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ROLTA INDIA LIMITED
CONTENTS Piping Study
IMPORTANCE AND NECESSITY OF PIPING STUDY ROLE OF PIPING ENGINEER 2.1 Adequacy 2.2 Economy 2.3 Clarity 2.4 Accuracy 3 PROCESS ENGINEERING DATA AND FLOWSHEET ( PFD ) 4 PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM ( P&ID ) 5 MATERIAL TAKE OFF 5.1 First MTO 5.2 Second MTO 5.3 Third MTO ( Final MTO ) 6 PLOT PLAN (PLANT LAYOUT) AND INITIAL DESIGN 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Steps for Development of a PLOT PLAN 6.3 Importance of PLOT PLAN 6.4 Important Units 7 PIPING MATERIALS SPECIFICATION 8 EQUIPMENT LAYOUT DRAWINGS 9 NOZZLE ORIENTATION 10 PIPING LAYOUT 10.1 Main Service Piping 10.2 ‘IN PLANT’ Piping 11 INSULATION & HEAT TRACING 11.1 Insulation 11.1.1 Preparing an Insulation Specification 11.1.2 Data required to prepare Insulation Specification 11.2 Heat Tracing 12 ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 13 PIPE SUPPORTS 1 2
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1 IMPORTANCE AND NECESSITY OF PIPING STUDY
In the Piping Study, the function of the piping design engineer is to apply knowledge of fluid flow, stress analysis, material properties and engineering judgement. Piping Engineer convert the process specifications into drawings and data of the Project or Process Plant. From this drawings and data the required materials can be purchased, fabricated and assembled into piping systems, which perform the process requirements. This function must be fulfilled at the minimum design cost, with close attention to the provision of an economic and satisfactory piping system, which will operate without physical failure or excessive pressure losses for the life of the plant. During the piping design stage, close communication must be maintained with other engineers working on the project. Information on layout, vessels, instrumentation, insulation, purchasing, and erection, must be received, processed, and transmitted by the piping design office. Piping design is the most lengthy and complex part of the entire design procedure and always on the critical path of the project plan. Each pipeline must be treated individually and be put through the universal engineering design assessment to cover: • • • • • • • • • • • Function (flow, temperature and pressure) Material Specification Locations of Equipments Piping Routing Elevations and Dimensions Item numbers Grid numbers Battery Limits Support Standards Pipe Insulations, Tracings etc. Material Requirement (bill of material, purchase requisitions)
The piping engineer has therefore, considerable responsibility for economic and accurate design. Over the years the design methods and the detail engineering activities in consulting organization, large process and contracting companies for piping design and the techniques have converged towards a procedure for producing simple symbolic data conveying maximum information at minimum cost, which is similar through-out the world.
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The basic elements of this procedure are: • • • • • • • Use of 3D Intelligent and Specification driven Software like PDS Interface of Intelligent Software like PDS to other software like CAESAR-II Rapid data retrieval Standardization of engineering design methods for piping layout and pipe stress analysis, fluid flow and material selection Maximum use of National & Standard Codes Symbolic drawing procedures Standardization of document format for issue of piping information to facilitate initial use and later retrieval of data
ROLL OF PIPING ENGINEER Piping Engineer is responsible for a substantial part of the total project cost. Good progress in piping is critical to completion of the project on time. In addition to the function as a specialist design engineer, the piping engineer must provide considerable amount of information transmittal and design continuity inside the project design organization. His particular concerns must be for the following points: 2.1 Adequacy – The piping design must be adequate to meet the process specifications and the physical conditions in which the plant is to operate. Design must be optimised and must be cost effective so as to be within project budget. Maximum use must be made of company and National Standards. Standardized formats for data presentation must be used. Data retrieval of previously proven practices must be effective to eliminate unnecessary design work. Much of the piping data is derived from and used by other engineers and must be clear, consistent, and reliable. Standardized formats are of considerable value in this aspect. Details of pipe work and purchasing data must be complete and accurate. Mistakes do not emerge until erection is under way and rectification work is costly and delays project completion.
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1 The flowsheet is a simple diagrammatic picture of the plant.1. Example of a typical flowsheet formats are shown in the next two pages. in their correct elevations or in their correct relative locations to each other. which shows the equipment items connected by the essential process control circuits or major process requirements. For example number of flowsheets may be produced for following stages: • • • • • • • • Raw Material Storage Reaction Separation Purification By-Product Recovery Effluent Treatment Product Storage Utilities Page 4 of 48 . The aims of the flowsheet are to define exactly the essential requirements of the process design and to present an easily understood picture of the process stages and controls. For the process plants generally the flowsheet is split into number of flowsheets to provide comprehensive data on particular stages of the process. Simple symbols are used to represent different types of equipment items.3 PROCESS ENGINEERING DATA AND FLOWSHEET ( PFD ) FIG. A typical flowsheet is shown in FIG. No attempt is made to show equipment items to scale.
(P&ID)’. materials of construction. the Process flowsheets should be divided by Process Stage as above but it will probably be more convenient to split the Utility flowsheets firstly by Utility and secondly. their style. Care should be taken in numbering and naming equipment items on flowsheets. In these cases. by Plant area.In the Process Plant it is often necessary to produce both Process and Utility flowsheets. Although the flowsheets are produced outside the piping design section. The process and piping engineers must evolve a mutually acceptable form of flowsheet to prevent misunderstandings. control. heat and mass flows. and flow stream composition must all be provided to enable specialist engineers to design the plant equipment. These numbers and names will define equipment items throughout the life of the plant and must be unambiguous. The piping engineer in particular must have specifications of following items to design piping system. brief but descriptive. in the form of ’Piping & Instrumentation Diagram. Details of equipment. • • • • • • • • Schedule of piping & connecting equipment items Flow rates in piping Flow stream compositions in piping Physical properties of process materials Flow temperatures and pressures Instrumentation and control equipment in pipes Permissible pressure drop in pipes Materials of construction for piping components Again it is essential for process and piping engineers to develop acceptable standard presentation of these data. Numbers can be pure number or can be alphanumeric to classify the equipment item. operation. and subdivision all form the basis for important piping design documents. equipment numbering system. Page 5 of 48 . temperatures. Classifying letters commonly used are: • • • • • • • • • P T PV C H S F K KOD Pump Atmospheric Tank Pressure Vessel Column Heat Exchanger Stirrer Furnace or Fired Heater Compressor Knock out drum And these or any other consistent system can be used successfully. The process engineering data are used to supplement the pictorial information of the flowsheet. pressures.
When complete. and operating staff who require a clear.2. The symbols used to represent process equipment items are frequently the same as described for the flowsheet. process and piping engineers. working in close contact with the project.2 Page 6 of 48 . are shown in the FIG. instrument. Some of the standard symbols used in the P&ID.4 PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM ( P&ID ) The P&ID is the most important document produced by the ‘Process Department’. it will be used as a common data source by all the disciplines like piping. FIG. erection. unambiguous statement of the piping design and connections.
strainers. a control valve must have block valves upstream and downstream. Piping fittings such as elbows. The pipe work representation is non-scalar and entirely symbolic at this stage. But with the final layout available and all pipes shown diagrammatically in the P&ID. everything needed on plant must be shown in the P&ID and accounted for purchasing and erection stages.g. All the nozzles must be given the tag numbers. together with its installed ‘functional ‘ fittings and valve. operation and emergency and must ensure that the pipe sizes selected cover all these condition adequately. The process designer should remember that the P&ID covers all stages of plant start-up. ancillary equipment for every ‘in pipe’ instrument Every pipeline on the plant is shown. In short. when a pair of pumps feed one vessel Branch pipes are often connected to other pipes. drains.The more pictorial style will promote greater familiarity with the equipment and the designer’s objective of providing maximum information at minimum cost will be achieved. In the very simplest case a ‘pipe’ runs from one equipment item to another.g. At this stage. The location of. It is no use showing both block valves on one side and hoping that the detail piping designer will realize what is needed. or spares. with two terminal points. but in the majority of cases found in practice. All nozzles on equipment items must be shown in a roughly accurate location whether for piping connections. For example. any item not shown in the P&ID will not be installed on the plant. Parallel to the initial P&ID work.g. are not shown but reducer should always be shown. instruments. All the valves and functional fittings required in each pipe to meet all the above foreseeable condition must be shown and identified in their correct functional location. strainers. steam traps etc. without a branch connection. The process engineer for the main process lines will normally prepare a very rough ‘size’ estimate. flanges. so that each individual pipe can be given a unique identity known as line number. etc. vents. the pipe sizes should be calculated. This simple case presents no difficulties. utility sub-headers feeding several items or a process pipe with a branch to another process pipe to meet a start-up condition Page 7 of 48 . P&ID should show the following details: • • • • • • • • Which equipment items are connected together or to their pipes or service mains Which piping specification to be used for each pipe and the junction points where two specifications join The pipe size of every pipe The unique identity for every pipe Where valves are required Which valve specification is to be used All ‘in line’ fittings such as sight glasses. e. e. orifices. common problems arise in case of following cases: • • • Pipes change specification between equipment items Pipes branch to feed more than one item. Conversely. etc. the Process Engineer must consider the terminal point for all the pipes shown in the P&ID. the process designer can assign pipe sizes regarded as finalized except for the final check at final detail stage. e.
