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Fibonacci Numbers

Fibonacci Numbers

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Fun with Fibonacci Numbers: Applications in Nature and Music

Gareth E. Roberts
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science College of the Holy Cross Worcester, MA

Holy Cross Summer Research Lunch Seminar July 11, 2012

G. Roberts (Holy Cross)

Fun with Fibonacci Numbers

HC Summer Seminar

1 / 50

The Fibonacci Numbers

Definition
The Fibonacci Numbers are the numbers in the sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, . . . . This is a recursive sequence defined by the equations F1 = 1, F2 = 1, and Fn = Fn−1 + Fn−2 for all n ≥ 3.

Here, Fn represents the n-th Fibonacci number (n is called an index). Examples: F4 = 3, F10 = 55, F102 = F101 + F100 .

Often called the “Fibonacci Series” or “Fibonacci Sequence”.

G. Roberts (Holy Cross)

Fun with Fibonacci Numbers

HC Summer Seminar

2 / 50

Fibonacci Numbers: History Numbers named after Fibonacci by Edouard Lucas, a 19th century French mathematician who studied and generalized them. Fibonacci was a pseudonym for Leonardo Pisano (1175-1250). The phrase “filius Bonacci” translates to “son of Bonacci.” Father was a diplomat, so he traveled extensively. Fascinated with computational systems. Writes important texts reviving ancient mathematical skills. Described later as the “solitary flame of mathematical genius during the middle ages” (V. Hoggatt). Imported the Hindu-arabic decimal system to Europe in his book Liber Abbaci (1202). Latin translation: “book on computation.”
G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 3 / 50

The Rabbit Problem Key Passage from the 3rd section of Fibonacci’s Liber Abbaci: “A certain man put a pair of rabbits in a place surrounded on all sides by a wall. How many pairs of rabbits can be produced from that pair in a year if it is supposed that every month each pair begets a new pair which from the second month on becomes productive?" Answer: 233 = F13 . The Fibonacci numbers are generated as a result of solving this problem!

G. Roberts (Holy Cross)

Fun with Fibonacci Numbers

HC Summer Seminar

4 / 50

Fibonacci Numbers in Popular Culture 13, 3, 2, 21, 1, 1, 8, 5 is part of a code left as a clue by murdered museum curator Jacque Saunière in Dan Brown’s best-seller The Da Vinci Code. Crime-fighting FBI math genius Charlie Eppes mentions how the Fibonacci numbers occur in the structure of crystals and in spiral galaxies in the Season 1 episode "Sabotage" (2005) of the television crime drama NUMB3RS. Fibonacci numbers feature prominently in the new Fox TV Series Touch, concerning a mathematically gifted boy who is mute but strives to communicate to the world through numbers. Patterns are hidden in plain sight, you just have to know where to look. Things most people see as chaos actually follows subtle laws of behaviour; galaxies, plants, sea shells. – from the opening narration
G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 5 / 50

13. 2. a Fibonacci number! G.) The rap group Black Star uses the following lyrics in the song “Astronomy (8th Light):” Now everybody hop on the one. 1. 3. the sounds of the two It’s the third eye vision. 3. 5.” F16 = 987. 2. 5. so the song was originally titled “987. is gonna shine bright tonight In the song “Lateralus. 5. 8 7 The time signatures vary between 9 8 . 8 and 8 . five side dimension The 8th Light. 1. 5. 3. 8.Fibonacci Numbers in Popular Culture (cont. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 6 / 50 . 8.” by the American rock band Tool. 3. 8. 2. 1. the syllables in the verses (counting between pauses) form the sequence 1.

Fibonacci Numbers in the Comics Figure: FoxTrot by Bill Amend (2005) G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 7 / 50 .

1994).Fibonacci Numbers in Art Figure: The chimney of Turku Energia in Turku. G. Finland. featuring the Fibonacci sequence in 2m high neon lights (Mario Merz. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 8 / 50 .

G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 9 / 50 . 2000). Italy features the Fibonacci numbers in an artistic work titled “Flight of Numbers” (Mario Merz.Figure: One side of the Mole Antonelliana in Turin.

Figure: The fountain consists of 14 (?) water cannons located along the length of the fountain at intervals proportional to the Fibonacci numbers. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 10 / 50 . G. It rests in Lake Fibonacci (reservoir).

an example of a Logarithmic Spiral. G.Figure: The Fibonacci Spiral. very common in nature. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 11 / 50 .

G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 12 / 50 .

Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 13 / 50 .G.

g. chicory (21). black-eyed susan (13). Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 14 / 50 .Fibonacci Numbers in Nature Number of petals in “most” flowers: e. Number of spirals in the seed heads on daisy and sunflower plants.. in both directions. 3-leaf clover. G. buttercups (5). are typically consecutive Fibonacci numbers. Number of spirals in bracts of a pine cone or pineapple. Number of leaves in one full turn around the stem of some plants.

counting flower petals in our front garden. Owen (3 yrs). Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 15 / 50 . G.Figure: My research assistant.

5 petals).Figure: Columbine (left. Black-eyed Susan (right. 21 petals). 13 petals) Figure: Shasta Daisy (left. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 16 / 50 . 34 petals) G. Field Daisies (right.

Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 17 / 50 .G.

G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 18 / 50 .

Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 19 / 50 .” by Edward Batschelet (1971). demonstrating the occurrence of Fibonacci in the number of leaves (5) and windings (2) per “period” (when the same leaf orientation returns). G.Figure: Excerpt from the text “Introduction to Mathematics for Life Sciences.

How can mathematics help explain the prevalence of Fibonacci numbers? G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 20 / 50 . the number of seeds in spirals of opposite direction are consecutive Fibonacci numbers.Figure: In most daisy or sunflower blossoms.

It was known to the ancient Greeks and its use has been speculated in their architecture and sculptures. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 21 / 50 . is thought by many to be the most aesthetically pleasing ratio. the Golden Section and the Divine Proportion.The Golden Ratio √ a+b a a 1+ 5 = =⇒ φ = = ≈ 1.61803398875 a b b 2 The Golden Ratio φ. also known as the Golden Mean. G.

≈ 1. 5 13 = 1.61803398875 Fibonacci Fun Fact #1: n→∞ lim Fn+1 = φ. 13 21 34 55 144 233 377 ≈ 1. ≈ 1.617978. = 1. 2 5 ¯.6. ≈ 1.6154. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 22 / 50 . 8 21 34 55 89 ≈ 1. 1 3 = 1.6190. Fn the Golden Ratio! G.Fibonacci Numbers and The Golden Ratio Consider the ratios of successive Fibonacci numbers: 1 = 1. ≈ 1. 1 2 = 2.625.666 3 8 = 1.6182. ≈ 1.6176.618056.5.618026 89 144 233 Recall: φ ≈ 1.

n→∞ Fn−1 Fn Taking the limit of both sides of equation (1) yields L =1+ 1 L or L2 − L − 1 = 0.A Proof Suppose that we assume the limit exists: lim n→∞ Fn+1 = L. Fn Take Fn+1 = Fn + Fn−1 and divide both sides by Fn : Fn +1 Fn−1 1 = 1+ = 1+ Fn Fn Fn /Fn−1 Clever observation: lim n→∞ (1) Fn +1 Fn = L implies that lim = L. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 23 / 50 . The positive root of this quadratic equation is L = But that’s φ! G. √ 1+ 5 2 .

An Important Observation The proof does not depend.618042 521 These numbers will be important later: they are called the Lucas Numbers. Example: 1. . Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 24 / 50 . on the opening numbers of the sequence. 843. 7. 322. 4. G. 843 ≈ 1. then regardless of your starting numbers. 76. 3. 29. 199. 47. in any way. 123. the limit of the ratio of successive terms will be the Golden Ratio... 11. 18. if you create a sequence using the recursive relation Gn = Gn−1 + Gn−2 . 521. In other words.

.Continued Fractions Definition Given a real number α. 1. . ] where each ai (except possibly a0 ) is a positive integer. Roberts (Holy Cross) = [3. a3 . Example: α = 3+ 2+ 4+ 1 1 1 1+ G. . ] 1 . . . = [a0 . . 2.. a1 . the continued fraction expansion of α is α = a0 + a1 + a2 + 1 1 1 a3 + 1 . . HC Summer Seminar 25 / 50 Fun with Fibonacci Numbers . a2 . . . 4.

These approximations are called convergents. The convergents in a continued fraction expansion of α are the best rational approximations to α. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 26 / 50 . . a3 . . Key Idea: Any particular convergent pn /qn is closer to α than any other fraction whose denominator is less than qn .More on Continued Fractions Question: How do we find α if it is an infinite fraction? Answer: One approach is to approximate α by terminating the fraction at different places. an ] . a1 . the better the approximation to α becomes. a2 . G. In general. qn The larger n is (the further out in the expansion we go). . . the nth convergent of α = pn = [a0 .

