits per second. and many subtle intermediate cases exist. including non-video datacasting services that allow one-way high-bandwidth streaming of data to computers like National Datacast. many DVB-T channels in the United Kingdom use a horizontal resolution of 544 or 704 pixels per line). the range of formats can be broadly divided into two categories: high definition television (HDTV) for the transmission of high-definition video and standard-definition television (SDTV). while 720 × 576 is used in PAL countries. giving them the option to reduce the transmission bitrate and make reception easier for more distant or mobile viewers.Manuel S. broadcasters may choose to reduce these resolutions to save bandwidth (e. With digital terrestrial television (DTV) broadcasting. This can sometimes be arranged automatically. For 4:3 aspect-ratio broadcasts. broadcasters can choose from several different modulation schemes. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. the 704 × 480 format is used in NTSC countries. However. However. Instead the broadcast can use the channel to include PSIP and can also subdivide across several video subchannels (aka feeds) of varying quality and compression rates. Technical information Formats and bandwidth Digital television supports many different picture formats defined by the broadcast television systems which are a combination of size. Each of these utilizes a 16:9 aspect ratio. (similar to what most FM radio stations offer with HD Radio). may use one of several different formats taking the form of various aspect ratios depending on the technology used in the country of broadcast. Standard definition TV (SDTV). the broadcaster does not need to use this entire bandwidth for just one broadcast channel. Many countries are replacing broadcast analog television with digital television to allow other uses of the television radio spectrum. by comparison. . One of several different HDTV formats that can be transmitted over DTV is: 1280 × 720 pixels in progressive scan mode (abbreviated 720p) or 1920 × 1080 pixels in interlaced video mode (1080i). while 720 × 576 is used in PAL countries. (Some televisions are capable of receiving an HD resolution of 1920 × 1080 at a 60 Hz progressive scan frame rate — known as 1080p. image resolution may be less directly limited by bandwidth. This ability to provide either a single HDTV feed or multiple lower-resolution feeds is often referred to as distributing one's "bit budget" or multicasting. 076-2009 Introduction Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signal.. in contrast to the totally analog and channel separated signals used by analog TV. the 640 × 480 format is used in NTSC countries.g. because current convention allows the bandwidth of a DTV channel (or "multiplex") to be subdivided into multiple digital subchannels. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City. providing multiple feeds of entirely different television programming on the same channel. aspect ratio (width to height ratio). for example in DVB-T. using a statistical multiplexer (or "stat-mux"). With some implementations.) HDTV cannot be transmitted over current analog television channels because of channel capacity issues. A broadcaster may opt to use a standard-definition (SDTV) digital signal instead of an HDTV signal. These terms by themselves are not very precise.
there is P2P (peer-topeer) Internet television software that can be used to watch TV on a computer. 2009 in the United States. depending on which part of the DTV system is concerned. This way is known as Digital terrestrial television (DTT). that is receiving TV via Internet Protocol. Another way is IPTV. users of sets with analog-only tuners may use other sources of programming (e. recorders) or may purchase set-top converter boxes to tune in the digital signals. 1-segment broadcasting 1seg (1-segment) is a special form of ISDB. In the United States.g. 2011 in Canada. which can be bidirectional. Analog switch-off (of full-power stations) took place on June 12. is used for narrowband receivers such as mobile television or cell phone. Interaction Interaction happens between the TV watcher and the DTV system. August 31. Modern DTV systems are able to provide interaction between the end-user and the broadcaster through the use of a return path. In some countries where transmissions of TV signals are normally achieved by microwaves. digital MMDS is used. Other ways have been devised to receive digital television. February 13. July 24. With the exceptions of coaxial and fiber optic cable. Each channel is further divided into 13 segments. Digital Millennium Copyright Act. viewers are limited to whatever channels the antenna picks up. an alternative way is to receive digital TV signals via the open Internet. relying on Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or optical cable line. One of the oldest means of receiving DTV (and TV in general) is using an antenna (television) (known as an aerial in some countries). 2011 in Japan. It can also be an interaction with the STB only (to tune to another TV channel or to browse the EPG). cable also has the advantage of a communication channel localized to a neighborhood rather than a city (terrestrial) or an even larger area (satellite). When analog broadcasting over the air ceases. such as the U. 076-2009 Reception There are a number of different ways to receive digital television. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City. Some signals carry encryption and specify use conditions (such as "may not be recorded" or "may not be viewed on displays larger than 1 m in diagonal measure") backed up with the force of law under the WIPO Copyright Treaty and national legislation implementing it. In addition to not needing a separate return path. Other standards. Among the most familiar to people are digital cable and digital satellite.S. With DTT. The 12 segments of them are allocated for HDTV and remaining segment. Access to encrypted channels can be controlled by a removable smart card. Effect on existing analog technology Television sets with only analog tuners cannot decode digital transmissions. or other method is typically used for the return path with unidirectional networks such as satellite or antenna broadcast. It can be understood in different ways. such as Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) and DVB-H. . Finally. a government-sponsored coupon was available to offset the cost of an external converter box. Internet connection. a dialup modem. for example via the Common Interface (DVB-CI) standard for Europe and via Point Of Deployment (POD) for IS or named differently CableCard. This provides enough customizable bandwidth to allow true video on demand. have been devised to allow handheld devices such as mobile phones to receive TV signals. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. For example. Signal quality will also vary. cable. the 13th.Manuel S.
series of 1979 and Republic Act 3846 or the Radio Control Law as amended by the local governing body for broadcast services. Digital television in the Philippines In the Philippines. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. Preparation for the transition to digital television commenced with an issuance of Executive Order 546. Rizal. by 2013 in Australia. several broadcasters performed trial broadcasts using DVB-T. ABS-CBN revealed that its digital service is completed ahead from its original schedule and it can launch five premium channels on free-to-air TV via digital television as soon as the local regulator finalizes its implementing rules and regulations regarding digital terrestrial television broadcast. However. ABS-CBN begin rolling out its digital broadcast in 17 cities in Metropolitan Manila including selected areas in Bulacan and . Their initial test was conducted in areas of Valenzuela. before the official announcement. and channel 51 (692–698 MHz). 076-2009 2012 in Arab countries. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City. the NTC issued Memorandum Circular 02-062010 on June 11. Bulacan. ABS-CBN will be using ultra-high frequency channel 35 (596–602 MHz) for its ISDB-T test. and issued a circular stating that the country's broadcasters must discontinue their analog services by the transition deadline of 11:59 p. While the NTC has currently selected ISDB-T as its DTV standard. The commission will be using the ultra-high frequency television channels from 14 to 51 between 470-698 megahertz for digital terrestrial television broadcast service and deliberating channels 14 to 20 (470-512 Mhz) which is currently being used for fixed/mobile services. UTC+8) on December 31.000 households in the Philippines. 2011. ABS-CBN will be using its analog and digital services for more than 1. it would offer 14 to 15 channels in addition to its ABS-CBN and Studio 23 brands. On April 4. ABS-CBN started laying its foundation for digital broadcast as early as 2007. comprising the local broadcasters group. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting systems by country. 2010 implementing the standard for digital terrestrial television broadcast service. the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) and adopted the said order to promulgate rules and regulations in order to facilitate the entry of digital broadcast services in the Philippines and implement a specific standard for the delivery of DTT services. by 2015 in the Philippines and Uruguay and by 2017 in Costa Rica.Manuel S. In November 2010. the National Telecommunications Commission officially announced in June 2010 that DTT in the Philippines would utilize the Japanese ISDB-T standard. Cavite and Laguna. (Philippine Standard Time. and is scheduled for 2012 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Currently using the American NTSC standard for analog television. Subsequently organizing two technical working groups for the purpose of directing the governing body in the selection of appropriate DTT standard and upon the commendation of investors in the broadcast business. 2015. Digital television broadcasts can be received through digital cable and direct broadcast satellite. Digital terrestrial television (DTT) services are currently in development by the major broadcasting companies of the Philippines. Its early test. which is previously used for testing for its DVB-T. the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas. it is evaluating DVB-T2 as an alternate option Deployment Terrestrial ABS-CBN: ABS-CBN Corporation announced its plans to spend Php500 million for its fractional relocation from analog to digital terrestrial television technology and currently testing its DTT service and once migrated.m.
