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JAPANESE QUAIL HUSBANDRY
IN THE LABORATORY
(Coturnix coturnix japonica)
A. E. Woodard, H. Abplanalp, W. 0. Wilson, and P. Vohra
J A P A N E S E IN T H E
Q U A I L
H U S B A N D R Y
L A B O R A T O R Y
(Coturnix coturnix japonica) Feb. 1973 A. E. WOODARD, H. ABPLANALP, W. 0. WILSON, and P. VOHRA Department of Avian Sciences University of California, Davis, CA 95616
I. II. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . VIII. Description . . . . . . . . . . . A. Sex differences . . . . . . . B. Migratory behavior. . . . . . Eggs . . A. Egg B. Egg C. Egg D. Egg . . . . . . . . . . . . . pigmentation and patterns composition . . . . . . . weight. . . . . . . . . . and meat products . . . . Egg A. B. C. D. E. F. n U. H. I. IX. X. Production. . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . Time of lay . . . . . . . . Time interval and clutch length. . . . . . . . . . . Lighting for early maturity Unnatural day lengths . . . Quality of light. . . . . . Photoperiod, body temperature, and time of lay . . . Senescence and egg production. . . . . . . . . . . . Senescence and mortality. .
10 10 IO 11
Incubation. . . . . . . . . . . . A. Care of eggs. . . . . . . . . B. Artificial incubation . . . . C. Embryo mortality. . . . . . . D. Natural incubation. . . . . . Reproduction. . . . . . . . . . . A. Hatchability. . . . . . . . . B. Fertility . . . . . . . . . . Brooding and Rearing. . . . . . . A. Brooding facilities . . . . . 1 . Battery brooding. . . . . 2. Preparations for brooding B. Banding . . . . . . . . . . . C. Cannibalism . . . . . . . . . D. Handling and care . . . . . . E. Predators . . . . . . . . . . Housing Adult Birds . . . . . . . A. Cages . . . . . . . . . . . . Pedigree matings. . . . . :: Small group matings . . . 3. Large mass matings. . . . B. Experimental units for temperature and light control. .
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Egg Formation . . . . . . . . . Genetics and Breeding . . . A. Origin of coturnix. . . B. Hybridization . . . . . C. Inbreeding sensitivity. D. Selection studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physiology. . . . . . . . . . A. Hypophysis. . . . . . . . B. Hypothalamus. . . . . . . C. Neuroendocrine control of behavior and plumage. . . D. Physiological values. . . Nutrition . . . . . . . . . A. Energy requirements . . B. Protein requirements. . C. Calcium and phosphorus requirements. . . . . . D. Trace elements required E. Vitamin requirements. .
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Diseases. . . . . . . . . . . .
According to Poole (1965)) ooporphyrin alone seems responsible for the slight pigmentation of eggs in the white-shell mutant. Reese. Use of the term tcoturnix' herein refers specifically to this japonica subspecies. and W. the subject of this manual. and white to buff. coturnix males will crow through out the night. Wildlife Conf. Depending on the day length. C. about 3 weeks of age. 1959. The egg shell pigments of the coturnix egg were found to be ooporphyrin and biliverdin (Poole. Howes and Ivey. and W. blue. Coturnix coturnix japonica. Feedstuffs. EGGS A. Jacobs. Migration of the Common Coturnix in North America. 40 (3):651-657. INTRODUCTION II. The deposition of superficial pigment begins between the . I). Coturnix are relatively inexpensive to maintain and some 8 to 10 quail can occupy the same space as one chicken. Analysis of " Behivior. The-adult male is identified readily by the cinnamon-colored feathers on the upper throat and lower breast region. 1961. Japanese migratory quail. 1962). Ivey. P. King quail. describing sound as "pick-per'awick" or "ko-turro-neex". Also. Certain properties of coturnix. brown. Coturnix coturnix. E. Poultry Sci. Japanese Grey quail. Interest in the common coturnix as a game bird experienced an upsurge in about 1955 when many state game commissions attempted to establish this species. 1961. Abbott and Hans Abplanalp. 1961. Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation 32:85-91. The quail. D. Young birds begin to crow at 5 to 6 weeks old.I I. 1959. however. W. Coturnix quail as a laboratory research animal. One of them. It has been established that the coturnix is similar in numerous physiological characteristics to chicken and turkey while differing from those species in ways that may throw light on heretofore unresolved problems. Our North American quail belongs to different genera: Bob White quail (Colinus virginianus) and California qmmphortyx California). Ivey. make it an interesting laboratory animal (Padgett and Ivey. Weatherbee and Jacobs (1961) reported that of 171. coturnix is a migratory bird. J. This subspecies is called Japanese quail but is also known by other names: Common quail. North Am. 1962. Sex Differences Species or subspecies of the genus Coturnix are native to all continents except the Americas. coturnix is proving to be a valuable animal for avian research. and K. that the species could possibly display an orthodox northsouth migratory behavior on this continent if natural breeding populations could be established. F. Pharoah's quail. K. Padgett. ranging from dark brown. Adult Male: The two sexes can be distinguished outwardly at. Reese. and T. B. pp. These projects met with difficulty in many areas because of the migratory behavior of the bird. A Progress Report of Coturnix Quail Investigations in Missouri. J. Evaluation of coturnix (Japanese quail) as pilot animal for poultry. 22 Cord'. Reese and Reese. 316-359. III. Proc. some females start laying at 35 days of age (average 40 days) and are in full production by 50 days of age. 1961. castanet-like crow. Astiatic quail. 1961. Red-throat quail. DESCRIPTION A. Wilson. In 1957 researchers of the Poultry Department of the University of California hatched several hundred coturnix eggs and have since maintained thousands in experimental populations. 195'7. J. Ursula K. During the height of the normal breeding season. A. Eastern quail.. In colder weather the birds tend to congregate in a limited area. Exwtl. and Japanese King quail. W. 5(2):265-270. Under favorable environments they produce for long periods. Migratory Behavior In the wild. Egg Pigmentation and Patterns Coturnix eggs are characterized by a variety of color patterns (Fig. Adult Female: The female is similar to the male in coloration except that the feathers on the throat and upper breast are long. Sanford (1957) compares the migratory behavior of coturnix to that of our native Mallard duck. and blue. D.. as a laboratorv animal. A. each heavily mottled with black. 1965). References Howes. was introduced into the United States by bird fanciers around 1870. pointed.. Coturnix releases made in Missouri indicate that in mild winters the bird has a tendency to remain scattered in portions of its summer range. the tan breast feathers are characteristically black-stippled. May Issue. Sanford (1957) wrote of the voice of the male as a loud. Stubble quail.865 banded coturnix released in 14 Midwest and Western states only 143 banded birds were recovered approximately 60 days after release. Thus. Weatherbee. D. and much lighter cinnamon. Wilson et &. Science 129(3344):267-268. averaging 250 eggs per year. such as its ability to produce 3 to 4 generations per year. Coturnix quail for avian research. Those workers suggested. O. References Sanford. R.
