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Outside Plant Communications Distribution Design Guide
May 25, 2001
Conley Engineering, Inc.
Consulting Electrical Engineers
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES...............................................................................................II LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................. II INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 1 DOCUMENT INTENT.......................................................................................................................1 TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION................................................................................................................2
NEW CONSTRUCTION OVERBUILD CONSTRUCTION BASIC CONSTRUCTION
DESIGNER QUALIFICATIONS AND DESIGN STANDARDS........................................4 DESIGNER QUALIFICATIONS............................................................................................................4 DESIGN STANDARDS.....................................................................................................................4
REFERENCES , STANDARDS , AND CODES MANUFACTURERS DEVIATION FROM STANDARDS
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS..................................................................................7 OVERVIEW..................................................................................................................................7
TELECOMMUNICATIONS OUTSIDE PLANT MASTER PLAN DEFINITION OF TERMS PATHWAY SYSTEM......................................................................................................................10 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS UNDERGROUND CABLE VAULTS (UCVS) DUCTS (CONDUIT ) DUCTBANKS COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA............................................................................................................21 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS GROUNDING AND BONDING MEDIA TYPES TERMINATION LABELING AND ADMINISTRATION ENTRANCE FACILITIES.................................................................................................................25 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS GROUNDING AND BONDING
APPENDICES.................................................................................................... 26 APPENDIX 1 — CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS....................................................................................26 APPENDIX 2 — BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES............................................................................27
© 2013 Conley Engineering, Inc.
FIGURES AND TABLES
1 2 3 4 5 6
— — — — — — TWO-LEVEL HIERARCHICAL STAR TOPOLOGY ...................................7 TYPICAL UCV DETAIL ....................................................................11 SPLAYED DUCT ENTRY/EXIT............................................................12 CORRECT AND INCORRECT DUCT ENTRY/EXIT FROM A UCV .............13 DUCT ENTRANCES IN A UCV ..........................................................17 TYPICAL 4X4 DUCTBANK DETAILS...................................................20
FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE
1 2 3 4
REFERENCES, STANDARDS, AND CODES ............................................5 DEFINITION OF TERMS......................................................................8 DUCT TYPES AND USAGE.................................................................15 DUCTBANK MINIMUM SEPARATIONS................................................18
TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE
— — — —
© 2013 Conley Engineering, Inc.
etc. Building Entrance Facilities This document is not intended to serve as a Master Specification nor for stand-alone use on design build projects — it is to be used in conjunction with the CWU Outside Plant Communications Distribution System Master Specification. plan drawings and schematic diagrams will also need to be produced by the designer. and video communications with common media (fiber optic and unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper cable). © 2013 Conley Engineering.) to ensure that other systems are both compatible with and complementary to the communications cabling system. In general. DOCUMENT INTENT This document addresses outside plant communications distribution system design as it relates to: • • • Pathway System – underground cable vaults (UCV’s). will be reflected in a system specification based upon the CWU Outside Plant Communications Distribution System Master Specification. rather than attempting to make adjustments in the field during construction. This document should serve as a guide for making standards compliant design decisions which. it has been updated to reflect the methods. Inc. This document was originally produced (in 1999) based on industry standards and practices. mechanical. Outside plant communications distribution systems designed for CWU are expected to support and integrate voice. electrical. it is the responsibility of the outside plant communications distribution designer to coordinate with the other designers on a project (architecture. etc. ducts (conduits). and designers working for CWU with a guide for the design of outside plant (OSP) communications distribution systems that accurately reflect CWU and industry standards in effect as of this publication.INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to provide CWU staff. Under the current revision. ductbanks. in due course. data. Communications Media – fiber and UTP copper media. In addition to specifications for a telecommunications project. as well as consulting architects. CWU’s design philosophy is that it is critical to coordinate between disciplines during the design phase of a project. The updated document also reflects changes in industry practice as of this publication. 1 . The drawings should conform to the guidelines contained in this document. as well as the telecommunications practices in use at that time at CWU. engineers. materials and standards that have been used to for providing telecommunications services to the existing Residence Hall facilities.
this document is not intended to replace or detract from the Customer-Owned Outside Plant Design Manual (CO-OSP) produced and distributed by BICSI. and the addition of new pathway and/or media to existing pathway and/or media. new pathway will be constructed and new communications media will be installed in the pathway. renovation. 2 . this document is to be used in conjunction with the CO-OSP in order to reinforce selected CO-OSP content as well as highlight any differences between CO-OSP and CWU standards. reference will be made to three types of construction: new. will make reference next to the text. This This is an example of a reference number refers to a comment in a special to the text at the left Construction Reference box to the right of the text (see the example at right). a superscripted circular number. Different design approaches may be warranted given differing types of construction. overbuild and basic construction. Tradeoffs between design standards and practicality will many times be dependent upon the type of construction. such as this CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE . addition. The three types of construction are defined below. TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION Throughout this document. remodel.INTRODUCTION In addition. NEW CONSTRUCTION New construction is defined as construction that results in a new (or new portion of an existing) outside plant communications distribution system. Construction of a new outside plant communications distribution system as well as the addition to and/or modification of an existing outside plant communications distribution system are considered to be included in these construction projects. reuse of existing pathway for installation of new communications media. A recent CWU project with components that typify this type of construction is: • Electrical Utility Upgrade Phase 1 – (1999-2001) OVERBUILD CONSTRUCTION Overbuild construction is defined as construction which may include demolition and/or abandonment of existing pathway and communications media. For the most part. 1 Rather. and retrofit. Common terms referring to this type of construction include expansion. Inc. These definitions are applicable to the purposes of this document only. among others. 1 The CO-OSP is probably the first widely distributed industry reference text for the design of standards compliant outside plant communications distribution systems. Where the type of construction is applicable to the current discussion. © 2013 Conley Engineering.
basic construction is focused on the installation of new communications media with no (or very minor) modifications made to the existing pathway system.INTRODUCTION BASIC CONSTRUCTION Basic construction is defined as construction that includes reuse of existing distribution pathway for the installation of new communications media. Recent CWU projects with components that typify this type of construction are: • • Campus Fiber Optic Backbone (FOB) – (1999-2001) Residential Network (RESNET) – (1999-2001) © 2013 Conley Engineering. In general. 3 . Inc. Demolition of existing communications media may be involved as well.
