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Title of the Book:

Contemporary Moral Problems Seventh edition by James E. White

Book Review Chapter:

Annette C. Baier: The Need for More Than Justice

“They may well be lonely, driven to suicide, apathetic about their works and about
participation in political processes find their lives meaningless and have no wish to leave
offspring to face the same meaningless existence” PAGE 89.

What I expect to learn:

• What is the truth about justice?
• Does Rawls theory is wrong?

In this book Annette Baier argues that the justice perspective by itself is inadequate as a
moral theory. It overlooks inequalities between people. PAGE 86. According to Baier it
has an unrealistic view of freedom of choice and it ignores the importance of moral
emotions such as love.PAGE86. Baier also said about the case of Giligan. That the book
studies for the moral development for women that the woman is the most important
because they are the ones who take care of the child that there going go give birth. That
this thing are natural that woman can do. In the book there is also Kohlberg’s theory that
has been grouped into three levels such as pre-conventional, conventional, and post-

What I learned:
I learned that a woman is like a superhero. They are important and they are very hard to

Integrative Questions:
• What is Baier view about justice?
• What is Baier book is all about?
• What are the theories and argument that has been raised in the theory of justice?

Review Questions:

1. Distinguish between the justice and care perspective. According to Gilligan, how do these
perspectives develop?

• According to Gilligan woman is naturally care perspective if they are pregnant

and take care of the child. And woman choose justice perspective if they’re
being abused.
2. Explain Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. What criticisms do Gilligan and Baier
make of this theory?

• Pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional.

• Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is not shared by men.

3. Baier says there are three important differences between Kantian liberals and their critics.
What are these differences?

• The differences between Kantian liberals and their critics are their weight put on
relationship, weight put on freedom of choice and authority of intellect over emotions.

4. Why does Baier attack the Kantian view that the reason should control unruly passions?

• According to Baier the facts of history must not be forgotten.

Discussion Questions:

1. What does Baier mean when she speaks of the need “to transvalue the values of our
patriarchal past”? Do new values replace the old ones? If so, then do we abandon the old
values of justice, freedom, and right?
• For me these only means that the old ones are the facts that must not be
forgotten and the new ones are the improved versions of the old versions.

2. What is wrong with the Kantian view that extends equal rights to all rational beings,
including women and minorities? What would Baier say? What do you think?

• I think that Kantian view is right.

3. Baier seems to reject the Kantian emphasis on freedom of choice. Granted, we do not
choose our parent, but still don’t we have freedom of choice about many things, and isn’t
this very important?

• Yes it is very important to have a freedom of choice.