ECOLOGY

SPEAKING
A. Discuss this questions:  What is Ecology?  Which responsibilities does it imply?  What should be known about it?  Is Global Warming related to Ecology? Explain.  Mention some keywords related to Ecology.

READING
B. Guess the answers of the following quiz.  Ecology is the study of environmental systems the economy of nature both  The area of ecology that focuses on attempting to understand how natural selection develop the structure and function of the organism and ecosystems is Ecosystems ecology Evolutionary ecology Physiological ecology  Ecology includes the analysis and study of living parts of the world non-living parts of the world both  The discipline that has as objective to follow the energy and material used throughout the process of fabrication in order to improve the efficiency of manufacturing is Manufacturing Ecology Industrial Ecology Processes  Which is the principal objective of most ecologists ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

C.

Read and check your previous answers. How well did you do?

ECOLOGY
1 2 3 Ecology is the study of environmental systems, or as it is sometimes called, the economy of nature. "Environmental" usually means relating to the natural, versus human-made world; the "systems" means that ecology is, by its very nature, not interested in just the components of nature

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individually but especially in how the parts interact. The subject matter of ecology is normally divided onto four broad categories or levels: Physiological Ecology, having to do with the response of single species to environmental conditions such as temperature or light; Population Ecology, usually focusing on the abundance and distribution of individual species and the factors that cause such distribution; Community Ecology, having to do with the number of species found at given location and their interactions; and Ecosystems Ecology, having to do with the structure and function of the entire suite of microbes, plants, and animals, and their abiotic environment, and how the parts interact to generate the whole. It often focuses on the energy and nutrient flows of ecosystems, and when this approach is combined with computer analysis and simulation we often call it systems ecology. Evolutionary ecology, which may operate at any of these levels but most commonly at the physiological or population level, is a rich and dynamic area of ecology focusing on attempting to understand how natural selection developed the structure and function of the organisms and ecosystems at any of these levels. Ecology is usually considered from the perspective of the specific geographic environment that is being studied at the moment: tropical rain forest, temperate grassland, arctic tundra, benthic marine, the entire biosphere, and so on. The subject matter of ecology is the entire natural world, including both the living and the non living parts. Biogeography focuses on the observed distribution of plants and animals and the reasons behind it. More recently ecology has included increasingly the human-dominated world of agriculture, grazing lands for domestic animals, cities, and even industrial parks. Industrial ecology is a discipline that has recently been developed, especially in Europe, where the objective is to follow the energy and material use throughout the process of, e.g., making an automobile with the objective of attempting to improve the material and energy efficiency of manufacturing. For any of these levels or approaches there are some scientists that focus on theoretical ecology, which attempts to derive or apply theoretical or sometimes mathematical reasons and generalities for what is observed in nature, and empirical ecology, which is concerned principally with measurement. Applied ecology takes what is found from one or both of these approaches and uses it to protect or manage nature in some way. Related to this discipline is conservation biology. Plant ecology, animal ecology, and microbial ecology have obvious foci. Ecology should be more than just a set of ideas and principles that one might learn in a classroom or book but rather more a way of looking at the world which emphasizes the assessment and understanding of how the pieces fit together, how each influences and is influenced by the other pieces and how the whole operates in ways not really predictable from them. When we are lucky we are able to capture these relations in conceptual, mathematical or, increasingly, computer models that allow us some sense of truly understanding the great complexity of nature, including as it is impacted by human activity. This is the goal of most ecologists.
From the previous text identify what the words italicized refer to.