DESIGNER QUALIFICATIONS AND DESIGN STANDARDS DESIGNER QUALIFICATIONS AND DESIGN STANDARDS DESIGNER QUALIFICATIONS It is required that all outside plant communications distribution system designs executed on the behalf of CWU be designed by a Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) as certified by BICSI 2. The RCDD shall demonstrate that he/she has designed or has had personal design oversight of a minimum of five projects similar in size and construction cost to the current CWU project. 8610 Hidden River Pkwy. Tampa. or installation experience.) in the electrical engineering field • RCDD/LAN certification from BICSI • MCSE certification from Microsoft Corporation 3 In addition. This means that the design project shall be managed under the direct supervision of an RCDD on the consultant’s staff. among others. Inc. One Microsoft Way.E. and NEC codes. The RCDD shall be completely familiar and conversant with the standards listed below. project management. www. The RCDD shall not be affiliated with any manufacturer associated with the communications distribution system industry. such as sales and/or marketing.org 3 Microsoft Corporation. the Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual (TDMM) also produced by BICSI. Project related communications between CWU and the consultant shall be mainly through the RCDD. WA 98052-6399.bicsi. ANSI/TIA/EIA and ISO/IEC standards. 1-800-242-7405. (425) 882-8080. www. is not acceptable. FL 33612-6415. In addition to the RCDD certification. STANDARDS. 2 BICSI. the RCDD shall have the following qualifications: • The RCDD shall demonstrate a minimum of 5 years of experience in the design of outside plant communications distribution systems. AND CODES CWU standards are based upon the Customer-Owned Outside Plant Design Manual (CO-OSP) produced by BICSI.microsoft.com/mcse © 2013 Conley Engineering. Experience not directly related to the design of outside plant communications distribution systems. Tampa. 4 . it is desirable that the RCDD have the following qualifications: • Professional Engineer (P. Redmond. FL 33637-1000 USA. • • • DESIGN STANDARDS REFERENCES.
607 TIA/EIA . Also of use to the Designer are the references listed in Appendix 2 – Bibliography and References. CWU has selected several manufacturers of communications cabling infrastructure products. TABLE 1 — REFERENCES. RCW 19. As each of these documents are modified over time.606 TIA/EIA . and codes and that the Designer be capable of applying the content and intent of these references. standards. or code should apply in a given situation. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 1910 .DESIGNER QUALIFICATIONS AND DESIGN STANDARDS It is required that the Designer be thoroughly familiar with the content and intent of these references. including the IEEE 802. and codes applicable to outside plant communications systems design. the latest edition and addenda to each of these documents is considered to be definitive. STANDARDS.455 TIA/EIA . the more stringent shall prevail. IEEE Department of Labor and Industries.758 TIA/EIA .526 IEEE 802.3 (series) NEC NESC L&I OSHA Codes AND CODES Name/Description BICSI Customer-Owned Outside Plant Design Manual BICSI Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual BICSI Telecommunications Cabling Installation Manual Customer-Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Cabling Standard Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunication Pathways and Spaces The Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial Buildings Commercial Building Grounding and Bonding Requirements for Telecommunications Fiber Optic Test Standards Optical Fiber Systems Test Procedures Local Area Network Ethernet Standard. standards. et al. and 1926 . standards. These manufacturers and their products are identified in the CWU Communications © 2013 Conley Engineering. Inc. standard. 5 .General Industry.Construction Industry.28. Interim Printing Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Listed in the table below are references.3z Gigabit Ethernet Standard National Electric Code. Standard/Reference BICSI CO-OSP BICSI TDMM BICSI TCIM TIA/EIA . Electrical Section. MANUFACTURERS In addition to the standards listed above. NFPA National Electrical Safety Code. and codes to all outside plant communications system designs executed on the behalf of CWU. If questions arise as to which reference.569 TIA/EIA . WAC 296-46 and WAC 296-401A.568 TIA/EIA .
technical or otherwise) for the deviation. If the Designer feels that deviation from a given standard is warranted. Inc. at a minimum. © 2013 Conley Engineering. upon written approval from CWU. incorporate the design deviation into the overall design. and to design a communications distribution system that will be suitable for the use of products from these manufacturers. and an explanation of the justifications (economic. indicate the standard from which there is a proposed deviation. the substitution being proposed in place of the standard. The outside plant communications distribution designer is required to incorporate only these manufacturers into the design. The request will. CWU approval is required on a project-by-project basis. the reason the request is being made. DEVIATION FROM STANDARDS It is not the intent of CWU to rigidly impose standards on every aspect of an outside plant communications system design.DESIGNER QUALIFICATIONS AND DESIGN STANDARDS Distribution System Master Specification. The Designer should not assume that a deviation approval for one project means that the deviation will necessarily be approved for a subsequent project. the Designer shall submit a written deviation request to CWU. The Designer may. 6 . Each design is unique and each design may be subject to situations in which deviations from the standards are warranted.
.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW This section highlights design considerations of particular importance to CWU. It also discusses differing CWU standards given the type of construction (new. This plan provides a 10-year strategy for the use and expansion of the underground telecommunications pathways on the CWU campus. The Master Plan calls for the campus to be subdivided into nine areas called Building Clusters. overbuild. 7 © 2013 Conley Engineering. FIGURE 1 — TWO-LEVEL HIERARCHICAL STAR TOPOLOGY Com m Center Building Cluster Hub Building Clus ter Hub Building Clus ter Hub Building Building Building Building Building Building Building Building Building Please refer to the Master Plan – Overview drawing in the CWU Telecommunications Pathway Outside Plant Master Plan for more detail. DEFINITION OF TERMS The table below defines and clarifies common terms that will be used throughout this section — it is expected that the Designer is already familiar with these terms. Inc. Each building within a cluster is connected with telecommunications pathway to a building within the cluster that will serve as the Building Cluster Hub. The Building Cluster Hubs are in turn connected with telecommunications pathway to the Communications Center. as well as CWU standards that may differ from the standards listed previously in Table 1. below. TELECOMMUNICATIONS OUTSIDE PLANT MASTER PLAN Each design performed on the behalf of CWU shall conform to and integrate with the CWU Telecommunications Pathway Outside Plant Master Plan . This configuration is based upon a TIA/EIA standard two-level hierarchical star topology such as that shown in Figure 1. or basic) for a particular project.
