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A mudrā ( i/muːˈdrɑː/; Sanskrit: मुद्रा "seal", "mark", or "gesture"; Tibetan. ཕྱག་རྒྱ་, chakgya) is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism. While some mudrās involve the entire body, most are performed with the hands and fingers. A mudrā is a spiritual gesture and an energetic seal of authenticity employed in the iconography and spiritual practice of Indian religions and traditions of Dharma and Taoism. One hundred and eight mudras are used in regular Tantric rituals. In yoga, mudrās are used in conjunction with pranayama (yogic breathing exercises), generally while seated in Padmasana, Sukhasana or Vajrasana pose, to stimulate different parts of the body involved with breathing and to affect the flow of prana in the body.
Nomenclature and etymology
Bharatnatyam dancer portraying Hindu goddess Lakshmi with her characteristic mudrās
The Chinese translation is yin (Chinese: 印; pinyin: yìn) or yinxiang (Chinese: 印 相; pinyin: yìnxiàng). The Japanese and Korean pronunciation is "in".
Mudrā is used in the iconography of Hindu and Buddhist art of the Indian subcontinent and described in the scriptures, such as Nātyaśāstra, which lists 24 asaṁyuta ("separated", meaning "one-hand") and 13 saṁyuta ("joined", meaning "two-hand") mudrās. Mudrā positions are usually formed by both the hand and the fingers. Along with āsanas ("seated postures"), they are employed statically in the meditation and dynamically in Nāṭya practice of Hinduism. Each mudrā has a specific effect on the practitioner. Common hand gestures are to be seen in both Hindu and Buddhist iconography. In some regions, for example Thailand and Laos, these are different from each other, but related iconographic conventions are used. According to Jamgon Kongtrul in his commentary on the Hevajra Tantra, the symbolic bone ornaments (Skt: aṣṭhiamudrā; Tib: rus pa'i rgyanl phyag rgya) are also known as "mudra" or "seals".
Indian classical dance
In Indian classical dance the term "Hasta Mudra" (hasta is Sanskrit for hand) is used. The Natya Shastra describes 24 mudras, while the Abhinaya Darpana gives 28. In all the forms of Indian classical dance the mudras are similar, though the names and uses vary. There are 28 (or 32) root mudras in Bharatanatyam, 24 in Kathakali and 20 in Odissi. These root mudras are combined in different ways, like one hand, two hands, arm movements, body and facial expressions. In Kathakali, which has the greatest number of combinations, the vocabulary adds up to circa 900. Sanyukta mudras are mudras that use both hands, and asanyukta mudras are mudras that use only one hand words.
Nine Mudras at Indira Gandhi International  Airport.
sitting in Vajrasana. the most famous book published by the Bihar School of Yoga is called Asana. This mudrā activates the pectoral muscles. . Basic mudrā: Adi Mudrā Thumb is folded into the palm. and 4 is the inhalation) makes prana flow in the torso and in the throat. Pranayama. Slow rhythmic breathing in a 5-2-4-2 rhythm (5 being the exhalation. to create a fist. touching the base of the small finger. Slow rhythmic breathing in a 5-2-4-2 rhythm (5 being the exhalation. as the diaphragm pushes out the internal organs when it descends towards the pelvis on inhalation.Mudra 2 Yogic mudrās The main source of Mudra are Gherandya Samhita and Hathyoga Pradipika. Breathing becomes full: in inhalation. the ribs then expand. This mudrā activates the ribs. with the middle finger touching the non-folded part of the forefinger. Like in Chin Mudrā. The hands are placed palms-down on the thighs while sitting in Vajrasana. the diaphragm descends. the hands are placed palms-down on the thighs while Rāmabhadrācārya meditating on the banks of Mandakini river with fingers folded in the Chin Mudrā. Swatmaram from Nath Tradition. Exhalation works in the same order. Basic mudrā: Chin Mudrā Thumb and forefinger on each of both hands join as a zero. Mudrās are a fundamental form of yoga practice. making the chest expand forward on inhalation. which creates a "wave" or ripple effect. making them expand sideways on inhalation. The rest of the fingers are extended. Like in Chin Mudrā. This mudrā activates the diaphragm. Mudrā. and then the pectoral muscles move forward. but the inside of the palms face upwards and are located at the level of the navel. Later there was more work on this topic by Swami Satyanand Saraswati. The rest of the fingers are folded over the thumb. and 4 is the inhalation) makes prana flow in the entire body. The non-folded part of the forefinger and the middle finger should still be touching. This is done while sitting in Vajrasana. Gherandya Samhita is written by Sage Gherandya and Hathyoga Pradipika is written by Swami Pt. Basic mudrā: Chinmaya Mudrā Thumb and forefinger are the same as Chin Mudrā. The rest of the fingers are folded into a fist. Slow rhythmic breathing in a 5-2-4-2 rhythm (5 being the exhalation. making for deep "stomach-breathing". Bandha. with the left and right knuckles and first finger joints touching. the hands are placed palms-down on the thighs while sitting in Vajrasana. and 4 is the inhalation) makes prana flow in the throat and in the head. Slow rhythmic breathing in a 5-2-4-2 rhythm (5 being the exhalation. Basic compact mudrā: Brahma Mudrā Palms are in Adi Mudrā. and 4 is the inhalation) makes prana flow in the pelvis and in the legs. He was the founder of Bihar School of Yoga.