. Average weights of yolk.*.55 10. Mohmond and Coleman (1967) reported the thickness of shell and shell membrane to be respectively 0. Woodard and Mather (1964) found that pigmentation of the shell occurs approximately 3 l/2 hours before oviposition in coturnix laying on a 2S-hour rhythm.932 x3 :g .884 2. Average weight of a coturnix egg is approximately 10 rams (about 8% of the hen's body weight 7. 21476 2. and 20. 8.688 3. The first eggs and terminal eggs of the sequences are respectively designated C1 and Ct. of seLength quences .919 3.“.664 .467 :*. 1 8. egg.s :3. Color pattern of coturnix eggs. 2:747 2.750 :g :Z :i:: .807 . in contrast to the case for chickens and turkeys.771 :+e.709 2.4% albumen. Jones -A that by sorting eggs on the basis of color pattern it would be possible to distinguish the eggs of individuals in mixed clutches of coturnix eggs with a high degree of accuracy. Egg Composition Mohmond and Coleman (1967) reported the relative proportions of the coturnix egg to be: 47. Av. respectively. and shell vary with relation to position in egg sequences.i .766 ::f.010 2.858 +.211 2.172 2:790 2.s . l 32% 2:891 2.755 . 8:96 9..g 7.878 744 2’81’.59 . 2 8. and color pattern characteristic of et al (1964) suggested that hen.11 9.762 2.014 * 759= +.661 .063 mm.95 9.37 9.291 2. E~P sequence No.991 2 9 16 16 9.796 :% 9 IO 11 12 21 29 .059 2.053 2. egg weight (gm) Intract sequences Cl S.725 2.I 65 10.709 .890 2.I29 :. %g 2.930 .i& 9.160 2.471 2.6j3 32-L tB : 2.472 3. B.9% yolk.7c.7% shell and membranes.&j Av.29 9:36 10.672 2.671 .I39 %?I 10183 .602 2.197 and 0.21 8.840 .889 -724 2. C.80 8.011 .778 .6 9.830 .44 +.‘z.It has been observed at our laboratory that an individual hen lays eggs of a shape.7L8 .94 2. second and third hours prior to oviposition and is accompanied by an abrupt reduction of ooporphyrin content in uterine tissue extracts. for the chicken and turkey.741 2.771 :.645 . This compares with approximately 3 and 1 percent.323 2:831 2.791 .55 9.973 9.067 2.781 .: . Egg Weight Figure 1. Those workers reported that the first coturnix egg of a sequence is smaller than succeeding eggs (Table I). :. 2 .7 .961 3. according to Woodard and Wilson (1963). yolk weight (gm) Intrasequences Cl ct 2.752 .720 :a 8 5.013 *Significant at the 1 percent level for comparison between Cl and intra-sequence eggs. ioi . size.44 9.14 9.61 9.610 .99 8198 9:01 8.87 1g.66 z-4636 . Table 1.807 3.4 Av.719 2.23 p?.:: 2.k 2 9.980 2 '.206 2. and yolk.75 9.c. The relation of position in sequence to weignts of egg.10 : 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 10. shell.-“olg 2:863 2. 31.754 :g': .39" 9:31 ! 5 :g .070 A.41 +.30 +. shell weight (gm) Intrasequences Cl ct 4.288 2.75’8 3.
E. during the first 3 days of incubation and just prior to hatching (Fig. M. pickled. pigmentation and shell deposition in the . and T. IO hours from pipping to hatch. Care of Eggs Special care must be taken in collecting and handling quail eggs for they are thin-shelled. 1965. Embryo Mortality C. and colored with various shades of food coloring. coturnix eggs averaae 380 hours (15. and an additional 5 hours for drying the chick. Eggs to be incubated should not be washed. A comparison of the proportion of component parts of Bobwhite and Coturnix eggs. Prior to 1939 Egypt exported as many as 3 million captured live quail per year to European markets (Meinertzhagen. INCUBATION A. Used successfullpat the Universitv of California. San Francisco imported many birds from Japan during the period 189s to 1904 (Grinnell and Miller. Lack of turning during the first 3 to 4 days will produce some malformed embryos as well as other minor defects. and dehydrate more rapidly. with clean spells. Woodard. shape and color pattern as criteria for identifying coturnix eggs. The machine should have a fan to provide adequate air circulation and should be equipped to allow automatic kurning of all eggs through an angle of 90 at least 46 times per 24 hours. it should be done with a clean abrasive (e. 1944). The distribution of the birds of-California. Egg and yolk weight of Coturnix Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in relation to position in egg sequences. Turning is particularly critical in early incubation. J.8 days)-from setting-to pippin@. Poultry Sci. 46:1168-1171. The eggs are sometimes hard-cooked... Egg and Meat Products For centuries the meat or flesh of coturnix has been a food in Asia and Europe.D. Coturnix eggs can be incubated successfully in most commercial single-stage incu8 bators.5 99. Most eggs removed at the first candling (8 days of incubation) are infertiles and .5 82 90 27:8 32.g. 0. Modification of a commercial chicken incubator tray for setting coturnix eggs. They should not be held-for more than 7 days before being placed in the incubator. On this schedule.Japanese quail.0 99. Days after setting o-12 Temperature (dry bulb) OF OC 99. fine sanding paper). A. H. Size. 1954. T. B. for they generally then become "picking bait" for healthy chicks.3 :9”*. 42:5&-545'. Joseph and A. K. 136-138.. Mohmond. A. M. Poole. Wilson. Jones. movement of the ovum through the oviduct. Maloney and J. 3). B. Birds of Arabia.5 37. Poultry Sci. 1963. The timing of ovulation. References Grinnell. J. E. 1954).2 37. R. C.0 37. 1944. ERRS should be of a uniform size.'Coleman. 43:12921294. H. Weak chicks should not be helped from the egg. and F.. A. Pacific Coast Avifauna. Miller. Gilbreath. trays must be modified by adding l/2" x 1" strips of welded wire to the chicken egg tray holders. Time of hatch varies among strains. Davis. London. Oliver and Boyd. and inbred lines may take as long as 18 days to hatch..5 37. Eggs should be collected several times a day and stored where the temperature can be maintained at about 13'C. Poultry Sci. However. Heredity 55: Woodard. IV. H. 1967. In parts of the United States the dark breast and leg muscle of coturnix are considered a delicacy. H. Mather. Egg Shell Pigmentation in Japanese Quail: Genetic Control of the White Egg Trait. is the following schedule of forcedlair incubating temperature and humidity (wet bulb). Artificial Incubation Figure 2. if cleaning is required.5 Humidity (wet bulb OF OC 13-I 5 I6 (for 10 hr) 16-17 98. Poultry Sci. 1964.. Figure 2. 43:1427-1432. as shown in 3 Most embryonic deaths occur during one of two periods. Meinertzhagen. break more easily than chicken and turkey eggs. and W. 1964.