. 1. 3 p4 q4 = 1+ 1+ 1 = 1 1 8 . 1 1 1+ = 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 p1 1 2 =1+ = . Roberts (Holy Cross) 1 1+ 5 . 1.An Important Example Consider α = [1. . q1 1 1 = 3 . 5 Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 27 / 50 . .]. 2 = 1 1 1 1+ 1 1+ G. The first five convergents are: p0 q0 p2 q2 p3 q3 = 1 = = 1+ 1 . 1.

1.) We’ve seen this before: n→∞ lim pn = φ.] = φ. α = [1. 1.An Important Example (cont. Fibonacci Fun Fact #2: The convergents in the continued fraction expansion of the Golden Ratio φ are the ratios of successive Fibonacci numbers. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 28 / 50 . qn the Golden Ratio! In other words. G. 1. This means that the Fibonacci fractions give the best approximations to the Golden Ratio. . . .

on a circle slightly larger in radius than the previous one. each successive seed occurs at a particular angle to the previous. This angle needs to be an irrational multiple of 2π . Roger Jean conducted a survey of the literature encompassing 650 species and 12500 specimens. He estimated that among plants displaying spiral or multijugate phyllotaxis (“leaf arrangement”) about 92% of them have Fibonacci phyllotaxis. But it also needs to be poorly approximated by rationals. Cambridge University Press) Question: Why do so many plants and flowers feature Fibonacci numbers? Succint Answer: Nature tries to optimize the number of seeds in the head of a flower. Starting at the center. otherwise there is still wasted space. G. (Phyllotaxis: A systemic study in plant morphogenesis. otherwise there is wasted space.Fibonacci Phyllotaxis In 1994. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 29 / 50 .

Fibonacci Phyllotaxis (cont.5◦ ? It’s the golden angle! Dividing the circumference of a circle using the Golden Ratio φ gives an angle of √ β = π (3 − 5) ≈ 137. Left: β = 90◦ . What is so special about 137. G. This seems to be the best angle available.5◦ . Center β = 137. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 30 / 50 .5077641◦ . Right: β = 137.) Figure: Seed growth based on different angles β of dispersion.6◦ .

5◦ . G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 31 / 50 .Example: The Golden Angle Figure: The Aonium with 3 CW spirals and 2 CCW spirals. Below: The angle between leaves 2 and 3 and between leaves 5 and 6 is very close to 137.

the least “rational-like” irrational number is φ! On the other hand. Because the terms in the continued fraction are all 1 (no growth in the ai ’s). Fibonacci numbers are the best choice available. Moreover. G. . Since an approximation must be made (the number of seeds or leaves are whole numbers).]. the continued Recall: φ = fraction expansion of φ is [1.Why φ? is an irrational number. . Since the petals of flowers are formed at the extremities of the seed spirals. 1. 1. the convergents (the best rational approximations to φ) are precisely ratios of successive Fibonacci numbers. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 32 / 50 √ 1+ 5 2 . . we also see Fibonacci numbers in the number of flower petals too! Wow! Mother Nature Knows Math. 1.

3. take all the possibilities for n − 2 beats and append an L. Indian scholars such as Gopala (before 1135) and Hemachandra (c. SL or LS as the only possibilities. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 33 / 50 . Example: n = 3 has SSS. F4 = 3. 1150) discussed the sequence 1. F5 = 5. 13. Fibonacci Fun Fact #3: The number of ways to divide n beats into “long” (L. 2 beats) and “short” (S. . in their analysis of Indian rhythmic patterns. 8. LSS. LL as the only possibilities. 34. 55. SSL. Recursive pattern is clear: To find the number of ways to subdivide n beats. . Example: n = 4 has SSSS.Fibonacci Numbers in Indian Rhythmic Patterns Before Fibonacci. 2. SLS. G. 21. and take those for n − 1 and append an S. 5. . 1 beat) pulses is Fn+1 .

Influenced by Debussy and Ravel. Studies at the Catholic Gymnasium (high school) in Pozsony where he excels in math and physics in addition to music. Enters the Academy of Music (Liszt is 1st president) in Budapest in 1899. 1945. preferred Bach to Beethoven. Sept. Romania) in 1881. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 34 / 50 . Hungary (now Sînnicolau Mare. Romanian. Slovakian and Turkish).Béla Bartók Born in Nagyszentmiklós. Died in New York. G. Considered to be one of Hungary’s greatest composers (along with Franz Liszt). Avid collector of folk music (particularly Hungarian.

