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Structure

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction

Objectives

Influence Lines

Definition Properties of Influence Lines Influence Line Diagram for Bending Moment (Simply Supported Beam) Influence Line Diagram for Shearing Force (Simply Supported Beam) Influence Line Diagram for a Cantilever Summary Answers to SAQs

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Study of Applied Mechanics and Strength of Materials have enabled you to compute the reactions, shear force (SF), bending moments (BM), deflections etc. in a beam and bar forces in a pin-jointed truss, subjected to a given static load system which remains stationary. Quite frequently, a beam or a truss is subjected to a load which is not exactly stationary and may be moving along a certain path (which may be the length of the beam or top or bottom chord of a truss etc.). Such moving loads are called live loads as opposed to stationary loads which may be called dead loads. Instances of live loads are quite common, e.g. a railway train moving across a rail bridge or a vehicle moving along a road bridge. Obviously, the value of any of the desired quantities (e.g., shear force, bending moment or bar force) depends upon the position of the load. For the design of the members, it is important to find out the position of the loads for which the stresses caused in the structure is maximum at any point or in any member. For this purpose, a graphical representation (or a curve), depicting the values of the desired quantity for various load positions, is drawn and is used for calculation. Such curves or lines are called influence lines for the quantity.

Objectives

After studying this unit, you should be able to • • • • • conceptualise and define influence line, calculate the variation of a particular quantity (BM, SF, axial force etc.) due to a unit load moving across a structure, depict the variation of the quantity, graphically, through influence lines, discuss the properties of the influence line and to interpret it for direct use in structural analysis, and calculate the magnitude of the quantity under a given system of live loads moving across the structure. 5

This will be shown in the next sections. The structural quantity could be external support reactions. as can be seen. axial force. slope and deflections). Figure 1. (1. (1.1(b). 6 . These values are plotted at the points where the load is placed. 1 x P A 10 m B (a) Beam 10 – x 10 RA = 1.2 DEFINITION An influence line is a curve. Now if the moveable unit load is placed at any point P on the beam. when a unit load is placed at that point. internal stress resultants (e. which is between A and B.0 x (b) Influence Line Diagram of R A 20 KN 1. the reaction RA = 1. . Similarly. then taking moments of all forces about B.g. For example we know that if the unit load is placed at A.3 7m (c) Figure 1. at a distance of x from A.1(a) shows a beam which is simply supported at A and B and has a span of 10 m. 1 kN) at various points on the beam and to find the corresponding values of RA.g. and if it is placed at B. The above definition can be explained by the following simple examples.Theory of Structures-I 1.0 0.1(b) is the influence line for the reaction RA of the beam. we have to place a unit load (e.1).g. we have RA ּ 10 – 1× (10 – x) = 0 ⇒ giving RA = 10 − x 10 . vertical or horizontal reactive forces or bending moments). we may draw influence lines for bending moment or shearing forces at a point on the beam. . RA = 0. If we want to find the influence line for the reaction RA at the support A.1) Eq.g. Thus.1 Figure 1. SF or BM) or deformations (e. (e. is the equation of a straight line shown in Figure 1. the ordinate of which at any point is equal to the value of some structural quantity.

3. This can be easily verified. (c) To find the maximum value of a structural quantity due to a uniformly distributed live load. 10 Now if a load of 20 kN is placed at this point the magnitude of reaction RA will be 20 × 0. 7 . Similarly. and again between C and D. A B D Influence Lines C (a) Influence Line Diargam q per unit length A B D C (b) Position of udl for Maximum Positive Value q per unit length A B C D (c) Position of udl for Maximum Negative Value Figure 1. the load should be placed at that point where the ordinate to the influence line is maximum.3 = 6 kN. the ordinate of the influence line for RA at a distance of 10 − 7 7 m from A is = 0. for maximum positive value of the quantity the uniformly distributed load should cover the entire portion from B to C (Figure 1. we shall state certain important properties of an influence line.2(a) shows the influence line diagram of a particular quantity for the beam ABCD.2 (d) For example. the load should be placed over all those portions of the structure where its influence line ordinates have the same sign.1. in Figure 1. The value of a structural quantity due to a uniformly distributed live load is equal to the product of the loading intensity (q) and the net area of the influence line diagram under that portion. (a) To obtain the maximum value of a structural quantity due to a single concentrated moving load. and are negative between A and B. (This property is obvious from the definition. Figure 1. in Figure 1.2(b)).1(c). Thus.) (b) The value of a structural quantity due to a single concentrated moving load is equal to the product of the magnitude of the load and the value of the corresponding ordinate of the influence line. Hence. The ordinates are positive between B and C.2(c)). the value of the structural quantity due to the uniformly distributed load covering portion AB only is given by q × (area of IL diagram over AB as shown shaded).2. Here. for maximum negative value it should cover the portion AB and CD (Figure 1. to show how they can be utilized successfully in structural engineering.3 PROPERTIES OF INFLUENCE LINES Here.