subduing it as shown in several frescoes and scripts. In Gandhāra art. Theories of the Chakras. Siddhartha Gautama. and meditation.Mudra 3 Advanced compact mudrā: Prana Mudrā A complicated Mudrā combining hand gestures. Just before the historical Buddha. In the Theravāda. Even a single breath cycle of this Mudrā can significantly stimulate the body. peace. "I am his witness!" Mara challenged Siddhartha--who will speak for you?Then Siddhartha reached out his right hand to touch the earth. it is said the demon Mara attacked him with armies of monsters to frighten Siddhartha from his seat under the bodhi tree. it is a symbol of the Shingon sect. It was also used in China during the Wei and Sui eras of the 4th and 7th centuries. synchronized movement from gesture to gesture within the breath cycle. Siddhartha Gautama realized enlightenment and became a Buddha. in his lap. it is seen when showing the action of preaching. the arm bent and the palm facing outward with the fingers upright and joined and the left hand hanging down while standing. benevolence. The gesture was used by the Buddha when attacked by an elephant. and dispelling of fear. Bhumisparsha Mudrā The "earth witness" Buddha is one of the most common iconic images of Buddhism. (Japanese: Semui-in. The mudrā was probably used before the onset of Buddhism as a symbol of good intentions proposing friendship when approaching strangers. Mara's monstrous soldiers cried out together. Buddha sitting in bhumisparsha-mudra posture (calling the earth to be his witness). often shown having both hands making a double Abhaya mudrā that is uniform. In Mahāyāna. Then Mara claimed the seat of enlightenment for himself. Gallo-Roman museum of Lyon. it is usually made with the right hand raised to shoulder height. The right hand shows the fear-not gesture. In Japan. palm upright. But the about-to-be Buddha did not move. 119. this mudrā is associated with the walking Buddha. . Birmany. and his right hand touching the earth. by Hiroshi Motoyama. while the left is in the Varada (wish-granting gesture). when the Abhaya mudrā is used with the middle finger slightly projected forward. saying his spiritual accomplishments were greater than Siddhartha's. and the earth itself roared. "I bear you witness!" Mara disappeared. It is described in the book. The mudrā is practiced sitting in Siddhasana. realized enlightenment. It depicts the Buddha sitting in meditation with his left hand. White marble with traces of polychromy. And as the morning star rose in the sky. This represents the moment of the Buddha's enlightenment. the northern schools' deities often paired it with another mudrā using the other hand. Common Buddhist mudrās Abhaya Mudrā The Abhaya mudrā ("mudrā of no-fear") represents protection. Chinese: Shiwuwei Yin) Korea's National Treasure no. In Thailand and Laos.