(6. to give each pipe in the function groups a number. The functional split should separate process pipes from utilities generally and should divide utility fluids. On larger equipment items where the bypass line may be 20 ft. firstly to split the pipes by function and secondly. each pipe has been assigned terminal points. The combination of `Function/Number’ is unique and identified any pipe from all others. a specification. the outlet pipe starts with two terminals at the outlet and at the block valve. Hence. which connect to two items such as a pair of pumps or heat exchangers. can properly be regarded as one pipe. one terminal connecting to the equipment item and the other connecting to the block valve. In establishing how many pipes exist. Low pressure steam and condensate Cooling water Towns water Compressed air Town or natural gas Page 8 of 48 General process pipes. Process vents if to flare stack Jacketed pipes Traced pipes Function .1m) long or more. some general principles can be stated to distinguish between `pipes’ with more than two terminal points and cases where lines must be split into two or more pipes. the inlet pipe can be treated as a pipe with two terminals at the equipment location. and a size. Each group is given an identifying letter as indicated below: Letters Process pipes: P F PJ PT Utilities: HS LS CW TW CA G High pressure steam and condensate. but a branch run to a separate vessel remote from the main run of the pipe should be treated as a separate pipe and identified as such When a small piece of equipment is bypassed. Those. Similarly. but should run from on plant location to one other location. if the specification changes. • • A pipe must have only one specification to ensure that only one type of material is used for fabrication. a new pipe must be created at the specification change point Pipes can have more than two terminals. It is vital that every pipe can be identified by is on unique reference and this is most easily done by an alphanumeric system designed. it is better to treat the bypass as a separate pipe Bypass loops around control valves or similar equipment in a pipe should be treated as part of the pipe • • So far.• • Equipment items are bypassed Control valves in pipes have a bypass loop fitted. but no identity.
hydrotest conditions etc. With the P&ID. This index is provided by a line schedule or line list. The line schedule lists all pipes in group order and numerical order and shows against each pipe its start and finish terminal points (in the direction of process flow). Strict control of modification procedure is essential to maintain control of all piping work. design. The importance of the P&ID as a project liaison and record document requires formal approval by the project manager. The P&ID now completed and can be released for piping layout. design. operating. A section of a completed P&ID is shown in FIG.The four features assigned to each pipe. Virtually all the process `knowhow’ and much engineering technique are recorded on the P&ID and its security controlled to prevent information leakage to unauthorized persons. which is drawn up in the final stages of P& ID draughting. namely: • • • • Size Functional letter Sequence number Pipe specification If require other parameters like Insulation etc. will be added in the Line Number. line schedule. layout and detailing of pipe work can be preceded methodically. guide and construction checklist.3 to illustrate the use of the symbols and conventions described and to show the amount of detailed information recorded. detailing and material take of work. and piping specifications. hydro test conditions etc. and piping engineer. operating. In its final form the P&ID contains such a mass of detailed information that an index of some form is required for easy and reliable reference by project staff. At this stage Piping Designers using these source documents need have very little knowledge of the process or the project as a whole since a complete basis for their design has been provided. The line schedule lists all pipes in group order and numerical order and shows against each pipe its start and finish terminal points (in the direction of process flow). process engineer. It will be used also by the instrument engineer as a guide to instrument location. by the site engineer as a record of all piping. Page 9 of 48 .
Inquiries are floated immediately after the first MTO and technical bid analysis is carried out to select the suitable vendors. flowsheets & P&IDs are available.FIG. therefore. construction work volume and material requisition. Each of these type and size combinations represents an individual component. pose difficult problems for the purchase department. at the budgeted price and within the project Programme time scales. the sheer variety of types and sizes of materials required. Each MTO include preparation of BOQ. and above all. pipes and other piping elements required for the plant. flanges. The high cost of the material. the lengthy delivery times often needed. which must be obtained by the purchase department in the right quantity. Failure to obtain any component will almost certainly result in costly fabrication and erection holdups and may well delay project completion. The purchase department. the late project stage at which final requisition totals become available. by Page 10 of 48 . A very rough estimate can be made when the preliminary layouts. The fact that a final statement of piping materials requirements is not available until all the pipes have been detailed does not prevent reasonable estimates of major material requirements being made at early project stages. Obtaining the raw material required for pipe work forms a major part of the purchasing effort on the project.3 5 MATERIAL TAKE OFF MTO is a list of total number of valves. needs early and reliable instructions from the design office.
1 First MTO • • • Gives approximate information for the number of piping elements needed based on preliminary inputs This is developed immediately after the plot plan and first issue of PFDs and P&IDs are ready Information is approximate. As later design work expands the basic data so the initial estimate is replaced by an actual bill of material. process data sheets. is extracted from the Intelligent 2D PDS-PID or from SPPID and MTO Reports are prepared. 6 PLOT PLAN (PLANT LAYOUT) AND INITIAL DESIGN 6. The most important task is to establish a rough layout for the plant and for this purpose the basic proportions of the equipment items are estimated from the flowsheets and P&IDs and integrated with the preliminary civil design to produce a number of possible alternative layouts. quantities etc.2 Second MTO • • The data for second MTO is obtained from the 3-D model when the modelling is in progress Gives almost accurate information on the number of piping elements 5. All the basic information like lengths. 5. This is the final MTO and must contain accurate information on the number of piping elements. AABBCC Code. Selection of the optimum layout is made to Page 11 of 48 .1 Introduction A plot plan is a master plan locating each unit/facility within the plot boundary. A variety of additional outputs can be produced from the basic data to: • • • • Show variations from earlier estimates Print requisitions or orders Warn the expediting section of overdue material Prepare cost summaries 5. engineering design can be started on preparation of plot plan activities. it is time-consuming and repetitive yet requires a high degree of concentration and responsibility if mistakes in addition are to be avoided.combining data from these drawings with company or personal experience.3 Third MTO ( Final MTO ) • • This is issued after the 3-D plant model is ready and finalized. Most major companies now operate computer programs for the Material Take Off work. When the process flowsheets. basic P&IDs. Usually these programs assign a coded term to each type of component/material/size combination e. Contour Plans and other required data are released. Although the work of material takeoff is simple.g.
and heat exchanges. All relevant requirements of civil. In the preliminary stage. and adjacent pipes Valves and fittings around close coupled items such as pumps. stairs. ladders. which are all practicable and reasonably economic so that a final layout can be selected. the final layout should not be altered.suit the plant design and physical constraints of the site and the finally agreed rough layout is converted to a finished. Basic drawings can be used for layout trails and recording the final layout. When completed and agreed. instrument. The piping engineer is one of the leading members of the project team producing layouts and layout is a responsibility of the piping section. Attempts to modify the layout after this stage (unless these modifications are very minor) can be disastrous in terms of cost. mechanical. Whichever method is chosen should be governed by considering which provides the best method of communication between all designers and non engineering staff concerned with producing the final layout or using this final layout as the basis for further work. Page 12 of 48 . and in loss of momentum and morale within the project design team. more detailed attention must be paid to good piping practice and provision made for: • • • • • • • • • • Headroom under pipes and pipe racks Space for control valve loops Straight lengths of pipe for flow measurement Access to main operating valves and controllers Support for large pipes in plant Anchor points for hot pipes Routing of buried pipes clear of pile caps or other obstructions Main electrical and instrument trunking in plant Clearance between gangways. and electrical engineers are embodied in this final layout. completion time. some of the main factors to be considered are: • • • • • • • • • Avoidance of excessively lengthy or complex pipe work Balancing cost of placing equipment in structures for gravity low against the cost of pumped flow Relative cost of pumped reflux or pumped cooling water to condensers on tall distillation columns Adequate room for pipe tracks between plants Space for pipe wells in multifloor plants Pressure drop on vacuum or high pressures processes Heat losses on high temperature processes Allowance for weight of piping in structural design Operating elevation requirements for pump suction or thermo siphon reboilers The intention should be to produce layouts for study. firm design. When one rough layout has been chosen for working up to the final plant layout.
as per the norms The process blocks shall be located in the sequential order of the process flow so that material handling (solid/liquid) is minimized The blocks shall also be arranged considering prevailing wind directions so that flammable gases do not get carried to sources of ignition Storage tank shall be grouped according to process classification Centralized control room shall be located based on annual shutdown philosophy so that hot work shall not affect the operation Two adjacent process units shall be located based on annual shutdown philosophy so that hot work shall no affect the operation Process unit shall be located at a higher ground away from unwanted traffic Process units shall be serviced by peripheral roads for easy approach Utility block shall be kept at a safe area close to the process plants Electrical sub-stations shall be placed at the load centre to minimize cabling Receiving station shall be placed near the supply point Warehouses shall be located close to the material gate to avoid traffic within the process area Flares. shall be placed depending on the wind direction Battery limits must be properly defined and provision for further expansion shall be provided Raw water storage shall be placed closer to other water source.3 Importance of PLOT PLAN • • • • • • • • Serves as a guideline for layout drawings Gives the directional location of the plant Gives the co-ordinates and layout of Main Pipe Rack Gives the Mean Sea Level Elevation and Elevations of all the units Gives the exact location of any complex/utility and process unit Gives the locations of all the equipments Battery limits clearly defined Relative position of all the complexes in the plant can be had from the plot plan Page 13 of 48 . cooling towers etc. furnaces/heaters.2 Steps for Development of a PLOT PLAN • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Study the contour map and establish the grid points The N-S and E-W or X/Y grids. Fire stations shall be away from the hazardous area and nearer to main gate Effluent treatment plant shall be located away from the process and utility areas on the downwind direction. vehicle-parking etc. the plant north in relation to geographical north should be established The free area along the plot boundaries as per the statutory norms should be established Work out the area requirements for the green belt.6. Consider recommendations from the statutory authorities for inter unit distances Residential colony shall be located away from the plant and closer to the city limits 6. This could be the lower grade level or higher-grade level depending upon the philosophy. Fire and raw water tanks shall be located together and also the water treatment if required.