ABC: ABC Development Corporation. a simulcast of DWET-TV on DWDZ-TV. In 2011. introduced digital cable in July 2009. in Malaybalay and San Carlos. it shifted to using ISDB-T in 2009. and Calumpit in Bulacan. the Japanese government donated additional equipment to the network in order to approve its digital services. 076-2009 Pampanga. in 2007. Ginoog City. SkyCable allocated 20 percent of its Php1 billion capital expenditure in order to fund the migration. PTN: The state broadcaster People's Television Network began DTT trials using ISDB-T in 2009 using channel 48. Makati. municipalities of Balingasag. Initially broadcasting in DVB-T.Manuel S.. BEAM: Broadcast Enterprises and Affiliated Media. and Angeles in Pampanga. Cignal uses the DVB-S2 standard for its digital satellite platform. Parasat Cable: Parasat Cable TV. GMA has also been vocal about the NTC's choice of format for digital television — recently suggesting to the NTC that it should examine the possibility of using DVB-T2 due to its better quality instead of ISDB-T.5 billion in the implementation of its digital satellite TV services. Satellite Cignal Digital TV: Cignal Digital TV and its parent company MediaScape (which is owned by the PLDT) invested Php1. and. an investee of Globe Telecom Retirement Fund through its holding company HALO Holdings Inc. SkyCable adopted the DVB-C standard for its digital cable system. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. Stressing the importance of the transition. the companies launched the first digital television station in the country. ABS-CBN allocated Php1 billion to migrate its analog service to digital terrestrial television broadcast. PTN is also planning to operate an emergency notification system using the digital platform. the east and west sides of Misamis Oriental. Areas planned for a temporary digital broadcast will cover the cities of Quezon City. the DVB-T digital broadcast. GMA: GMA Network. Don Carlos and Valencia City. Inc. owned by a joint consortium led by Bethlehem Holdings. Inc. The new platform also allowed SkyCable to additionally introduce high definition channels to its lineup. Negros Occidental. 2011. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City. the broadcaster plans to migrate DWET-TV to digital as soon as possible. It has rolled out its services to Cagayan de Oro City. Bukidnon. GEMNET. Global Destiny Cable: In March 2009. applied for digital broadcast using the European standard. which is currently airing The Game Channel/CHASE. Tagaytay. . Global Destiny Cable began to offer its own digital cable services. operator of TV5 will use ISDB-T for its DTT trials. using channel 27. and areas like Ortigas. Cavite.. municipalities of Opol and Tagoloan. DZCETV. Inc. Eagle Broadcasting Corporation: In partnership with the Christian Era Broadcasting Service. which it began to do on March 27. investing Php500 to Php700 million on headend and infrastructure updates and the distribution of digital set-top boxes for its subscribers. Pasig. The station uses the frequency of UHF Channel 31. the cable provider of Mindanao. SkyCable announced it would migrate at least 80% of its subscribers in Metro Manila to a digital cable platform with new Digiboxes by 2011. is presently applying for a digital television license from the NTC to install and maintain transmitting stations that will be attuned with and utilize to offer digital terrestrial television and digital mobile TV broadcast services. Cable SkyCable: In October 2010. (which owns 39 percent of Altimax Broadcasting Company).
