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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES
vii.Be jfifciculis pu6cula. . Opusculum WORSHIPFUL GUILD OF VIOLIN-MAKERS OF MARKNEUKIRCHEN. aift anb flDarianna IbcroiWHUcn.
. Do B.>e ffi&iculis puscula. 6. Libri Hestderati. he Ancestry of the Yio Hodges against Chanot }. Fidiculana ^^^9 5.'riot and Malibran . Libri Desiderati 4..
Prom tj?e ^eap 1677 to tf?e ^eap 1772. . . pusculum vn. PRICK ONK SHIIJ.894.INt. S.DC JftWculte puscula. THE anb Grafts Pooh WORSHIPFUL GUILD OF VIOLIN-MAKERS OF MARKNEUKIRCHEN.ISIIKll : KOK THK At IIIOR BV . II.. SOHO syfAKK. W.S ASP CO.. IRicbarfc TRANSLATED AND EDITED BY ant> (TDarianna Iberon-Bllcn. EXTRACTED AND ANALYSED BY Dr. MCIIOI. LONDON I'l'HI .
This Edition is limited to 100 copies. This is No. .
Dear DR. most sincerely yours. years that England has been. j^vai'> Xcnfcon. 3osepb Soacbim. 'i'<> H>r. During the felicitously expressed fifty it. We are.Music Library ML Befctcation. therefore. with a keen sense of the fitness of things that we address to you these observations upon the services rendered to the art of Violin-making by your country- men. JOACHIM." our countrymen have learnt what Germany has done for the art of Violinplaying. as you your ''second home. It is. anfc HDartanna .
PRIXTKR. W.J. W. 4.\KKHAM. \V. . KKSSINUTOX. BEDFORD TERRACE. 1894.
its distinctive character. RICHARD PETONG.THE ARTS AND CRAFTS BOOK OF THE WORSHIPFUL GUILD OF VIOLIN-MAKERS OF MARKNEUKIRCHEN. and might suggest a wider scope for the operations of this branch of industry so long established in the Vogtland. and . From the year 1677 to the year 1772. How. in the early days of the history of this industry. a mere handful of independent masters and workmen applied themselves to the manufacture of violins and 'cellos. from many points of view. be incentive to a fresh departure in the manufacture of musical instruments in this locality. MARIANNA HERON-ALLEN. EXTRACTKD AXD ANALYSED BY DR. and its present prosperity. Among its archives may be found a book bearing the above title. TRANSLATED AM) EDITED BY EDWARD AND This guild which celebrated its 200th anniversary in the year 1877. tiltcontents of which might. undoubtedly laid the corner stone of that branch of industry to which Markneukirchen owes its world-wide renown.
year 1627 they numbered probably no more than 06. and had settled in Markneukirchen. of musical did this become apparent when facture of harps attained such proportions as to call for the formation of an independently organised guild. bringing with them the arts and crafts of their native lands. they might enjoy liberty to profess and practise their Evangelical religion. the privilege of free citizenship being conferred by the High Court of Justice through the Kurf first Johann of certain that at that time there were already a certain number of brothers and other relatives of some of the it We may Saxony. the population engaged in the manufacture of musical instruments at the commencement of the 17th century appears to have been composed of the descendants of a small number of Bohemian and other immigrants. this being the total number of houses occupied by fully enfranchised citizens at that date. was comIn the paratively only slightly increased. in a new country. " find in the " Grasseltschen Chronique a work so scarce as to be almost unknown Especially the manu- We -that. all To this nucleus were added in probability other families from neighbouring localities. according to contemporary tradition. who had left their distant fatherlands in order that. or head families.how this artistic handicraft (its practitioners goaded to emulation by the superior models brought from foreign lands by masters of the art) became gradually extended to the manufacture of instruments many other kinds is now well known. take as . but the number of parent.
3. I. 7. and the houses that are still engaged in the art and are flourish- ing at the present day can. The following complete chronological record is a .principal inhabitants. as a rule. Johann Caspar Reichel. 8. Johann Gottfried Bopel. of the inhabitants possessing full rights of citizenship can have devoted themselves to the craft of violin-making. or had continued their inconsiderable. stepped into the places of such freemen as had died. them as regards their rights of and the number of less well-to- do inhabitants (those not possessing the same municipal privileges) must have been joined the community later on. how- ever. Amen ceeds to give the 1 2 following names as those " Funof the exiles from Graslitz who. 6. trace their history back over a hundred years. V. so call them) Those colonists (if we may who wanderings farther. who lived apart from of them in houses of their own and on terms equality with citizenship.key to the list of the original masters of the art. I. I. The book begins with the words "In the " and proname of the Holy Trinity. Johann Georg Poller. as well as to those subsequently admitted. . Caspar Schonfelder. VI. as " or Pioneers settled in Markneudatores kirchen under the direction and inspiration of God. II. : ! 1. Hardly one-third. Johann Schonfelder. IV. In order to facilitate a rapid survey the register number of each family is added in Roman numerals. Caspar Hopf from Klingenthal. 4. 2. III. Johann Adam KurzendorSer. 5. Christian Keichel.
Hans Georg Dorfel. 1680. VIII. I. when Johann Caspar Eeichel is described as head master of the Guild. 1696. Hans Friedrich Dorffler. 1683. 18. Klingenthal. 1688.. son Christian Reichel. Caspar Schonfelder. viz. during which period they admitted the following masters and skilled workmen X. : Graslitz. Hans Georg Poller. 1680. who had migrated thence to MarkNew citizens. Sebastian Dormer. XI. from of Klingenthal. Simon Schonfeld (at that time- the last master received into the Guild). admitted in 1678. 15.6 9. the two Eeichels. on being neukirchen. was exacted from citizens who were not members of the Guild. enjoyed the privilege of paying only half the municipal tax. 11. and Caspar Hopf officiated as head masters of the Guild until 1690. Simon Pohlmann. burger anil 21. Nikol Kolb. born at Schoneck. Wolff Nikol Lippold. whereas the entire tax. Of these. from XIV. Until the year 1704. XV. David Eudest. IX. Hans George 16. from Klingenthal." of Markneukirchen. VIII. from Schoneck. Johann Adam Bopel. Georg Reichel. admitted to the Guild. violin 19. Johann Georg Schonfeld. Ludwig. Defensioner. eight florins. XII. VII. 17. XVI. 20. from Klingenthal. Andreas Hutel. 10. amounting to sixteen florins. the names of the heads of the Guild " . 12. an exile from 13. 1682. maker. admitted in 1678. XIII. 1678. an exile 14.
Caspar 1697. XVII. 28. Johann Dengel. 1702. 32. 25th. a master's son. 1702. and therefore liable to a tax of 9 florins on admission to mastership. Johann Reichel. for the two years spent as a journeyman. of the deceased Christian 1677. Xov. son of Simon the 23. Johann George Dorffler. Nov. Adam Vogt. Christian (3). July 14th. Georg Caspar Hopf. to be paid to the exchequer of the Guild whereas at the admission of sons and masters a half. . 1677. 25. workmen 22.are wanting on the admittance protocols there were admitted meanwhile as master. 30. Johann Michael Hopf.). journeyman (12). 9gr. 24. but not son of a master. and though all mem- bers of the Guild had to contribute to the expenses of the banquet held on the admission of each new master-workman. Hans Georg Kurzendorffer (see 8). who married the \vidow of Johann Friedrich DorfHer (17). 29. and a further 3fl. 31. 3fl. Conrad Adam Schonfelder. son of Johanu and Johann Schonfeld. and a reduced fee accepted in lieu of the full contribution.tax of five florins . 1704. Adam Braun. son (I. son of the deceased Sebastian (20). 1704. personal circumstances were taken into consideration. 1699. 27. XIX. : Reichel.25th. was deemed sufficient. violin maker of Markneukircben. apprentice to a 26. both admitted on May 3rd. in the early days of the Guild. XVIII.