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This . water. in short liquid-containing areas. WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is contamination of water by foreign matter that deteriorates the quality of the water. lakes. land. It involves the release of toxic substances. the eutrophication: lack of oxygen in a water body caused by excessive algae growths because of enrichment of pollutants. rivers. and thermal pollution. streams. the circulation of water in earth.e. The major sources that lead to air pollution are the following:  Motor vehicle exhaust  Heat and power generation facilities  Industrial processes  Auto manufacturing Water Cycle and Pollution Water cycle is. noise. Water pollution covers pollutions in liquid forms like ocean pollution and river pollution. etc. In fact. acid rain. Carbon and nitrogen cycle) Emergence of new chemical reactions of reactive and non-biodegradable compounds. the water in the earth's biosphere is used and reused again and again.           Fertilizers plants Building demolition Solid waste disposal Solvent evaporation Volcanic eruption Fuel production Roadway construction Electrical components manufacturing Extraction of metals Forest fires AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the introduction of particles that contaminates the composition of compounds in the atmosphere. substances that require much oxygen to decompose. easy-soluble substances. Read the text. this situation can be created by: Excess emission of gases/vapors into atmosphere Saturation of chemical compounds/particulates Rate of dissipation < (smaller than) rate of absorption through various cycles (i. ozone depletion are some effects of air pollution. namely air. smog.8 9 10 11 13 13 such their their It it these 29 30 30 31 36 38 which these it this them it E. pathogenic germs. that become deposited upon the bottom and their accumulations will interfere with the condition of aquatic ecosystems. POLLUTION There are 6 (six) types of pollution that are going to be discussed in this site. radioactivity. underground water and bays. As the term applies. radioactive. For example.     Global warming. simply saying. liquid pollution occurs in the oceans.

In a small scale. What's the relation of water cycle and pollution? According to the water cycle. But in an excessive scale.is called water cycle or continuous movement of water between the earth and the atmosphere. and can heavily harm them. their concentration decrease in the sea. water around us will be absorbed to the land (soil) and rivers will stream from the upstream to the downstream and released to the sea. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to water pollution to the following categories:  Petroleum products  Synthetic agricultural chemicals  Heavy metals  Hazardous wastes  Excess organic matter  Sediment  Infectious organisms  Air pollution  Thermal pollution  Soil pollution SOIL POLLUTION Revered to as soil pollution. It involves the following mechanisms:  Evaporation: changing of water from liquid to gas  Transpiration: Release of water vapor from plant leaves  Condensation: Changing of vapor to liquid (cooled down)  Precipitation: Water that returns to the earth (water droplets in clouds become large enough and there comes the rain). in the same situation. unable to stabilize the soil physicality which ultimately let to desertification . land pollution involves the following mechanism:  Deposition of solid waste  Accumulation of non-biodegradable materials  Toxification of chemicals into poisons  Alteration of soil chemical composition (imbalance of chemical equilibrium to soil medium) Causes The causes for such devastation are generally due to 2 (two) forms of malpractices:  Unhealthy soil management methods. Non-maintenance of a proper supply of organic matter in the soil from the imbalance composition of the reserves of organic matter especially nitrogen. and they don't harm the sea ecosystem and its distribution. both inorganic and organic pollutants safely decompose throughout the stream. And for the inorganic pollutants. don't bring to much hazards because they are widely dispersed and have almost no effect to the environment which they are released to. phosphorus and sulfur unplenished supply after cultivation of vegetation. living the soil prone to soil infertility. naturally. In normal situation organic pollutants are biodegraded by microbes and converted to a form that brings benefits to the aquatic life. communities in beach and estuary will be affected by the pollutants.

I0 where one is ten times greater than the other. but to the extend it has reached an unfavorable high intensity which had cause many disturbances and irritation to others emotionally that has adverse effects on our daily activities. an actual difference of 10.one tenth of a bel where one bel represents a difference in level between two intensities I1. which are non biodegradable and accumulate in the soil system which eventually destroys useful organisms such as bacteria. Thus. can be expressed as a difference of 4 bels or 40 decibels. fungi and other organisms Improper maintenance of the correct soil acidity which ultimately disrupt the adaptation of various crops and native vegetation of different soils as the solubility of minerals present will be affected. the intensity level is the comparison of one intensity to another and may be expressed: Intensity level = 10 log10 (I1/I0) (dB) Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to land pollution to the following categories:  Agriculture  Mining and quarrying  Sewage sludge  Dredged spoils  Household  Demolitions and constructions  Industrial For instance. synonymous to the increase in the standard of living in most countries.  Improper irrigation practices.000 units. the difference between intensities of 10-8watts/m2 and 10-4 watts/m2. Poorly drained soil result in salt deposits leading to high soil salinity that inhibit plant growth and may lead to crop failure Unirrigated land giving rise to stagnation of agriculture waste products whichaccumulates and increases land toxicity and also decreasing Irregular irrigation leads to decreasing moisturization of land for soil medium and replenishments of solvents for minerals NOISE POLLUTION This particular pollution is ever increasing with due to the rise in the utilization of heavy duty machineries of industrial facilities and vehicles. These are the few examples of threshold decibels of noises made: Threshold of hearing 0 dB . We make sounds practically every seconds of our day. minerals are more insoluble which form complex minerals unable to be absorbed into the flora system physiological usage. In a more acidic soil.Irregular maintenance of a proper nutrient supply of trace elements gives rise to the use of excessive synthetic fertilizers. minerals tend to be more soluble and washed away during rainfall while alkaline soil. Noise levels can be measured by decibel method: Decibel .