“UCV” collectively refers to manholes. Customer-Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Cabling Standard © 2013 Conley Engineering. or UCV’s. BICSI. A single enclosed raceway (conduit) used for the routing of cables. Earth material used specifically for filling and grading excavations back to a finished state. An underground cable vault (part of an underground duct system) used to facilitate placing. The Communications Center. and TIA/EIA – 758. Earth materials used specifically to level and grade an excavation’s subgrade for the subsequent placement of encased ductbanks. Backfill is placed on top of the bedding surrounding encased ductbanks and direct-buried conduits. Earth material used specifically for filling excavations. The interface between the premises (in-building) communications distribution system and the outside plant communications distribution system and services (such as the public telephone network or inter-building (campus) backbone cabling. Base material is placed on top of the subgrade and beneath the bedding surrounding encased ductbanks. A centralized building on the CWU campus that serves as a pathway hub for the Building Cluster Hubs. and UCV’s. Splicing and/or equipment are not permitted in • Manholes • Handholes/Pullholes 4 Many of these definitions are excerpted or modified from original definitions from: BICSI. and maintaining telecommunications cables and associated equipment. Inc. Customer-Owned Outside Plant Design Manual. and pullholes. Telecommunications Distribution Methods (TDMM) Manual. Handholes/pullholes are used for the placement of cable only. conduits. A group of buildings connected via pathway in a star topology to a Building Cluster Hub (see below). A small underground cable vault in which it is expected that a person cannot completely enter to perform work. and individual buildings are connected together with pathway in a two-level hierarchical star topology as shown in Figure 1. Bedding is placed on top of the Base (if a Base exists) and beneath the backfill. Building Cluster Hubs. An arrangement of multiple ducts. connectorizing. A building that serves as a pathway hub for the buildings in its Building Cluster. connecting hardware and cable and equipment necessary to connect premises distribution to outside plant distribution. handholes. A large underground cable vault in which it is expected that a person can completely enter to perform work.) The EF consists of protection hardware. usually in tiers. direct-buried conduit. or UCV’s. Bedding is placed around encased ductbank. conduits. 8 .DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS TABLE 2 — DEFINITION Term Backbone Backfill OF TERMS 4 Base Bedding Building Cluster Building Cluster Hub Communications Center Duct Ductbank Entrance Facility (EF) Underground Cable Vault (UCV) Definition Pathway or cable between buildings.
© 2013 Conley Engineering.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS handholes/pullholes. Inc. 9 .
The field survey shall include. © 2013 Conley Engineering. Documentation of where the telecommunications pathway will require coordination with pathway used for other utilities. CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE This list is primarily applicable to New and Overbuild Construction. The Designer is expected to refer to the TIA/EIA standards and the BICSI CO-OSP and TDMM for other and more specific design criteria and detail. 5. 4. and replacement of cabling as technology changes. A well-designed pathway system contributes more to reducing the total cost of ownership of an outside plant communications distribution system than does any other single component. paved areas. Investigate adverse ground conditions and obstructions (such as buildings. Prior to design. Notation of the condition. the design of pathway shall conform to the TIA/EIA standard two-level hierarchical star topology as defined in the CWU Telecommunications Pathway Outside Plant Master Plan . maintenance. and diagrams showing the locations of existing pathway. 3. Items to review should include proposed pathway routing. UCV’s. and any unique requirements specific to the project. 2. ducts. and building entrances likely to be used during the course of the project.) and any significant changes in grade along the proposed pathway. 10 . aesthetic requirements. which could be affected by the design. A thorough review of existing records and a comparison of these records against actual field conditions. After the requirements review. items 1 and 2 are applicable to Basic Construction as well. However. etc. and ductbanks) is the foundational component of the outside plant communications distribution system. Inc. etc. future expansion. suitability. trees. Notation of the existing paving types and the type of material used as a base below the paving along the proposed route. the Designer is expected to meet with CWU and review CWU’s requirements for the project.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS PATHWAY SYSTEM The pathway system (underground cable vaults. A pathway system designed with foresight provides for ease of administration. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS As discussed previously. This section describes design considerations for the pathway system that are of particular concern to CWU. a thorough and detailed field investigation shall be conducted. but should not be limited to: 1. long range plans that CWU has regarding new and existing buildings. opens spaces.
Splayed duct entry facilitates racking and minimizes bending of the © 2013 Conley Engineering. MANHOLE COVER WITH "COMMUNICATIONS" EMBOSSED IN CASTING. and handholes/pullholes are installed for subsidiary ductbanks (i. ductbanks serving small clusters of buildings or a single building).DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 6. and splicing of cables. Notation of the most desirable locations for new underground cable vaults (UCV’s) and ductbank routes. UNDERGROUND CABLE VAULTS (UCVS) UCVs provide accessible space in an outside plant pathway system for the pulling.e. FOR TURF AREAS.e.1") MINIMUM 6" 4'-8" MINIMUM 6" The quantity of duct entrances in a UCV should be sized for both immediate and future requirements. ductbanks used for routing large portions of the telecommunications system backbone). The discussion below focuses on specific design considerations for the major components of the pathway system: UCV’s. CONCRETE. Typically. 11 . PROVIDE NEW SOD. Adequate capacity for future duct entrances will mitigate the need for future wall breakouts. as well as any alternative locations and routes. manholes are installed for main ductbanks (i. Detailed design should commence only after the field survey has been conducted and reviewed by CWU. placing. above). as well as for maintenance and operations equipment. OR ASPHALT). ducts. and ductbanks. Inc. FIGURE 2 — TYPICAL UCV DETAIL RESTORE FINISHED GRADE TO EXISTING CONDITION (TURF. UCVs configured for splayed duct entrances (rather than center entrances) are preferred. UCV’s are also used to segment the pathway system into lengths compatible with standard reel lengths for outside plant cable and to conform to maximum pathway lengths as defined in the TIA/EIA standards. Underground cable vaults consist of manholes and handholes/pullholes (see Table 2. Additionally. STENCIL MANHOLE NUMBER IN 3" LETTERS ON COVER IMPORTED BACKFILL (95% COMPACTED) UNDISTURBED EARTH 4'-0" GROUT ENVELOPE (TYPICAL) CONDUIT ( TYPICAL ) CONDUIT END BELL FLUSH MOUNTED (TYPICAL) 6" TO 1'-0" GRAVEL EXCAVATION BOTTOM (SMOOTH TO +/. UCV’s are also sometimes referred to as maintenance holes.