13-52. The reason for poor hatchability beyond 24 weeks of age is not known. ( . He attributed this to a high degree of domestication and lack of any sign of broody behavior. and W. REPRODUCTION A. Percent of Percent fertile eggs fertile eggs set hatched ea3s 280:: 1s Figure 4. 1961. Robert.5 10 6. . Hatchability Experiments in our laboratory indicate that hatchability decreases in storage at a fairly constant rate of about 3 percent per day (Table 2). Avian Developmental Genetics.. Table 3. slight mid-incubation peak of mortality reminiscent of that in chickens formally associated with a variety of dietary deficiencies. The terminal peak in mortality is generally due to the inability of the developing embryo to form a vital organ or a malfunction of its development. Wildlife Mgt. C. Wilt and N. Ivey.5 26 Age of parent stock has a pronounced effect on hatchability (Table 3). Crowell Co. Experimental study of nesting by coturnix quail. K. Maximum hatchability occurs with eggs from 8-to-24week-old birds. Padgett. D. N. C. 46:260-262. Embryonic mortality of coturnix. IN: F. Rothstein (1967) reported that a group of 5 females and 2 males failed to establish a nest although eggs were laid in abundance.. 25:99-101.I success of 29 scantily built nests to be He further reported that nesting by young birds was not evident but that 4 adult birds produced 2 broods each and 2 other birds produced 3 broods during the same season. Figure 4 shows their development. K. Poultry Sci Stevens. Such critical functions include: change in position of the embryo prior to pipping. No. Natural Incubation Female A g e Num(weeks) ber 34 Male Am (weeks) Only limited information is available on natural incubation in the Japanese quail. p. and change from allantoic to pulmonary respiration. Anatomical Record 137:1-11. ( ( . V. ( . ( ( . . Table 2. . 9-15 16-22 Holding period (days) 2-8 667 No. Normal quail embryo development has been described in detail by Padgett and Ivey (1960) and Abbott (1967). Methods in Developmental Biology. 1967.). Coturnix embryo development. . 1960. there is indication of a. Some observations on the nesting behavior of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in pseudo-natural conditions. EMBRYO MORTALITY IN COTURNIX QUAIL Figure 3. Rothstein. Thomas Y. absorption of the yolk sack.. IO ule c . early embryo deaths. References Abbott. U. V. The normal embryology of the coturnix quail. D. Stevens (1961) reported the natural hatching 4 22 52. Effect of age of parents on hatchability and fertility.1 percent. 1967. H. Jour. In addition.Y. S. 67. eggs set $ fertility 79 $ hatch of fertile ems 69 94 73 53 499 23-29 521 4.5 . utilization of the remaining albumen. . Fertility and hatchability of coturnix eggs held for various periods before incubation. Wessells (eds. .0 57.
5 82. Taylor. and H. The duration of fertility and hatchability of white pekin Table 5. and H. Each group was replicated. 1949. Mellen. 1965. C. 5'). Abplanalp. and about one-fourth that in turkeys (Fig. Res. ?z'? %:i: No. 2:: Hatchability (%I 81 . 4?: Lower fertility with higher mating ratios may be due to preferential mating behavior (Woodard and Abplanalp. J. Studies of reproduction in ducks. 60 Av. J. Fertility in the male domestic fowl. New York.4 . Fertility in mass-mated females continues for approximately IO to 12 days after males are removed (Table 5'). ems set 247 ft:2" Period 21/ Fertilt 2s 3. 1967). 347. Egg production and fertility following various methods of insemination in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). however. Brooding Facilities 1 .1 days with natural mating (male with female for 16 hours).(%I79. B. Parker. Ed. MO.1 61 . 4 5 0 0 38 13 50 52 65 48 79 54 57 72 37 56 45 33 2. McKenzie and H. Effect of mating ratio (male to female) on fertility and hatchability when mass mated.6 days with artificial insemination (single insemination) and 5. Period 1 FertilNo. Agr.. B.t*: . the sides and ends must be blocked off with l/4" hardware cloth to prevent coturnix chicks from escaping through the feeders and . W. Fertility remains at optimum. British Poultry Sci. Parker. Duration and recovery of fertility in Japanese quail. A. The effect of mating ratio and age on fertility and hatchability in Japanese quail.. 1. & Fertility 6: Woodard. J. 1963. John Wiley. Duration of fertility of coturnix eggs as affected by length of the mating period. fertility ($) 7 B 9 10 11 12.O Hatchability . Wentworth. 46~383-388. References Ash. 1967. J. . L. Bull. J. K. Poultry Sci. 215-220. 1942. Wentworth and Mellen (1963) report that the mean duration of fertility of coturnix females was 4. . 13 so0 14 0 4” 1: 15 0 00 16 0: 0 0 1 . $ 10 11 Y VI. Kempster. Fertility and hatchability of chicken and turkey eggs. 41:1123-1126. 6(3):24. and W.5-250. Poultry Sci.Turning eggs daily prior to incubation has no beneficial effect on hatchability (Table 4).7 .9 86:l 87. . When commercial chick battery brooders are used they must be modified: Openings in the wire floor must be covered with a rough-surfaced paper during the first week. Fifteen females were mated to 5' males in each group. z3c Group 1 : Mating ratio males to females 1 :I I:2 . Sta. E. E. Sittmann and Abplanalp 7 1965) found that fertility continued for approximately 11 days after coturnix were placed singly in individual cages.3 g: 4 44. Sittmann. 1962. E. duck eggs. Expt. only if males are left continuously in ca es with the females. and males removed after 1 to 5 days. Also. BROODING AND REARING A. ity eggs set (%I 307 l-g. F. 2 603 605 521 1217 84. E. :z : 76. Abplanalp. W.. Reprod.9 77.. Fertility Our experiments indicate that optimum fertility comes from a mating ratio of 1 male to 1 or 2 females (Table . Persistence of fertility appears to be slightly shorter in coturnix than in ducks and geese. about one-half that in chickens. Table 4. Battery Brooding Coturnix chicks can be brooded successfully in several types of commercial 5 or game-bird battery brooders.8 l/New males mated with females. 1 : 0 0 0 Length of mating period (days) 2 3 4 57 5 57 59 6 2. L.