and that's why it's called the nuclear era. the big concern is the waste resulted from nuclear reaction. If it’s still radioactive.Rustling leaves Quiet whisper (3 feet) Quiet home Quiet street Normal conversation Inside car Loud singing (3 feet) Automobile (25 feet) Motorcycle (30 feet Food blender (3 feet) Subway (inside) Diesel truck (30 feet) Power mower (3 feet) Pneumatic riveter (3 feet) Chainsaw (3 feet) Amplified Rock and Roll (6 feet) Jet plane (100 feet) 20 dB 30 dB 40 dB 50 dB 60 dB 70 dB 75 dB 80 dB 88 dB 90 dB 94 dB 100 dB 107 dB 115 dB 117 dB 120 dB 130 dB energy has been recognized as a clean energy because it doesn’t release pollutants such as CO2 to the atmosphere after its reaction that could damage our environment. It possibly takes up to 4. not considering external factors such as pressure or temperature. Nuclear era reached its greatest peak in the world war. Some elements in this world are naturally radioactive while some others are made to be. nuclear energy has already researched back since 1900. namely:  Alpha particles. it will repeat the process. However. by showing its massive ability of destroying things. it emits energy and small particles. One becquerel is equal to one disintegration of nuclei per second. can be blocked by a piece of paper and human skin. it has also been used to generate electricity. There are commonly three types of radiation. It's also known that nuclear energy has reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emission. Radioactivity is emitted when a radioactive element become unstable and begin to decay in the attempt to regain their molecular stability. and can only be . This process constantly remains. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to noise pollution to the following categories:  Road traffic noise  Air traffic  Rail traffic  Neighborhood and domestic noise  Incompatible land use  Industrial noises RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION The 40's was the era where the first nuclear bomb is being developed. When an element decays. while can be blocked by some pieces of glass and metal. The time that it takes for half way of decaying process is called half-life. until it finally regains its molecular stability and stop decaying.  Gamma rays can penetrate easily to human skin and damage cells on its way through.5 billion years (Uranium 238) and as short as 8 days (Iodine 131). Since scientists have found a way to make use of the energy. Nuclear energy is a form of energy that’s released by the splitting of atoms. reducing emissions of CO2 for about 500 million metric tons of carbon. Radioactivity is a form of radiation (a form of energy that travels through space). reaching far. and this differs for each radioactive element. which is a form of pollution. This process is expressed in units called becquerels. Nuclear Despite the advantage of nuclear as a clean energy.  Beta particles can penetrate through skin. called radioactivity.

f. b. strong. much to the operation of the heavy industries which produces high amount of heat energy. massive piece of concrete. Excess Organic Matter Hazardous wastes Heavy metals Infectious Organisms Petroleum Products Sediments Synthetic Agricultural Chemicals Methods . Match the methods of contamination of water with their sources Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to thermal pollution to the following categories:  Power plants creating electricity from fossil fuel  Water as a cooling agent in industrial facilities  Deforestation of the shoreline  Soil erosion Sources a. g. and the graph to detect the temperature trend from a period of 10 years will be compared with the previous batch of period. c.blocked by a very thick. Measurements of atmospheric temperature are done by meteorological center of the weather forecast annually. F. owing to the increasing call of globalization everywhere. e. Thus we may be able to know the rate of temperature increase overall and make reference to the standard level of heat that should be maintain in the atmosphere to avoid large deviation of heat in the system. Heat produced from industries is a major contribution to the pollution. d. Sources and Methods We can classify major sources that lead to radioactive pollution to the following categories:  Nuclear power plants  Nuclear weapon  Transportation  Disposal of nuclear waste  Uranium mining THERMAL POLLUTION This has become an increasing and the most current pollution.