instrument air and plant air compression. located down wind but not uphill from any sources of ignition or concentrations of people. • Electrical Substations and Control Rooms Electrical substations are located upwind of sources of flammable materials. Another important factor to be considered when locating the boiler plant is the height of the boiler exhaust stack and its location relative to the prevailing wind. and arranged in a manner such that streamlined flow through the process units is maintained. Utility plants comprise facilities such as utility water treatment. which they supply. • Boiler and Utility Plants Boiler and Utility Plants are located. upwind of any equipment processing flammable or hazardous products. When locating the main electrical sub station where the plant is importing. Since it is not processing hazardous materials. which is free from contamination of flammable toxic or hazardous material. care must be taken to Page 14 of 48 .6. Substations may be located nearer to equipment containing flammable materials provided that one of the options below is selected: • • Switch gear suitable for the environment. centrally to the main users. This has the effect of reducing the installed cost of any interconnecting system. for the same reasons as for the boiler plant. storage and distribution and storage. The main objective of centralizing the boiler and utility plants is to minimize the interconnecting facilities between the boiler and utility plants and their main users. For the air compression plant it is important that intake air is taken from a safe area where the air is clean and uncontaminated by hazardous. toxic or flammable materials. which is likely to be more expensive Pressurize the switchgear room thus eliminate the ingress of flammable materials It should be noted that any air intake associated with the pressurizing system must be taken from a safe location. as it is most important that the products of combustion are dispersed without polluting the local community of any of the on site facilities or buildings. from tank farms and the overall site boundaries.4 Important Units • Process Units Process Units are separated from each other. and in some cases exporting power to the national grid. should be grouped together in a single area central to the main users. and separated from any hazardous area.
toxic or hazardous material discharges. equipment and property from effects of heat radiation and convection. In the case of the ground flare the sterile area of 150 meters radius is not so readily altered as the sterile area is dictated by the method of construction of the flare itself and if the sterile area requirement is severely compromised then the use of an elevated flare must be considered. and centres of population. with its doors facing away from. Advice on the extent of this sterile area must be sought from the project lead electrical engineer. administration buildings etc. When locating ground flares care must be taken to insure that the discharge plume does no overheat area or create “no go areas” within the plant with respect to operating personnel. Cooling towers are therefore being located down wind of processing facilities. and as a result will require large sterile areas around them to isolate them from personnel. Control rooms are typically located upwind of any equipment handling toxic or flammable materials and on the periphery of the process unit. The location of the main electrical substation should be as close to the site boundary and the maximum distance possible from the main processing plant this has the effect of reducing high voltage cabling costs. especially during an emergency shutdown. The size of the sterile area is governed. It can be seen therefore that the flare of either type must be located in a remote location within the overall site facilities upwind and to the side of the process facilities and far enough away from the boundary fence so as not to effect the adjacent community. Page 15 of 48 . • Flare Flare systems are required to dispose of large quantities of flammable gases.define the sterile area created by the incoming power cable into the sub station switchyard. as well as towards. the operating unit. The extent of the sterile area created can be increased or decreased by altering the flare tip elevation. which it serves. • Cooling Towers Water cooling towers are located downwind from all the facilities any sources of ignition. and at such a distance not to be effected by flammable. The location of the cooling towers must be such that their plumes do not pollute or create hazards for either the operating company personnel or any adjacent communities. utility plant. in the case of the elevated flare by the height of the flare tip above grade. Flares are principally of the multi jet ground or elevated type.
The location of the tank farm must also be optimised relative to process units and the loading/unloading facilities. • Administration Area including Workshops & Warehouses The location of the administrating area. Also the considerations for locating other tanks must not be ignored. • Effluent Treatment Plant Effluent treatment plants are located peripherally and downwind from concentrations of people and any sources of ignition and the selected location must also be remote from any site developable boundary. Liquid gas storage tanks must be located in a remote area of the site. without being close to the site boundaries. canteen. So this requires that the administration be kept separate from such operating areas. do not have to pass through the process operating area as part of their normal day-to-day activities. when locating liquid gas storage tanks. first aid facilities. • Other Site Layout Considerations Any allowance for future expansion should only be incorporated when instructed to by the operating company. and down wind of any sources of ignition or centres of people within the facilities. The administration area is likely to include some of or all of the following facilities: • Laboratory.• Tank Farms Tank farms are located peripherally. The effluent plan location is also dependent upon the location of the final treated effluent discharge. and the converse is true for process operating areas. offices and car parking for the total facility It is most important that non-operating personnel within the administration area etc. and at the same time isolated from hazardous areas. gate house. ambulance house. fire station. workshops and warehousing is peripheral separated from hazardous areas and upwind of any toxic or flammable products or feedstocks. but near to or adjacent to the main entrance for the overall facilities. to minimise the risk of ignition of undetected leakages by uncontrolled ignition sources. Page 16 of 48 . and the effluent discharge must not contaminate any water intake to the facilities by recirculating the discharged effluent. such as motor vehicles on the public highways.
but will all be fabricated from the same material and components.7 PIPING MATERIALS SPECIFICATION A piping specification is a document. Pipes designed to a particular specification will follow different routes.1 – Code for Power Piping. Some care and good judgments is needed when defining the conditions of pressure and temperature to avoid uneconomic design. butt welded or screwed. Piping specifications are a most important feature of pipe work design. ANSI B 31. A group constructed from carbon steel. The piping designer analyses the flow conditions and fluids specified in this process data and separates all the individual pipes into groups. the fluid handled is unimportant. and work to assemble the specifications should start in the piping section as soon as the flowsheet and process engineering data are available. Maximum and minimum sizes of pipe By this analysis. and pipe work installation practices to be followed.3 – Code for Petrochemical Piping etc. provided that above are satisfied. The piping designer now produces the material. The above mentioned six conditions established for each group constitute a definition of piping design requirements for that group. Use of these codes provides a formalized design procedure. Piping material Maximum pressure Maximum temperature Piping fabrication procedure whether socket welded. component standards. steam or water. Use of these codes as Piping Design Basis got following advantages: • It is proved by many years of background experience to be adequate and economic and which is accepted by operating. jointing methods. contracting. and insurance companies Page 17 of 48 . flanged. The grouping operations take no account of the diversity of process fluids handled within a group. Gasket materials 6.g. for example could handle process fluids such as caustic soda or solvents and utilities such as air. component. and will all have common design features such as fabrication procedures. The first requirement is to establish the Piping Design Code for the plant: this may be a national standard such as those in common use e. which contains information on material standards. 4. and test pressures. drain points. 2. and procedural information forming the piping specifications for the groups. 3. ANSI B 31. the large number of pipes on the plant will be condensed into a small number of groups on typical project with 250 pipes. probably five or six groups would be found adequate and economic. 5. etc. which have common conditions of: 1.
g. So far. throttle. and reliably.• • • It is easily understood by any engineer at any time in the plant design or operation. company or makers standard items are also selected if required and combined with the National standards to complete the list of permissible materials and components forming the first part of the piping specification. flange ratings. The standard form has the further advantage that omissions can be seen and queried with the piping designer. sufficient information has been generated to enable bulk piping material take offs to be produced. for example. Details related to the particular service covered by the specification. avoiding trapping liquid gases between valves. many useful materials (e. non-return etc. Unauthorized creation of new specifications or unauthorized changes to existing specifications must be avoided at all costs. From the range of components and materials available within the provisions of the Piping Design Code. The Basic design assumptions and procedures are set out and ambiguities in design methods eliminated It Provides piping components that are compatible for strength. the designer now selects the appropriate items. and assembly in ranges of materials suitable for fabrication by welding Specified materials and components by these codes are readily available as stock or standard items from suppliers Similarly. The piping groups already analysed for preparation of piping specifications are used as basic design data. A duty specification is now available for every valve and the piping designer can decide from personal of plant Page 18 of 48 . so that all staff using them can find information easily. the pressure/temperature rating and general valve materials can be defined. Each group is broken down into the sub-groups having common fluids in addition to other common conditions. dimensions. Piping specifications must be identified and indexed so that duplication is prevented and retrievals of past data is made easier. In these cases design procedures are usually established by manufacturers to assist the piping designer. One useful method of indexing is to assign a three-figure number to each specification and to use this number to convey some information on the general class of piping material used. and wall thickness to the National standards laid down in the Code. Any non-Code. but each individual pipe must be examined to decide on the valve function – whether this is simple shut-off. controlled flow. The practices specified can be divided logically into: • • Generalized good practice details or company practice to provide one standard detail where several alternatives exist. Typically. Piping specifications should be presented on standard forms suitable for copying and filing. At this stage. The piping engineer can now complete the second part of the piping specifications dealing with pipework practice while other engineers are working on the layout and P&ID activities. this section would cover items such as provision of vent and drain points steam trap assemblies etc. quickly. glass and plastics) are commonly available for corrosive or hygienic duties but are not covered by codes.
• • • • • Flange rating.g. Where gangways. the plant north in relation to geographical north are marked Number of Equipment Layouts will be prepared depending upon the complete plant is having number of Process units. access or maintenance space is required. 8 EQUIPMENT LAYOUT DRAWINGS The first operation is to prepare an accurate. The data so far assembled. For details design and purchasing. amendment. which should be indicated in this basic drawing. and indexing made against piping specifications apply to valve specifications also. consultation with valve manufacturers. Tank farm area etc. then number of layouts are prepared according to the battery limits decided in the Plot Plan Page 19 of 48 . however. flours. Within this space. etc. flour or area If the Process unit is so big. Etc. and pipes to plant are shown. showing all equipment and major steelwork. Plot Plan and Mechanical Data Sheets The N-S and E-W or X/Y grids. Process Data Sheets. type and thickness Height from valve centre to hand wheel Hand wheel diameter Trim details Packing type All the notes on standardization format and responsibility for issue. and price lists as to which valves are to be used. should not appear at all.experience. Utility units. some final details are needed which must be collected and shown on the valve specification e. control. The piping designer must evolve a style of specification suitable for the needs of his own organization. which does not contribute positively to this function. the relationship of pipe to pipe. Equipment Layout is generally prepared to the scale of 1:50 Generally one layout will be prepared for one unit. enable the piping designer to specify accurately and simply that valves required for any project duty and to call up valves from past projects. each successive group of pipes being considered in turn and draughted until all are accounted for and the layout is complete. Any information. platforms.4. The design element in valve selection is now complete and it remains only to identify each type of valve and present relevant data to other members of the project team. PFDs. The object of this basic drawing is to show the exact location of the Equipment. Piping Study Layouts (described in the next section). building lines. functional drawing of the plant equipment and structures as shown in FIG. and thus define by difference the space left for the piping. access. P&IDs. • Important points in the development of an Equipment Layout: • • • • • • Study the basic documents like Process Description.