Coturnix trials I and II of present data. Handling and Care Frequent handling of coturnix may result in deaths. tuberculosis. including: 1) overcrowding. starting with 3d day after artificial insemination. and ticks). Later. Avoid moving the birds once they have reached maturity. (b) Provide clean fresh water and feed daily. with varying success. chickens. when sexes are identified easily. for handling at that time may cause a pause in egg production. Cannibalism waterers. and 4) excessive handling. magpies. four-day unweighted means calculated from Lorenzfs data used by Parker (1949). Waterers for the first 2 weeks are pin+ size Mason jars with shallow drinking founts (bases). D. Other waterers used with varying success are "dew drops" and commercial rat waterers. (1942). and paratyphoid) and external parasites (fowl mite. C. percentages from two graphs of Ash (1962) averaged without weighting. Leg bands or tagged gum labels have also been used. lice. 2) inadequate diet. Several factors can contribute to cannibalism. Predators Cages or pens in which birds are kept should be enclosed to provide adequate protection against invasion by rodents. (d) Avoid unnecessary handling and disturbances. they should be debeaked at the first sign of picking or debeaked routinely when-transferred from the battery or floor pens intp colony mating cages. two-day unweighted means calculated from graph of Parker et . ducks. Results with rat waterers are best with the type that uses a polyethylene jar inverted into a steel funnel. Blue jays. Laying hens should be housed in an area where outside disturbances are at a minimum. a 2" x 2" galvanized feeder with a l/2" x l/2" welded wire grill is placed over the opening to prevent feed wastage. and predatory birds. B I II \ \ I (c) Avoid overcrowding. coturnix chicks are started in commercial game-bird batteries (needing no modifications) and transferred to commercial chick batteries at 2 weeks old. Colored marbles or pebbles in the founts attract the chicks to drink.2. starting with 2nd day after natural mating. In a successful system at our laboratory. Disturbances created by such invasions not only cause serious drops in egg production but frequently result in deaths. Then the chicks should be well feathered and ready to move into laying cages or pens.in different species of birds. . starting with 4th day following artificial insemins tion. L 12345678910 15 20 2s - 30 35 40 45 50 J 55 (e) Brood chicks under & hours light for the first 2 weeks and under 12 hours of daily light thereafter. cats. Drowning is prevented by covering the water founts with a l/8" hardware grill. chicks can be banded at hatch with a wing band of game bird size. brood chicks under a-hour light for 6 weeks. reccommended floor space per chick is 36 square inches. (f) Avoid chilling of chicks. The stalk of the funnel terminates in a small basin or cup which maintains a constant water level. B. Coturnix chicks can be brooded under the same starting temperature used for chickens and turkeys.al. Coturnix being cannibalistic. larger wing bands (chicken size) can be used at 3 weeks of age. crows. If early maturity is desirable. Flat paper plates are used as feeders for the first few days. psittacosis. Preparations for Brooding (a) Test the brooding facilities and have the equipment operating well before chick arrival. 3) unusual amount of disturbance. E. Equipment for debeaking chickens is adequate for quail. turkeys. Coturnix chicks are easily frightened. Banding Figure 5. Start chicks at 95'OF and drop the temperature s°F each week thereafter up to 5 weeks of age. Predators not only are destructive but also are a source of disease (ornithosis. woodpeckers. and rats will destroy or pack off large numbers of eggs. Duration of fertility following termination of mating 0 . For pedigree matings.
t thi 8 research station are: 1) Pedigree matings: a 6” x 10" x 6” Figu re 8. single row. 7).. Continuous water trough services both sections. Decks for chickens and quail are interchangeable. Bird carousel. Cooling systems are advi9 .ts than the chicken can. ADULT BIRDS Cages Coturnix can be housed successful1. f&3 cage can be used for individual matings. with adequate ventilation. Individual coturnix mating cages . Turntable rotates at 34 revolution per hour. though quail can tolerate hotter environmen. . Figure 6. Back-to-back individual mating cages in j-deck battery. Cage sizes designed for specific use a. The house should provid e maximum protection from direct sunligb it andwind. #t cage houses designed for chickens are ade quate for coturnix. 9).d and wind must be better than that of . cant rolled-environment chambers (Fig. et al (1969) reported a design for 8).a . Figuire 9. Batteries of single cages can be decked for efficient use of space (F!ig. Hart -2 a bi rd carousel to accommodate quail in amall. It is al9 o desirable that the structure be birdand -rodent-proof.n we n chicken house. 6. VIIHOUSING A. Cage'8 can be hung in single or double (backto-l:lack) rowa.able where summer temperatures are high. depending on the apace available1 (Figs.Y individual or colony wire-floor cages. but protection from co1 . Figure 7. Individual coturnix mating cages in back-to-back installation.
top.. and 22". thus giving the birds equal opportunity to eat and drink at a fixed station and equalizing exposure to light. For convenit is separated into two parts: a 321 x 32"'brooding area in front. x 12” high. and fly specks by sheetmetal covers of 26-gauge.. The egg record cards are protected from dirt. Colony mating cages. 18" x 2. Then the brooding floor and pegboard partition are removed and replaced with two seven-cage sections mounted on sliding tracks. facilitating mechanical removal of droppings. 5). The units are constructed of 4 "-thick polystyrene foam strips (an excellent insulating material) cemented together with Weldwood glue. individual or colony quail cages is I8-gauge welded wire. The floor section is made of l/2" x 1" welded wire and permits roll-out of eggs. Special box-units designed to control temperature and light have been designed in our laboratory. top. 2) Small group matings: A 12" x 12" colony cage can serve this purpose (Fig. The wire forms a rigid framework that can be supported from the cagehouse rafters. IO). Two-inch galvanized iron "V" troughs mounted to the lower back edge of the cage can serve either a single cage or a back-to-back section of cages. 3) Large mass matings: Several cage sizes can be used satisfactorily. B.high. . 11). 13). 6" wide x 61 long.I This unit is designed so that the decks are interchangeable and any combination of chickens or quail decks is possible on each carousel. The brooding area accommodates 50 chicks to 2 weeks of age or 30 chicks to 5' weeks of age. Figure 12.p. 12" x 12" x 18" back-to-back sections. This arrangement permits the caretaker to slide the racks of cages to the outside of the unit (Figs. 6” board secured to a semi-upright position Egg card holders are tacked to a I" x at the top front edge of the cages (Fig. cage height should ."~~ 48" long. Figure 11. Each unit is 36” ~~.~. and a 14" x 32" area that contains a portable heating unit in the rear. The back. Colony mating and laying cages.4" Experimental coturnix brooding units for controlling light and temperature. and bottom are constructed of 4"thick styrafoam. A ratio of 1 male to 1 or 2 females is considered optimum for high fertility. water stains.s:~~~ injury). Experimental Units for Temperature and Light Control A suitable material for construction of Figure 10. and front sections can be shaped from one piece of I" x 2" material . 12. Sides. A pegboard Masonite partition separating the heating area from the brooding area allows hot air to circulate throughout the box. The turntable rotates at 3/4 revolutions per hour. Cage sizes of 2' x 2' x 12" and 21 x 4' x 12" will respectively accommodate 25 and 50 birds (Fig. To discourage jumping ~~i. The 1 I' x 2" openings allow ample room for the quail to eat and drink.