Johann Reichel (junior). 1708. XXIV. Johann who had Klemin. a worthy learned lathe-turning from his father. XXI. 41. 44. Christoph Adam Eichter.8 33. Christian Friedrich Dorffel. At the last last three admissions. son of Sebas40. who had to pay 21 thaler for the rights of mastership. Nov. 39. XXII. Master Caspar (2\ 1704. Afterwards. Peter Reichel. Georg Richel and Simon and Caspar Schonfelder occupied the post. 1713. Hans Martin Schonfelder. citizen. not a master's son. 1708. 1713. son of a citizen. Caspar Hopf Jig^res as Headmaster. 1704. 1708. admitted in 1710. 1710. Georg Adam Reichel. 43. Johann Gutter. violinmaker's apprentice. eldest son of master Georg Reichel. 37. Master. violinmaker's apprentice. son of Eeichel going bail for the five taking up the mastership. a master's son. Johann Adam Lorenz. when Georg Ludwig (16) was Head 42. tian (20). . 36. 1712. Johann Caspar Reichel having been killed by a furnace explosion in 1706. XX. Johann gulden due on 35. from 1709 Xill 1712. Johann Georg Dorffler. 29th. who only paid 6 thaler as a half contribution to> the cost of the admission banquet. who had married a master's daughter. Johann Caspar Reichel (junior). 1712. Elias Pfretschner. admitted in : 1709. 34. on the same day. In addition to the above were admitted 38. son of the deceased Head Master Johann Caspar. XXIII. son of Johann Caspar (3).
Johann Georg Eeichel. . the later incorrect. At that time. Georg and Christian Eeichel. the Head Master. were Head Masters Christian Eeichel. Johann Caspar Hicker. and 3 thaler for his fees as a journeyman. XXV. 49. the two cousins. 48 Johann Georg Klemm. youngest son Johann Gottfried Popel. XXVI. and therefore only paid 16 thaler in consideration of his poverty. 1722. 1715. son of Georg Eeichel. 1722. 51. Johann Reichel. of If Johann Friedrick Popel. In due course the following attained (8) the rights of mastership. son of 46.45. as Peg-turner. and with him Simon Schonfeld. and the Master Banquet. could not pay the full expenses of the admission banquet. son of Johann The Turner (39). and Conrad Adam Schonfelder. . deceased." The spelling of " Eeichel" is also uncertain and variable. Georg Carl Kretschmann. 47. is alluded to by that title as late as 1732. and also in 1729. Elias (43). being an orphan. who. who paid 9 thaler in satisfaction of the full dues. and served his apprenticeship like the others. 1716. 50. thaler for the Mastership Banquet. Johann Adam Jaeger. Johann Adam Pfretschner. XXVII. 9 thaler as compensation for his Diploma masterpieco being unfinished. who paid 23 violin-maker's apprentice. be less way of spelling Popel with a B we must reckon one family the same might be said of Schonfeld and " Schcnfelder. 1723. 1719. violin-maker's apprentice.
violin-maker's apprentice, 1723.
XXIX. Johann Michael Seidel 1723. XXX. Johann Adam Glier, 1723.
This family was settled in Markneukirchen early as 1")60; one Andreas Glier (who was schoolmaster in 1587) is described as a
native (Stadtkind). 55. Johann Eeichel, son of the Master Johann Keichel the elder, admitted in 1724, whose dues to the amount of 6 thaler and 18
groschen were immediately paid by his father. 56. XXXI. Johann Andreas Hamm, son of the Klingenthal tailor and lawyer, Andreas Hamm, who learnt the art of violin-making in 1724. As he could not provide the Mastership Banquet as a citizen, he paid for everything 35 thaler, which was the sum exacted from strangers. As the violin-making industry in Klingenthal complained of the heavy fees payable to the Guild, which threatened to prevent the .appearance of any more postulants for the estate of master- workman, these fees were lowered to 6 thaler, which was the sum payable by the sons of native master-workmen. But as again solicited admittance in the following year, wishing to pursue his art in Markneukirchen instead of in Klingenthal, the dues were lowered to 34 thaler in consideration of the six already paid. (The meaning is here hopelessly obscure. E.H.-A.)
violin-maker's apprentice, thaler in dues.
Georg Hamig, paying 16
58. Georg Simon Schonfelder, a master's *on, paying six thaler in dues, 1727.
first 50 years of its existence joined the Guild as new masters. As probably few attained the rights of Mastership at 20 years of age, and the founders of
houses were mostly of riper years, we may surmise that the latter had died in the meantime, and of the 46 that stepped into thenplaces, at least one third were blessed with a fair share of temporal riches. The number
journeymen was therefore probably between 20 and 30, and as each journeyman had the right to employ an apprentice, and as many .also took in students, we may reckon the number of persons engaged in the manufacture of violins at somewhere between 60
these there were but 30 families of violin-makers represented, if one identifies the variously-spelt names of Pupel and Schonfelder. Of the house of Eeichel there were ten master- workmen, of that of Schonfelder eight, from the families of 1'opcl, Hopf, and DorrHer respectively, three each, so that the members of these five families alone nearly equalled the remaining 25 in numerical Of the 14 families mentioned in strength. the municipal registers of the year 1627 we only find the names of 13 ran n, Glier, Pollman, .and Jager, in addition to the before-mentioned family names. We must not lose sight of the fact that in the early history of the Guild, the addition of new families of makers to the industries originally founded by But we should immigrants was very slow. not lay too much stress on this, lest it should be thought that the new comers and the, older and respected citizens held aloof from
each other, for it is an undoubted fact that the original 10 exiled families took especial pains to live on terms of close unity with the inhabitants of Markneukirchen. Were not all in. this laiid, where the very cradle of the Reformation had stood, and in a town whose church had been consecrated
by the Evangelical services held therein by the great Reformer himself, bound together by the ties of an identical religious belief ? This meant a great deal more in those times, when State and society, and all the vital interests of a mixed population depended on the security and freedom of religious practice, than one is accustomed to realize in the present century of overwhelming
enlightenment, of religious half-heartedness and of individual free-thought, if one may so
shall be probably correct in surmising
that a long time before the formation of the Guild, violins were made in Markneukirchen by the founders of the Guild themselves and by their immediate ancestors, and that those seven original families (or at least the more
important among them) had been settled in Markneukirchen a hundred years before, and that this lapse of time had amply sufficed to convert them from exiles into full-blown
charter of this Guild of
makers was granted and confirmed by the Herzog Moritz of Sachsen on March 6th, We must remember that the persecu1617.
tion of the Evangelists in Bohemia did not the 17th century, but in the begin in
whose reign began in the year 1576. build- . the violin-maker farniliesto our city. lies in the conditions necessarily precedent to the pursuit of the craft. Such an art could only yield a certain (or indeed any) profit to those who had connections with districts and countries where the knew flourishing. but also by the great care and far-seeing calculations which come into requisition iu the procuring of seasoned woods. making handicraft was distinguished from simple handiwork (whose practitioners delivered their wares on the spot for immediate use. A second no less weighty reason for our belief in an earlier commencement of the pursuit of violin-making in. as history shows us. cattle-breeding. that other means of livelihood such as beer-brewing.13 patron of the Jesuits). and who markets for the obtaining of its The materials. and the sale of its products. did not last long. as a rule had not far to go for materials) not only by the difficulty of disposing of its manufactures. and in the habits of life of that period itself. which freedom. and at the same time the acquisition of rights of citizenship laid at that time upon the owners of such privileges the necessarily primary and frugal ground- The violinwork of a thriving industry. even of same art was already the the skilled. of strings. and the unseverable affiliation of. and Bohemia only succeeded in the year 1669 in obtaining the Eoyal edict granting freedom to the practice of Evangelical religious belief. and. The possession of a house. and other materials necessary to the completion of the instruments. requirements of family life demanded.
possessed each of them his house. who.workmen and their wives were in the habit of being present. could not take place in the apartments of a new master who was not a householder. Taking. and for the composition of varnish. therefore. A person so situated had to give a considerable money compensation in place of the customary banquet. these circumstances into consideration. . at which all the existing master. Reichel and Caspar Schonfelder. not devoted to his mere trade. The banquet given on his admission by every new master. was also a baker by trade. that he took a house and proposed to set Johann up housekeeping with his mother. the non-ownership of a house by a postulant for the mastership appears to have been regarded as a social stigma and disqualification for membership of the guild in many of the recorded transactions and deliberations of the assembled masters. But the living and work-rooms in the master violin-maker's house. ft is recorded of Johann Eeichel (Christian Reichel's son). Caspar Reichel was next door neighbour to Caspar Schonfelder. who. was admitted master (in the year 1097). and such other trades as the locality offered.14 ing. and were dulyqualified burghers of Markneukirchen. find that the two brothers (or cousins). besides being a master violin-maker. us they chanced to suit him for the warehousing of materials and perfected instruments. soon after his father's death. should not be neglected. were entirely at his disposal. in spite of which compensation his position in the Thus wT e guild remained an inferior one. inn-keeping.
so far as the available sources of information throw light upon the subject. were admitted masters in 1697. where it stood until the year 1840. As far as the families of the remaining five founders are concerned there is not sufficient reference in the Book of the Guild to prove their possession of burgher houses. for three masters of one family. In such cases at a later period. was beyond it in the market place. Just as in Prussia the French refugees. where in addition room had also to be found for a widow of the family. yet there is little doubt that such proof could be found elsewhere. One Eeichel house was situated at the epoch of the foundation of the Guild. as make no specific mention of the want of a householder's qualification on the admission of any person to mastership.15 Though Caspar Reichel's son Christian. in the middle of the market place. next to the Burgher Schonfelder's house. and in the next generation the Salzburghers. were harboured by the Hohenzollerns (ever the . and immediately started the litz Guild of Violin-makers in Markneukirchen.. on the same day. and his cousin Johanu. The designation of "Exiles from (iras" must not convey the idea that these exiles had only just settled down. to live with their families in one house. we may accept without hesitation the inference that the admitted master was a burgher or house- holder. while the other. as it would have been highly unseemly for two r or. worse still. bought burgher houses. the two must have pursued their trades in separate houses.