India where the two hands are separated. This mudrā is used in representations of the Śākyamuni Buddha and Amitābha Buddha. and the fingers do not touch. of the concentration of the Good Law and the saṅgha. anger and delusion. which is symbolic of the spiritual fire or the Triratna (the three jewels). Chinese: Ding Yin. save Maitreya as the dispenser of the Law. In pictorials of Hōryū-ji in Japan the right hand is superimposed on the left. In China and Japan during the Wei and Asuka periods respectively the fingers are stiff and then gradually begin to loosen as it developed through time. with a Kamakura medicine bowl placed on the hands. in Deer Park in Sarnath. Chinese: Juanfalun Yin) Dhyāna Mudrā The Dhyāna mudrā ("meditation mudrā") is the gesture of meditation. The Varada mudrā is rarely seen without another mudrā used by the right hand. Chinese: Shiynan Yin. It is heavily used in Southeast Asia in Theravāda Buddhism. In the Indo-Greek style of Gandhāra the clenched fist of the right hand seemingly overlies the fingers joined to the thumb on the left hand. the hands and fingers form the shape of a triangle. (Dhyāna mudrā is also known as Samādhi mudrā or Yoga mudrā. It is often confused with the Vitarka mudrā.) . It can be made with the arm crooked and the palm offered slightly turned up or in the case of the arm facing down the palm presented with the fingers upright or slightly bent.Mudra 4 Dharmacakra Mudrā The Dharmacakra mudrā represents a central moment in the life of Buddha when he preached his first sermon after his Enlightenment. The two hands are placed on the lap. Segan-in. This mudrā position represents the turning of the wheel of the Dharma. It is nearly always shown made with the left hand by a revered figure devoted to human salvation from greed. This mudrā was used long before the Buddha as yogis have used it during their concentration. the thumbs are placed against the palms. (Japanese: Tenbōrin-in. Japanese: Jō-in. eventually leading to the Tang Dynasty were the fingers are naturally curved. There are several variants such as in the frescoes of Ajanta. Certain figures of Amitābha. In general. The Varada mudrā is extensively used in the statues of Southeast Asia. however. Chikichi-jō. healing. Jōkai Jō-in. typically the Abhaya mudrā. and meditation exercises. only Gautama Buddha is shown making this mudrā. which it closely resembles. (Japanese: Yogan-in. compassion and sincerity. right hand on left with fingers fully stretched (four fingers resting on each other and the thumbs facing upwards towards one another diagonally). giving. having the right palm forward and the left palm upward. It originated in India most likely in the Gandhāra and in China during the Wei period. Sometimes the Dhyāna mudrā is used in certain Hands of Amitābha statue at Kōtoku-in in representations of Bhaiṣajyaguru as the Medicine Buddha. In India the mudrā is used in images of Avalokiteśvara from the Gupta Period of the 4th and 5th centuries. charity.) Varada Mudrā The Varada mudrā ("favourable mudrā") signifies offering. Seyo-in. sometimes facing the chest. Dharmacakra mudrā is formed when two hands close together in front of the chest in Vitarka. in this manner. welcome. Hoshin-seppō-in. palms facing upwards. Japan are seen using this mudrā before the 9th century.
and the hand is held with the palm inward toward the heart. Chinese: Anwei Yin). An-i-in.Wikipedia:Please clarify A good example of the application of the Vajra mudrā is the seventh technique (out of nine) of the Nine Syllable Seals. It is done by joining the tips of the thumb and the index together. forming a circle. index extending upward. This mudrā has a great number of variants in Mahāyāna Buddhism in East Asia. and keeping the other fingers straight very much like Abhaya and Varada mudrās but with the thumbs touching the index fingers. and the left hand also making a fist and enclosing the index. A 2010 nameless Kannada-language film directed by Upendra was originally depicted by this mudrā. It is made by forming a fist with the right hand. using the mudrā with mantras in a ritual application. Vajra Mudrā Vitarka Mudrā The Vitarka mudrā ("mudrā of discussion") is the gesture of discussion and transmission of Buddhist teaching. Here  is a video of a Sanskrit prayer to set the mind in a sacred state. Vyākhyāna mudrā ("mudrā of explanation"). Vitarka mudrā. Tarim Basin.Mudra 5 Vajra Mudrā The Vajra mudrā ("thunder mudrā") is the gesture of knowledge. using the Japanese kanji pronunciation (Sanskrit mantras are usually offered to the serious seeker). (Vitarka mudrā is also known as Prajñāliṅganabhinaya. 9th century . followed by a quick version of the kuji-in ritual. In Tibet it is the mystic gesture of Tārās and Bodhisattvas with some differences by the deities in Yab-yum. Jñāna Mudrā The Jñāna mudrā ("mudrā of knowledge") is done by touching the tips of the thumb and the index together. Japanese: Seppō-in. which later came to be known as Super.