Example 1.1 Draw the influence line diagram for bending moment at point P of the simply supported beam AB. shown in Figure 1. Case (ii) : Load between P and B (Figure 1. bending moment at P is MP = RA · 4 = 8 10 − x ×4 10 . and also how they are used in actual practice.3(c)) with IL ordinate = 0 at A (where x = 0) and IL ordinate = 2.4 INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM FOR BENDING MOMENT (SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM) In the following examples. influence line diagram for bending moment and shear force of some common structures are shown.4 B' P″ (c) Influence Line Diagram for M P Figure 1.4 at point P (where x = 4 m).3. x A 4m 6m 1 P B (a) Unit Load between A and P x A P B (b) Unit Load between P and B P' A' 2.3 Solution Case (i) : Load between A and P (Figure 1. then BM at P is MP = RA·4 – 1 × (4 – x) = 10 − x 6x × 4 − (4 − x) = 10 10 This is a straight line A΄P″ (Figure 1.3 (a)) If the unit load lies between A and P taking moment of forces to left of P.3 (b)) When the load crosses the point P to the right.Theory of Structures-I 1.

2 B' P'’ (a) Figure 1. i. Hence.2 Influence Lines Two connected wheels (wheel base = 3 m) cross the beam in Figure 1.6 = 54 kN m. BM at P will be MP = 20 × 1. the total BM at point P due to the two wheels will be MP = 20 × 2.e.4 (at point P).6 .This is again a straight line P″ B′ and the influence line ordinate is 10 − 10 10 − 4 × 4 = 2. as shown in Figure 1. It is obvious that since the maximum ordinate of the IL diagram is 2. Example 1.4 = 48 kN m. either the front wheel is at P (Figure 1.4 (b) Solution The influence line diagram is the most convenient method to solve such problems. Both are discussed below : Case (i) : Front Wheel at Point P (Figure 1.e. i.4 × 3 = 1. The front wheel is carrying a load of 20 kN and the rear wheel 10 kN. There can be two possibilities. Case (i) will give the bigger value of bending moment.4 from left to right. 4 – 3 = 1 m to right of A).4 (a)) or the rear wheel is at P (Figure 1. 2.4 (b)).4 × 1 = 0. Find the maximum bending moment at point P due to these wheels.4 at P.4 1.4(b)) The front wheel F will be at F. and at B the IL ordinate is ×4= 0.4(a)) Rear wheel R will be 3 m to left of it (i. 3 m to right of it. 9 . The ordinate at R (from similar triangles) is equal to Case (ii) : When Rear Wheel is at P (Figure 1.6 P' 2.e.2 6 Hence. Now by 4 Property (b) of the IL diagrams. This will be the maximum bending moment at P due to the wheels crossing across the span. the maximum value of the bending moment will be obtained when one of the wheels is placed on this point P. The ordinate at F will be 2.4(a) and it will be 54 kN m.3(c). 10 kN 20 kN 10 kN 20 kN F B P 6m 4m 3m 3m 6m A R 3m 1m 4m F P B A R A' 0.2 + 10 × 2. 10 10 This is shown in Figure 1.4 + 10 × 0.4 P'’ B' A' P' 2.

it can be seen that as the influence line diagram for bending moment at P (MP) is positive over the whole span AB. the moving udl has to cover the entire span for maximum value.6 . find the maximum bending moment at P. what will be the maximum bending moment at P? Solution 3 kN/m A 4m P 6m B (a) A' 2.4 ⎛1 ⎞ If the uniformly distributed load crossing the span in Figure 1.3 For the beam in Figure 1. A 4m P B 6m (a) x M A' 2.5.4 q = 3 kN/m B' P' (b) ILD for M P Figure 1.5 is smaller than the span.5 In Figure 1. Hence.Theory of Structures-I Example 1.4 M' P' N' P (4 – x) N B' (b) ILD for M P 10 Figure 1.5 if a uniformly distributed load (udl) of 3 kN/m longer than the span crosses it from left to right.4 × 10 ⎟ = 36 kNm . say 4 m long. by Property (d) of the IL Diagram as stated above the maximum MP = (Intensity of loading) × (Area of IL Diagram) = 3 × ⎜ × 2. ⎝2 ⎠ Example 1.