Hans Christian Uebel. although the increase ! in the number of established families living by the art was comparatively small. Johann Schonfelder. and Glier. Johann Christoph Schetelich.) who married a master's daughter. like the last- named master. Gotz (Goetzel). who 4. 1729. Johann Adam Schonfelder. deceased Burgher and violin-maker. prenticed to his father. which. The following are the masterships conferred between the years 1727 and 1772 to which the numbers denoting new families are . and a greater influx of new masters. alas only allows us to follow up to the year 1772. (I. Pohl- mann. 1727. since he.added in parenthesis: Friedrich Popel. so in Marknetikirchen the children and grandchildren of the first exiles continued to be known as such. 3. was admitted on payment of . (II. who was ap1. The second half of the first century of the history of violin-making in Markneukirthe Book of the Guild chen.J6 and retained protectors of Protestantism) " the designation of " Refugees amid their new surroundings. son of the 2. had been taken in. shows unnn'stakeable signs of soaring ambition. of a great consolidation of the trade and of its statutory ordinances. 1729. we need only add besides that the exile-family Papel (Topel) is casually mentioned in Markneukirchen in 1632. It has been already shown by the list which we have given that of the non-exiles who had settled there in the 16th century the old families Brann.) probably did likewise.
and was therefore probably son of Johann Adam 6. the youngest son of a master (see No. Johann Adam Kurzendorfer. 1729. Hans Adam Wurlitzer. in 1716. 1730. domiciled in Markneukirchen in 1632. half tax of 6 thaler and 18 groschen. 10. the post was in . and therefore was admitted on the condition of a possible subsequent raising of the dues in case he should not fulfil his intention. Johann Georg Lorenz list) (see No. because he married a master's The family is alluded to as daughter. 1732. ment of the rule that only the holder of the post of "Umpire" (adjudicator?) who was deputed by the council. 27 in the former list). Georg Heinrich Kurzendorfer. for paywhose dues Master Christoph Goxe. and from henceforward it became 11. On this admission Conrad Adam Schonfelder and Christianus Eeichel figure as headmasters. exclusive of other dues. who paid the dues claimed from a master's son.) admitted on payment of 8 thaler. from the year 1729 till 1772. Afterwards. Johann Elias Pfretschner. in the year 1710. Adam 8. Pfretschner. citizen and clothmaker. who was admitted Voigt. 7. This post through many generations was the hands of the family Kretzschmar. The " first to sign himself " Umpire was Cornelius Kretzschmar. 1732. Christian Friedrich Meinel was (III. went bail.) " intended " to marry a master's daughter. who (IV.17 the 5. should sign the protocol of admission. 38 in the former 9. 1729.
thalers. third son of 16. was admitted on easy His admission was contemporary terms. in consideration of whose service in the Kurfiirstlich Horse. He . probably father and son. 1738. Cark Wilhelm Heber. The father seems to have died in 1760. namely 12. 1737. between the 29th May. when we find Johann Kretzschrnar acting in Gottfried that latter of by Job ami and Johann Gottfried Kret/schmar. 17. born paid 30 thaler and As the fees of gave besides a tun of beer. 1738. : son. on which date he signed the protocol as Umpire for the lust time. and who. the cost of the Master Banquet. second son of the head-master. after the peace of Teschen. with that of Simon Pohlmann.) origin nothing further is mentioned. the capacity. late musketeer.) ' Simon Voigt. of whose elder. the of Master at 18. and Gottfried Pilz. the elder. Johann Reichel. In tiie year 1782 two new masters were created in addition to the above-mentioned. Johann Conrad Reichel. Defeusioner Meanin the while. son Johann Caspar Reichel. admission to Masterhood for a stranger were generally about 1. Hans Adam Kretzschmann. without the beer. we find admitted to (V. Christian Reichel. a citizen and " of the year 1696. and December 2nd. : Johann Adam Eeichel.18 tilled whom was still living in 1779. (VI. 15. who taught himself the art of violin-making. was pro- Wohlhausen. Johann Reichel. a master's Mastership 14. 13. year 1734.
citizen and violin-maker. 19.) He 1742. Hans Georg Kretzschmann. son of master Johann Conrad Gotzel. paid 22 thaler 5 groschen. citizen and violin-maker. youngest son of the head-master. citizen 23. 1739. On his admission Johann Caspar Eeichel and Conrad Adam Schonfelder again sign as head-masters. 1745. schmidt. master Johann Eeichel the elder. Johann Wilhelm violin27. Johann Adam Klemm. Johann Friedrich Eeichel. 1747. undertook peg-turning as a probationary post. but it is not im- Adam Kretzschmann probable. maker's apprentice. citizen and violin A master. 24. went bail for the payment of his admission fees. 1743. " intended" to marry the youngest daughter of Hans Martin Schonfelder. Johann Glitter. youngest son of master Peter Eeichel. (VII. 26. 22. from Wernitzgriin. fourth son of 20. Whether Hans was a relation of Georg Karl Kretzschmann (see fcrmer list) must remain uncertain. who 21. 1740. Hans Georg Martin. as well as his father. Johann Blechmaker. 1743. Gotzel. Georg Adam Gutter. and when his turn came filled the place of junior master of the Guild. Johann Georg Klemm. Johann Adam Pfretschner. violinmaker and inhabitant of Wernitzgrun. and violin-maker's apprentice. son of 25. 1738.19 bably valued at 18 thalers. Johann Georg Reichel. eldest son of Master Peter Eeichel. . Hans Georg Eeichel. a master's son. He. citizen. 1738.
were remitted for consideration from quarter to quarter. violin maker's apprentices from abovementioned families. all three sons of Masters hitherto working as apprentices. on the 10th April. Johann Christoph Schemmerling. Johann Christian Hamig (HamGottfried Johann and Schetelig. Johann Gottferid Pfretschner. citizen . GotthiJf Fischer. and full admission only followed on payment of 25 thaler. . and journeyman. X.violin maker's 28. 1748. in consideration of whose sta?iding as a soldier. vow to live " in accordance with the all- merciful mandate for the abolition of abuses among the workmen. mig). presented to the Guild since June 27th. 1748. 1749. 1748. son of the 29. Georg Schuster. . Apprentice and a military man. Head-Master. the taxes were reduced. for we find that the three petitions for admission. who married the eldest daughter of the Master Gottfried Piltzen. admission for the first time was required a 35. and Johann Adam Fucker." 36 38. like the foregoing engaged in the Militia. citizen and violin 31. 1751. violin greatest caution was observed. son of Master On this Georg Carl Kretschmann. and who -obtained the consent of his Captain. Johann Adam Gutter. Johann Freidrich Voigt.a IX. . Johann Glitter.Johann Gottfried Reichel. maker's apprentice. 32 34.VIII. Gottfried Johann Kretschmann. 1751. maker's apprentice. 3748. at whose admission the 30. born in Dorpersdorf. 1751.
the former. citizen and violin-maker. and Johann Adam Fischer. Johann 4446. violin maker's apprentice. the younger son of Johann Michael Seidel (sic). and Johann Adam Fischer ^9 thaler for the master banquet. Glier paid 31 thaler because he was not a master's son. violin makers' apprentices. son of Georg Simon Sclionfelder. 1 1 . 41 43. He paid 29 thaler down for the master banquet and other dues. Carl Friedrich Liebel and Hans Georg Piltz. . 1752. in which alluded to as council friend Raths-freund). 1752. 1752. sons of families Johann Friedrich above-mentioned. 49 and 50. 51. . Carl Friedrich Harnm. three violin makers' apprentices. son of master Adam Eossbach. whereas Johann Georg Glier only paid 8 thaler 6 groschen. son of a citizen and violin-maker. Christian Gottfried Schonfelder. The Liebel family was already mentioned in the roll of enfranchisement Liebel. 1755. son of the master.21 39. 1756. son citizen and violin maker. Johann Christian Ficker and Friedrich Wilhelm Meinel. 48. Adam Rossbach. Johann Georg Ficker (XII. being a master's son. 1755. Johann Michel Seydel. Christian Friedrich Meinel. 1752. is Johann (? of 1627. Johann of the Andreas Hamm 40. 47. son of the Head-master Johann Caspar Ficker. Johann Friedrich Glier. 1753. 75 XI. Georg Glier. the latter.). citizen and saw-maker. Johann Georg Kaessler.