Subsequent ryu developed after the imposition of the Tokugawa government were heavily influenced by Neo-Confucianism. Tendai and Shingon: One of the more curious things that I encountered in my martial arts training was the use of mudra in combative arts. Consecration. Samurai. mystical Shinto. creation of Holy Water. with the writings of the Zen priests Takuan and Hakuin. Mudra (Japanese: in). Zen Buddhism. Although Zen was popularized among the warrior class in the Kamakura period. Kamakura period. Japanese: Funnu-in. Draeger: In any case. Tokugawa government. Joseon Dynasty figure on the left makes the Karana mudrā. are these weird hand gestures that are derived from esoteric Buddhism (mikkyo). Draeger. Fudō-in). And even at that. In relation to charting a historical tributary to mudrā within Japanese fighting culture. (This mudrā is also known as Tarjanī mudrā. for those who aren't familiar with them. particularly the Tendai and Shingon sects. Edo Period (1600-1868) martial arts were equally influenced by Neo-Confucianism and even. because mikkyo and Shinto were the religions of the samurai who founded those ryu that were created before the 1600s. Martial arts and mudrā Mudrās are arm. Muromoto (2003) in discussing his experience of mudrā in relation to his martial arts training makes reference to Mikkyō. it did not greatly affect martial arts until the latter part of the Edo Period. Muromoto (2003) incorporates Shintō. Neo-Confucianism. Baptism. Muromoto (2003) states a lineage of mudrā in martial arts and evokes Koryū.Mudra 6 Karana Mudrā The Karana mudrā is the mudrā which expels demons and removes obstacles such as sickness or negative thoughts. and then later by Zen Buddhism. hand and body positions used in the traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism. the 1300s. and the late Donn F. the difference is that in the Karana mudra the thumb does not hold down the middle and ring finger. Eucharist and Benediction involve sacred gestures somewhat comparable with mudrā. Otake Risuke. which is one of the oldest martial ryu still in existence in Kanto (Eastern) Japan. Edo. I had known of the use of mudra in koryu ("old" martial arts) since the time I was privy to a discussion with the training master of the Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu. The historic Buddha knew the use of mudrās and is often depicted using these ritual gestures. It is nearly the same as the gesture known as corna in many 'western' countries. Risuke Ōtake and Donn F. Various Kung Fu forms contain positions identical to these mudrās. in the latter part. Other traditions The East Orthodox and Catholic sacraments and holy rites of Exorcism. Kantō. Otake sensei described some of the mudra used in his school. and folding the other fingers. Ryū. These gestures are supposed to generate spiritual focus and power which then are manifested in some way externally. Takuan and Hakuin: The use of mudra and other aspects of mikkyo are found in many instances in many koryu. Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū. It is made by raising the index and the little finger. Muromoto (2003) textually maps the execution of the Shutō mudrā: .
or in statues of divine Buddhist beings. com/ od/ eightauspicioussymbols/ a/ earthwitness. Eugenio.  Muromoto. google. Sometimes the tips of the extended fingers are grasped in the fist of the other hand.  . Ltd. com/ books?id=KRz5ykKRVAEC). 2007.google. ISBN 0-415-05308-0. "Esoteric Buddhism in Japanese Warriorship". html)  For translation of ' as "gesture of knowledge" see: . (2010). in: No. commonly practised in religious worship.google. Routledge & Kegan Paul plc. uk/books?id=CtzgSZrTv64C). The DFD monographs are transcriptions of lectures presented by Donn Draeger in the late 1970s and early 1980s at the University of Hawaii and at seminars in Malaysia. The first two fingers are extended while the thumb and other fingers are clenched. Sarvad. furyu. ISBN 81-208-0674-3. (English translators: Guarisco. about. com/ news/ friendly-gestures/ 638563/ 0)". Bolder. "mudra (symbolic gestures)" (http:/ / www. 7 Notes  Encyclopædia Britannica. 136. Draeger Monograph Series. Elio. . Colorado. McLeod. Retrieved December 20. com/ books?id=3e3_GVggCgUC)  Kongtrul.. Retrieved October 11. Ingrid) (2005). chants and so on. wsj.Mudra Mikkyo uses mudra most often in combination with various rituals. The Indestructibe Way of Secret Mantra. buddhas-online.  http:/ / buddhism. com/ onlinearticles/ mudra. 2010. p. One common mudra is that of the "knife hand. google.  Indian Express (26-06-2010). 