other relevant rules like IBR. the design basis. ladders. the pipe rack. Equipment Layout is the drawing. North direction (True North & Plant North) It gives all the required dimensions. pipe rack layout. type of support & support locations Also this drawing shows the large diameter pipelines connecting from equipment to equipment. large diameter nozzles. whose routing is frozen This drawing will never show the nozzle orientation of the equipments Layouts are designed to meet the process requirements While designing the layout. equipment platforms. staircases etc. battery limits. Page 20 of 48 . CCE and SMPV Battery limits must be properly defined and provision for further expansion shall be provided Layout includes structural & civil layouts.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • The layout is the plan view. local authorities. which is prepared after preparation of plot plan. road locations. package units. in which the locations of all the equipments are fixed Final piping layout can only be possible after completion of this drawing These drawings give the directional guidance for the proper and correct piping routing This drawing shows the location of all the equipments with the tag numbers. equipment maintenance space. ducts etc. road layout. angles etc.g. some Standard rules & regulations are considered according e. relevant codes & standards. which shows the location of all the equipment coming in that area All the equipment plan view will be drawn to the scale Layout must show clearly the support details of the equipments like number of supports. statutory rules.
tank or any static or rotary equipment consisting of a pipe flange.FIG. a short neck and welded attachment to the equipment. one end of which is welded to the equipment with the other end chamfered for butt-welding is referred as welding nozzle. supports. shouldn’t occur Elevation and orientation should be proper such that nozzles can be operated and maintenance can be done easily Nozzle Orientation Drawing is the plan view of the equipment. Following points are important while preparing Nozzle Orientation Drawings • • • • Generally Drawings are prepared in A4 size There should not be any obstruction in pipe routing. lugs etc. shows the following information: • • • North Direction as per the Plot Plan Elevation of all the Nozzles Foundation Elevation and Elevations of other important levels will be shown Page 21 of 48 .4 9 NOZZLE ORIENTATION Nozzle is usually referred to a flanged connection on a boiler. A short length of pipe. Fouling of nozzles. Nozzle orientation is usually done according to pipe routing.
The piping designer must work within these constraints and fulfil the specified conditions for each pipe by applying experience. condensate. P&IDs are completed. The pipe specifications and process and utility P&IDs provide the designer with information on: • • • • • • • Terminal points Identity Pipe size Functional fittings required Permissible pressure drop Materials Component standards Any special procedures The site and plant layout give a picture of the area in which the pipes may run and general good practice imposes further limits on the location and routing of piping. compressed air. PFDs. fuel oil. The final pipe layout is the last stage of true design in the piping activity. handrail orientation must be shown 10 PIPING LAYOUT When the plant layout. The pipe layout may cover both: • • Main service piping carrying utilities and process materials to various plants on a large works In plant piping which interconnects plant items within buildings structures or individual process areas 9. Equipment Layouts. are typical main service pipes. towns water. and effluent. and on some works central distribution of inert gases or some process materials is accomplished by running special service pipes with main service.• • • • • • • Exact locations of all Nozzles Angle. economic pipe layout. followed by consideration of the particular qualities of the given piping systems contained in the layout. In laying out any pipe installation the first considerations are the general aspects applying to all piping. Such pipes run from central distribution points to all areas of the site. lifting lugs. and engineering science to produce an effective. piping layout work can commence.1 Main service piping Pipes carrying HP and LP steam. staircase. serving existing plant and providing facilities from which new plants can be fed by tapping off or small Page 22 of 48 . radius and offset of the Nozzle Length of the nozzles Tag numbers and Sizes All the supports. towns gas. judgment. pipe specifications. cooling water. name plate also must be shown All the welding seams must be shown Ladders. all further work consists only of interpreting the designer’s intention and adding detailed information for the use of craftsmen.
which required continuous or frequent support If two tiers of pipes are used to reduce width. Pipes should never run above cables in case of spillage and cables should not be near hot pipes Branch off takes are usually normal to the flow but may be rolled in the vertical plane Where the track changes direction. Care is needed in positioning valves to ensure that they and flanged joints. about 30 per cent extra flow should be allowed for. This will probably mean adding steel work to carry the cable. which if standardized and tabulated. Since the pipes form part of the site materials distribution system. pipes with the most frequent off takes to one side of the rack should run at that side of the rack Steam and other hot pipes should be kept to one side of the rack to allow maximum room for expansion bends over the other pipes.extensions. some general principles must be followed whether the pipes run at ground or elevated level: • Pipe sizes should allow for increased flow rates required as plans are added to enlarged and space left for the addition of extra pipes. the pipes should change elevation. The piping layout is thus largely settled by general site considerations and considerations of piping practice. it should be run at one side of the track on separate brackets to give the required slope Provision must be made for anchor points to take up expansion forces from hot pipes or reactions at bends in large water pipes Pipe gantries or sleepers should be designed to carry the weight of the insulated pipes full of water. Main electrical cables are frequently run with the service pipes to take advantage of pipe support structures or pipe trenches and provision should be made for these cables at design and construction stages. Individual pipes may be buried for protection against frost or for safety. If a particular pipes requires a fall. at some time hydraulic testing in situ will be carried out and the pipe supports and steelwork must take the weight at test conditions Page 23 of 48 • • • • • • • • • • • . even though some of the large pipes may be carrying gases. do not foul. Main services may be run on elevated steel pipe bridges or at ground level and it is usual to run the pipes in groups to save space. all site services. If forward plans for the site are not available. This gives an opportunity to change the arrangement of pipes if required Flanged or screwed joints should never be located over roads or walkways or buried under roads. Welded joints are free from this restriction Pipes are normally laid without fall. it is logical and usual for them to follow the road network and bring to installed or planned plants. always run utilities above process lines so that any spillage from the higher pipes to the lower pipes is harmless As far as practical. will save considerable time at the layout stage Space should be allocated for electrical cables. In designing main service pipe racks. This is the type of matter. Pipes should run with flanges staggered to minimize centre distance spacing. and about 25 per cent extra width left in the pipe rack Standard pipe spacing is maintained to avoid fouling of pipes.
Whilst there are. construction.• • Clearance should be left around pipes for painting. or accidental damage and these are valid reasons for burying fire mains or in exceptional cases. maintenance. The relative importance attached to each of these factors constitutes the general plant design philosophy. terminals and fittings. defined by the P&IDs / specification data with the optimum route possible within the plant layout. Page 24 of 48 . When pipes are buried. it is ticked off on the line schedule so that a check can be made of any pipes not shown on the piping layout. The main advantages of buried pipes are protection from freezing. some general precautions should be taken Pipes should be below frost line or be buried to a minimum depth of 2 ft 6 in (0. they must always be below cable level Gas pipes should not be laid within 1 ft (0-3m) of plastic or asbestos potable water pipes Provision must be made for valve chambers constructed in brick or concrete Trench routes must be defined at an early stage in the job so that pipes clear foundations and the trenches can be dug during the main site civil works activity Trench routes should not interfere with construction access Full and accurate record drawings should be made of buried pipes for future use by the works 9. Ground level pipes should be about 12” above ground Pipes should not be buried unless a clear-cut advantage can be gained. and aesthetics. representing the best balance the designer can achieve within constraints set by six factors – cost. the need to leave room for other pipes and the space occupied by the components limits the designer’s choice to a few alternatives. About 2 in should be left between pipes and support members on pipe bridges. cooling water supplies if guaranteed flow under emergency conditions is essential. Better pipe layouts are obviously achieved if proper account has been taken of piping factors in the plant layout as described earlier. If pipes are laid in a shallow trench about 4 in each side will be needed. Which alternative the designer selects depends on the relative importance of the six constraints identified above and whether the particular pipe being examined can follow the general design philosophy. an infinite number of routes in space between the pipe terminals.75) Pipes passing under roads or access ways should be cased in concrete If pipes run near roads or across cables. As each pipe on the P&ID added to the layout. safety. fire. operation. etc. the general design philosophy. in theory. The layout of `in plant’ piping is always a compromise.2 `IN PLANT’ Piping • General The piping layout proper consists of combining the information on size.
is simple for one pipe only. Page 25 of 48 . The operation as described. The decision to use this system must be made at the plant layout stage when in some cases the yard piping approach results in simple and economic layout of plant and piping. On many plants. most expensive. A typical Piping Layout Drawing is shown in the next page. distillation column vapour line. A suitable checklist is given below for guidance and will be useful in most circumstances even though every designer could probably add extra points from his own experience or to cover his own company’s requirements.g. With a freestanding plant having equipment at or near ground level. and the preferred solution is to provide an elevated structure. and less important pipes are drawn around the main pipes until all pipes have been laid out. running down one side or through the middle of the plant. FIG. or `yard’. the largest. At later stages. or most important pipes. or main service headers are drawn first so that they can follow the most direct routes and have prior claim on the space available. furnace piping. less expensive. but a skilled layout designer is needed on complex plants with many pipes to ensure that a satisfactory. the designer must keep in mind many points arising from the various constraints and it is useful to establish a checklist of such points as an aide-memoire for guidance of all design staff.Usually. the smaller. there is no steelwork. All the plant utility and interconnecting piping except short nozzle-to-nozzle pipes between adjacent items. the pipes run inside and are supported from the plant structure. economic pipe arrangement is produced. runs along the `yard’. This is more elegant and economic and safer than allowing individual pipes and supports to straggle around the plant items. particularly the multi-floor type common in process industries. Provision of a pipe yard is common practice in oil and petrochemical plants.5. which can be utilized for pipe supports. During the development of the piping layout. e.