The Designer is to ensure that the design of the endwall and sidewall duct entry in a UCV will in no way hinder the proper installation and maintenance of the cable using the ducts. © 2013 Conley Engineering. 12 . However. Refer to the Figure below for more detail regarding this requirement. and can increase construction costs during cable installation. FIGURE 3 — SPLAYED DUCT ENTRY/EXIT 4 " C O N D U IT (T Y P IC A L ) UC V P L A N V IE W When designing duct entry and exit from a UCV. Inc. If possible. If sidewall duct entry is necessary. CWU recognizes that sidewall duct entry may be necessary or even desirable at times. the Designer shall ensure that ducts enter and exit at diagonally opposite corners rather than at endwall or sidewall midpoints. can complicate (or hinder) future cable maintenance. may cause minimum cable bend radii to be exceeded. ducts entering the sidewalls of a UCV should be avoided. given that sidewall entry may reduce overall racking space.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS communications cable. An example of splayed duct entry/exit is shown in the figure below. it is desirable to have ducts enter and exist from opposite ends of the UCV.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FIGURE 4 — CORRECT AND INCORRECT DUCT ENTRY/EXIT FROM A UCV C O M M U N IC A T IO N S C O M M U N IC A T IO N S 4 " C O N D U IT (T Y P IC A L ) UC V (T Y P IC A L ) C O R R E C T (P R E F E R R E D ) C O R R E C T (A C C E P T A B L E ) C O M M U N IC A T IO N S C O M M U N IC A T IO N S C O M M U N IC A T IO N S IN C O R R E C T IN C O R R E C T IN C O R R E C T © 2013 Conley Engineering. Inc. 13 .
In no instance are joint-use UCVs permissible. By doing so. If this is the case. placing. In general. Top slabs for UCV’s shall be flush with the ground. 14 © 2013 Conley Engineering. Ductbank depth. If a deep collar is unavoidable and the depth of the collar will exceed 24 inches. Actual size may be as much as a foot or more larger in any direction. and for providing accessible space for cable maintenance and operation equipment.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Other important design considerations for UCVs are: • • • • A UCV shall not be shared between telecommunications and any other utility (such as electrical). and splicing cables. below). Handholes should not be used in place of manholes or for splicing cables. All UCV’s should be equipped with provisions for grounding and bonding. Diamond plate hinged or removable covers are not acceptable for manholes. a typical manhole size is 5’ wide x 8’ long x 7’ high (exterior dimensions). and a sump. the need for a deep collar (neck) will be eliminated. For reference purposes. The primary use of a handhole/pullhole is to segment the pathway system. The following discussion of manholes and handhole/pullholes is primarily applicable to New and Overbuild Construction. lighting and ventilation can be maintained at a normal level. A handhole should be used if it is shown that a manhole is not required and if one or more of the following conditions exist: • • When the bends in a section of duct will exceed 180-degrees (see Ducts. obstructions. struts for racking. Inc. powered devices shall not be installed in UCV’s. Additionally. HANDHOLES/PULLHOLES Handholes/pullholes are used to facilitate cable placement in a pathway system. below). MANHOLES Manholes are used for pulling. When the length of the section of duct will exceed the TIA/EIA standard maximum length (see Ducts. Design considerations unique to each type of UCV (manholes and handholes/pullholes) are discussed CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE below. the roof of the manhole shall be placed at normal depth and riser extensions shall be used to increase the depth of the manhole. and other utility pathways may necessitate placement of a manhole below normal depth. pulling eyes. . the Designer shall obtain written permission from CWU and ensure that the collar is equipped with permanent galvanized steps (rungs).
Transitions at building entrances If the design utilizes any existing pathway. Acceptable proving methods are. This method does not prove that a duct is adequate for a given number of cables. DUCTS (CONDUIT) CWU has standardized on 4” conduits for telecommunications ducts. © 2013 Conley Engineering. • Ducts containing fiber optic cabling serving the power distribution system metering equipment shall be 1½” conduit. in order of preference: • • • Pushing/pulling a test mandrel through the duct Blowing/pushing/pulling a ball through the duct Pulling on a previously installed pull cord and observing free movement on both ends. It is left to the Designer to select the appropriate method for proving a given duct. Proving the ducts prior to construction will not only aid the Designer in selecting the appropriate pathway for use. The proving method should be selected only after determining the quantity and size of the communications media to be placed in the duct and after reviewing the condition of the duct in the field.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS For reference purposes. and labor during installation of the communications media. however it does suggest that the duct is probably not completely obstructed. with the following two exceptions: • Ducts containing cables that serve the Blue Light Emergency Telephones shall be 1½” conduit. it will also minimize unexpected (and costly) problems or delays during construction. In general. Inc. The type of conduit to be used is dependent upon the application as shown in the following table. 15 . cable splices. TABLE 3 — DUCT TYPES Conduit Type Schedule 40 PVC Schedule 80 PVC Rigid Galvanized Steel PVC Coated Steel AND USAGE Usage Encased in concrete Direct-buried Exposed Direct-buried. longer contiguous ducts equate to lower construction costs. see below) in order to minimize the use of intermediary UCV’s. DUCT LENGTH The length of each ductbank segment should be as long as possible (without exceeding the TIA/EIA maximum distance. the existing ducts must be proven during design in order to ensure that the selected pathway is clear and serviceable. a handhole/pullhole is defined to be an underground cable vault sized 4’ wide x 4’ long x 4’ high (exterior dimensions) or smaller.