Johann Adam Martin and Johann Georg Kurzendorfer. Johann Adam Glier. In the year 1760. Johann Carl Pfretschner. violin-makers' apprentices. Johann Georg Lippoldt. and in consideration of his father and grandfather having for a long time occupied the post of Umpire (or adjudicator) to the Guild. Johann Conrad Reichel. Georg Adam Voigt. Voigt. . 23) paid as a stranger 24 thaler for the right of mastership. who 61. Johann Gottfried Lippold' and Curt Friedrich Kretschmar. The formal admission was only completed on December 2nd of the same year on further payment of 7 thaler 12 groschen tax for the right of mastership (exclusive of the fees already paid). The latter was descended from the Umpire family. Guild by his father. 1759. It was decided at the same meeting that in future all master's sons should be subjected to the same rules of admission and treated in the same manner as Johann Adam Glier.22 52 and 53. on May 28th. XIII. Johann Adam Martin (not a son of the above-named Martin. 5460. He paid 5 groschen for fees and 1 groschen for duty. admission of Johann Adam same assembly was a little moi e He was introduced into the complicated. The Glier at the also paid the first dues for him. all members of families already mentioned. no less than seven violin-makers' apprentices were given the rights of mastership at a single These are Johann Christian meeting. only paid 8 thaler 6 groschen each. being : masters' sons. whereas the other six. he was charged smaller admission fees than other master's sons.
the sum of 31 thaler was assessed upon him as a deferred payment. learnt the violin-making trade in Klingenthal from Johann Christian Eubel. . and had half a mind to marry the youngest daughter of master Johann Eeichel the elder. Hans Georg Eeichel. Fucker had been enlisted as a recruit during the seven years' war. of leaving the Prussian service As he had found an opportunity and of entering the Saxon Service. 63.e. he begged for the rights The of mastership to be conferred on him. In the event of his neither marrying the lady under consideration. by order of the King of Prussia and Kurfiirst of Branden.. and gavo of his own free will half a barrel of beer to the Guild of Violinmakers. Hans Georg Gcetzel. from Wernitzson of Hans Conrad Goetzel. Johann Adam Niirnberger. Frederick the Great).bury (i.to Johann Georg Fucker was admitted the rights of mastership on May 29th. 1760. He won the rights of citizenship at Markneukirchen. Hans Georg Kretschmann (son of Hans Adam Kretschmann). both violin anakers' apprentices. 16). 1762. 17H1. 1761. son of Tohann 'Conrad Eeichel (see No. recruits had been levied for the 10th Saxon Infantry Regiment. griin. full taxes were not claimed. 66. probably on account of his being a soldier. nor any other master's daughter. On this consideration the fees on admission to mastership were reduced to 10 thaler 16 groschen. when. XI V. and 65.23 62. griin. . They were - . member of this Guild and an inhabitant of Wernitz64.
together with a few dating from the earlier times. violin-maker's apprentice. intoa numerically important community during the past generation. who had done splendid work under- .admitted on immediate payment of the mastership fees. Be He was simultaneously admitted to participate in all the benefits which were enjoyed by other masters of the craft. admitted since 1727 had developed. The manufacture could now be carried on on a larger scale on account of the newer directions in which musical taste hal progressed and the important But from development of concert music. these very causes the artistic aspirations of many of the makers became dulled into a commercial activity and the appreciation of the meaning of their art pursued as an art became more and more a thing of the past. The descendants of fathers and grandfathers. in addition towards the Exchequer of the apprentices. after compliance with the prescribed formalities. or at least wavering. in 1762. and both gave besides 2 groschen 6 pf. towards the funds of the Keichel 12 groschen masters' Treasury. nature of the These 67 masters violin-maker's calling. besides the usual master taxes. Johann Friedrich Eeichel. The records in the Chronicle concerning characteristic of the this admission are changed. deceased Guild. paid. was admitted as a member to this 67. 12 groschen to the masters' Exchequer and to the apprentices for pipes and tobacco. son of a Johann Keichel. in public session of the assembled Worshipful Guild of Violin-makers.
whilst outsiders. restricted as they were in their efforts by the rules of a mere trades-union. It may be taken as a sign of the greater importance attached to household tenure that single members of the violin-makers' families devoted themselves to University studies.very difficult circumstances. and the marrying of a master's daughter became the only means open to a so-called "stranger" of obtaining admission to this great com- By more from munity. in the fabrication of musical instruments. In the year 1764 the violinmaker's apprentices. especially music. sought admission to the rights of mastership in the Guild. Johann Gottfried Hamm . As early as in 1682 there had been some talk of a confirmation of the Guild by charter. and a greater appreciation of the value of more delicate work. conspicuous for its wealth and influence in matters municipal. felt satisfied with inferior work. and this renaissance brought with arts it The seven of higher efiorcs of mechanical skill. immediately following on one bearing only the theretofore usual designa" tion of the Guild's work as a " worshipful art. This is noticeable already in the admission of masters in the following years. 68 and 69. Schetelig and the sons of the magistrates Kretschmar and Siebel. but indications of official incorporation are first found in a proctoeol of the year 1729. years' war was ended. and the peace. such as the two subsequently admitted pastors. degrees they cut themselves off more and all connection with all matters foreign to the objects of the Guild. nourished once more.
it was an epoch in which the authority of the Corporation. but whose interests were in many ways connected with the Corporation. students. such as the apprentices.26 and Johann Gottlob " munity and the Beneficent Mandates relating to the Suppression of Abuses among the Working Classes. Notwithstanding however. and trade secrets of the maker. violin-makers were classed with the common workmen. must have been highly beneficial in its workings. these circumstances. and were only called upon to promise to conform to the rules of the com- recommended to its notice because according to the artistic comprehension of that time. and journeymen. a confidence . its control of the market. What would have become of a branch of industry such as the art and craft of violinmaking. not only to the members of the Corporation and all who were in close relation with it. were admitted masters in the Corporation of this worshipful art as before. but also to all who stood without its immediate influence. and command of remunerative work (with which control not only rights and privileges but also burdens and duties were combined). they were by no means restricted to the violinmaker's Guild alone. with its regulated ritual. As their title denotes." These mandates were first mentioned in the year 1745. in which the sale of the manufac- tured article depended entirely upon the absolute confidence which the buyer had in the gradually-acquired experience. and indeed were only Ficker.
and more likely to be tried with success by the isolated member than if he had gone his own solitary way the independently. from superas are highlyit [as to keep rules of construction laid down by the great inventor. but also of those of the . existed at the iime in which we write would undoubtedly have rendered such a branch of industry as that of the manufacture of stringed instruments impossible as a means of livelihood. . Under these circumstances. Whilst the good comradeship existing in the Guild made it easier it for beginners in the art to obtain a trust worthy education in the requirements of their calling.buyers. not only were the interests of the Guild served. as it has existed among us. combined with the use of best materials only.making was practised in Cremona] they had on the whole to the fundamentary few Apart. however. for some decennia past. simpler. and that the Guild only offered as first-class work.27 which any shape ? superficial treatment or insuffi- ciently clever imitation was calculated to It being well understood that all within the privileged Guild knew how to distinguish between generally artistic and common work. delicate nuances and ficial fads of construction such and must be customary in the developed art of violin . it certainly made the acquisition of the art cheaper. the manufacture of musical instruments was in a position to flourish and make strides. instruments which they knew to have been wrought with the greatest care and skill. Had free trade.