MM΄ = 0. the hatched area of the IL diagram is composed of two trapeziums MM΄P΄P and NN΄P΄P. the bending moment at P is given by.6) = 1.6x – 0.44 NN΄ = 0. Now.4 + 1.6 × 1. Obviously. we see that under the above conditions the value of the influence line ordinates at the two ends of the loads are equal. then PN = 4 – x (Figure 1.5 (1.44 Thus.4 m is towards its right and the value of the maximum blending moment will be given from Eq. MM΄ = 0. This hints to determine the value of x easily without going through the process of differentiation etc. such that MP = x.5 × 2x) = 0 giving x = 1.6(4 − x) 2.6) = 2.4 + 0. And then we can proceed with finding out the areas etc.6 m of the moving load is towards its left and (4 – 1.6 (4 – 1.4 (2 + x) = 0.2) dM P =0 dx Now MP will be maximum when Differentiating Eq. 3 × (1.6 (4 – x) and NN΄ = 0.4 + 1. Hence. near the point P itself. 11 .4 + 0. Let us assume that the load occupies a position MN covering either side of P. MP = 3 × [6.4 (2 + x) 6 2. . Since the ordinate PP΄ = 2. by similar triangles Ordinate MM΄ = Ordinate NN΄ = ∴ 2. that is.6 – 0. x = 1.5x2 ∴ MP = (Load intensity) × (Area of IL diagram) = 3 × (6. we must have MM ′ = NN ′ From the above equation. (1.6)2] = 45.6 – 0.6) = 1.6 (4 – x) and 4 2. It is interesting to compare the value of the two end ordinates MM΄ and NN΄ of the influence line diagram when the load occupies the maximum BM position.4 + 1. (1.6 (4 – x) = 0.2).6 x – 0.2) above.6 m.Solution Influence Lines Here.312 kNm.6(b)). MP = (Intensity of load) × (Hatched area of IL diagram below the load). the maximum value of MP will occur when the moving load is passing over the region where the ordinates are largest. By Property (d).4. when the maximum BM at P occurs 1. .4 (2 +1.6 m.5x2) . we get. (1.4 [6 – (4 – x)] = 0.4(2 + x) x+ (4 − x) 2 2 Area MM΄N΄N = = 6.4 (2 + x) For maximizing the area.4 × (4 – x) = 0. For example. the moving load can cover only a portion of the whole span.

3). Hence. a 10 10 shear force is negative when the left hand portion of the beam tends to move downward. the shear force in this case will be negative and will depend upon the value of x (i. For illustration we take the same beam and the same point P as in Example 1.6 ⊕ A' P – 0. Figure 1.Theory of Structures-I 1. its distance from A). By our sign convention. The ordinate of the diagram will be zero then the load is at A (x = 0) and it will be 12 .4 P'' B' (c) ILD for SF at P. x A 4m 1 P B 6m (a) x A 4m P B 6m (b) P' + 0. for which we now proceed to draw the shear force influence line diagram. then considering forces to left of P. Example 1. reactions R A = 10 10 Case (a) : If the unit load is between the points A and P.5 Draw the influence line diagram for shear force at point P in the simply supported beam AB of span 10 m. P is 4 m from the support A. Shear force at P = RA – 1 = 10 − x x − 1 = − . the 10 − x x .1 (Figure 1. and R B = as determined earlier.5 INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM FOR SHEARING FORCE (SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM) Next. we shall study how to draw the influence line diagram for shear force in a simply supported beam.e.7 Solution Let us assume that the moving unit load is at a distance x from A.