On June 24. ultra-high frequency television channels 14 to 51 (470-698 Mhz) will be assigned to the DTT Broadcast Service and deliberating further channels 14 to 20 (470-512 Mhz) which is currently being used by Fixed and Mobile Service. the digital terrestrial television service may not be fully consummate to the viewing public. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City. While the transition will be made progressively. Television firms who plan to broadcast digital terrestrial television services to television and other communication devices cannot implement such as the commission is revising its guidelines on digital television programming. the Frequency Management Division is assigned to formulate a frequency allocation plan for the effective transmission of appropriate users of channels 14 to 20. February 2011. 2009. However. The governing body desires the transition be implemented gradually. The National Telecommunications Commission plans to implement the digital terrestrial television service in select key cities in the Philippines in 2012. for its myTV service. Broadcasting firms. through its MediaQuest Holdings.Manuel S. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. Key cities in the Philippines are being considered but in the absence of an implementing rules and regulations. The commission adopted the ISDB-T primarily owing in terms of affordability. The development comes in light with telecom company. the Philippines have not adopted any platform. Smart Communications Inc. Experts announced the DVB-T2 is more superior to its Japanese counterpart. Inc. The technical working group has yet not classified where the transition will take place. the commission allows broadcast firms to test its system while waiting for the implementing rules and regulations (IRR). March 2011. According to the Commission on Information and Communications Technology. The National Telecommunications Commission asked to reevaluate the platform to be used for the Philippines digital television broadcast. . While other members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations cooperatively accepted the digital video broadcasting-terrestrial or the DVB-T as its favored standard. December 2010. 076-2009 Developments July 2007. The governments of Japan and the Philippines reached a collaboration decision in adopting a memorandum of cooperation resulting in the commission’s earlier pronouncement to use the Japanese’s Integrated Services Digital Broadcast-Terrestrial platform for digital terrestrial television broadcast standard for the Philippines. and TV5 conveyed their support to reevaluate its earlier decision to adopt ISDB-T platform. February 2010. The commission reiterates in the absence of IRR. the Japanese government is keen on guiding Filipino counterpart to the technology. In formulating the transition from analog television broadcast to digital terrestrial television (DTT) transmission in the Philippines and to guide the commission in outlining the planned implementing rules and regulations for the enactment of DTT service. broadcasting networks can still convey analog television service although DTT is being rationalized in other areas. the European secondgeneration Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T2) substituting the Japanese Integrated Services Digital Broadcast-Terrestrial (ISDB-T) standard that the commission adopted earlier and was the basis of creating implementing rules and regulations for digital broadcast. The Philippines is anticipated to deferment its planned analog television signal automatic switch-off in 2015 due to technicalities in implementing an official digital terrestrial television platform. the commission set an 85 percent compliance rate before it consider terminating all analog signals for broadcast transmission. The Philippine government also requested its counterpart to shoulder the cost of set-top boxes and also deliberating in rescheduling the compulsory switchover from analog transmission to digital broadcast from an earlier target. June 2009. Meanwhile. the telecom company cannot charge the service being offered to its subscribers. the local unit of the commission. Inc. GMA Network. The regulator is studying the possible implementation of a newer platform.
. May 2011. and the attempt to reconsider the advancement of the Japanese technology (ISDB-T) over the newer version of the European digital television platform. the commission officially led the digital television period in the Philippines and releases a memorandum circular agreeing the use of ISDB-T as the standard digital platform. According to the commission. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. Currently. One of Philippines broadcasting firm. The commission adopted the Japan’s Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting-Television (ISDB-T) standards over its European counterpart. the National Telecommunication Commission has finalized its evaluation on the chosen standard for the digital terrestrial television (DTT) broadcast service in the Philippines.Manuel S. In 2010. August 2011. the commission is considering the European digital television platform. the European Digital Video Broadcast-Terrestrial (DVB-T). Enverga University Foundation Lucena City. Philippine local agency. Inc. the Integrated Services Digital Broadcast-Terrestrial (ISDB-T). 2010. ABS-CBN Corporation criticized the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) for conveying varied indications on the Philippines official stand on digital television standard. Television companies in the Philippines have supported the local governing body to reevaluate the digital television standard to be used. and TV5 agreed to do comparative tests with the European and Japanese standard. the European platform is more superior to its Japanese counterpart. But in recent developments. 076-2009 April 2011. The firm panned the commission on its incompetence in supporting its initial pronouncement to implement Japanese digital television standard. GMA Network. the Digital Video Broadcasting-Television (DVB-T2). Broadcasting companies initiated to delay the switchover provided the technology will be used is far more advanced than the initial digital standard adopted on June 11. the commission is simultaneously drafting the implementing rules and regulations for digital terrestrial television broadcast under the Japanese platform and reviewing the DVB-T2 European standard.
video. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. ISDB-T system was developed by the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) in Japan. ISDB-T uses a modulation method referred to as Band Segmented Transmission (BST) OFDM . T is Terrestrial. ISDB-T is one of ISDB family. 076-2009 ISDB-T System What is ISDB-T ISDB (Integrated Digital Services Digital Broadcasting) is a new type of digital broadcasting intended to provide audio.Manuel S. and multimedia services. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City.
has been started from April 2006. ISDB-T is not so popular in the world. start of Japanese DTTB service. Comparison of 3 DTTB systems Now. But. . Since Dec. and adopted by Brazil.Manuel S. so. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City. 076-2009 Features of ISDB-T System ARIB Technical Reports (published in June. named "One-seg". 2007) ISDB-T (Integrated Service Digital Broadcasting .Terrestrial) has been developed and now on service in Japan. because of late start of ISDB-T. and new service. ISDB-T proves best performances in Japanese DTTB service for more than 3 years. portable reception service in same channel. DTTB service is rapidly migrated because of its advantages. we will submit this technical report to South America countries to understand the ISDB-T system and its advantages on technical aspect. 3 major DTTB( Digital Terrestrial TV Broadcasting) systems exist. 2003.
Outline of transmission parameter 3. Digital broadcasting system is composed by 3 functional blocks. developed in Japan and now (3) used in Japan and Brazil. –1-segment servicefor handheld receivers Automotive HDTV systemusing diversity reception technology –The same HDTV/SDTV program transmitted for fixed receiver can also be viewed inside a motor vehicle EWS(Emergency Warning System) –Handheld receivers woken up by EWS signal alerts the user quickly of earthquake and tsunami warnings SFN for efficient frequency utilization Data broadcasting Has higher reception probability than other OFDM standard . About ISDB-T transmission system 2. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City. developed in EU.Manuel S. (1)Source coding block. Philippines Granted Autonomous Status CHED CEB Res.SBTVD Joint Documents) Reference for characterizing of the specifications of Brazilian and Japanese digital terrestrial TV standards. 076-2009 These are called: (1) ATSC: Advanced Television System Committee. Summary: ISDB-T has technological advantages in mobile reception because of Frequency and Time Interleaving ISDB-T is moreflexible in broadcasting services through hierarchical transmission HDTV/SDTVand mobile servicecan be transmitted simultaneously without the need for additional infrastructure.ARIB . and now used. Developed in USA. ISDB-T transmission system has a flexibility for the purpose of broadcasting service. and now used. and (3)transmission coding block. see "Structure of Japan's digital broadcasting" Harmonization Documents ISDB-T International Harmonization Documents (ABNT . ISDB-T: Integrated Service Digital Broadcasting – Terrestrial. (2) DVB-T: Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial. Japanese digital terrestrial broadcasting system adopts excellent technologies for transmission system. ARIB Standards and Technical Reports ARIB Standards for Digital Terrestrial TV Broadcasting For the details of structure of technical standard and relationship between each standards. (2)Multiplex block. Structure of Japan's Digital Broadcasting system structure of technical standard for digital broadcasting 1. Generally speaking.
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