At the Sources of Folk Music (1925) Notoriously silent about his own compositions. Very interested in nature. animals.) Figure: Bartók at age 22..” — Bartók. “We follow nature in composition . Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 35 / 50 . I lay no claim to any explanation of my works!” G.Béla Bartók (cont. Its formations developed as spontaneously as other living natural organisms: the flowers. Fond of sunflowers and fir-cones. Builds impressive collection of plants. folk music is a phenomenon of nature. insects and minerals. “Let my music speak for itself.. etc.

phrasing.Ernö Lendvai Beginning in 1955. others find errors in his analysis and begin to discredit him. He takes a broad view. Lendvai becomes a controversial figure in the study of Bartók’s music.) as well as tonality (modes and intervals). with his compositional traits. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 36 / 50 . where climaxes occur. Some find Lendvai’s work fascinating and build from his initial ideas. the Hungarian musical analyst Ernö Lendvai starts to publish works claiming the existence of the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio in many of Bartók’s pieces. etc. G. in discerning a substantial use of the Golden Ratio and the Fibonacci numbers. Lendvai draws connections between Bartók’s love of nature and “organic” folk music. examining form (structure of pieces.

Percussion and Celesta. The climax of the movement occurs at the end of bar 55 (loudest moment). Movement I Lendvai’s analysis states: 1 2 Piece is 89 measures long.Example: Music for Strings. The exposition in the opening ends after 21 bars. G. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 37 / 50 3 4 . which gives a subdivision of two Fibonacci numbers (34 and 55) that are an excellent approximation to the golden ratio. Violin mutes begin to be removed in bar 34 and are placed back on in bar 69 (56 + 13 = 69).

Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 38 / 50 .G.

Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 39 / 50 .G.

But the tonal climax is really at bar 44. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 40 / 50 2 3 4 . when the subject returns a tritone away from the opening A to E . not 21. (88/2 = 44.” Hanh?! The dynamic climax (fff) of the piece is certainly at the end of bar 55. The fugal exposition actually ends in bar 20. G. This last fact actually helps the analysis since 68 = 55 + 13. The violin mutes are placed back on at the end of bar 68 (not 69). giving the second part of the movement a division of 13 and 20 (21 if you allow the full measure rest at the end). in accordance with the Bülow analyses of Beethoven.Problems with Lendvai’s Analysis (Roy Howat) 1 The piece is 88 bars long. symmetry?) The viola mutes come off at the end of bar 33 (not 34). not 89! Lendvai includes a footnote: “The 88 bars of the score must be completed by a whole-bar rest.

Fennelly Figure: Roy Howat’s analysis of Lendvai’s work. Roberts (Holy Cross) methods ofFun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 41 / 50 bar lengths can be considered. 3 above.” the Fugue. Why the inaccuracies. from “Bartók. in other works . First. 13 81 8 89 21 actual proportions (b) 20 13 22 13 9 4 7 20 episode 33 mutes off: Bb timpani pedal 68 mutes replaced 55 climax 77 celeste (coda) 88 end ! and and Kramer also these Fennelly (1973) (1973) identify discrepancies. 2. No. 69-95.proportionally bar 88: presence 1 missing quaver Fig. as with the scheme seen in Fig. Lendvai and that the Kramer concludes notes the opening four-bar Analysis. . despite the inaccuracies.. Percussion and Celeste PP fff PPP 55 21 (a) ideal proportions claimed by Lendvai _ _ 3468 13 21 13 .. sequences of the Principles of Proportional Music Analysis . . Yet..' (1973:120). then? G. 1 (March. the clarity and force of this overall shape suggest the opposite. because Two alternative counting . tendencies are therefore 'a less significant structural force than Fugue's proportional 1983). 4: Fugue from Music for Strings. pp.

Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 42 / 50 . Percussion and Celeste PP 33 mutes fff 20 55 climax 68 PPP first episode off mutes on 13 20 end 88 arch dynamic coda 44 subject reaches 77 Eb 4 tonal symmetries 44 S11 11 - 44 11 7 7 4 4 interactions 7 11 7 II 4 I I 1118 20 0 opening sequence 4 4 4 414 6 melodic peak (2nd vlns) 20 I 44 Eb 44 fff 55 peak mo p melodic 31 I II I 26 other connections C26 I C/F•: stretto 42 1 en68of end of inverted I I stretto C/F? 47 30 30 end of exposition 77 coda begins ! G. 5: Fugue from Music for Strings.! ! Fig.