6 Find the maximum positive and negative shear force at point P in beam of Figure 1.6 A' P' + 0. ordinate = 10 − 10 =0.e.8 which is crossed by two connected wheel loads 3 m aparts moving from right to left.3 B' (c) Figure 1. Example 1.8 13 . 10 kN Q A 3m 4m 20 kN P 6m B 0.4 when the rolling load is at P (i.6 10 Thus. x = 4). − Case (b) : When the unit load crosses to the right of the point P and lies between P and B.6 A' –0. which is also a straight line P˝ B such that the ordinate at 10 Influence Lines P (when the unit load has just crossed to right) is equal to and it is zero when the unit load is at B.4 = − 0.6 B' P' 10 kN 3m P R 20 kN (b) + 0. The diagram will be a 10 straight line A΄P΄. then considering forces to left of P the shear force at 10 − x P = RA = .1 –0. 10 10 − 4 = + 0. The front wheel carries a load of 20 kN and the rear wheel 10 kN. we see that the shear force influence line consists of two parts : the part between A and P has negative ordinates and the part between P and B has positive ordinates.4 P' B' (a) A 10 kN 3m P P 20 kN R B Q’ A' – 0. showing that the SF changes sign as the unit rolling load crosses the point P.1 + 0.

4 and that at Q is – 0. due to following moving loads • • • (b) A uniformly distributed load of 4 kN/m longer than the span. Maximum Positive SF Here. P A B 3m 6m Figure 1.1) = 11 kN.6 and at R it is + 0. Hence. Hence. the maximum positive SF will be 12 kN.9). 14 . the heavier wheel (20 kN) should be placed just to the left of P. The ordinate of IL diagram at P is + 0.1 (by similar triangles). maximum negative shear force at P. SAQ 1 (a) Draw the influence line diagram for the bending moment at point P of the simply supported beam AB in Figure 1.8(b)).Theory of Structures-I Solution Maximum Negative SF For maximum negative shear force at P. The second position gives the higher value.4) + 10 (– 0. VP = 20 × (– 0. hence.1) = – 9 kN. A uniformly distributed load of 4 kN/m of 3 m length. (b) When the lighter wheel (10 kN) has just crossed to right of P and the front wheel (20 kN) is 3 m to right of it at R as in Figure 1.6) = 12 kN.3) + 10 × (+ 0.9. Hence the shear force VP = 20 × (+ 0. Draw the influence line for shear force at the same point P of the above beam (Figure 1. and the lighter wheel (10 kN) is at Q 3 m behind it (Figure 1.6) + 10 × (– 0. 3 m apart.3. shear force VP = 20 × (+ 0. Determine the maximum shear force at P for the same load combinations as given in SAQ 1(a) above.9 Using this diagram find the maximum bending moment at P. Two connected wheel loads of 10 kN each. the other wheel (10 kN) will then lie at Q which is 3 m to left of P (Figure 1.8(a)). two cases need to be examined (a) When the heavier wheel 20 kN is just crossed to right of P.8 (c). The ordinate of IL diagram at P is – 0.

10(b) and (c). In Figure 1.0. the fixed end moment MB = – 1 × (L – x) = – (L – x) and hence the influence line coordinates for MB varies from – L at A to 0 at B. However.10.0 B' (e) ILD for Shear Force VP Figure 1. (a) Influence Line Diagram for Support Reactions Influence Lines If a unit load moves from A to B along the beam. we shall explain how to draw the influence line diagrams for the support reactions and BM and SF at any point in a cantilever beam. (You should carefully observe that it is just opposite to the BM diagram due to an unit load at A. we shall draw the influence line diagram for bending moment (MP) at a point P which is at a distance ‘a’ from end A : When the load is between A and P the BM at P is 15 . Why?) B B The IL Diagrams are shown at Figures 1.0 A' ⊕ B' (b) ILD for Reaction RB –L A' B' (c) ILD for Support Moment MB –a P’ B' (d) ILD for Bending Moment MP P’ 1. the cantilever whose free end is A and fixed end B has a span of L. x A a L RB 1 P B MB (a) Cantilever with Rolling Unit Load 1.6 INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM FOR A CANTILEVER In this section.10 (b) Influence Line Diagram for Bending Moment at P Next. the vertical reaction RB at B remains constant and is equal to 1.1. You should verify all the steps yourself and try to solve the numerical examples given in the SAQ below which is based on this diagram.