So try wearing an extra layer in winter. Accumulation of chemicals in plants and animals when die. It really is as simple as that. 1998. and recycle what you cannot reuse. all you need to buy is the equipment. GLOBAL WARMING There is little doubt that the planet is warming. So the next time you get into your car.__________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Accidental spills from ships. plant a tree. only buy what you need. something important for our bodies. you are giving yourself exercise. Firstly. Monuments and great buildings. or spend masses of money. 2002. after all it is free. reuse and recycle. pipelines and leaky underground storage tanks. As well as stopping pollution. How can we do to help save the planet? The answer is simpler than you may think. and your getting a little cold. The warmest since the mid 1800’s was the 1990s. tanker trucks. You can get much of your hot water and heating from the sun and even generate electricity. we would be . when fully grown. If you try to follow the few simple steps that I shall now give you. Trees.When you are at home. enough to have the polar caps melted. will help keep the planet cooler. If the ice caps melt. think – do I have to make this journey by vehicle or can I walk?. the planets temperature has risen by around 1 degree Fahrenheit (0. You don’t have to go miles away from home to protest. reuse whatever you can. as well as save you money. The hottest years recorded were 1997. Reduce. only put a jumper on and do not adjust the heating. Over the last century. like containers and paper. Something as simple as walking instead of taking the car will help reduce pollution.6 of a degree Celsius). this could be easier than it sounds. or your motorbike. including New York City. a vast majority of our countries borders will be under water. Emission of oxides of lead from tractors and machineries used during mining or in industries which dissolves in water Improper refinery processes with the production of toxic byproducts Improper storage of heavy metals in storage containers Improper treatment of waste which are still toxic upon release Leak pipelines __________ __________ __________ Old and faulty machineries in industrial factories which are inefficient Stimulate algae growth and during decomposition of algae Unfiltered industrial discharge which flows into water sources G. The extra heat produced by our homes also affects the planet. you will have started to help us all. as well as homes and lives will be under water. 2001. Finally turning off unused sources of power such as televisions and heaters will help the environment. The United Nations panel on climate change projects that the global temperatures will rise 3-10 degrees Fahrenheit by the century’s end. If everybody stuck to these rules. If possible use solar energy. Read the text. 2003.

. when concentrations of those substances cause adverse metabolic change to humans or other species. So please take into consideration what I have written and try to do your part. Answer the following questions:  Is the passage describing the Global Warming? _______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________  Which is the principal objective of the passage? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY I. After all. particulate matter. _________________ is the introduction of chemicals. Complete each sentence with one of the words in the box. or microscopic organisms into the atmosphere. nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. sulfur dioxide. Look up the following words:        Abiotic Benthic Ecosystem Grazing lands Microbe Pollution Projects ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ J. The most common and widespread air _________________ include carbon monoxide.doing a great thing by protecting the earth. biodiversity sewage pollutants deforestation contamination reservoirs morbidity streams habitat species Air Pollution Ecotoxicology tillage sedimentation temperature    _________________ is the environmental science sub-discipline that melds the fields of ecology and toxicology. H. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  Sewage ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  Temperate ________________________________________________________________ Read the following sentences. in particular. it will be our next generation that will feel the effects.

radioactive or pathogenic microbial substances. lake or ocean environment. radon trapping and a host of chemical substances found in paints. Widespread consequences of water pollution upon ecosystems include _________________ mortality. There can be significant environmental consequences of thermal pollution with respect to surface receiving waters such as rivers and lakes. decrease in _________________ and creation of an environment hospitable to alien aquatic species may occur. biodiversity reduction and loss of ecosystem services. Activity 1  Are you concern about global warming?  How do you help the planet?  Do you and your family classify garbage at home? . since their sources may be construed as natural. but may also be caused by the release of cooler water from the base of _________________ into warmer rivers. One of the chief causes of water pollution is agricultural activity where _________________ practices. but a preponderance of these instances result from human intervention in the environment (such as discharge of raw _________________) or human overpopulation phenomena. Water pollution is the _________________ of natural water bodies by chemical. pesticide and herbicide use create massive amounts of sedimentation and chemical discharge to natural waters. in particular. Some water pollution may occur from natural causes such as _________________ from severe rainfall events. printing supplies and cleaning products. Many of these species arrive in the new location due to inadvertent human activities such as shipping or agriculture.           Indoor air pollution is a significant source of human death and disease —mortality and _________________— through indoor burning of wood and charcoal (especially in developing countries). An alien species is an organism that finds itself in a new geographic location or _________________. EXTENDING SKILLS K. natural causes. including volcanic eruptions and algae blooms from natural causes constitute a minute amount of the instances of worldwide water pollution. which may be a river. Thermal pollution is the act of altering the _________________ of a natural water body. fertilizer. however. The most problematic of water pollutants are microbes that induce disease. tobacco smoking. Elevated river temperatures can also arise from _________________ or urbanization that can reduce _________________. The concept is most frequently discussed in the context of elevating natural water temperature. physical. although many are purposefully introduced for food cultivation or for attempts (usually misguided) at ecological intervention.