point back to the first of the family of that name. during their wanderings. Maggini. whc flourished in the year 1510. which. In all probability. and. a family still inhabiting Markneukirchen. the Tyrol. and which. From the beginning they were probably obliged to use for the better class of instruments. a few apprentices early found their way. Niederheitmann points out that the violins made by Johann Ficker in the years between 1719 and 1738 in Cremona have nothing in with the peculiarities of the great Italian masters. of whose school Ficker was reckoned a member. but rather display an original technical intelligence. The two Fickers mentioned by Friedrich Niederheitmann in his " Charakteristik der Italienischen Geigenbauer"(Lcipzig. while in the other factories are turned out mere imitationsof the most celebrated Italian masters. they were also early in possession of valuable Italian instruments.). such asAmati. were accessible to all the artists and craftsmen in the town. ao we have already seen. toItaly and other centres of instrument manufacture. recognised and used as models. where violins of genuine German make are con- structed. and Guarnerius. old and seasoned maple wood from Bavaria.28 Tieffenbrugger (sic. has produced several masters. 1877). Stradivarius. without doubt. once. . and other parts near to the Italian frontier. and sold at high prices. and thus new ideas and extended knowledge reached the workmen engaged in the home industry. This traditional common spirit of original art makes itself felt to this clay in the studios of Markneukirchen.
at the admission of Adam Braun in 1697. men who had no connection with the older families and who were obliged to content themselves with their own imitations of existing models and the amount their instructors of manual dexterity which In such had taught them. later on. Hitherto it had been frequently regarded as an unnecessary loss of time to let the three . It was certainly different where new comers were concerned. on the admission of the later masters. In 1748 a return was made to the strict observance of the articles of the Guild's charter as far as the formalities of admission were concerned.It appears. especially in the case of masters' Sons of sons. but often. In this matter violin-making stood on a different footing to other trades. that. demonstrably advantageous. the rule of the Charter of the passed Guild requiring that the applicant should have two years as a journeyman was relaxed. to obtain the assent of the State (the a case of it was necessary the Head Authority Landgrave) before the candidate to mastership could forego the years of probation as a An instance of this happened journeyman. from the records found in the registers of the Guild. families whose head members undertook trade journeys. and such a dispensation was not only unproductive of harm to the art. an 3 higher fees were demanded for the Guild Treasury in lieu of service. to have exercised great indulgence. but with regard to the enforcement of the two years' probation they seem. had always the opportunity thus afforded them of learning new things whereby they could enhance and improve the status of their handicraft.
who had performed his military service. and of Johann Georg Ficker. 1748. Glier. it was decided that the taxes should be payable quarterly thus Georg Schuster was really only elected to Mastership of the violinmaker's profession at the Guild Meeting of April 10th. certainly the wife of a man named Schuster who had wandered thither from the village of Eaun (or she might have been a born Eauner) and in the year 1683 is mentioned the joiner. as owner of the site for the new cemetery. the admission. 1849. . George Schuster.30 prescribed taxes be paid at different times.. the father. As he had to pay 25 thaler. especially to that part relating to the time over which periodical payments On . Georg Schuster. yet the family of Schusters was probably settled in Markneukirchen as early as the middle of the 17th century." i. the facilities afforded by a speedier mode of payment was still allowed to Gotthilf Ficker. he certainly cannot have been a master's son. On the application of the violin-maker's apprentice. appears to have attached much weight to the observance of the articles of the Guild Charter. but who had been enlisted in the Militia. (son of the master of the same name). of John Adam Glier.e. ncr in possession of a Burgher-House. . in 1760. After the first coming into force of the Landgrave's edict concerning the reform of abuses. a member of a family not hitherto connected with the art. for in a diploma of the " Kauner year 1666 there is mention of one Schusterin. As these were all paid at once it was possible to admit an apprentice to mastership within the limits of one day. on June 27th.
Still more maintenance severe. from the 18th May to December 2nd. and the resolution was taken that in the future all masters' sons should be similarly treated. it does not prove that the resolve was broken. Now the rule came of the into operation. 1766. and 20 days were allowed over and above for its completion. from all. If on the following admissions the terminal times of payment are not set forth in the Guild Register. was the rule which enforced the production of one masterpiece by way of diploma-work. in many cases they had been satisfied with payment of a certain sum in place of the testing of work by the assembled Guild. although the candidates were scions of masters' families. In the original confirmation of the Charter by the Landgrave the requirement of a masterpiece had not been particularised. rigour was observed in the subsequent admissions. and conducive to the of the esteem which the excel- lence of their instruments had won for the violin-makers of Markneukirchen. the commencement of Masterhood should date from the commenceof the Masterpiece. 1765. that after payment third tax. for his son. They went still further in prescribing the ment . and paid their taxes. Four candidates for master's rights who presented themselves for admission in June. who proposed to practise the art and craft as an independent master.31 the payments extended lasted. only attained the full estate of master- The same ship in June and July. without distinction.
or a Princess Dolgorouki to try to pi-oducethe indescribable fruits of their artistic knowledge and power from the same sort of instrument as that used by gipsies. attainment of mastership. as Johann Gottfried Kretschmann did in the year 1767. According to modifications introduced later on ["resulting from the continuance of the same ideas] it was permissible to make two inlaid violins. 1766. one an inlaid and the other a plain violin and thus the manufacture of an ordinary violin no longer sufficed for the . an Ole Bull. In this way they almost attained in one century to a distribution of work. and balladsingers] so in those days it was an undoubted for the welfare of the " arts and necessity " that the Masters should be able to manufacture wares of different values. or else one inlaid violoncello such as Johaun Georg Eeichel . interest of the manufacture and the trade. as to-day. they resolved to inquire of the Council how the articles relating to the diploma-work in the Landgrave's confirmation of the charter should be interThe Council gave answer in the preted. and the diploma works were judged accordingly. village-musicians. of finer quality.Just quality of the diploma work required. that each candidate. for the rights of mastership. violins of different qualities of higher or lower value are in demand [and we should consider it as an artistic impossibility for a Joachim. Still in "March. expecting from one crafts Master violins of inferior manufacture. and from another the fabrication of finer instruments. should be obliged to deliver two diploma works.
that the art of bass-ma. We have Johann Adam Reichei I. and also the 17th. as we have seen from many facts recorded above.makers mentioned in the first half century of the Craft Register first study. and at last even his only work. however. however. who died in the year 1794. and head master of the Guild of "Violin. The stigma of narrowminded exclusiveness (Guild egotism] does not. and who had married the violin-maker. was the first occasion that the making of basses (violoncellos) was recorded in the Register. rest upon the Reichei family." It can hardly be inferred. Eva Sophia. founder. The entire 16th century. though we regard him who made bass-making his chief . or relations of the family seeking to rival the Reichels. to the fact that bass-making in Markneukirchen was limited to these families.king was more generally spread than this. was far less favourable to the development of instrumental than to that of vocal music.. as Von Wasielewski has observed in his history of instrumental music.33 (violin and bass-maker's apprentice. Johann Adam Reichei. as the - . and this art was carried on by his descendants in both branches. it curtly described as a bass-maker. Wolf Ehrhard Lippold's daughter. aged 80 (probably born about 1714). Artistic and technological records point. and the Ecclesiastical " BassRegisters designate them all as makers. a direct descendant of the originator. son of the Master Johann Adam Reichei) manuThis factured in 1771 as his diploma work. yet there is always a possibility that there may have been isolated cases of other masters of the same family.
cithera. . and in the churches. gational singing as it gained in meaning. lutes. moved men's more lastingly. . Perhaps the Eornanians and their near Alpine neighbours developed their love of guitars.. but. distancing all rivals. souls more easily and As long as no perfect piano existed (for the spinnet was yet too meagre and expensive) violin-playing and music were inseparable. the violin was masses The new evangelical congreindispensable. accompanied the singing in the churches and indeed. from learned colleges to the humblest village school. Not only in the houses of musicafforded. and such like instruments earlier than the Middle and North Germans with us the deeper. depended principally on the violin as its medium of interpretation. in seminaries. however.Contemporaneously with the older stringed instruments of the Viol-family (such as Luther used to play in the circle of his family. it completed its triumphal progress through Europe and beyond it. and chief accompaniment. as "Queen of Musical " Instruments (being the one which nearest approached the human voice in quality of . among the great of the populace. through the works of the sacred-song writers of the 17th century. more penetrating and fuller toned music such as the violin . above all. the violin became more and more popular as an accompaniment to the voice at length. loving citizens. itself In Markneukirchen there was a number " of so-called " choir-assistants great who with their violins. tone). it was not likely that the descendants of those regularly.