16 . there is no load to left of it. moving from left to right. and a cantilever. This is shown in Figure 1. axial force support reactions etc. (c) Influence Line Diagram for Shear Force at P Next. SAQ 2 A cantilever 6 m span is free at end A and fixed at B. BM and SF at any point for a simply supported beam. A set of 3 connected wheel loads.Theory of Structures-I MP = – 1 × (a – x) = – (a – x) Hence. find the maximum SF and BM at P due to the following moving loads : (a) (b) A uniformly distributed load of 3 kN/m longer than the span. 3 m from free end A. 10 kN 30 kN 10 kN 1m 1m Figure 1.10(e). as shown in Figure 1.7 SUMMARY In this unit.11 1. the ordinate of the IL diagram is – a when x = 0 (at point A) and it is 0 when x = a (at point P). In the next unit. you have learnt how to find the values of a structural quantity (BM. You have also learnt to draw the IL diagrams for support reactions. thus.) for a unit moving load by means of influence line diagrams.11. learnt the properties of the influence line diagram and its uses. You have. we will study theorem of three moments applied to fixed and continuous beams. the shear force (considering loads to left of P) is VP = – 1 (downwards ∴ negative) As soon as the load crosses P to the right of P.10(d). Using influence line diagrams for a point P. SF. shown in Figure 1. hence VP = 0. we draw the influence line for shear force (VP) at P : When the load is between A and P. As soon as the load crosses over P to the right hand side the BM at P = 0 and remains as such till the end.

0 + 1.1.8 ANSWERS TO SAQs SAQ 1 Influence Lines (a) A 3m P 6m B ILD for MP + 2.0 (ii) N′ 10 kN 3m 3m + 2.0 10 kN 3−x M 4/3 x N 4/3 3+x M′ 3m (iii) (i) Position of moving load for maximum Mp M P (max) = (Area of ILD) × (Intensity of loading) ⎛1 ⎞ = ⎜ × 2.0 × 9 ⎟ × 4 = 36 kNm ⎝2 ⎠ (ii) Position of load for maximum MP Ordinate MM′ = Ordinate NN′ 2 2 (3 − x) = (3 + x) 3 6 giving x = 1 m and ordinates = 4/3 ∴ M P (max) = (Shaded area) × (Load intensity) ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜3 +2 ⎟ =⎜ × 3 ⎟ × 4 = 5 m 2 × 4 kN/m = 20 kNm 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 17 .0 (i) 4 kN/m 3−x + 2.0 4 kN/m + 2.

loads V p (max) = 10 × 2 1 + 10 × = 10 kN 3 3 18 SAQ 2 .Theory of Structures-I (iii) Position of connected loads for maximum MP M P (max) = 10 × 2 + 10 × 1 = 30 kNm (b) + 2/3 A 3m P B − 1/3 6m (i) 3m + 2/3 A 3m P − 1/3 3m 1/3 Q B 3m (ii) 10 kN 10 kN + 2/3 A 3m − 1/3 3m + 1/3 3m B (iii) (i) For udl VP (+) is max when PB is covered ⎛1 2 ⎞ V p (max) = ⎜ × × 6 ⎟ × 4 = + 8 kN ⎝2 3 ⎠ VP (–) is max when AP is covered only ⎛1 1 ⎞ V p (max) = − ⎜ × × 3 ⎟ × 4 = − 2 kN ⎝2 3 ⎠ (ii) For udl of 3 m length PQ is covered V p (max) = Area × Intensity ⎛1 2 ⎞ ⎜2× 3 ⎟ =⎜ × 3 ⎟ × 4 = 6 kN 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (iii) For two connected conc.

5 kNm ⎝2 ⎠ VP (max) = (1 × 3) × 3 = 9 kN Case (b) Considering the following three cases for MP 10 kN 10 kN 30 kN P –1 1m 30 kN 1m 3m B –3 A –2 1m 10 kN –3 A –2 1m 2m P B 3m 30 kN –3 A 3m P 3m B In the first case. M P = − 10 × 3 − 10 × 2 − 30 × 1 = − 80 kNm M P = − 10 × 3 − 30 × 2 = − 90 kNm M P = − 30 × 3 = − 90 kNm So the second and third cases produce maximum BM of – 90 kNm.0 A 3m P 3m B ILD for VP Case (a) ⎛1 ⎞ M P (max) = ⎜ × 3 × 3 ⎟ × 3 = − 13. In the third case. ∴ VP (max) = 10 × 1 + 10 × 1 + 30 × 1 = 50 kN 19 . all the loads have the same result placed anywhere between A and P. as the diagram is rectangle. In the second case.0 A 3m P 3m B ILD for MP + 1. For SF.P A 3m B 3m Influence Lines – 3.

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