take the time to teach children these simple water-saving methods around the home and you will make a big difference. and oxygen levels can fall dangerously low for fish. these leaks can waste about 20 gallons of water per day. Take shorter showers and turn off the water when soaping and after that turn it back on to rinse. Highlight each verb in the paragraphs. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads. It is not necessary to keep the water running while brushing your teeth. How many modal verbs are there? ________________ In the 2nd sentence of paragraph 1. food sources for birds can be lost. In 2005. Just wet your brush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing. It comes naturally when everyone in the family is aware of its importance. and conservation of water is necessary. the more energy that is needed.L. Water conservation at home is one of the easiest measures to put in place. which is the principal verb? _________________________ How many gerunds are there in the paragraphs? _____________________________________ How many of these gerunds are being used as subjects? _______________________________ What tense is the passage mainly written in? _________________________________________ What type of reading is it? ______ _________________________________________________           GLOSSARY Abiotic Air pollution Air Pollution Alien species Applied ecology Benthic . when water levels in rivers fall.  What is the main purpose of these paragraphs? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ How many sentences are there in the first paragraph? _________________________________ How many sentences are there in the second paragraph? ______________________________ How many sentences or clauses are in imperative form? _______________________________ Underline the subject of each sentence. the less there is available in rivers. groundwater levels were lower than they have been for 20 years. Saving water at home does not require any significant cost outlay. Activity 1  Study the following reading WASTING WATER Water is one of the earth’s most valuable resources. By saving water you can help protect wildlife that live in rivers and wetlands as the more water that is used in our homes. lakes and wetlands. pipes and toilet for leaks. in fact you save money when you and your family save water. For example. For saving water inside the house you can check your faucets. and saving water should become part of everyday family practice. so the more water used. The energy impact with the use of water is also high as heating water accounts for a lot of the energy used in homes.

Discuss this questions:  What are materials?  Where do we obtain materials?  What is Material Science?  Which are the forms of the matter?  What is an atom?  Which is the difference between metals and ceramics? VOCABULARY Match the following words with its definition. Atomic Structure Anything that has weight and that takes up space. but also how the atoms and molecules within it are arranged. Solid. Gas It is the smallest particle of matter that retains the same properties 2. Molecule 3. Atom . 1. Liquid.” SPEAKING A.Biogeography Community ecology Ecology Ecosystem ecology Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Enviroment Evolutionary ecology Global Warming Grazing lands Industrial ecology Microbe Morbidity Noise Pollution Physiological ecology Pollutants Pollution Population ecology Projects Projects Radioactive Pollution Sewage Soil Pollution Temperate Thermal Pollution Tillage Water pollution MATERIALS SCIENCE “The properties of any material depend not only on what it's made of.

