Boiler Circulation

Most of water tube Boilers operate by natural circulation while some use force circulation induced by Pumps. . The flow of steam and water within a water tube Boiler is called circulation.  Boiler circulation is due to the difference in density and temperature between steam and water. In tubes generating steam. the mixture of steam and water has a lower density than water in generating tubes.

 A simple Boiler circulation consists of an upper drum (steam drum) and a lower drum (mud drum) connected by tubes. the flow of steam and water is upward in the hotter generating tubes. and downward in the cooler tubes. are called risers.  . Steam –generating tubes located in the hottest area of the Boiler. where the combustion gases first pass. in a Boiler circuit. Thus.

Water then flows from the upper drum through the cooler tubes toward the lower drum. They carry the steam –water mixture upward toward the upper drum where steam is released. These tubes are called down comers. .

Boiler tubes will over heat and eventually fail. . In natural or forced circulation units proper circulation is necessary for optimum operation of a water tube Boiler. If circulation is inadequate. As the steam water mixture flows through Boiler tubes. it cools the tube metal which is receiving heat from combustion gases.

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