The requirements of TIA/EIA 569A. In order to minimize the sidewall pressure exerted on cable sheaths at bend points. Longer runs will therefore tolerate fewer bends. A duct section may have no more than CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE the equivalent of two 90-degree bends (a This requirement may be waived total of 180 degrees) between pull for Basic Construction. as the number of bends in a pathway increases. the Designer should base the pathway system design on an initial segment length budget of approximately 300 feet. In addition. Figure C. Where this is not possible. than 10 feet are not permissible. The Designer include kicks and offsets. the maximum length of the pathway will decrease. In addition. If a smaller radius is absolutely necessary. DUCT ENTRANCES IN UCV’ S OR BUILDINGS Duct entrances in a UCV should be as perpendicular as possible. the Designer should ensure that the Contractor installs a smooth inner radius of grout between the UCV and the conduit bell. exceed this rule. Factory manufactured conduit bends should be used wherever possible. The 180-degree maximum shall existing pathway may. 16 . the Designer can demonstrate that the pulling tension of a typical communications cable making use of the duct will not be exceeded during installation. BENDS The Designer shall ensure that bends consist of a single arc of a minimum15-foot radius. due to cable pulling tension constraints. and designed in as straight a line as possible. at times. intermediary UCV’s must be installed. rather than in the middle or at the pulling end. should note on the Construction two 90-degree bends separated by less Documents where such conditions exist. Inc. the Designer should ensure that bends with the most severe radii occur at the beginning (feed end) of a duct section. the radius shall be no less than 10 times the internal diameter of the duct. as shown in the figure below: © 2013 Conley Engineering. CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE This requirement may be waived at times for New and Overbuild Construction given the following conditions: the duct run is straight. An individual bend shall not exceed 90 degrees. Duct sections exceeding this distance will require the installation of intermediate UCV’s. Where it is not possible to construct a section of duct within the 180-degree bend maximum.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The maximum duct length (between UCV’s and/or buildings) permissible according to the TIA/EIA 758 standard is 600 ft. The use of 90-degree elbows or condulets (LB’s) is not permissible.5-2 should be met when calculating maximum section lengths. In general. Older points.
Ducts that enter from a horizontal orientation should immediately off-load into a horizontal raceway system. DUCTBANKS Ductbank consists of an arrangement of multiple ducts constructed in tiers. a duct exiting a UCV in a given position should enter the next UCV in the same relative position. Concrete encased ducts entering a CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE building shall transition to PVC coated If in some extreme case. unless extenuating circumstances warrant. However. direct-buried conduit ductbanks are not permissible. the ducts should enter at the lower level in order to ensure that upper space is reserved for future duct entrances. and 4 ducts wide by 2. If (in the opinion of a structural engineer) rigid steel is unnecessary. the Designer should ensure that all PVC bends are encased in concrete. without concrete encasement. CWU allows ductbank to be constructed rigid steel using one 10’ stick of conduit . then this requirement could be waived. In general. with full-length reinforcement and formed sides. © 2013 Conley Engineering. where the total number of ducts penetrating a UCV (or building entrance) is significantly less than the capacity of the UCV (or building entrance). 17 . CWU has standardized on ductbanks constructed of PVC conduits encased in concrete. or 4 ducts high. following the deviation request process described above. Typical ductbank arrangements are 2. due to settling on either side of the junction between the ductbank and the building footing. CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE Ducts used for Blue Light Emergency Telephones are not subject to this requirement. Inc.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FIGURE 5 — DUCT ENTRANCES IN A UCV PULLHOLE WALL PULLHOLE WALL BELL NON SHRINK GROUT CONCRETE ENCASEMENT BELL NON SHRINK GROUT GROUT ENVELOPE ( 12" MINIMUM DEPTH ) PULLHOLE WALL SMOOTH INNER-RADIUS OF GROUT BELL NON SHRINK GROUT GROUT ENVELOPE ( 12" MINIMUM DEPTH ) HORIZONTAL CONCRETE ENCASED DUCT PENETRATION INTO A UCV HORIZONTAL DUCT PENETRATION INTO A UCV ANGLED DUCT PENETRATION INTO A UCV Ducts should ideally enter UCV end walls at a point approximately halfway between the floor and the roof. the The purpose of the PVC coated rigid steel transition to PVC coated rigid steel should occur a minimum of 10’ is to reduce the chance of shear damage prior to the building. Additionally. Should the use of direct-buried PVC conduit ductbank be warranted. 3. The Designer shall ensure that the relative position of a duct (with respect to the side walls) is consistent as it enters and exits a UCV. 3.