There are now about 300.000 different known materials (if you named one every second. security. Compound Substance This substance can be broken down into two or more simpler substances. EXACTLY? That's a big question .are named for metals.like plastic. 4. has the intellectual foundation of the field that we call materials science and engineering begun to take shape and to achieve recognition. These were the first materials to be "engineered. protons. WHAT ARE MATERIALS. and neutrons. And as materials scientists create and combine materials in new ways. you name it! Materials can be natural . The free atom is composed of electrons. Most materials fit into a few big. or human-made . and noncrystalline arrays. Forms of Matter 7. well.for example. people changed them to fit what they needed to do. rather than just letting their natural properties determine what they could be used for. shaping copper into tiny wires a thousand times skinnier than a strand of your hair! . and quality of life of humans since the beginning of history. it would take you more than three whole days and nights just to get through the list!). automobiles. Element 5. This has occurred just as the field itself is expanding greatly and contributing significantly to society. Matter 6. Only in the last 25 years.of that matter. These days.like wood. communication equipment. prosperity.such as the Bronze and Iron ages . crystals. computers. READING B. It is the smallest particle of an element which retains the distinct structure characteristic of an element. Read the following passage. It is the smallest part of a substance that retains the same properties of that substance and cannot be broken down any further. and especially in the last decade. machines. molecules.because materials are the basic substances that make up. the number's almost infinite. general categories: Metals Whole periods of human civilization . and structural products could not exist. Materials scientists and engineers will continue to be at the forefront of these and other areas of science and engineering in the service of society as they achieve new levels of understanding and control of the basic building blocks of materials: atoms. aircraft. Without new materials and their efficient production. materials scientists are using metals in ways no one could have pictured even a few years ago . WHAT IS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING? Materials have been central to the growth." that is. our world of modern devices.

which are very tiny spheres or cylinders made of carbon atoms. investigate if it is necessary. but you're in touch with polymers every day more than any other kind of material.often produce new properties that are radically different. Biomaterials Every part of your body is a material! Bone. as scientists create new materials atom-by-atom and moleculeby-molecule . And by the way. such as using the foam structure of bone as an inspiration for designing materials that are lightweight and strong. With the addition of oxygen or nitrogen.such as buckyballs and nanotubes. When did the materials science started to be recognize? _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. hair. which are extremely lightweight porous materials made almost entirely of air! Nanotechnology is taking materials science into a new dimension. and better. and protecting you from heat or cold. Exotic and Strange Materials Materials scientists are discovering and creating entirely new types of materials .is making it possible for you to read these words right now! That's because silicon is the essential material in an electronic computer chip. which can be as simple as concrete reinforced with steel bars or as leading edge as an ultralight. The places where different materials meet . fingernails. Polymers Polymers are just very big molecules made of smaller molecules linked together into long. to cutting and grinding your food. Some scientists try to mimic nature's designs to create materials for other uses. carbon-fiber bicycle. Why is important to study materials science in your career? .Ceramics Think about a china teapot . metals become ceramics. than those in any single material. and telephone . or to conduct electricity. Rubber bands are made of polymers.the "interfaces" . so are paints and every kind of plastic. super-strong cutting tools. 1. Then there are aerogels. "Semiconductor" means a material can conduct electricity with a bit of help in the form of added "impurities. muscles. too." Your CD. and skin are all examples of different types of materials found in your body with remarkable properties that help you survive . C. You may not know it. Answer the following questions.from keeping you upright. But ceramics can also be used to create bone and tooth replacements.silicon . DVD player.all depend on semiconductors.leading to properties and performance never before imagined. Semiconductors One of these materials .that's one type of ceramic. most of the food you eat is made of natural polymers! Composites Composites are combinations of materials. repeating chains.

Additionally to the silicon. which is the principal characteristic of ceramics? ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Why biomaterials are important nowadays? _____________________________________________________________________________ LISTENING D. What is materials science according to Dr. _____________________________________________________________________________ 8._______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. According to your experience. which other semiconductor is used to fabricate electronic devices. Mention five everyday products made with polymers. Ross?_____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2.html?asset=whatis_panel&page=videoeveryone 1. Are new materials helping to the development of technology? Explain your answer.html?asset=whatis_panel&page=videospecial http://www.com/popup.strangematterexhibit.com/popup. 3.com/popup. _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 4.strangematterexhibit.strangematterexhibit. _______________________________________________________________________________ 7. What are boats made of? _______________________________________________________ What do materials scientists do? _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ READING . Watch the videos in these links and answer the questions http://www. Mention at least 5 types of metals _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 5.html?asset=whatis_panel&page=videowhatis http://www.