Movement III The opening xylophone solo in the third movement has the rhythmic pattern of 1. 2. 5. Percussion and Celesta. 8. 3. 1. 3. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 43 / 50 . G. 1. 1 with a crescendo followed by a decrescendo (hairpin) climaxing at the top of the sequence. 5. 2.Music for Strings.

are the most masked ambiguous. 44 / 50 .Fig 7: third movement of Music for Strings. In fact it fits neither of them well since Percussion and Celesta. 7. In the process it shows a possible explanation of why the two outermost transitions in the form . I---_ C 2 A' -I Figure: to the structures seen above in Figs 3a and 4a. Percussion and Celeste / 34 60'/48\ \ A Al e rt o E ~ /inversion climax- I I I I -48 269? \/ / 20?%- / I 1' I I I segments of arch form AB. and suggests that its cross-section logarithmic spiral corresponds third movement of the Music for Strings (again allowing for the approximations). centering on the climax as shown in Fig. but it very aptly matches the form and dynamic shape of the ! ! ! theanalysis Howat’s of(1971:31) the third movement of Music forclosely Strings. Roberts (Holy the Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar and spiral .those uninvolved in G. they are too symmetrical.

the piece opens pp and ends ppp. G. with a central climax marked fff. Kodály befriends Bartók around 1905-1906. collector of folk music. Percussion and Celesta. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 45 / 50 . They bond over their mutual interest in folk music (Kodály was collecting phonograph cylinders of folk music in the remote areas of Hungary).Other Composers’ Influence on Bartók Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967): Hungarian composer. interested in music education (“Kodály Method”). there are 508 beats. Kodály writes Méditation sur un motif de Claude Debussy. Just as with the fugue from Bartók’s Music for Strings. In 1907. If one counts quarter notes rather than measures. The golden ratio of 508 is 314 (to the nearest integer) and this just happens to be smack in the middle of the two climatic bars at fff.

Debussy composes some interesting piano pieces whose form demonstrates the golden ratio.Claude Debussy (1862-1918) As Kodály was bringing Debussy to Bartók’s attention. These soon became part of Bartók’s piano repertoire. located at places that divide the total piece into two portions in the golden ratio. Hommage à Rameau has a similar structure dynamically and.” G. Mouvement and Hommage à Rameau. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 46 / 50 . respectively. Images. respectively. consists of three piano pieces: Reflets dans l’eau. “is built very clearly on Fibonacci numbers. published in 1905. according to Roy Howat’s analysis. They also have main climaxes at ff and fff. Reflets and Mouvement begin pp and finish ppp or pp.

Cambridge University Press. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 47 / 50 . Debussy Analysis given by Roy Howat in Debussy in proportion: A musical analysis.Reflets dans l’eau. 1983. G.

Hommage à Rameau. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 48 / 50 . Debussy G.

One might still argue that Bart6k was unaware of the significance of the numbering here. Bartók’s analysis of a Turkish folk song showing the Lucas numbers! 86 MUSIC ANALYSIS 2:1. some of the 'Bulgarian' metres in pieces such as the G. reproduced by kind permission of Dr Benjamin Suchoff. Trustee of the Bart6k Estate.. 1983 since in this example the calculations are written on a separate sheet from the music. +P // f. 2: Facsimile of recto pages 1 and 2 from manuscript 80FSS1 in the New York B61aBart6k Archive.! Ex.( Jb2 IA of K ?/-/ ~~?i~4it _ ji g3 \ ! Figure: If you dig deep enough .. In that case the same would have to apply to many other obvious or fundamental sequence of the xylophone solo already menrelationships: the 1-2-3-5-8-5-3-2-1 tioned in the Music for Strings. Roberts (Holy Cross) Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar 49 / 50 .

It’s clear that the Lucas numbers were more significant in the first movement of Music for Strings. Fun with Fibonacci Numbers HC Summer Seminar G. Miraculous Mandarin. Percussion and Celesta.Final Remarks Lendvai’s inaccuracies partly due to a narrow focus on the Fibonacci numbers. Identifying the mathematical patterns in structure and tonality (even to his students!) would have only added fuel to the fire. and Divertimento. Bartók was already being criticized for being too “cerebral” in his music. Bartók was highly secretive about his works. Surviving manuscripts of many of the pieces where the Golden Ratio appears to have been used contain no mention of it. Roberts (Holy Cross) 50 / 50 . Moral: Don’t fudge your data! Other works by Bartók where the golden ratio can be detected are Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion.

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