1990. and supposed to possess an occult meaning and magical efficacy Daś (Daśakumāra-carita). washington. Pp. A dictionary of theatre anthropology: the secret art of the performer (http://books. References • Barba. Nathan J. . If you look closely. especially by old schools such as the Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu. Nicola (1991). ISBN 1-57863-142-4 • Stutley.). ISBN 1-55939-210-X (alk. Sir John.. Jamgön (author). The Treasury of Knowledge (shes bya kun la khyab pa’i mdzod). This represents the sword of enlightenment. 43. htm  explanation of Buddhist Mudras (http:/ / www. • Johnson. Savarese. USA: Snow Lion Publications. derived from mikkyo. which cuts away all delusions. britannica. 406)" (http:/ / faculty. Barefoot Zen: The Shaolin Roots of Kung Fu and Karate (http://books. London. Ragini. RTL. Dance dialects of India (http:/ / books. Part Four: Systems of Buddhist Tantra. " Friendly Gestures (http:/ / www. ISBN 81-215-1087-2 Originally published 1985. Wayne (2003) Mudra in the Martial Arts (http:/ / www. of partic. London. Margaret (2003). The Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography (First Indian Edition ed. com/ mudras. Kāraṇḍ.  Devi. " Q&A: Delhi Airport’s ‘Hands’ Sculpture (http:/ / blogs.com/books?id=31WqQLGeXRIC). positions or intertwinings of the fingers (24 in number. USA: Weiser. York Beach. • Draeger. com/ indiarealtime/ 2010/ 07/ 28/ qa-delhi-airports-hands-sculpture)". New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt.co.paper) p. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 396017/ mudra). indianexpress. 3. Donn (1980).  Word mudrā on Monier-William Sanskrit-English on-line dictionary: "N. There is a symbolic meaning for this." or shuto. 204 . Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 'Zen and the Japanese Warrior' of the International Hoplological Society Donn F.493  Wall Street Journal (28-07-2010). edu/ prem/ mw/ m. html)  Woodroffe. United Kingdom: Routledge. Book Six. Shakti and Shakta: Essays and Addresses on the Shakta Tantrashastra (http:/ / books. html). (2000). you may see this movement subtlely hidden in some koryu kata.
Ernest Dale (1985 ).buzzle.htm) Mudras photo gallery (http://healing. 1995. Bunce: Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices: An Iconographic Consideration.com/od/east/ig/Mudra-Gallery/index. 2005. International. YBK Publishers.. Umar Sharif: Unlocking the Healing Powers in Your Hands: The 18 Mudra System of Qigong. • Hirschi.scribd.about.org/index. 2008. Acharya Shri Enterprises. a Part of Ayurveda is very effective yet costs nothing. Gertrud. 2012. 2013.php?title=Mudra) . ISBN 9788187949121 • Cain Carroll and Revital Carroll: Mudras of India: A Comprehensive Guide to the Hand Gestures of Yoga and Indian Dance. 2001. ISBN 9788190587440 • Acharya Keshav Dev: Healing Hands (Science of Yoga Mudras).n. 2003. 2008. 1999. ISBN 9788190095402 • Gauri Devi: Esoteric Mudras of Japan. Scholary. Singing Dragon. ISBN 9780974430340 External links • • • • • Mudras in Indian Dance (http://www. ISBN 9788128006975 • Suman K Chiplunkar: Mudras & Health Perspectives: An Indian Approach. Mudra Vigyan: A Way of Life. Mudra: A Study of Symbolic Gestures in Japanese Buddhist Sculpture. Abhijit Prakashana. ISBN 9788179360002 • Emma I. Gonikman: Taoist Healing Gestures.buddhas-online. ISBN 9780970392343 • Fredrick W. • Acharya Keshav Dev: Mudras for Healing. DK Printworld. Publisher s. Navneet. ISBN 9788186471562 • Lokesh Chandra & Sharada Rani: Mudras in Japan. Inc. 2006. S.htm) Mudras in the Buddhist tradition (http://www.rigpawiki. Sapna Book house. ISBN 978-0963703637 • Dhiren Gala: Health At Your Fingertips: Mudra Therapy.com/dances/abhinaya/angika bhinaya/asamyukta. Vedams Books.Mudra 8 Further reading • Saunders.com/mudras.html) About mudras (http://www.html) Mudras from Rigpa Wiki (http://www.Rangaraja Iyengar: The World Of Mudras/Health Related and other Mudras. Integratieve Yoga Therapy. 2007. Princeton University Press. Academy of Indian Culture & Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-691-01866-9. Acharya Shri Enterprises. 2007. Inc. Mudras: Yoga in Your Hands (http://www.webindia123. ISBN 9788124603123 • A. ISBN 9781848190849 • Joseph and Lilian Le Page: Mudras for Healing and Transformation.com/articles/about-mudras. • Taisen Miyata: A study of the ritual mudras in the Shingon tradition: A phenomenological study on the eighteen ways of esoteric recitation in the Koyasan tradition.com/doc/17928000/ Mudras-Yoga-in-Your-Hands). ISBN 9788124603123 • K.
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