Read the following topic MATERIAL STRUCTURE All matter is considered to be composed of unit substances known as chemical elements. Examples for secondary bonds are: Hydrogen Bonds: Hydrogen bonds are common in covalently bonded molecules which contain hydrogen. and the acceptor will have a negative PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Describe how the material supports applied forces. These bonds are especially important in noble gases which are cooled to very low temperatures. The three types of primary bonds are: Metallic Bonds: In a metal. An atom consists of a minute positively charged nucleus surrounded by a sufficient number of electrons (negative charges) to keep the atom as a whole neutral. by transferring electrons from one atom to another. and form bonds. including forces of tension. Since the electrons are free to move.  . Hardness: The resistance a material opposes the penetration. The charged atoms or ions will be attracted to each other. They often provide a "weak link" for deformation or fracture. compression. The elements are composed of atoms which have distinct structure characteristic of each element. such as water (H2O). The donor atom will take a positive charge. cyclic fatigue. These are the smallest units that are distinguishable on the basis of their chemical activity and physical properties.E.  Flexibility: It consists in the ability of some materials to recover their shape and size of primitive when it ceases the effort that had given deformation. they lead to good thermal and electrical conductivity. Ionic Bonds: Atoms like to have a filled outer shell of electrons. Sometimes. Each pair of shared atoms is called a covalent bond. Each atom gives up its outer electrons and becomes slightly positively charged. Van der Waals Bonds: Van der Waals bonds are very weak compared to other types of bonds. the outer electrons are shared among all the atoms in the solid. The negatively charged electrons hold the metal atoms together. electron shells are filled. Covalent Bonds: Some atoms like to share electrons to complete their outer shells. Then you mention are defined below:  Toughness: The property of certain materials to withstand. The electron and proton have equal but opposite electrical charge. ATOMIC BONDS There are two types of bonds: Primary Bonds: Primary bonds are the strongest bonds which hold atoms together. without deforming or breaking sudden efforts that apply to them. impact. so the neutral atom must contain an equal number of electrons and protons. Secondary Bonds: Secondary bonds are much weaker than primary bonds. charge. or forces at high temperatures.

magnetic and optical behavior. stamping. Melting/Freezing Point .  Fragility: A material is brittle when broken easily by the action of a shock. Ductility . Testing technology: They show the features of plasticity that has a material to carry out his forge. Hardness .  Color     CHEMICAL PROPERTIES These describe the substances and their abiolity to change into a new substance with different properties.Properties that do depend on the amount of matter present. electrical or thermal conductivity. . Reactivity can be created mixing a element with oxygen.  Flammability: Ability to burn.   Density . Volume .  Odor Luster . Describe features such as color. Plasticity: Ability of some solid material to acquire permanent deformation under the action of an external force or pressure without rupture. Malleability .  Conductivity . color or heat. water or acid. etc.The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid   The above mechanical properties are measured accurately by mechanical tests:  Test drive: Provides a rough idea of the tenacity and elasticity of a material.A measurement of the amount of space a substance occupies. usually not altered by force acting on the material. magnetic and optical.A measurement of the gravitational force of attraction of the earth acting on an object. when a reaction happen you can see bubbling.A measurement of the amount of matter in a object (grams). but it can create sound. color change.Properties that do not depend on the amount of the matter present.The ability of a substance to be drawn into thin wires. bending. Boiling Point . Reactivity: It is when two substances cause any reaction together. Length   Intensive .   Hardness Testing: allows knowing the hardness of the material.The mass of a substance divided by its volume  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Rely on the structure and material processing.  Weight .How easily a substance can be scratched. They can be divided into electrical. fizzing.The ability of a substance to allow the flow of energy or electricity. Physical properties of matter are categorized as either Intensive or Extensive:  Extensive .  (generally atmospheric pressure). Testing Shock: The practice allows us to know the fragility and tenacity of a material.  Mass .The ability of a substance to be beaten into thin sheets. light.The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure.How shiny a substance is.

Prepare a summary of the previous reading.  Material __________________________________________________________           Color Odor Luster Malleability Ductility Conductivity Hardness __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Melting/Freezing Point ___________________________________________________ Boiling Point Density __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ GLOSSARY .  Toughness __________________________________________________________        Flexibility: Hardness: Fragility: Plasticity: Ductility: Malleability: Flammability: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ H. Write the name of 2 materials that present the following properties. Select a material and describe their physical properties.F. G.

Atom Atomic Bond Atomic Structure Biomaterial Boiling Point Bond Ceramics Composite Compound Substance Conductivity Covalent Bond Density Ductility Element Flammability Flexibility Fragility Hardness Hydrogen Bond Ionic Bond Length Malleability Mass Matter Melting Point Metallic Bond Metals Molecule Plasticity Polymer .

Reactivity Semiconductor Toughness Van der Waals Bond Volume Weight .