and at a few parThe researches of ticularly musical centres. and to do honour become by the added beauty of This habit was so deeply musical support. even among those learned in musical history. we encounter. and Meyerbeer but when we try to go back as far as the 17th or even the first half of the 18th centuries. mighty convulsion was caused among them when. and especially in Germany. This is recorded by Heinrich Glasel in his record of noteworthy facts written in the Vogtlandisch dialect. Schubert. type of concert music. unable to form an opinion of any distinctively charac. only three violinists were allowed to take part in the service. and in France. in the beginning of this century (through discordance among the choir. but little orchestral music was performed. a conviction that we are groping in the dark. reckoning from the present time. excepting perhaps at the petty courts of the Landgraves. the musical archaeologists of to-day have only succeeded in placing the origin of public string-orchestral concerts at a hundred years It is 'back. Marschner. who had exiles for their faith's sake.directo the congregation tors of the church). Meanwhile in Europe. probably within the knowledge of the whole world what service was rendered to music in this respect by Spohr. the two countries which teristic as Germany . In Italy. at least as far is concerned. rooted in the lives of this religious sect. should 'forget to give their faithful services to the evangelical church-service.35 noble-minded Bohemian settlers. from classic times the home of -art. that a.
and sounded the key-note? culture during the 17th and theof the 18th centuries." but connoisseurs doubt whether this was made in Luther'stime and not. but they may very probably have wandered thither from Bavaria. countries. without doubt. put together some time later. earlier carried to perfection by the old Italian masters than by the Germans. as is proved by the Italian name "Viola. describes the different bow-instruments in the second volume of his work " "Syntagma Musicse (which appeared in 1.36 took the lead of. In the Museum of Musical History in Berlin maybe seen a sort of bass instrument. after which " form " Violino was first viol) (little the Italian masters generally adopted certainly played a form of string quartet. called a "luther bass. the Tyrol and other south German. lier than we Germans. In the south of France. the cradle of the trouearlier understood badours of ch'ivalric times.619) and distinguishes them only by the . yet it is questionable " whether the " Contrabass (also called the " " "Big Bass Violin or Violone ") held the same position then as it holds in the string quartet of the present day." a name by which all similar string instruments were designated up to the middle of the 16th time the diminutive century. German musicians and instrument-makers were at an even earlier date welcome arrivals. as is rcore likely. Michael Pratorius. Violin-making was. art and first half in. ear. it was how to blend harmoniously together different musical instruments. The German musical author.
which are held between the legs and 2. and that till 1680 one played only up to the A above the cleff. . im which they were played . invented by Tieffenbrugger. at least as long as the real string quartet had not found a wide field. he is of opinion that it . thus : Viole da gambe. so long as of the 18th century. which are held on the arm the latter are also called The big viola ii "little Polish Violins." . when we consider' that for a long time even the four-stringed violin. the bass was perhaps a desirable but still not indispensable instrument. tuned to very varying keys. later rising to the C or Ut. and it certainly required a series of progressive stages of development before the bass was recognised as a concert instrument independent of the violin before it reached such popularity that without the accompaniment of the violin it was played in village music supported only by the bagpipe.37 manner 1. with six strings) did not find much favour on account of the incompleteness of its tuning-mechanism otherwise. our modern that even seen fourclearly stringed bass only gradually attained an enhanced importance. matters little how one it is tunes one's violin or tuned to pitch. and that real virtuosity. So long as there was no specifically developed string-orchestra music in Germany. and improved upon by his Italian followers. Viole da Braccio. and the It would be player can perform on it well. was played upon. In later times its use and importance . as we understand the term today. gamba (contrabasso di gamba. only began with Locatelli in the middle viola.
struggled for supremacy with the contra-bass as the ground. and abandonment of all higher culture and art. at first. pette Maggiore " Tromba da Tirarsi " (slide trumpet). the Viole de Braccio (modern viola) were considered as sufficient substitutes. owing to the unceasing din the consequently persistent of war. in the mixture of all attainable instruments. where. apparent already quoted work of Pratorius that even in a band composed a-ccording to the canons of Italian taste. Among the "Gamba" instruments the most popular " was certainly the small ones called " Celli but it was the from (Yioloncelli*. as a matter of fact. Meanwhile the strides that had been made " Tromin establishing the importance of the '' and the (big trumpet). For." and in default. that the orchestral standing Bach was of the violin was also established. the deep-toned trumpets. .38 depended mainly on the position which the all-conquering violin attained in the orchestra. when Johann Sebastian Bach (1750) had inaugurated the renaissance of church music. the violin attained its position as a ruler of all instruments. served as a foundation still more firmly establishing the prestige of the violin.zenith. the bassoon.work of the harmonies. by for Girolamo Fantini. only at the time when the . the trombone. The whole of the 17th century was an era very unfavourable to the development of orchestral music. simplest form of trumpet had reached its It was only in the first half of the 18th century. the Viole da Gambe were only used "when they were to be had.
Haydn first founded the real quartet. In his oratorios. as we have seen. alto. the manufacture of basses only began in the 18th century in Markneukirchen. and that in this respect (i. the string instruments were provided with the most difficult and complicated solo parts. became. there exists at Markneukirchen a musical confluence at which during fair times the whole of eastern Europe satisfies its demand for violins.e. in which each instrument of the viol family held place . founder of the modern orchestra. Joseph Haydn. treble. and it became the real foundation of the scheme of orchestral harmony. side by side with isolated wind instruments. After this has been established it is hardly open to the smallest doubt that if. the incentive came from Leipzig and from the introduction of church. A new orchestral wave soon after per- meated from the southward to our musical valley. between 1760 and 1790.39 first to make the artistic polyphonic treatment of musical sounds universal in Germany. as opposed to opera. its special the viols. bandmaster to Prince Esterhazy in Vienna.music. by the invention and introduction of the symphony.. which had by that time come over from Italy. and it must be remembered that Bach was director of the Thomas School in Leipzig. Our native instrumentmakers and those of other towns were in the the habit of mingling in intercourse here. and to the present day. bass making) the family Keichel distinguished itself. and bass was at this period that the bass whole . tenor. whither a commercial high-road from Bohemia led through Markneukirchen.
and transport of. occupied themselves with the sale of finished instruments. merely dealing in the instruments and we mav infer this from the . we see. in these times (the service refusing to means of intercourse existing Thurn and Taxis Courier . but for the less expert it remained a members of the community daring undertaking to give themselves over exclusively to this branch of manufacture. persons who undertook all the difficulties incident to the transport of violins and other small instruments such as woodhorns and flutes (which were manufactured during the 10 years immediately preceding the close of the records we have. lated houses of the Reichel family may. Owing to the continued competition of Bohemian. makers whose position was a guarantee of the excellence of build and acoustic properties of the instruments. only such makers or dealers as commanded the entire field of the violin-making art were intrusted with commissions. however. there appear to have been a number of families even then who. although they were only required singly. In consequence of the defective forward these delicate instruments) the trade ia basses was by no means a simple or easy one. basses. From all appearances. by preference. Austrian and Bavarian instrument-makers. continues to the present day. under consideration) and even charged themselves with Isothe trade in. even earlier have devoted themselves to the business. and this is a condition of things which.40 With this epoch-rnakiug progression in the musical history of the German people the bass-makers were obliged to keep pace.
and left Among his personal effects two basses. on the mother's side. Anna Margarethe. from one of the Protestant families driven.41 fact that Crasselt mentions in the beginning of the next century. from Austria on account of their faith. yet at the very latest they become inhabitants of our must have town in the middle of the previous century. besides several small packets of string and other appurtenances. nee Paulus. .prevalent among the citizens of Markneukirchen. in the year 1640. We learn from a chronicle in the possession of Herr Eichard Schuster that an old man of the name of Johann Georg Paulus died during the course of a commercial tour in Paderborn. and which settled first in the village of "Wohlbach. The Paulus family was also connected with the original colonist family of Eeichels by ties of religious sympathy as they were descended originally. as they are not mentioned in the register of the Guild among violin -makers proper before employed 1772. such as cloth-making.calling we find them till the end of the century). besides a violin-making Eeichel family. between Schdneck and Markneuwhence they subsequently came over to Markneukirchen. Certainly this Johann kirchen. Three families named Paulus are also mentioned as violin-makers. We must assume that this family occupied itself wiih the other trades . and especially string-making (in which . is mentioned in 1749 as widow of the Master Christian Eeichel. since at that time they were already closely connected with the Eeichela by marriage. three or four families of dealers or traders of the same name.