Pipes will also run along access walkways and make operation of valves more convenient o When a pipe changes direction. This is important on large nozzles or where proprietary equipment has alternative nozzle positions and where nozzles required to be specified at the time of purchase o Run Pipes in North-South.FIG. This will line up pipes with building or structural steel lines and make support easier. change the elevation of the pipe to avoid fouling of pipes with each other o Run pipes in groups wherever practicable. Pipes will also run along access walkways and make operation of valves more convenient o Assign in advance. This will line up pipes with building or structural steel lines and make support easier. so that larger and simpler supports can be provided and many individual hangers avoided Page 26 of 48 .5 • Checklist • General o Collaborate with equipment designers to ensure that nozzle positions and orientations are convenient for pipe layout. East-West and Up-Down directions wherever possible. separate elevations for North-South and East-West and Up-Directions whoever possible.
entailing unnecessary extra construction cost o Make provision for flexibility in hot or cold piping by use of loops. disconnecting. fans. and similar equipment comes into this category. Flexibility is needed. bellows. Flanged joints are more expensive in cost and space usage than welded joints Page 27 of 48 . ball mills. Do not forget to advise the structural designer of this before imposing large pipe loads back on main members o Spacing of pipes within groups should be practical minima as noted for main service piping unless certain lines need frequent access o On multi-floor plants. cannot be easily cut and joined if they foul pipes on site-this means pipes would have to be modified. etc. stiff jacketed line or steam header can be just as much of a problem as a high temperature alloy pipe if flexibility is neglected o Allow extra space for larger size and more complex construction work needed on anchors or variable supports for hot pipes o Allow for thickness of insulation (especially on high temperature pipes) in spacing pipes in relation to plant features o Run and support pipes which are subject to plant-induced vibration separately-piping from compressors. consistent with flexibility and clearance requirements. and fittings unless maintenance requirements for cleaning. centrifuges. Also ensure rotameters are drawn with vertically upward flow. and dismantling override cost. use only at terminals.o Route pipe groups-particularly containing large pipes-along lines of main steel work so that supports can be taken from main members. or expansion joints. run each system at a different distance from the wall so that crossovers can be made without insertion of extra fittings o Collaborate with electrical and instrument engineers to ensure that main cables and trunking are shown and cleared by pipes at earliest stages of pipe layout. Extra pipe and fittings increases capital cost and creates extra pressure drop o Minimize use of flanges. not only for high temperature or cryogenic systems –short. Cables. valves. Special damping supports or mass added to pipes may be needed and space must be allowed for remedial action on site since it is difficult to forecast extent of vibration and remedial work at he design stage o The possibility of plant expansion must be borne in mind-leave valvedoff connections on main service headers to allow for future needs o Allow for runs of straight pipe needed for some flow measuring devices. pipe wells should be established so that main service headers and inter-floor piping can pass through floors simply without the need for many small pipe holes. Make provision for supports spaced on centres • Cost o Pipe routes should be the shortest and simplest possible. Wells should be near main column and beams to avoid weakening flooring o Pipes in plant should be dimensioned to centrelines to make detail checking easier o If horizontal and vertical pipes run alongside a building wall.
5m. cocks or high pressure valves o Test points for pressure and temperature should be left on important pipes for use in commissioning. should have chain wheel or extension spindle operators provided. Long term hidden corrosion or blockages can be established in such pipes. For lagged pipes a bull plug.o Use pulled bends where possible rather than weld elbows bends are cheaper to fabricate in many cases and have lower pressure drop • Operation o Establish minimum dimensions of gangways and working areas.) above the floor.) is needed all round any valve handle or hand wheel to clear the operator’s hands o Valves should not be installed ‘ spindle down ‘. e. Small horizontal spindle valve hand wheel will be up to 7ft.) of a platform and be located at one side of any gangway o At least 6 in. Extra width should be allowed for gangways to be used by vehicles.1m. long enough to project through the insulation. 6 in. These points should be ½ in nominal bore minimum size and arranged so that they can be rodded to ensure free venting or drainage o Sample points. (1.g. the chain should hang to within 3 ft. which are not apparent until the pipe is used Page 28 of 48 . (2. should be about 3 ft (approximately 1 m. If chain wheels are used.) above the floor. If unavoidable. Chain wheel operation can be difficult for large valves and. (1. Usually a ½ in union + plug is adequate. otherwise deposits may accumulate in glands o Valves should not be installed in vertical runs if this can be avoided. Such installation allows a pocket of liquid or condensate to collect and stagnate above the valve. Check with operating staff the space needed for insertion and removal of sampling vessel o Dead legs of infrequently used pipe where stagnant fluid can accumulate must be avoided.) above the floor. etc. may be operated infrequently from portable ladders o Valves requiring regular operation. o Valves regularly operated should be reached from working platforms or special local platforms reached from permanent ladders. Horizontal spindle valve hand wheel may be 5ft. should be used o Vent and drain points should be fitted on pipes frequently tested or dismantled.07m. Vertical spindle valve hand wheel may be 3 ft. when needed. operable by one hand. 0 in. 0 in. (0. (1 m. on outside plants. valves less than 3 in (75mm) bore.15 m.) above the floor level and must never be above eye level. which cannot be reached from platforms. Working area sizes should be agreed with operating staff before pipe layout starts o Valves in regular or emergency use should be conveniently located. which cannot easily be drained o Consider need for gear or motorized operation of large valves.
so that operational checks and maintenance can be carried out safely and the plant can run whilst a defective trap is being repaired o Instruments in piping to be read by operators should be about 5 ft. particularly if the pump suction has to lift fluid from below the pump or if volatile fluids are being handled Excessive pressure loss in these cases can cause pumping failure through loss of prime or vapour locking o If reducers are needed in pump suction lines. o If flexible hoses are used to wash down or temporary steam. perhaps. (1. Where freezing or operational difficulties are likely. difficult-to-reach placed. These systems usually entail many small bore pipes and valves and it is essential to have clear identification at the operation point of which parts of the system are controlled by each valve so that logical operation and fault finding procedures can be established. The temptation to fit reducers before the pump isolating valve. It is poor economy to risk a winter shutdown for the sake of saving some small bore steam and condensate pipe and fittings o Steam feeds to plant heating systems should be grouped in operating sets at convenient locations so that the system can be controlled from central points and the operators are not expected to find and operate many small valves in. steam or electric heating should be used to ensure proper operation in all foreseeable winter conditions. the instrument must be clearly and easily visible from the operating station o Provision should be made for the insertion and removal of temporary strainers during start up. Condensate returns grouped and identified so that reliable routine checking of steam trap operation can be assured.) above floor level o Where plant conditions are displayed on a local instrument and controlled from a manually operated station. Remember that the operator is human too-he will carry out his duties best when they are made easy for him by the designer o All steam trap sets feeding into condensate headers must have a bypass and test point fitted. the layout should be based on maximum hose lengths of 50 ft 0 in (15m) and sufficient hose points and hose reels provided to maintain this maximum length o Pump suction pipe work should be laid out for minimum pressure drop. compressors.o Plants in the open need careful examination of the possibility and consequences of pipes freezing up in winter. or other supplies to the plant. or strainer to make use of reduced size fittings.5m. meters etc. a straight length of about three diameter should run from the last valve or fitting to the pump suction to Page 29 of 48 . they should be fitted directly to the pump inlet. particularly upstream of pumps. should be resisted suction pressure losses increase rapidly as suction line size is reduced o On critical or large volume pumps. control valves. air. Fluids in slow or intermittent flow may freeze or become viscous under low temperature conditions where heat losses through the pipe cannot be made up by the flow of warm fluid.
so that they do not present a trip hazard o Pipes must not protrude into gangway widths or into working platform areas o Small bore pipes. platforms.g.1m. Since the volume versus pressure relationship for a pump is easily obtained. cause fie or explosion. Barriers or steel shield must be provided o The possibility of hazardous reaction between the contents of pipes and the contents of other nearby pipes or vessels in the even of leakage must be considered. or air through areas of fire hazard. Screwed piping using PTFE thread seal tape at the screwed joints must also be bonded-the PTFE tape can effectively insulate line sections from each other o Do not run hot pipes near power cables-any local heating of the cable will reduce its allowable power capacity rating and may damage the cable. gangways. Typical examples are acid and cyanide. Dampers are almost always fitted at the outlet side and may be found necessary on the suction side and the layout must be capable of easy modification if necessary o Compressor inlet piping should not contain pockets where condensate can collect and be entrained into the inlet pipes-slugs of liquid entering the compressor can cause severe damage • Safety o All pipes above floors. one of the systems must be rerouted away from the other o Flanged or screwed joints should not be located over walkways or stairs. if arcing o earth near the pipe discharge. glass or plastics pipes.) headroom blow the lowest part of the pipe or any pipefitting o Pipes running across areas not normally designated as access areas should be a minimum centre height of 2 ft 0 in (0. and pipes carrying hazardous fluids must be protected if installed alongside a gangway used by vehicles. the pressure reading give a clear picture of pump performance and during operation o Piping around reciprocating compressors should allow for pulsation dampers at inlet and outlet sides.smooth the flow into the impeller and allow the pump to operate smoothly and efficiently o All centrifugal pump should be fitted with a pressure gauge on the outlet. or water and strong acids.6m) above the floor. (2. should be fireproofed so that services can be maintained for emergency shutdown and cooling if a fire breaks out Page 30 of 48 . If such combinations exist and lethal conditions can arise from accidental mixtures. and stairways must leave at least 7ft. volatile flammables and hot surfaces. This does not apply for welded joints o Pipes carrying non-conducting flammable volatiles must be bonded for electrical continuity and earthed to prevent the accumulation of static electricity charges which can. cooling water steam. Do not run solvent or acid lines over plastic cables o Pipes carrying main services. e. water and sodium.