Inc. TABLE 4 — DUCTBANK MINIMUM SEPARATIONS Structure Power or other duct Pipes (gas.000 sq. The quantity of ducts in a duct bank should meet the needs of the application at hand and provide for future expansion capability. The quantity of ducts to install within a ductbank will vary greatly depending upon the application. ductbank used for CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE telecommunications pathway should not be This may not be possible for Overbuild Construction. conduit should transition to PVC coated rigid steel a minimum of 10’ outside the footprint of the paved surface. 12 inches if in well tamped earth) Refer to the latest edition of the NEC/NESC (at the time of this writing: 12 inches if parallel. In keeping with this expectation and with the recommendations made in the CWU Telecommunications Pathway Outside Plant Master Plan. arranged 2 wide x 2 high. it is expected that the requirement for duct space will decrease over time. ft.) Minimum Separations5 Refer to the latest edition of the NEC/NESC (at the time of this writing: 3 inches if in concrete. Should shared ductbank be a necessity (rare situations requiring a deviation request). The Designer should therefore ensure that communications ductbank specifications (conduit spacing. 6 inches if crossing) Should future circumstances warrant. ft. ft.000 sq.000 sq. 5 Measured from outside to outside © 2013 Conley Engineering.000 sq. Budgetary constraints. water. oil. the Designer should ensure that adequate separation exists between duct used for telecommunications and duct used for other utilities. shared with other utilities. Refer to the table below for minimum separation distances. etc.: 6 ducts Buildings serving as a Building Cluster Hub: 6 ducts Pathway between Building Cluster Hubs and the Communications Center: 4 ducts Unless specifically noted above. It should be noted that these typical configurations should serve as a guideline only. with the increasing migration from copper cable to fiber optic cable on the CWU campus. ft. However. to 300. typical ductbank configurations are shown below. 18 . space limitations. In general. • • • • • Buildings up to 100. reinforcement.: 2 ducts Buildings 100. and various obstructions can make this difficult to achieve at times.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Where ductbank passes under paved surfaces capable of supporting motor vehicle traffic.: 4 ducts Buildings larger than 300. CWU might desire to convert concreteencased communications ductbank (not direct-buried ductbank) into electrical power ductbank. a typical ductbank will contain four ducts.
) conform to NEC requirements for power ductbank. place building ducts (subsidiary/lateral ducts) on top of the ducts for the main run. 19 . A drain slope of ¼” per foot is desirable if possible. provide a drain slope by sloping the first half of the ductbank up towards the midpoint. and then down from the midpoint to the end (sometimes referred to as a ‘center crown’). If building ducts are constructed concurrently with and in the same duct bank with a main duct run. Drain slope should exist at all points of the ductbank to allow drainage and prevent the accumulation of water. Drain slope requirements shall be identified in the Contract Documents – they shall not be left up to the discretion of the Contractor. Details for a typical four-conduit ductbank (2 wide x 2 high) are shown in the figure below: © 2013 Conley Engineering. If not possible due to inadequate natural slope or long duct runs. If no other option exists. Inc. makes the building ducts more accessible. etc.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS grounding requirements. This is economically advantageous. and affords some top protection for the main ducts. a drain slope of 3” per 100 feet is acceptable.
USE GRAVEL BACKFILL DUCTBANK DETAIL CONCRETE ENCASED DUCTBANK SECTION VIEW (END) MINIMUM 18" 3 1/2" CONDUIT SPACERS 5'-0" O. BOTTOM.C. DOWEL REBAR 6" INTO UCV AND FOUNDATION WALLS AND GROUT WITH EPOXY GROUT. CONTINUOUS ALONG FULL LENGTH OF DUCTBANK. IF EXISTING GRADE IS ASPHALT OR CONCRETE. AND SIDES FOR EVERY 3 CONDUITS HIGH AND 3 CONDUITS WIDE. #5 REBAR (LONGITUDINAL).) (TYPICAL .D. (TYPICAL) GRAVEL BEDDING (TYPICAL) 4" CONDUIT (4 1/2" O. PROVIDE INTERMEDIATE BARS ALONG TOP. MAINTAIN 1"-6" O. FOR TURF AREAS.) (TYPICAL . 20 .C. CONTINUOUS ALONG FULL LENGTH OF DUCTBANK. USE IMPORTED EARTH BACKFILL (95% COMPACTED). DOWEL REBAR 6" INTO UCV AND FOUNDATION WALLS AND GROUT WITH EPOXY GROUT. 3 1/2" 4 1/2" 3" 4" CONDUIT (4 1/2" O. PROVIDE INTERMEDIATE BARS ALONG TOP. MAINTAIN 1'-6" O.1") CONDUIT COUPLER (TYPICAL) 6" VERTICAL STAGGER 3'-0" MINIMUM CONDUIT STUB #5 REBAR HOOPS AT CONSTRUCTION JOINTS AND AT 5'-0" O. TYPICAL OF 4.SIZE. AND SIDES FOR EVERY 3 CONDUITS HIGH AND 3 CONDUITS WIDE. FOR INTERMEDIATE BARS. 6" 6" WIDE METALLIC WARNING TAPE IF EXISTING GRADE IS TURF OR EARTH.1") 4" 6" 1'-7" 6" #2 GROUND WIRE TRENCH AND ENCASEMENT DETAIL CONCRETE ENCASED DUCTBANK SECTION VIEW (END) #5 REBAR (LONGITUDINAL). PROVIDE 4" TOPSOIL AND NEW SOD. USE GRAVEL BACKFILL UNDISTURBED EARTH MINIMUM 18" 6" CONCRETE DUCTBANK (SEE DETAIL) 1'-7" IMPORTED BEDDING (90% COMPACTED) SAND BASE TRENCH BOTTOM (SMOOTH TO +/.C. #5 REBAR HOOPS AT CONSTRUCTION JOINTS AND AT 60" O.C.D. NUMBER. PROVIDE 4" TOPSOIL AND NEW SOD. IF EXISTING GRADE IS ASPHALT OR CONCRETE. AND ARRANGEMENT MAY VARY) CONDUIT SPACERS 5-0"' O. Inc. NUMBER AND ARRANGEMENT MAY VARY) 4 1/2" 3" 1'-7" 4 1/2" 2" 4" SAND BASE TRENCH BOTTOM (SMOOTH TO +/. (TYPICAL) 4 1/2" 3 1/2" 7 1/2" 3 1/2" 4 1/2" 3" 7 1/2" 4 1/2" 3 1/2" RESTORE FINISHED GRADE TO EXISTING CONDITION. BOTTOM. SAWCUT EXISTING GRADE A MINIMUM 6" WIDER THAN TRENCH WIDTH 6" WIDE METALLIC WARNING TAPE IF EXISTING GRADE IS TURF OR EARTH. (TYPICAL OF 2).SIZE.C. FOR TURF AREAS.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FIGURE 6 — TYPICAL 4X4 DUCTBANK DETAILS RESTORE FINISHED GRADE TO EXISTING CONDITION. USE IMPORTED EARTH BACKFILL (95% COMPACTED).C. TRENCH AND ENCASEMENT DETAIL CONCRETE ENCASED DUCTBANK SECTION VIEW (SIDE) © 2013 Conley Engineering. FOR INTERMEDIATE BARS. IF EXISTING GRADE IS ASPHALT OR CONCRETE.