48:1252-1255. 0.gure 14. About 20% of coturnix eggs are laid in darkness. A. and egg production can all be altered dramatically by manipulating the length of the daily photoperiod (Fig. C. We therefore chose the coturnix to study the effects of photoperiod on sexual maturity since it matures in 5 to 6 weeks rather than 5 to 6 months.l+-hour day. 1969. testicular development. Wilson. For example. 14). (Wilson and Huang. Bird carousel for environmental chambers. Thermostatically controlled fans near the back of the unit exhaust excess heat. age at first egg. The birds were fed a turkey starter ration up to 14 weeks of age and then received an experimental diet containing a high percentage of cottonseed meal. Z. (1962). whereas coturnix lay 75% of all eggs between 3 and 6 p. 9 Under continuous light. Group Q1 was fed a standard turkey starter ration to 14 weeks of age. Reference Hart. Our studies have shown that optimum egg production of coturnix requires 14-18 hours of light daily. Group Q2 was fed a standard turkey starter crumble throughout the test. McFarland. and then a diet containing a high percent of cottonseed meal was substituted. The data indicate that coturnix egg production can be maintained at a rather high rate under optimum conditions but is very sensitive to dietary or environmental changes. Mean ratios of testes and ovary weights to body weight of coturnix raised under various light regimens from hatch to 5 weeks old. D. EGG PRODUCTION General Studies of the effects of light on chickens made it clear that a chicken's response to light is influenced greatly by the Figure 15. Those workers also found thxboth . T. On two occasions during the experiment the temperature rose from 75' to 90° F. Time of Lay WEEK O F A G E WLEK O F ME Figure 16 compares chickens and coturnix as to the distribution of time of lay. 1962). Egg production and feeding efficiency of coturnix kept in individual cages. A. EGG PROOUCTION AND FEEDING EFFICIENCY OF CAGED COTURNIX Figure'lj. Figure 15 shows egg production of coturnix in single cages in a chamber with controlled light (14 hours per day) and constant temperatures (with noted exceptions). VIII. The pressure deficit created within the box causes cool air to be sucked into the unit through two light-trapped vent openings near the top front of the unit.m. Poultry sci. S. according to Arrington et al. W. Siopes and L. Coturnix are similar in sexual development and egg production to high-producing strains of chickens.I light regimen in the growing period. B. Approximately 75% of all chicken eggs are laid in the morning. Time Interval and Clutch Length Fi . The numerals on right of each graph are hours of light and dark per cycle. Experimental brooding unit converted to laying cages.. coturnix lay their eggs relatively uniformly over the 2.
Testicular weights of S-week-old coturnix and average age at first egg of females exposed to various artificial day lengths between 1 and 5 weeks of ane.7 The quality of light has a pronounced effect on the rate of growth of female coturnix (Table 7).4 42 Table 7.Blue 103:7 .3 a Ratio of feed consumption to weight gained 0.JE.gpg i . Body weight (gm) Males Females Color treatment Incandescenti/ 106. 17) that laying hens produce at about the same rate under red light as under incandescent light. Preliminary studies concluded at this research facility indicate that although red light hastens sexual maturity in the female coturnix.+ .. Lighting for Early Maturity Preliminary studies indicate that gonadal response is maximum under continuous lighting (Table 6). Time-of-lay distributions for the chicken and coturnix. 30. 10 . Unnatural Day Lengths TIME ON 24 HOUR CLOCK Figure 16.'.4OLO %I I'Control. F.. 110.gy.. 18.+g _ _ 1 . (19691.4. 20. 16. A possible factor in preventing this group from reflecting response to controlled night feeding could be the daytime activities of maintenance work.0 .0 12. 22 2.520 b 4:o "*2& bl.. Five-week-old males brooded under red light of low intensity develop testes that are 11 times as heavy as those of males kept under blue light of comparable intensity. there is evidence (Fig..01). According to Woodard et al.5 283.0 112. E.145 a . Abplanalp et al. The results showed that artificial days of 16 to 18 hours retarded the maturation of both males and females and reduced production.05).._ . Quality of Light sequence length (clutch length) and time interval between successive ovipositions were thereby increased..5 lux) intensity. Values b and c are significantly different from each other (P-=.columns 4 and 5 having different subscripts are significantly different (P4.. They found that the relationship between age and weight of the testes approximates a logarithmic growth curve until the combined testicular weights reach about 5'00 mg.I Mather and Wilson (1964) reported the post-natal testicular development in the coturnix subjected to 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness per day.0 12. Light intensity (lux) 17.5 a 107.5 a Red 104. 36.he a-hour day if fed only at night. In ea& cycle. Spermatozoa were observed in the testes at 26 days of age.nht. light was given continuously for two thirds of the time and darkness for one third. D.. 28. 0. thus holding constant the total light energy in all tests. (1962) studied the relation of maturationand egg production in coturnix to unnatural day lengths. or 44 hours. Values in.119 : 3:s . Total length of day was held at 14. 26. hens kept under green or blue Ght weigh less at 5 weeks old than birds given red or white light of comparable intensity.6 159.. Testicular development is stimulated by the longer wave lengths (red) at both high (10 lux) and low (3. Hours of light per day 12 16 14 24 Median age at first egg (days) 7k tit 454.. They concluded that hens under continuous lighting changed from uniform laying to a cyclic pattern of oviposition if fed only during the daytime but continued to lay at a uniform rate throughout t...I 0. The physiological mechanisms for reproduction seem to function best when stimulated by external cycles of about & hours...2 111.2 b Green 104. /Combined data of two replicates.7 ::d Average body testicular weight and feed efficiency of S-week-old coturnix brooded under various wavelengths of 1 .. Table 6.984 a 1. Average weight of testes (mg) 10. 40.
is compared with that of a layer for the first 11 days.2000 42.1 lux.. Mean hourly body temperature of coturnix exposed to different photoperiods. :-* I8 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 5052 WEEKS OF AGE Figure 17. as shown by the dash and dot line.I N C A N D E S C E N T (50 lux) . period 3.I N C A N D E S C E N T (3 lux) .0000 0600 1200 HOURS 1800 2 4 0 0 Continuous dark Figure 19.‘. TREAT M E N T 114 hour light 0600 .. 1000 lux (see Table 1 for .. Records start in period 2 (upper right side of left column) and run consecutively for 51 days through light period 2. Body temperature curves for a nonlayer. LR = late recorded eggs. Body Temperature. period 4. SS = soft shell eiw l . 1. .65 42. (3L: 3D).61 D A R K 41. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 HOUR OF THE DAY Figure 18. Broken lines represent mean temperatures for the &-hour period. i. 2 + 42'C.e. Body temperatures shown on the ordinate are in Celsius + 40.duration).R E D (50 lux) -‘. G.41. period 5. &LL. and Time of Lay According to Woodard and Mather (1964) the mean body temperature of the coturnix female fluctuates between 41..0 .Normal cyclic fluctuations in body temperature of coturnix kept in moderate environments are associated with physical activity and (usually) with tie light period (Fig. 18). Photoperiod.+ s I 4 Intermittent light 4'. 54 lux. %LL.4 42.4'~ over a a-hour period.RED(3 11~x1 42. Woodard and Wilson (1971) reported a substantial increase in body temperature of about l0F at or near oviposition (Fig. &LL. Average monthly rate-of-lay for coturnix maintained under red and incandescent light of differing intensities.. 55 lux (dark periods are indicated by dashed lines). 19).8' and 11 Synchronization of peaks in body temperature to time of lay in coturnix.0 =/ AABIL .. Time of oviposition is indicated with a (v) delta.