g. many aqueous solutions. If both valves are essential. The pipe end must be visible so that discharge can be seen o Harmless liquids (e.p. pipe water-cooled heat exchanges so that the inlet is at the bottom and the outlet at the top. high b. glass. then the exchangers will be left full of water to provide a limited reserve of cooling capacity o Make sure safety drench showers and eyewash points are installed on caustic.g. straight and at least the same line size as the inlet flange of the valve. fit `double block and bleed’ valve arrangements. or valuable fluids should avoid fire hazard areas if possible. consider fireproofing o Consider effect of fire on non-ferrous. fit a relief valve connected to the plant vent system so that high pressures from liquid expansion or vaporization can be relieved o A relieve valve should always be fitted across the outlet and inlet of a positive displacement pump of compressor so that overpressure caused by downstream blockages does not damage the machine o Relief valves should be installed with inlet axis vertical and discharge axis horizontal o Inlet piping to relief vales should be short. high b. oils) pipe to appropriate plant effluent drain and disposal system.g. they can corrode away without any external evidence and fail when most needed o Avoid the possibility of trapping liquefied gases between two valves in a line. many aqueous solutions. or solvent plants o If positive isolation of hazardous fluids is required. phosgene) must be piped into a closed vent system equipped with collecting vessels. If they must run through such areas. If the cooling water supply fails. The pipe end must be visible so that discharge can be seen o Hazardous of flammable liquids or gases (e.o Process lines carrying lethal. flammable. Discharge piping should be larger bore and could require special supports to cope with sudden heating of pipe or sudden fluid reaction forces when the relief valve lifts o Disposal of vented fluids should ensure the following: o Harmless gases (e. scrubbing plant. solvents. Do not rely on this spade plates in the line for such duties. plastics.p. or flare stack to collect or dispose of the fluid o Vents and drains on hazardous or flammable pipe lines should run to a plant disposal system o All closed vent systems must be designed so that the system pressure during operation is not so high as to prevent the opening of limit the flow through any relief valve o Vent lines should be self-draining away from the relief valve to pockets or vent system knockout drum to prevent condensate logging of lines with consequent high back pressure when the relief valve operates Page 31 of 48 . methane. or lined pipes o Emergency shutdown valves should be placed in a sheltered but visible area from which the operator can escape easily during emergencies o If possible. acid. or line blind valves. oils) pipe to appropriate plant effluent drain and disposal system.
fittings or control valves should be mounted under or near steelwork from which the item can be lifted for maintenance. vessel lids.g. and normal instrumentation for level. then consider fixing special hitching points for maintenance use o Control valves should be mounted at least 15 in. Centrifuges. pH. possibly require overhead clearance for lifting o Pipes should run above lighting fittings so that obstruction or shadows are prevented and so that routine lamp maintenance is not hindered by the presence of pipes o Do not support pipes off other pipes.o Access to emergency exists. evaporators. If this cannot be done. or low-these need fairly limited in situ attention and a fixed ladder is acceptable o Special instruments for infra red. and a permanent platform should be provided o Pipes to be cleaned frequently (about once per week) should be provided with flanged rodding out points at changes of direction. particularly in vertical banks on horizontal pipes o Always leave short spool pieces connected to the flanges of any item likely to need removal from the plant (e. safety valves. (0-38m. Vessels with full diameter lids – Require cleaning out o Pumps and compressors. Process machinery. Small mills – Require mechanical work. temperature. When removal is required. gas chromatography.). motorized valves. Typical items which need such work are: o Heat exchangers. pressure. etc. pumps. and large valves generally should. etc. to allow for removal of bottom cover and top control gear o Access should be provided to control valves and `inline’ instruments depending on the frequency of maintenance.) above floor level and with a clear distance below obstructions at least equal to the valve height. fire escapes or access for firefighting must not be obstructed by pipes. be supported separately from the pipe in which they are installed o Supports for piping should allow for the removal of valves and fittings without requiring use of temporary supports whilst the fitting is out of the pipe o Supports for piping should allow for the removal of valves and fittings without requiring use of temporary supports whilst the fitting is out of the pipe o Large valves. because of their weight. refractive index. may need frequent careful attention and calibration. • Maintenance o Pipes should never run below lifting beam installed for plant maintenance o Pipes should not run directly over equipment requiring process cleaning or mechanical attention. Page 32 of 48 . Suggested means are: o Control valves. the spool pieces are removed and the item can be moved without major disturbance of pipe work o Control valves. Agitates vessels.
If appearance is important.) is the maximum that can be rodded effectively from one end. etc. in sections or as a whole. functional layout before trying to hide the pipes behind plant or disguising their appearance The final piping layout is a work of considerable complexity. confusion will result at site and the best pipe layout rendered useless because the fabricators and erectors will not know that the designer expects of them. Cutting holes on site is messy and expensive • Aesthetics o Route pipes along or perpendicular to building lines. and pressure gauge points for hydraulic tests on lines. (9 m.) to leave access to the bolts and joints • Construction o Ensure that pipes erected initially do not impede construction access for later plant stages. a good pipe layout will `look right’. Unless the information on the piping designer’s intentions is clearly conveyed to the detailer. drain. Inert gas purge connections may be needed on some plants o Where pipes must pass through floor plates or concrete floors. 60 ft (18m) if rodding from both ends o Fine filters should always be provided on compressor suction piping to prevent entry of grit and scale o Piping around reciprocating compressors should be arranged to leave room for maintenance of cylinder heads. If good pipe and valve specifications and a clear P&IDs have been Page 33 of 48 . unless process conditions prohibit this o Ensure verticals are vertical and horizontals are horizontal-any small deviation will be exaggerated and unsightly o Support spacing must not allow any visible sag between supports-this gives an untidy appearance in addition to being a cause of logging o Do not run pipes across windows or under roof lights o Although appearance is seldom important. This may mean that pipes must be laid out to eave one side of a plant open for construction equipment or that buried pips should be re-routed o Large pipes and fittings should be positioned near some means of temporary access and support of simplify construction o Provide vent. establish position and size of holes needed at the design stage so that pre-cut plates or cast-in holes can be provided. which is intended to ensure that all pipes will fit into the plant and also to provide the basis from which detailed fabrication and erection drawings can be made. Also ensure that withdrawal of pistons. a large amount of detail drawing work can be started and often a considerable number of designers will be engaged on this work to reduce its duration to a practical minimum.76m. much of the drawing office work will be abortive. (0.About 30 ft. crankshaft or camshaft is not prevented by pipes o Heat exchanger piping running alongside the exchanger shell should clear the edge of the tube sheet flange by about 2ft. valves. have the courage to present a good. Once the layout is complete. 6 in.
Cover to resist from vibration. slag.prepared. There are four main reasons for maintaining the temperature of a product in pipeline transit: • • • • Many products are highly viscous or even solid at ambient temperature. This is important when operating in the open area. but can be reduced in viscosity or melted by heat to such an extent that free flow is maintained and they can be easily pumped and controlled Other products require to be closely held at temperatures. waxes. sulphur. glass. to effectively insulate awkward pipe and fitting shapes Page 34 of 48 . asphalt. gases. pipe lines are heated to maintain a close control on viscosity of the liquid prior to passing through a metering control unit where a variation in density would upset the required accuracy Typical products. then the insulation should be provided with a resistant coating or jacket Resistance to moisture sufficient that they do not deteriorate under wet conditions. mechanical shock. particularly in colder parts of the world where freezing of the product or perhaps moisture particles in a gas stream can take place In other instances. and abrasion. which will preserve their physical characteristics and avoid separation or a change of chemical or physical state Pipeline heating is sometimes necessary to prevent freezing. tar. at the layout stage. at least protection them against damage Characteristics which allow them to be formed. and vapours during transit in pipelines. much of the detailed information is easily understandable and the piping designer can.1 Insulation In the industrial processes it is necessary to maintain the temperature of fluids. polymers. pitch. as most insulants Insulations are mechanically weak. are. ceramic and hair felt. To avoid this heat loss pipes and equipments are insulated with insulating materials like mineral wools such as rock. 11 INSULATION & HEAT TRACING 11. which require heat application in pipe transit. resins. as required. concentrate on the best means of specifying his pipe routing and arrangement requirements to the detailers. This means that heat loss through pipe walls and equipment shells must be avoided or minimised by certain mean. and many foodstuffs Thermal insulating materials (including protection) should have: • • • • • Resistance to attack by chemicals with which they may come into contact If this is not possible.
i.1. which require periodical removal of lagging • Type of flange insulation required • Type of insulation reinforcement • Protective finishes required. and other equipment. Equipment. excessive heights. related to possible leakage of oil or corrosive chemicals. Expressed in terms of heat lost • Insulation material to be employed • Provisions for expansion to avoid crack deterioration of the insulation • Protection against moisture `leak through’ at pipe hangers • Any special conditions of insulation application site. 1. the more common being as follows: • • • • Electric surface heating tapes or cables Jacketed pipe lines for use with steam and other heat transfer media External tracer lines-clip-on or welded on Use of heat transfer cements to improve rate of heat conduction Page 35 of 48 .1. 11.e. it is seldom that pipework alone forms a complete specifications. Similarly it is required to prepare Insulation Specification. special fittings etc. which is usually divided into two main sections. etc. chloride stress corrosion • If there is any fire risk • Vibration or impact effects which will react on the piping • Number of hours running/annum • Number of years which plant will operate • Cost of fuel and cost of heat distribution to point of insulation • Guaranteed efficiency required.2 Heat Tracing There are several ways of Heat Tracing to carry out pipe line heating.11. special scaffolding.2 Data required to prepare Insulation Specification • Pressure and temperature (If steam. The specification has also to cover all types of equipment. boiler drums. including heat exchangers. valves. Pipes and 2. 11. indoor or outdoor operation. ingress of moisture. distillation units. saturated or superheated) • Ambient air temperature • Pipe outside diameters (Related to Standard Specifications where possible) • Pipe lengths • Number of bends. reaction vessels.1 Preparing an Insulation Specification Because the plant as a hole is usually involved. and type of cover required • State any pipe fittings. joints etc. pumps. dryer. valves.