Additionally. Fiber optic cable shall not be spliced. and video signals into a common signal transmitted down a single path. singlemode fiber). and video backbone systems. should be avoided to ensure that no damage occurs to the cable sheaths and that pulling tensions are kept as low as possible. This section defines design considerations for outside plant communications media (cable and connecting hardware) that are of particular concern to CWU. If extenuating circumstances require the use of these cable types. The Designer is expected to refer to the TIA/EIA standards and the BICSI CO-OSP and TDMM for other and more specific design criteria and detail. these technologies are also beginning to converge into a single technology capable of combining voice. Inc. As the voice. data. CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE This may not be possible for The CWU Telecommunications Pathway Overbuild and Basic Construction if Outside Plant Master Plan has been the Designer must make use of the designed to minimize the amount of fiber existing fiber optic outside plant cable. Where cables are to be pulled through UCV’s without splicing. the duct selected for cable installation shall be at the same elevation as it enters and exits the UCV. Additionally. data. These two factors combined will tend to ease the shortage of duct space on campus. the Designer must obtain approval from CWU in writing prior to finalizing the Construction Documents. especially in elevations. and as discussed in the CWU Telecommunications Pathway Outside Plant Master Plan. CWU has standardized on singlemode fiber optic media as the media of choice for all future. and video systems begin to make use of the singlemode fiber on campus. data. existing copper and multimode fiber media can be removed. Changes in duct selections. splices necessary in the outside plant. Accordingly. data. singlemode fiber media is significantly smaller than the copper media used on campus.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA The communications industry is now witnessing a convergence of technologies. Copper media (for voice and various signaling systems) as well as multimode fiber optic media (for existing data network equipment and various building and power metering systems) will continue to be installed and used. but will be used less extensively as time progresses. 21 . and video are all capable of utilizing the same type of communications media (i. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Following is a list of general items to consider when selecting a communications media system: • Direct-buried cable and aerial cable should not be used. Voice. • • © 2013 Conley Engineering.e. voice.
data. AND GROUNDING BONDING CWU has standardized on considering all locations “exposed” for grounding. voice. 2. The length of cable in the service loop shall be sufficient that if a cable break occurs between the UCV and the building. and may present coordination problems between the various trades involved. For copper media. Sharing of ducts can produce undesirable inductive interference. The splice location (UCV or EF) should have enough space for storing slack cable after the splice is completed. Duct assignments must be approved by CWU prior to the release of Construction Documents. work on the cable will not disrupt the functionality of the backbone cables serving other systems © 2013 Conley Engineering. Segregation can different systems. sufficient slack cable would be available in the UCV to reterminate the fiber optic cabling at the existing patch panel. The cable ends to be spliced have permanent slack loops with sufficient length that the cable can be removed from the UCV and reach a satisfactory work surface for splice activities. Inc. video) For New Construction. • • • Duct fill shall conform to the TIA/EIA standards and the NEC. 22 . bonding. If a multiple ducts are available for use. can damage the facilities by subjecting the cable to abrasion and tensional stress if the facilities are pulled in at different times.e. not during construction. Service loops (cable slack) shall be provided for fiber optic cabling that enters a building in the UCV nearest the building entrance.• • • • • • • DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Ducts are to be assigned during the course of design. issue. without the use of a splice. the longest cable reel lengths obtainable shall be used. the bottom ducts should be used first in order to facilitate future cable placement. the use of desirable solution). or it may occur by innerduct is an acceptable alternative although inductive using separate innerducts within the interference (see below) may be an same duct. Cables with an outer metallic 6 Segregation is desirable in order to ensure that when maintenance work is performed on a backbone cable serving a specific system. indoor dry splice enclosures shall be installed prior to terminating the copper cable on building entrance protectors. 50-foot service loops (cable slack) shall be provided for each end of a cable terminating in a building. Cables are to be tagged (labeled) at locations near where they enter a UCV from a duct and near where they enter a duct to leave a UCV. Communications cabling entering a building should be routed so as not to block or obstruct the planned usage or expansion of any other building that occupies or will occupy the space. For Overbuild occur by using different ducts (the most and Basic construction. For long cable runs. use different ducts for cables serving shall be segregated6. the Designer should ensure that: 1. and electrical protection purposes. Communications backbone cables serving CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE different systems (i. Splices should not be used except where cable reel lengths are exceeded. If splices are used.
However. voice applications 62. In keeping with the recommendations made in the CWU Telecommunications Pathway Outside Plant Master Plan . CWU has standardized on singlemode fiber for its voice. and various metering applications Singlemode Fiber Optic – used for data. CWU has standardized on three configurations for subducting a 4-inch conduit with innerduct: • • • Three 1½” innerducts Two 1½” and one 1” innerduct Four 1” innerducts It is left to the Designer to select the most appropriate configuration for subducting based upon the conditions of the duct and the application. It should be noted that these typical configurations should serve as a guideline only. and increasingly. MEDIA TYPES CWU recognizes three types of communications media for the campus backbone system: • • • Category 3 UTP (copper) – used for voice. cable shield bond continuity shall be maintained. INNERDUCT The use of innerduct for subducting purposes is strongly encouraged (although it may not be applicable to every situation). and video applications.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS sheath shall be bonded at each UCV. Bonds should be made with #6 AWG solid copper wire not more than 20’ long.5/125 µm Multimode Fiber Optic – used primarily for data applications and various metering applications. Inc. typical communications media configurations are shown below. Cables should be grounded as close to the entrance of the buildings as possible. © 2013 Conley Engineering. As discussed above. the conductor must be sized according to NEC requirements. The type and quantity of communications media shall be determined on a case-bycase basis by the Designer. ensuring that it meets the needs of the application at hand and provides for future expansion capability. copper and multimode fiber media will still be in use for some time. Additionally. analog signaling. If over 20’. Bond all other cables with dielectric components whenever a splice is made. metallic sheath components in the cable(s) and splice enclosures must be bonded to the UCV grounding system. 23 . Innerduct shall not be filled with cable beyond 50% capacity. video. When a splice occurs in a UCV. data. The type and quantity of communications media to install will vary greatly depending upon the application.