This observation again demonstrates that coturnix age more rapidly than the larger gallinaceous species.. A. 0. Figure 23. & 3 0 E ? 2 ^_ 20. with their mortality rising uniformly with age to about 100 weeks (Fig. Thus. 40:1369.. The regression line for this period was calculated to be Y = 0.y . . 20). .. . A. . Experimental modifications of the laying pattern in Japanese .0 ‘ij 1 I 9 0 0 t kept under a constant stimulatory light (14L :lOD) was determined at the Davis Facility. day. compared with only 16% of the females.. 1962. Woodard and W. 1942). 1955) I . . . 22). Male coturnix live much longer rate than females (Fig. C. 68 64 100 116 132 148 AGE (WEEKS) Figure 23. Abplanalp and W.TURKEY (MARSDEN 81 MARTIN. In contrast. 42 54 66 78 90 102 II4 126 138 20 36 52 68 64 AGE (WEEKS) 100 116 132 148 X Figure 20. and coturnix. 1962. Fifty percent were alive at 90 weeks of age. Second-year production as a percent of first year for combined groups of coturnix was 48.. 4 * 20 I I. Unnatural day-lengths and egg production in coturnix.3 percent. Wilson. and the oldest is now 1915 days old. turkey.I. 1942) E z -‘\ COTURN IX 50-~--L--. Cumulative mortality in 3 generations of coturnix females. 36 52 . Ol 2 3 YEARS OF LAY First-year and second-year egg production in the chicken. CHICKEN (ZANDER g al. .. Cumulative mortality in 3 generations of coturnix males... second-year production for chickens and turkeys was respectively 68 and 65 percent. chickens (Zander et al. . Senescence and Egg Production The effect of aging. Cessation of lay occurred at 134. H.93 x. 0.. ) . . Average biweekly percent egg production in 3 generations of coturnix maintained under constant stimulatory light.. 23). Poultry Sci... 1192. Woodard and Abplanalp (1971) reported that females die much younger than males. AGE (WEEKS) Figure 22.0 -I loo. L.111. Senescence and Mortality The effect of aging on livability in 3 generations of coturnix of mixed sexes 12 References Abplanalp. ..0 400- 2 gy-.93 X applies to mortality to 100 weeks of age. ol. E. Arrington. and 138 weeks in 3 groups of hens kept under 14 hours light per 100. . Figure 21 compares the average number of eggs produced during the approximate 2 l/2 years of lay by coturnix.I H. The last females in the 3 generation groups died at respective ages of 1311. rate of lay decreases sharply after the hens are 26 weeks old (Fig. At least one male in each group is still living.IIII. 110. 1955).32 I OS 18 30 1 I J 70.. The regression Y = 0. H. approximately 1% of the females would be expected to die with each 1 week of life. Wilson.on egg production was determined for 3 generations of coturnix by Woodard and Abplanalp (1971). According to those investigators. and 1382 days. and turkeys (Marsden and Martin. I.0 60050..
H. and J. Table 8. Nature 203(4943):422-423. A. 6th edition. The time of release of ovulating hormones in the coturnix as assayed by hypophysectomy. 46:1302. Moore and W. 50:688-692. movement of the ovum through the oviduct. Poultry Sci. B.6 Species Turkey Chicken Coturnix Reference Asmundson (1939) Warren and Scott (1935) Woodard and Mather (1964) 18. pigmentation and shell deposition in the Japanese quail. J. Wilson. F. Poultry Sci. Martin. 43: 860-864. J. Woodard. Woodard.. for coturnix. chicken. the size of the oviduct and rate of movement of the ova in each part of the oviduct.6 15. 1964). Woodard. of Interdiscipl. Figure & is a representative series of eggs indicating degree of pigmentation with time of development. Interstate Publishers Inc. Scott. C. A. W. 13. 0. Mather. and H. Our data indicate that the ovum traverses the various parts of the oviduct in the following times: infundibulum. Poultry Sci. S. E. 1964. 1964. V. on growth and reproduction in Japanese quail. These data indicate that the upper areas make up a largerpercent of total oviduct in the coturnix than in the chicken and turkey. Behavioral patterns associated with oviposition in Japanese quail and chickens. Poultry Sci.5. Woodard. turkey. and W. Effect of photoperiod on cyclic patterns of body temperature in the quail. Lerner and L. E. Wilson. Table 8 compares. V.9 "Time Spent in the Oviduct (Hours)" Turkey Chicken Coturnix 2 i/2-3 1-I l/2 22-24 1 l/4 1 l/2-2 18-20 13 19-20 Wolford et al -& Warren and Scot!'~~$~~) Woodard and Mather (1964) . 97-99. l/2 hour. Size of oviduct and rate of movement of the ova in each component of the oviduct of turkey. EGG FORMATION References Asmundson. 1971. 43:187-189. Formation of the egg in the oviduct of birds: Observations on turkeys. 2 to 2 l/2 h o u r s . The interval between gonadotropin release and ovulation in coturnix is usually 4 to 6 hours. 41: 1843-I 845. 3(2):lO5- Marsden. 1967). similar to that of chickens (Opel. British Poultry Sci. Wilson. Abplanalp. H. Isthmus Uterus Magnum Vagina 14. Opel. M. A. and chicken. 0. 21:455461. Coleman. D. Effect of wave length of light 1969.I quail. 48:118-123. A. I. IX.8 9. H. Taylor. 113.. B. D. H. and R. l(2): 173-180. Poultry Sci. Ovulation is usually within 15 to 30 minutes of oviposition. magnum.. Mather. Cycle Res. and F. H. R. Postnatal testicular development in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). 1962. Poultry Sci. E. Turkey Management. and coturnix. S. Mather. J. HOURS AFTER OVULATION Figure 2l+. comparable to the interval in chicken and turkey (Woodard and Mather. and isthmus. A. 43:ll+27-1432. 1964. A. Ringer and T. and F. Jour..0 4. The decline in annual egg pro1942. E. 1967. Wilson% 1971. Poultry Sci. 1939. Ovulation and egg formation in the Beltsville Small White Turkey. E.2 :x 9:9 16. Percent total length of each component of the oviduct Infund. 1 l/2 to 2 hours. Seventh Worldfs Poultry Congress. Huang. Poultry Sci. M. 0. B. The egg stays in the uterus 19 to 20 hours. The time factor in egg production. Zander. Longevity and reproduction in Japanese quail maintained under stimulatory lighting. A representative series of eggs showing period of pigmentation in the coturnix. A comparison of the time of ovipositing for coturnix and chicken. and W. K. duction with age.3 3 . Wolford. 0. Poultry Sci. W.. 14:195. 1935. 195. The timing of ovulation. 1964. and H. Woodard. Warren.