in which the different manufactures were monopolised by so many different Guilds or Trades Unions. freqtiently it may than in consequence of a mere endeavour to find occupation (amid the many channels of activity open to craftsmen employed in lucra* tive and artistic trades). was designated as a bass-maker on his death in 1814. and in the Vogtlanuish hill country this aptitude seems to have attained a particularly wide development.Georg Paulus did not begin his commercial* tours in his old age he had probably dealt in the basses made by his friends and relaWe may tions. cloth-maker. tailor. furrier. for decades. yet practised be inferred. the same person could be by turns (to judge by the extant accounts of isolated individuals). Fnedrich Jacob (born in 1778). basseswere beset.. shoemaker. Carl . the Reichels. take as an example of the difficulties with which the fabrication of. violin and general instrument maker. in view of the progress hi the technics of instrument-making. and traffic in. that craftsmen eked . saw-smith. that a member of an old established family of citizen manufacturers. locksmith. whereas he had previously been by turns carpenter. The manual dexterity of the hill-folk is properly looked upon as an important factor in the history of modern industries. It would otherwise be difficult to understand how in an age like the 17th and 18th centuries. and then string-maker. that it was less in consequence of a many sided aptitude for art work. But even though different branches of the musical instrument making industry were by the same person.
and in the ornamentation and beauty of the finished instruments. and by keen observation of every kind. in the establishment of every proposed technical improvement. it was of immense importance that the travelling manufacturers and traders should strive to educate themselves still further by contact with musical artists by studying new models.out a livelihood by first one and then another branch of the art and craft of instru- ment-making. how far each master kept to own pattern. if it were possible. Indeed the intellect which could successively master the difficulties incident to the execution of this task (a task almost beyond the bounds of practicability) might indeed be called an enviable one. what deviations he allowed himself. in the excellence of production. the practice from which the " " journeymen properly speaking took hi*. Hyacinth Abele. It would be a hopeless task to attempt to trace the gradual progress that was made in the selection and treatment of materials. . title before attaining the rank of master- workman. his of Travelling for purposes of trade as well as manufacture was indispensable at least in the second half of the 18th century. In all probability the practice of travelling then came in again. a thorough savant in the history of the violin and its. construction. Anyhow the fact remains that. and what improvements he projected and carried out. laid down as early as the year 1864 the axiom that the important point of such an investigation would be to find out.
as well as the south as far as Italy. a centre of the earlier and more highly developed art of violin-making as practised in Italy and the countries of Southern The principal Europe. and new connections for the further of development trade in of the manufacture and the instru- . Markneukirchen had become. but it cannot be doubted. on account of his absence abroad. 1765. on reference to other chronicles. the artistic training of the apprentices and masters was conducted less in the undertaking of trade journeys than by the establishment of new trade centres. but he had applied for admission in June. hardly be doubted after this explanation and those that have gone before. were much In the historical course of things visited. that Northern Germany. to a certain extent. adverting to the dangers to which such "travelling youths" were exposed by reason of the war. It can and had paid the preliminary tax. of the Guild gives no further information respecting the direction in which such expeditions were made. When once the wholesale trade in musical instruments was nrmly established. westwards and eastwards as far as the Sclavonish countries. 1766. depots for the sale of the instruments must have been found in Northern and Eastern Germany and in the neighbouring Sclavonic states. that the " " (as journeymen) and even years of travel longer period of expatriation became more The Register frequent among apprentices.44 The admission of Christian Gottlob Pfretzschner could only take place in July. including Austria.
It is further stated in this connection. the travelling violin-maker should be on the look-out for gut adapted for the manufacture good and cheap resin. It was more advantageous to procure these articles of strings. and to find how far the development of this par- ticular branch of industry may have influThe enced the history of violin-making. and one within the recollection of men living on the spot at the beginning of this century. (especially the resins. It is an established fact. which . wide pasture lands of the great North German low-lands favoured the keeping of Jarge herds of sturdy native sheep. and other material for inlaying instruments. that in our town the manufacture of strings had begun in the year 1730. especially if he desired to become a dealer as well as a maker.45 It was also of importance that meuts. and expense. oils. that at first. colours. reserved for future and more minute research to discover the names of those men who first devoted themselves to this useful trade. is It industry. although it was not until the year 1870 or thereabouts that a charter of Incorporation was granted to the stringmakers' &uild. wood. unless these materials were to be had at the fairs. shell. thought. than by the Mediterranean harbours (whence they had to make the difficult passage of the Alps). foreign woods and gut) from Northern Germany via the Dutch harbours of Hamburg. only a few who had previously travelled abroad occupied themselves with this branch of the art and raised it gradually to its status present by laborious study.
they only gradually penetrated from the west to the far-lying Ostsee territories. as it was useful and valuable in the skilful hands of the workmen of Markneukirchen.. so a grateful . Of this Tiingel there is no mention in the register of the Guild. Probably Tiingel. but only that they were sold there in great quantities. born in Danzig r settled here (Markneukirchen) in 1700. In all probability. gut as worthless in those as yet unmusical parts of the country. the trade metropolis of the still important state of Poland. and he is said to have taught the violin-makers of this town the compounding. and yet it cannot be doubted that he introduced into Markneukirchen a new method of preparing varnish. at this epoch so popular in Italy." especially in Danzig. not being a member of the Guild. from the country that supplied Europe with amber. A certain Johann Tiingel. of a new varnish of fine quality. where a firmly establishedtrade centre was discovered for the sale of the " Polish Violin. Coming as he did. But it is not likely that these " Polish Violins " were really invented in Poland. established an important trade between his friends in Danzig and the principal members of the Markneukirchen that posterity Violin-makers' has preserved Guild. which occurred at the age of 90 in 1757. as also that of the red-brown varnish. and devoted himself to violin-making until hisdeath. he probably understood the confection of amber varnish better than anybody else in Markneukirchen.46 furnished the gut necessary for stringmaking.
It would not. and wooden instruments derived its chief incentive from Leipzig and Hof. there were locally closer trade connections which were not neglected by the travelling artist. in the year 1760. of whom recorded that " he brought violin-making to its highest condition of remembrance Crasselt of has prosperity. be out of place to remark at this point that the manufacture of violin bows remained at first far behind that of violins. It would over-step the proposed limits of this work to go further into the details of the ever-varied demand for violius on the one hand and for wind instruments on the other. and that in the latter branch of the trade a member of the distinGutter family already mentioned guished himself. and that for a long time bows were made only by the inferior artisans.47 the Prussian. In the Bavaria of that day (for the Frankish States abutting upon the river Main were ruled by the Frankish branches of the House of Hohenzollern and by ecclesiastical princes) one can only reckon Mittenwald and . It may be remarked in this connection that the art of making forest-horns. and that the travelling apprentices and traders often dealt We there. and probably bad settled there in the first decades of the century. The Chronicle relates that the art of bowmaking was introduced into Markneukirchen He died by a citizen named Joseph Strtiz. however." Still. may infer from this that an earlier connection existed between our town and the centres of musical industry in Bavaria.
many violin makers. The south German and Austrian forests supplied . In the Upper Bavarian and the neighbouring Tyrolese Alps where Jacob Stainer (who was a pupil of Amati) was born. . Langenfeld. Wiirzberg. always something to be learnt from the masters in Mittenwald and Fiissen. In the beginning of the century there were in Vienna. Nurnberg. as they were in constant communication with the Italian masters. and even into Italy. where maple trees eight hundred years old were to be found.48 a few neighbouring places in Upper Bavaria as the centre of the musical instrument industry. and it can hardly be doubted that the travelling makers from Markneukir- chen frequently wandered thither. Prague. Bamberg. At this place ( Mitten wald) violinmaking became established in 1683 by Egidius Klotz (the esteemed pupil of the celebrated violin-maker Stainer) some years before the proud Venetian merchants transferred their business to Mittenwald on account of some offence taken at the yearly market at Botzen. the wood of the hazel fir was found which was so highly valued on account of the splendid tone it imparted to the instruments. and especially with those of the Cremonese school. The maple trees of the country round Markneukirchen and the surrounding territories no longer sufficed for the growing even at the beginning of the manufacture previous century it had been necessary to procure suitable maple wood from Bavariaand the Tyrol. and it did not grow in the Vogtland and the was Besides this there Fichtelgebirge. and Franken.