12 ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS The most effective and almost universal manner of producing all this information is the pictorial dimensioned drawings. a minority of exceptional cases will be found when a pipe is too complex to be clearly represented and must be broken down into two or more simpler drawings. some simple lines connected together can best be shown on one combined drawing. however. FIG. already noted. to locate break points between separately numbered pipes in positions where new pipes might be expected to start naturally. Page 36 of 48 . Pipes and piping components are represented on the isometric by simple stylised symbols. In practice. Some of the commonly used symbols in Isometric Drawings are shown in FIG. a new isometric should be started.6 Ideally an isometric should show only one pipeline from start to finish and this should be the aim in detail draughting. commonly termed `The Isometric Drawing’. The need to start and finish isometrics at sensible points in the piping systems highlights the need. In the latter case. This type of drawing conveys a two-dimensional picture of a three-dimensional shape by using the isometric draughting conventions of representing vertical directions by vertical line on the drawing and representing horizontals to left and right of the aspect point by lines included at 30° to the drawing sheet horizontal.6. alternatively. all the pipes must be to the same specification and. at a specification change point. which are almost self explanatory and are commonly accepted.
7. but no attempt is made to draw to scale. should be included o Ensure pipe terminal co-ordinates and connecting nozzle identities are shown Page 37 of 48 .Piping is a single bold line drawn along the pipe axis and typical symbols for other items are shown. a control valve set) are drawn large enough to be easily read and dimensioned. Fittings are drawn without regard to scale-for example. gaskets over 1/16 in.g. Usually gaskets less than 1/16 in. large and small valves may be drawn the same size. the reverse is true in that scale is completely sacrificed to clarity and any complex portions (e. A typical Isometric Drawing is shown in FIG. but long straight runs of pipe are foreshortened. The shape of the pipe is shown correctly and all components are correctly located relative to each other in the pipe. FIG. for guidance when the layout leaves some freedom in detailing o Show all details with project north in the same direction o Check certified equipment drawings for flange ratings o Decide whether or not to include gasket thickness in dimensioning and stick to the decision throughout the project. can be neglected.. Indeed.7 • Check List for Isometrics • General o Study the layout checklist given in the previous section 8.
Never leave undrainable pockets in lines carrying hazardous or corrosive liquids o Make sure that valves and fittings are oriented correctly to flow e. instrument air or similar lines. If using preprinted isometric grid paper.g. On critical suction duties (e. volatile liquids or pumps with large suction lift). x-ray or heat treatment if required o Draw boldly and simply. o Rotameters vertically upward o Non-return valves work in correct direction of flow o Globe valves have pressure underseat rather than on top o Sight glass faces can be seen by operators o Strainers are installed to makers instructions o Ensure valve hand wheels and instrument faces point towards (but do not foul) Operating areas and put note on detail drawing for erector’s guidance o To prevent solids depositing in glands. and give details on drawings o Avoid air pockets in pump suction lines. e.g. try to avoid mounting valves with spindles horizontal or pointing downwards o Try to avoid installing valves in vertical lines-the leg of liquid left in the line above the valve when the valve is closed cannot easily be drained o Put valves in off takes from pipe racks or racks of pipes outside the pipe/supporting steelwork area for easy operation o Leave room for temporary strainers in pipes to trap residues left in the pipes during construction o Check if any special cleanout procedure is required for compressor feed pipes. hot. increase straight length to maximum amount possible. Reducers. make sure all drawn lines (including witness lines) are heavier and print clearer than the grid lines o Keep lettering and figures to about 3/16 in (5mm) minimum size and easily readable • Operation o Look at each pipe individually to check that it can be vented or drained either into another pipe or vessel or by fitting vent and drain points. if used.o Show P&ID and Piping Layout drawing numbers for reference on every detail drawing o Ensure all continuation points are highlighted and continuation drawing numbers shown o Try to show a reference dimension to a stanchion or floor beam to give the erector a locating point.g. should be eccentric type o Try to leave 1 ½-3 diameters of straight pipe leading in to pump suction to reduce eddies entering pump. o If possible provide equal flow patterns to both pumps when installed spare pumps are used Page 38 of 48 . but do not show excessive pictorial detail of adjacent plant or structures o Indicate flow direction when pipes slope and when non-return valves are fitted o Show special fabrication requirements..
nominal bore) should be installed at a change in direction in the pipe either by fitting a tee connection or a socket fitted into an elbow.1m. In particular. nominal bore pipe. Do not run pipes at very low levels (say less than 2ft. to prevent condensate being carried over the trapping point • Safety o Make sure pipes are at least 7 ft. or ¾ in. In these cases an enlarged section should be provided o Steam trap piping is important and maker literature should be consulted for detailed guidance – valuable data are provided by reputable manufacturers. the plant has to be shut down to maintain it o On duties where good condensate removal is vital. nominal bore pocket occupies 65 per cent of the flow area of the 1 ½ in. (2. but some simple rules are: o Put tapping for pressure point at side of pipe rather than top (this forms an air pocket) or bottom (which allows solids to deposit on gauge) o Thermometer pockets (usually ½ in. otherwise it is impossible to check trap operation o If traps discharge to a pressurized condensate main.g. Obstruction of flow is minimized by this method of installation-for example a ½ inch nominal bore pocket occupies only 29 per cent of the flow area of a 1 1/2inch pipe o Thermometer pockets can cause serious obstruction to flow in lines 2 in nominal bore and below when installed across the pipe. fit a valved bypass around the trap-the plant can then discharge condensate while the trap is being maintained o The discharge from every trap should either be visible (at a tundish or sight glass) or capable of being tested by discharge to atmosphere.) above floors or platforms) even although these areas are not designated for operation or access-pipes below this level are a serious trip hazard during maintenance or emergency operations o Position valves to leave at least 6 in. (0. avoid joints at eye level or over platforms Page 39 of 48 .o Fit priming connections to centrifugal pumps which draw liquid from tanks blow pump levels-the pump cannot generate suction until the impeller is running in liquid o Consult instrument engineers for details of instrument mounting generally. the ½ in. (0-15 m) clear space round hand wheels o On hot or corrosive liquids. an isolating valve should be installed to protect maintenance workers and a non-return valve fitted to prevent condensate blowing back from the pressurized main when the trap is not discharging o Trapping points in pipes should be taken off bottom of the pipes. e. observe the following: o Always provide a strainer before a trap-no trap will work with dirt under its seating o Fit an isolating valve before the trap-otherwise.) above platforms or working areas.6m.
control valves. ensure that PTFE thread seal tape is not called for at screwed joints unless earthing connections are also made • Maintenance o Fit short spool pieces at nozzles of all equipment to facilitate disconnection of piping during maintenance. Vessels with flanged lids. Valve flanges are sometimes made to certain flange tables only.g.) above floor or platform level. to minimize back pressure from main and to assist flow into the main o Check supports of discharge lines on relief valves from point of view of weight of valve and reactions from sudden flow when device operates suddenly o If screwed lines are used for flammable non-conductive fluids (e. increase this to 12 in. Centrifuges etc. Compressors.34. Note-Do not do this on flare systems or on sealed vent systems o Discharge pipes entering a common main should make a 45° lateral connection with the main as shown in Fig. ensure that the spool is long enough to withdraw bolts easily on the spool side-it is sometimes impossible to withdraw the bolts on the valve side o Do not position flanges where spanner access to bolts is restricted by steelwork. Pulverizers and Crushers. Typical items where this feature is useful are Pumps. leaving site welds to be made in horizontal lines-on such welds the lower half must be made from below and is more difficult for the welder o Ensure flange or thread ratings match throughout all pipes. hydrocarbon solvents). o The lowest point of any part of a pipe should be at least 6 in. (0. handrails etc.3m.) to permit removal of bottom covers o Provide drain points on control valve sets handling dangerous fluids so that the pocket of liquid between the block valve and the control valve can be emptied safely o Standardize steam trap sets as far as possible so that rapid repair by replacement techniques can be used • Construction o Provide adequate (not excessive) site make-up points or closing lengths o Avoid.15 m. General points to note are: o Fit light weatherproof cover over exit to atmosphere to prevent rainwater entering and settling in pockets or on relief devices. and vessels. Where a control valve is fitted in the pipe. This cover must be of light construction to reduce its inertia-it must open quickly and with minimum pressure rise when a relieving device operates o Provide small drain holes at lowest point of atmospheric discharge pipes. particularly at valves.14. o If short spool pieces are used at valves or control valve sets. Cast-iron valves are almost always Page 40 of 48 . if possible. (0.o Check relief valve or bursting disc discharge piping carefully with the designer.
There is also the question of pipe deflection leading to overstressing and pipe logging if a support is not placed in accordance with its calculated position. which may be based on manufacturer’s or company’s standards or perhaps identified specially for the project. a relatively small number of drawings can serve for a large number of supports. To avoid complication.o o o o o o flat faced. There is no need to indicate supports in detail a small circle plus the support schedule number is all that is required. if raised face flanges are called for by the specification. By this means.g. as the piping layouts are being finalized and completed. length of hanger type support) to be specified separately. it is not usual to indicate the supports on the pipe layout drawings. Do not leave erectors with the job of making difficult stub tee connections on site When small branches are needed on large pipes. the valve mating flange must have the raised face machined off to match the valve When pipes are carried over from one isometric to another. (300mm) long projecting from the main or use a welded tee so that the pipes can be joined on site by a butt weld. In this case. check that the break point is at an accessible location. but a progressive recording of positions should be done on separate transparencies or on the piping isometrics. Dimensional positioning of type and recording of all supports are important. Also ensure continuation notes are shown on drawings When starting new points at a tee from a main pipe. particularly so if hot pipes subject to expansion are concerned. Standard assembly and detail drawings with parts lists for each type should be available in a format which leaves the pipe size to be supported and possible other features (e. Each type of support should be given a short identifier. the important point is that standards be selected. add note to remind erector to leave the protecting bracer rods in during construction and remove at start-up 13 PIPE SUPPORTS During the pipe layout stage. These may be company standard or maker’s standard types as found most economic. which may split a pipeline during test or at start-up. provide gusset plates to reinforce the branch against damage during transport and construction Provide temporary strainers in lines to remove construction debris Check hot lines with designer to see if cold pull is called for-if so. specify location and amount on drawing If expansion bellows are fitted in pipes. supports should be defined for use on the project. a hanger placed a matter of inches out of position can cause stresses. Page 41 of 48 . leave a stub about 12 in. Support positions and types should be selected. A plan of supports need only be a simple type of drawing provided that location dimensions are incorporated.