Fl hybrids between wild and domestic coturnix were backcrossed successfully to either parent line. very high rate of egg production and growth. compared with b8 Almost half of days for domestic"coturnix.(1971). as demonstrated in early attempts at this laboratory and exhibited at the 1960 Annual Meeting of the Poultry Science Association and later by Wilcox and Clark (1961) and Haley et al.C. The pronounced inbreeding effects suggest that coturnix populations carry many harmful recessive genes. They have demonstrated that this species offers scientists several advantages in exploring breeding systems and certain applied problems of poultry breeding. Fertility and hatchability in cross inseminations can be doubled by inseminating more often. B. including Taiwan. Table 9 shows some of the more important results of that study by Sittmann et al. GENETICS AND BREEDING A. work on coturnix in Japan was devoted to developing them as song birds or for fighting qualities. Adverse effects of inbreeding on hatchability.. The most distinctive genetic property of Japanese quail populations appears to be their pronounced sensitivity to inbreeding. Upon insemination with chicken semen. and close genetic relation to other poultry make the Japanese quail an excellent pilot animal. studies at our laboratory indicate the decline to result from the production by 14 Studies using the Japanese quail in breeding experiments were started at our laboratory in 1959. the wild coturnix failed to lay in cages. 1969).I X. Davis (line 908). selection experiments with coturnix should be planned with large enough populations to avoid inbreeding effects of appreciable magnitude. Japanese quail hens inseminated semiweekly with turkey semen have shown about IS-20 percent hybrid fertility. Domesticated coturnix populations are also known to exist in Southeast Asia. at Mishima. according to chromosome studies by &i-et . no fertility has resulted in chickens inseminated with coturnix sperm. They have probably 38 pairs of autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Its rapid maturation. Secondly. laid some 14 percent fewer eggs. Reciprocal recurrent selection of lines of coturnix and chickens for high fertility with chicken sperm has been successful at our laboratory to the point where the selected lines produce over 90 percent fertile eggs (Haley et al. Half-sib matings or sib matings followed by generations without close matings and with selection for good reproduction might be successful. and matured at 117 davs of age. C. 1966a). 1966). Similar results have been rGo=d by Boesiger (1969) and Shinjo et al. Also. in accordance with Haldane's rule that the homogametic sex among hybrids of all kinds is the male viable.. This means that populations should be propagated with a minimum of about 25-40 mated pairs. and egg production were found to be almost twice as severe in coturnix as in chickens or turkeys. Female hybrids do occur but die at earlv stages. The discovery and description in this species of large numbers of distinct major genes can therefore be . surviving hybrid embryos are all males.al. . In the chicken-coturnix hybridization. Several practical consequences must be drawn from these findings. Sarvella (1971) obtained and raised hybrids between pheasant and coturnix Cytologically the Japanese quail closely resembles the chicken and turkey (Bammi et al. (1966a). Hybridization of coturnix with the chukar partridge has failed completely. but none survived past 3 generations of continued sibbing. The wild birds were smaller than the domestic birds. about 150 inbred 'lines were started at our laboratory. Under a system of inbreeding by brother x sister mating. (1966). viability. proving the close genetic relationship. . no fewer than 20 males and 40-60 females should be used to propagate control strains used for the production of experimental animals. it should be obvious that the breeding of highly inbred (homozygous) lines of coturnix may be difficult and would have to be carried out with a breeding system of less intensive inbreeding than brother x sister matings. Less than 1 percent of all fertile eggs hatched. A population of wild coturnix collected at the foot of Mount Fujiyama was compared with a domesticated strain. First. Japan (Kawahara and Tita. and imports from the latter country have been used to supplement the genetic basis of our breeding populations at U. Selection for a high production rate in these domesticated birds is believed to go back perhaps The earlier breeding 200 years or more. One turkeycoturnix hybrid hatched at our laboratory but died two days later. and results at our laboratory indicate that fertility with chicken semen is higher in old coturnix hens than in young ones. Hybridization the coturnix hen of antibodies against chicken sperm (Haley and Abplanalp. In mass matings. Origin of Coturnix The domesticated coturnix first used in laboratory work in this country were a postwar importation from Japan. Inbreeding Sensitivity Coturnix can be hybridized with chickens. The genetic improvement of wild Japanese quail under domestication has been confirmed in a study at the National Institute of Genetics. An average of about 7 percent ?%rmity was obtained from weekly inseminations on quail hens with chicken semen. coturnix hens show an initial rise in hybrid fertility that drops again after five or six weeks.b). This view is supported by the failure to obtain hybrids in the reciprocal cross (coturnix x chicken). 1970).(1566a.
. .7 Number of chicks banded Mortality: 0 to 5 weeks 5 to 16 weeks: males I?:. Those workers also demonstraGd=t both of the albino genes caused a marked reduction in reproductive fitness when homozygous.83 110.5(S2) ....I Table 9. (1966b)..2 +4.2 +3. Japanese quail should therefore be considered favorable genetic material for problems related to developmental and biochemical genetics.0 eggs (Inbreeding is that of the embryo) 5. Thus.4 -1.5 18.7 Egg weight (gm) at 12 weeks 10. 0 . S2..0 Total eggs incubated 10. 196Sb). as shown in Table 10.6 42.4 63... as expected.3 53.1 11.o 40.8 17. Unpublished data from this laboratory further suggest abundant single-gene variation in egg proteins and blood serum proteins (also...2 of thiouracil show reduced growth. q. = non-inbred controls..0 -0... ..9 -2. Among them have been recessive autosomal lethals causing micromelia (Hill et al...1 35. 196Sa).:42 128 7. 25)...4 9. females Number of surviving females 793 Nonlaying females among survivors 5.50(S3) 10% inbreeding o(R1) OtRO) 26 . but have improved fertility as adults when switched to a normal diet.. Marks and Lepore (1967)) using a population selected for rapid growth to 4 weeks of age on a diet containing thiouracil. +1 .. in percent) and mating type 25(S1) 37. .0 33.. . . 2. nonlayers among hens. 1965).. S3 = only a matter of time.. Effects of inbreeding on the percentage mortality of quail to 16 weeks.27 350 8..now some 70 percent larger than those of unselected populations and the hens reach 210 grams at 6 weeks old (Fig... and other traits of adult birds..2 40... Lepore and Marks. These adverse effects of large body size seem to become more pronounced as the hen ages. and 3 generations of sib-matings..1 25. 1963). . and white plumage (Sittmann and Abplanalp.. +2.0 50.1 females Percent fertility of all eggs set 79.6 741 65. Along with increased growth the selected lines show many of the undesirable changes known to occur also in meat-type chicken populations.7 102.9 121.3 112. Marks (1970) also demonstrated that selection of growth 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 GENERATION Figure 25.0 -3 for hen -7 for embryo Rl = crosses between inbred lines.. Selection Studies have reduced fertility and hatchability of eggs. . Several have in fact already been described in the course of the work reported here.9 61 .7 76. congenital loco (Sittmann et al.7 2775 5'9. D..0 .0 26. .eggs to 16 weeks of age 47.7 98.56 108.1 .0 -11 .. A nonlethal gene causing differential migration of serum albumin under starch gel electrophoresis has been found by Haley (1965). and a gene for white egg shell color was reported by Poole (1964).7 Number of .2 104. 1391 2659 326 499 23. Inbreeding (F. the percentage fertility of eggs incubated.0 124' 57. Birds belonging to these lines are ..1 10.26 Body weight (gm) at 6 weeks: males 107..5 16.. made the interesting observation that coturnix chicks fed a diet containing 0. Long-term selection studies for growth rate are in progress at several laboratories. +1 .o +3.9 71 04 .. as well as additional embryonic lethals. hens of the selected lines lay larger eggs but tend to . Selection for 6-week body size for 29 generations..863 Age at first egg(days) 56.5 Percent hatchability of fertile 73. inbreds from 1.0 14. A sex-linked ene causing buff plumage and pink eyes (pk k has been described by Sittmann et al.. Our own lines at Davis are now in their 29th generation of selection for high 6-week body weight. R..1 9.3 49.