Refer to the Master Specification Section 16741 .DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS BETWEEN BUILDING CLUSTER HUBS BUILDINGS AND Singlemode Fiber: 12-Strands (4 Data. 4 Fire Alarm. Inadequate or incomplete labeling is not acceptable. LABELING AND ADMINISTRATION It is the responsibility of the Designer to ensure that the Construction Documents clearly define the labeling requirements and that the Contractor properly labels all outside plant media during construction. 4 Spare) CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE Hybrid fiber cable is permitted in Residence Halls only. Copper media shall always be terminated on building entrance protectors. 10 Spare) 25-Pairs AND THE BETWEEN BUILDING CLUSTER HUBS COMMUNICATIONS CENTER Singlemode Fiber: Multimode Fiber: Copper: BETWEEN THE 48-Strands 24-Strands 0-Pairs AND THE COMPUTER CENTER COMMUNICATIONS CENTER Singlemode Fiber: Multimode Fiber: Copper: TERMINATION 96-Strands 48-Strands 0-Pairs Separate fiber patch panels shall be provided for multimode and singlemode fiber optic cabling. © 2013 Conley Engineering. CWU uses 12 SM/12MM hybrid fiber optic cable for these applications. 24 . Multimode Fiber: Copper: 24-Strands (4 Data. 2 HVAC Control. Fiber optic media shall be terminated on separate fiber patch panels depending upon fiber type. CONSTRUCTION REFERENCE For Residence Halls served by hybrid fiber: A single patch panel may be used to terminate both types of fiber in the hybrid cable – separate fiber patch panels are not required in this case.Outside Plant Communications Circuits for more information. 4 Video. 2 Access Control. 2 Power Metering. Inc.
25 . AND • • • • GROUNDING BONDING CWU has standardized on considering all locations “exposed” for grounding. Building entrance protectors (primary protectors) should be provided for all OSP copper cables and should support both primary (overvoltage) and secondary (overcurrent) protection. the Designer is expected to reference the CWU Inside Plant Communications Distribution Design Guide for more detail regarding the design of telecommunications spaces. bonding.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ENTRANCE FACILITIES This section defines design considerations for entrance facilities that are of particular concern to CWU and specific to the outside plant communications distribution system. In addition. If more than 50’ is required. and electrical protection purposes. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Following is a list of general items to consider when designing pathway and communications media into a building entrance facility: • • In general. Ducts shall not enter perpendicular to the backboard surface. 7 Some types of fiber media are now “indoor/outdoor” rated and are therefore not subject to this requirement. Ducts shall enter the entrance facility parallel to the backboard to be used. The entrance facility shall not be more than 50’ from the actual entrance into the building. Ducts entering a building shall transition to PVC coated rigid steel conduit a minimum of 10 feet prior to entering the building. © 2013 Conley Engineering. which could cause cables to be bent sharply. The Designer is expected to refer to the TIA/EIA standards and the BICSI COOSP and TDMM for other and more specific design criteria and detail. In order to comply with NEC requirements. Fire-rated tape wrap is not acceptable. Inc. including entrance facilities and equipment rooms. The ground terminal for building entrance protectors should be bonded directly to the electrical power ground. not more than 50’ of an outside plant cable can be exposed between the entrance conduit stub and the cable termination point. Below grade ducts should extend 4” above finished floor. a structural engineer should approve all structural changes or penetrations into a building. the cable7 must be routed in rigid metallic conduit.
Pair sizes. Physical locations of obstructions.APPENDICES APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 — CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS Construction drawings should be thoroughly and accurately marked. including UCVs. Strand counts and types of optical fibers. Listed below are items that should be included on construction drawings. ductbanks. poles. gauges. existing underground utilities. 26 . and types of copper cables. Drain slope requirements Labeling Phasing (if required) Staging 8 Much of the following list was excerpted from RUS Bulletin 1751F-644 Underground Plant Construction © 2013 Conley Engineering. roads. buildings. UCV and building cable racking diagrams (elevations) indicating the positions of all existing and new cables and splice enclosures. Duct configurations indicating duct sizes and types between UCVs and between UCVs and buildings. Duct contents indicating cable assignments. Backboard/entrance facility elevations within buildings. Inc. including ductbanks and UCV’s. dependent upon the type of project8: • • • • • • • • • • • • Routing of the pathway system.
Construction Industry. Administration Standards for the Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial Buildings TIA/EIA – 607. Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual CWU. Siecor Standard Recommended Procedures for Installation. National Electrical Code (NEC). Inc. 27 . et al RUS. Planning & Installation Guide BICSI. and 1926 . Customer-Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Cabling Standard TIA/EIA – 568A. Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard TIA/EIA – 569A.APPENDICES APPENDIX 2 — BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES AMP. Premises Communications Distribution System Master Specification CWU. Outside Plant Communications Distribution System Master Specification CWU. 1997 Edition NEC. Bulletin 1751F-643 Underground Plant Design. Premises Communications Distribution Design Guide IEEE. 1998 RUS. 1998 Siecor. Bulletin 1751-815 Electrical Protection of Outside Plant.General Industry. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 1910 . National Electrical Safety Code (NESC). Commercial Building Grounding and Bonding Requirements for Telecommunications © 2013 Conley Engineering. Customer-Owned Outside Plant Design Manual BICSI. Telecommunications Pathway Outside Plant Master Plan CWU. 1998 TIA/EIA – 758. Bulletin 1751-644 Underground Plant Construction. 1999 Edition OSHA. 1998 RUS. Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces TIA/EIA – 606.