This will ensure that important and large pipes are attended to first. the process. Carrying this scheme through the entire piping system would substantially relieve the system from twisting forces. valves. lines which require sloping include blow down headers. the method of the cantilevered sections to substantially eliminate torsional forces To allow for draining. holdup of liquid can occur due to pipes sagging between supports. and seismic shocks in some areas To ensure that the material from which the pipe is made is not stressed beyond a safe limit. Pocketing of liquid due to sagging can be eliminated by sloping the line so that the difference in height between the adjacent supports is at least equal to thrice the deflection (sag) at the mid -point. External loading factors to be considered are the wind loads. fabrication. etc. Sagging is reduced by bringing adjacent points of support closer. • • • • Ideally. and some process. in the piping will set the centre of gravity away from the midpoint of the associated length The nature of the conveyed material. pump. In continuous run of the pipe. The system of supports should minimize the introduction of twisting forces in the piping due to offset loads on the supports. A support schedule should be drawn up as the job proceeds to identify types and sizes record and provide a progressive checklist of detailing. and flow requirements determines how much sagging can be accepted. with an ample safety margin –use a factor of three (= ratio of the load just causing failure of support or hanger to actual load) or the safety factor specified for the project. condensate and air lines Page 42 of 48 • • . each point of support would be at the centre of gravity of an associated length of piping. maximum tensile stress occurs in the pipe cross section at the support. • Function of the system support: The mechanical requirements of the piping support system are: • To carry the weight of the piping filled with water (or other liquid involved) and insulation if used. and supports would be stressed only vertically The presence of heavy flanges. Various types of pipe supports are shown in FIG. Complete draining is ensured by making adjacent support adequately tilt the pipe To permit thermal expansion and contraction of the piping To withstand and dampen vibrational forces applied to the piping by compressor. each point of the support would be at the centre of gravity of an associated length of piping.Supporting of pipes should follow the general sequence of layout of piping.8.. pressure relief lines. the probable weight of ice buildup in cold climates. Carrying out this scheme thru the entire piping system would substantially relieve the system from twisting forces. and erection work. etc. and would be stressed only vertically Following points should be to considered while supporting the pipes: • Ideally.
The choice of steel section would depend on the span load size and type of plastic pipe.. support the piping such that temporary support are not needed Base load calculations for variable-spring and constant load supports on the operating conditions of the piping (do not include the weight of hydrostatic test fluid) If necessary. etc. drilled flats bar can be used. the bracket may be attached at the required elevation and the slope obtained by using shoes of different sizes-this method leads to fewer construction problems. Tie Page 43 of 48 • . vibratory. a valve. rods. Otherwise. suspend pipes smaller than 2” nominal size from 4” and larger Terms used in support • • • Support The weight of piping is usually carried on supports made from structural steel. Sloped lines in buildings: Inside a building.• • • Sloped lines on pipe racks: Sloped lines can be carried on bracket attached to the pipe rack stanchions. Hanger Device. etc. etc. Supporting pipe made from plastics or glass: Pipes made either from flexible or rigid plastics cannot sustain the same span loads as metal pipe. concrete or wood. Anchor A rigid support. Hangers are usually adjustable for height. or to be held with hangers. It is not usual or desirable to hang lines from the pipe rack unless necessary vertical clearances can be maintained. concrete or wood. Rods with turnbuckles are used for hangers on lines required to be sloped. both large and small sloped lines can rest on steel brackets. flanges. and requires a greater number of support points. which prevents transmission of movement (thermal. Attachment of an anchor to pipe should preferably encircle the pipe and be welded all around as this gives a better distribution of stress in the pipe wall. or suspending it from other steel pipes. Construction may be from steel plate. One way to provide support is to lay the pipe upon length of steel channel section or half section of pipe. or piping assembly that will require removal during maintenance. brackets. • Design Points: • General • • • • • Design hangers for 2” and larger pipe to permit adjustment after installation If piping is to be connected to equipment. which suspends piping (usually a single line) from structural steel.) along piping. To obtain the required change in elevation at each bend. Shoes of graded sizes are also the best method for sloping smaller lines on the pipe rack.
e. A variable spring hanger holding up a vertical line will reduce its lifting force as the line expands towards it. snubber. or sway suppressor One end of the unit is attached to piping and other to structural steel or concrete. Both i. Shoe A metal piece attached to the underside of a pipe. Movement of the piping. within limits. bars. Saddle A welded attachment for pipe requiring insulation. but rigid to rapid movement. a constant load hanger can be used instead. no additional forces will be introduced to the piping system. Permit insulation to be applied to the pipe. shock. Saddle may be used with guides. to restrain movement of piping. will not change the spring force holding up the piping. The spring permits a limited amount of thermal movement. The following hardware is used where mechanical and/or thermal movement is to be guided: • • Guide A means of allowing a pipe to move along its length. variable spring hanger and support place a load on the piping system. ‘Variable spring’ Hanger. Page 44 of 48 . Slide Plate The two plates used in a support are made from or faced with a material of low frictional coefficient to reduce frictional resistance during movement of pipeline to with stand mechanical stress and temperature changes. and subject to longitudinal or rolling movement (resulting from temperature changes other than climatic). Primarily used to reduce wear from sliding for lines subject to movement. and support These devices consist of a coil spring in a housing.• An arrangement of one or more rods. but not sideways. • • • • • Hydraulic dampener. etc. Spring hangers or supports Allow variations in the length of the pipe due to change in temperature. thus. which rests on supporting steel. Dummy Leg An extension piece (of pipe or rolled steel section) welded to an elbow in order to support the pipeline. where this is undesirable. steel plates with a Teflon facing are available and may be welded to steel. and often used for vertical lines. The unit expands or contracts to absorb slow movement of the piping. There are two types of spring hanger or support: • ‘Constant Load’ Hanger The device consists of a coil spring and lever mechanism in a housing. Plates are often made from graphite blocks. The weight of the piping rest on the spring in compression.
Fixing hangers to structural steel. and therefore lugs etc. must be welded to the pipe and fittings before the lining/cladded insulation is applied. or sway arrestor It is essentially a helical spring in a housing.• Sway brace. Supporting pipe Welding supports to prelined pipe will usually spoil the lining. Welding to pipe If the applicable code permits.8 Page 45 of 48 . Attaching to pipe 3. between piping and a rigid structure. 2. Its function is to buffer vibration and sway. lugs may be welded to pipe for 1. which is fitted. Welding of supports and lugs to the pipes and vessels to be stress relieved should be done before heat treatment. • Various types of piping supports Rod Eyerod Clevis with rod Clevis with rod Spring hanger with rod Rod Turn buckle with rod Spring hanger with eye rod Clevis with rod Hanger with lug FIG. etc.
) Clevis with pipe and clamp Clevis with pipe Channel with weld Welded brackets Dummy leg Wye-type shoe Bent flat bar Dummy leg T section Saddle with roller U bolt With Slide plates Steel rod Supporting Elbow Adjustable support FIG.8 Drip leg support Page 46 of 48 .8 (CONT.FIG.
which are to be provided for other purposes.FIG. • The significant general considerations affecting the routing of the piping for favourable support may be summarized as follows: 1. Excess flexibility may make additional supports or restraints necessary to avoid movement and vibration in such amplitude as to arouse personnel apprehension. rather than hanging supports. or at grade.) With spring support FIG. 4. restraints. Piping prone to vibrate. and bracing are: • • Group pipe lines so as to minimize the numbers of structures needed solely for pipe supports. 5. The pipeline should be sufficient close to the point of support or restraint so that the structural connection can have adequate rigidity and details can be simple and economical. This situation is apt to occur on vertical lines where only one point of support is needed to sustain the weight. 2. should be routed for support independent from other piping and lightly braced structures and buildings. or braces.8 (CONT. Routing should permit the use of resting or similar supports offering resistance to motion and providing same damping capacity.8 • Piping support assembly Layout consideration to facilitate support: The two cardinal principles in routing lines for economic support. Keep lines located close to possible points of supports. such as compressor suction or discharge and driver exhaust lines. either to grade or to structures. etc. 3. Page 47 of 48 . Free movement expansion joint systems involving appreciable unbalanced thrusts from pressure should be avoided unless such forces can be taken can be taken on substantial structure. restraints. The piping system should be self-supporting insofar as practicable and consistent with flexibility requirements.
Allowable spans for horizontal lines are principally influenced by the need to: 1. Sufficient space should be allotted so that the proper support assembly details may be accommodated. near major structural members at points at points favourable for added loading. as it is in structures. Page 48 of 48 . In most cases. is specified by some designers. Keep stresses within suitable limits. (psi) Z = sectional modulus in. Piping from upper connections on vertical vessels is advantageously supported from the vessel to minimize relative movement between supports and piping. some piping designers are inclined to disregard deflection entirely and to consider the process units. For power piping a deflection limit as small as 1/8 in. too. ft. A practical limit for average piping in process units is a deflection on the order of ½ in. Limit deflections (sagging). will be a factor in many cases. Access clearance must be provided in order that support fixture parts requiring maintenance can be serviced. 8. or greater is generally acceptable. Appearance. hence such piping should be routed and supported close to the connection.3 l = pipe span. an adequate estimate of the stress is readily obtained from simple beam relationship: S = 1. to 1 in. Control natural frequency (usually by limiting the span) so as to avoid undesirable vibration. (Instability may be a factor in the case of large thin-walled pipe) 2. however the deflection of the line should be kept within reasonable bounds in order to minimize pocketing and to avoid pocketing and to avoid possible interference in congested areas due to sagging. 9. avoid the necessity of making these members heavier. lb/ft. For piping in yards or for overland transmission lines a value of 1½ in. Deflection under weight effect is generally of secondary importance in piping just. Piping in structures should be routed beneath platforms. w = total unit weight. if necessary for: • • • Appearance Avoid pockets Avoiding interferences 3.2(wl2 / Z) Where S = maximum bending stress. In fact. 7.6.
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