If the travelling dealers did not reach as far as the centres of the string manufacturing industry. as indeed is the case to this day. for a long time it was necessary to procure strings. Christian Gotthilf Fischer. but Eeichel's third tax was not paid until the following year. and Johann Georg Voigt.large quantities of pear wood. In the year 1768. Johann Adam and Johann Gottfried Kretschmann. they were obliged to satisfy their needs either at the markets of Botzen (to which the Venetians had retransferred their depot after a short absence) or at other instrumentmaking centres. It is not probable that the violin and bass makers of the time chronicled by the Eegister of the Guild had penetrated Italy in the south. and pegs. Carl Friedrich Eeichel. 78. ready made from Italy. Christian Gottlob Pfretzschner 7073. such as Venice.. tail-pieces. Subjoined are the names of those masters who were admitted from the year 1765 up to the time when the register closes : Martin. Treviso. Above all. . 1766. in July. Cremona. and was only completed 7477. two who were admitted Johann Georg Schdnfelder and Militia free in 1769. whose admission was begun by payment of taxes on June 9th. 79. Adam Kretschmann. CarlFriedrich Pfretzschner. were admitted as masters. 1765. Georg Adam Kassler. and the the north at any rate aH . &c. beyond northern Ehine Vistula in record of such wanderings is wanting. such as was used for finger-boards. Johann recruits.
those of Carl Friedrich Siebel and Carl Friedrich Kretzschmar were merely those of sons of families who were either magistrates or priests. Master Johann Adam Reichel) became.50 In the year 1770. and Rudert. Johann Georg 80. . third son of Master Simon Voigt. 10th June. next to them of the older families stand in eminence the Voigts with seven new masters. no new parent stock was added to the Guild. record of the admission of the apprentice. : . . viz. The Master-book closes with the 81. when Adam Niirnberger from Klingentbal (who was engaged to a daughter of the Reichels) was admitted. Among those of the last half-century we count altoin . Johann Gottfried Voigt." ing words are When we look back on the long list of 'newly-admitted masters in the comparatively short space of 45 years. The clos" Soli Deo Gloria. inclusive of the families of Ooetzel's not enumerated after the year 1761. 1772. Those admissions recorded in 1752 and 1759. whereas the Reichels contributed 12 new masters in addition to the 10 admitted in the first 50 years of the Guild. three each of the Schonfelder and Kurzendorfer families and one of the Popel attained mastership. the Pfretzschners and the Kretzschmanns each with six and the Fickers with five. Of the seven founders' families those of Poller. seven old and 23 new the first only 15 new families.gether 30 families. have entirely disappeared. Knopf. master. we must at once be struck by the difference between this period and that of the first 50 years. Reichel (son of the before-mentioned violin and bass maker.
. as violinmakers. Besides the 45 families recorded in the Guild Register. one from Wernitzgriin. Of the rest. There were six from Klingenthal. thus making 43 altogether. As far as riches. Pupel and Eudert. or the patrician houses of the oldest and most celebrated towns. and. fame. only about the same number of families as before 32) were really actively engaged in the (30 pursuit of the art. up to the year 1723. two from Schoneck. which together only produced 38 On the whole in spite of the almost doubled number of masters. family standing were concerned the Markneukirchen violinmaker families at first could not attempt to measure themselves with the celebrated violin-maker families of Cremona and other Italian centres of artistic industry. with few exceptions. others afterwards wandered thither. it would be easy to find descendants (in the case of most of the families) in such numbers as could hardly be equalled for magnitude by the noble families of the lowlands. one from Wohlhausen. the four newly-added parent stocks produced 24. not counting the seven emigrant families of the year 1677. and one from Dorpersdorf. who took part in the founding Descendants of the founderof the Guild. informed) with the families of Poller.51 The four original parent stocks already named produced 19 masters. Only a comparatively small number out of the 45 original families. and later. families Hopf and Schonfelder still live in new masters. out-balancing the whole 24 other families. Klingenthal and Wernitzgrun. have become entirely Such has been the case (I am extinct.
" not mechanical work merely. which that family boasted within the comparatively short space of a hundred years. whereas Markneukirchen of to-day (which can cornpare with the most prominent towns of Saxony and Germany in respect of its commercial prosperity) are a splendid example We . in view of the large number of masters (22). whereas in earlier days such establish ments were mainly Italian. of Eeligion. In the present century. The most eminent of the citizens of the of the beautiful adage "Work is the ornament of the citizen. as would be seen if the steps in the commercial progress of single families could be minutely traced. are justified in directing special attention to the family of Eeichel.52 The unpretentious character of their domestic habits was consequent principally. however. but artistic work in the service of the Ideal. on the lower state of the development of artistic culture in Germany as compared with that of the Komaic countries. and blessing is the price of toil. Minute researches into the history of the string-makers would probably throw much light on the subject. Besides the their works of isolated families in the violin-maker's Guild. and of Art. not a few families have attained world-wide importance by the magnitude of manufacturing and export establishments. later on [in view of the sharper definitions erected between wholesale and retail manufacture and trade] several other outward influences came to bear. under the favour- able auspices of the newly-arisen German Empire.
such as those (not at that time members of the Violin-makers Guild) of Ardler. Wild. Miiller. the Reichel family appears to-day con- than formerly. and the older houses of Schuster and Voigt rather than with the newer houses of Gutter Paulus. We may regard the development of the Eeichel family as typical of the whole group of manufacturing families. are of such frequent recurrence that many of those to-day bearing those names are not only connected by family intermarriage. Blechschmidt. The Eeichel family was also connected during the 18th century. the Eeichels showed a kindly spirit of fellowship towards the apprentices and students in their choice and election of Masters If of the Guild. the family of Lippold (which had settled there at latest in 1683). and that they and their families were strongly bound together by ties by Guild fellowship and of art. Heinel. only produced half the number of masters. Paulus. with the old native families of Markneukirchen. and Schuster. Judging from the Register of the Guild. Roth. Other prominent families besides Eeichel' s were certainly not exclusive in their dealings with their less well-to-do fellow artists and fellow citizens. who reckoned originally twice as many as the Reichels. and Stark. but also by blood relationship. Niirnberger. The connections between the families of Lippold. siderably less prominent in Markneukirchen it must not be forgotten that . Reichel. seeing that out- wardly their ways of life were exactly alike.the family of Schonfelder. Ebner. and Lederer.
they still preserved a faithful attach- ment to their fellow countrymen they were instrumental in enlarging the trade connections of their native town with foreign countries. services which. without thereby . a service really rendered by the old family of Weller. to the community are them by those yet living. and the family known at the beginning of this century as that of the Burgomaster Christian Jacob Durrschmidt. In 13ol the brothers Eeichel won the gold after fire the great of branches of the family left medal in Tilsit for their gut strings manufactured there. Far from home. the tradition that they were the first to establish the trade of Sheep-gut with Odessa and Tashkend. but latterly even in more remote parts of the world. Members of it have settled not only in many European countries. and exhibited in London at the first International Exhibition. and in the increase of their possessions kept pace with the most prominent families of their native country. and the newly risen German Empire. the principal the town with their capital (not inconsiderable for those times). according to more correct authorities. . Many services ascribed to they did not render. as for instance. These encomia upon their name. losing any of their love for their fatherland. prove the popularity of the Eeichel family and the high esteem in which it was held. and found a field for their artistic work and spirit of trade in other lands. thus enlarging their sphere of mercantile operations and doing much service to the trade of the world.54 1840. and the recollections of some still living who were contempories of their youth.
or who blood or sympathy. and. and may they ever remain true to their Vogtlandish country. that happiness in life is not dependent alone upon the possession of worldly goods. above all. but on the prizing of higher May the many who related by ties of and more ideal interests may they furthermore strive after simplicity and nobility of manner and custom combined with artistic spirit and piety. to the faith of their fathers ! To God alone the glory !" .55 bear this name. remember. mingling the softer disposi. on looking back at the examples of their fathers (who. tion of the south with the energy of thought and will that characterises the north. forsook their free citizenship and their earlier Austrian home). for their faith's sake.
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