0 77.7 11 ..0 44.3 / Several selection experiments for increased egg production have been conducted at IO -...75:3 .3 72. Selected line (Gen 23) Control diet Body weight at 6 weeks (gm) Eggs laid to 16 weeks Fertility of eggs set Hatchability of fertiles 175 males Thiouracil (0. K.. N..5 50..0 155....5 41 weeks 62:8 42..lected lines showed improvement in egg production..7 II .. however.5 25 weeks x 57...9 . Hayden.. H........3..2 90...6 149..Egg production to 16 weeks 43... Control line Males Females Average of two selected lines Males Females 6 weeks 167. Fi..2 --_---__--__----------------------------------16 weeks Egg weight (gm) at: 10.......m'i 112 98 29.. 16 Bammi. The beneficial effects of thiouracil inhibition of early growth on subsequent fertility has also been demonstrated in selected population at Devis. further selection following such crosses failed to increase egg production.he 905 2 ifI UC 20. 1966..for another 5 generations compared with a new line (961) selected for 5 generations.8 60..L.\.. Schoffner and G..8 62. as shown in Table 11. Selected lines did... R.... Proc.1 93.5'7...7 70.. Although crossing of se. while showing less selective improvement under normal diets than population selected under control conditions... Line 905' selected 9 generations.gure 26. References Abplanalp.0 '50 33.8 94...I Table 10.. turkey and . 182... Comparison of the average performance of 2 lines selected for high 6-week body weight with the control population in the 16th generation of selection.....4 18 weeks .o 20 weeks 10.oed after Lmr Crosr ? .. Our studies of the genetics of egg production in quail thus suggest that this species may be an excellent animal for this purpose.. . An increase in eggs laid between 6 and 16 weeks of age appears difficult to realize.y % 'L&' 2 30 : c " z .3 .. Sex chromosomes in the germ cells of the chicken.. Selection for eg production to 16 weeks under 1 & L:lOD.. 1966a.o . 13th World's Poultry Congress. as demonstrated by a Is-generation selection experiment shown in Figure 26. Combined lines were selected ..0 65.. z 40 / '\ ip 4 ? .. Kiev: 70-74. Selection for egg number in chicken and quail populations held under diverse lighting..2 155 females 34.G-4 he961 00 II 2' 3' 41 5 1 6 1 I ' 8 ' P ' 10 ' 11 ' 12 ' 13' GENERATION 14' IS' our laboratory (Abplanalp. 1966) under norma1 management conditions...3 Trait Body weight (gm) at: Percent hatchability of fertile eggs at: 9 weeks 25 weeks 41 weeks %L under the inhibiting diet is capable of causing specific adaptation of selected birds to overcome the specific thiouracil effect..ne 951 1: t Comb.e--...5 96 females 39..I ----__---__-----------------------------------9 weeks Percent fertile eggs at: 60. since it exhibits many of the genetic difficulties encountered in further improvement of today's highly productive chickens..1 130.5 . R. J...........21% to 4 weeks) 167 Control line (unselected) Control diet 121 males Thiouracil y.. then combined with 951 and selected for 4 generations..9 132. advance their sexual maturity by a few days while rate of lay remained unchanged....
Poultry Sci. These workers -A have identified several types of cells in the adenohypophysis: beta. J. The results indicate that the gonadotropin content in the adenohypophyses from immature male coturnix reared under certain light regimens changes with the daily light-dark rhythms (Tanaka et al. K.. Heredity 52:167-170. Heredity 54:188-190. Serum albumin polymorphism Haley. J. Tita. Fert. Sex-linked albinism in the Japanese quail. H. Y. 1966b. No significant difference in potencies during darkness has been observed. Boesiger. 1966. K. Bulletin Biologique 103:285-304. A comparative study of productive traits in wild and domesticate Japanese quails. 1969.. Mizuma and S. 1970.4-hour light period (Tanaka-et al. Poultry Sci. the potency level was higher at the end of the light period than 3 or 4 hours after the beginning of darkness. H. the gonadotropic potency of the adenophypophysis in mature coturnix exposed to continuous light did not differ significantly at any time during the 2. The establishment of environmental conditions which restrict juvenile growth rate. and H. 14L:lOD. Selection for increased fertility of female quail when mated to male chickens. W. Abplanalp. Kawahara. Clark. Y “* Lepore. A. Whitefeathered Japanese quail. 8: 231-236. Inbreeding depression in Japanese quail. Hayden. Evolution 20: 72-81. XI... _ Japan 19: Lauber. 1964). Genetic variation of some chemical components of Coturnix quail egg yolk. 97-98: Several reports have been published on the role of the hypophysis in sexual development of the coturnix. Z. 1964. Genetics and Cytology 7:636640. Hypothalamus Sittmann. L.. Poultry Sci. The significance of the orangeophilic alpha (STH?) cells and the erythrosinophilic eta (prolactin?) cells remains hypothetical. L.. Buff and albino Japanese quail: Description. 0. - Sittmann. Heredity 55': Sarvella. K. Shinjo. P. Wilson and L. or (6L:6D) .chickens. 1966). the supraoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus. Egg shell pigmentation in Japanese quail: Genetic control of the white egg trait. Lepore. Lloyd and H. Japanese quail. R. W. D. The physiological parameters have been compiled by the National Academy of Sciences (1969). The anatomy of the~blood suwwlv to the oituitarv and basal hvoothalamus was reported by Opel to be similar in coturnix to that in other avian species.. 1966b. R. 1969. Possible immunological basis for a reduction of fertility in cross-mating fowl with Japanese quail.. 1967. L. 1964. D. 50:298-300. Haley. Sittmann. B. Genetics. compared with total mortality of adult. Richards and H. Genetics 54: 371-379. . According to Opel approximately sixty percent of coturnix hyposectomized at 4 weeks of age remained alive. K. When coturnix were maintained on differing light scpdules of either 16L:SD. Effects de la consanguinite sur la caille Japonaise. Marks. 1965. 136-138. Poultry Sci. and P. L. 1971. Abplanalp. H. Evaluation of selected coturnix lines under different nutritional environments. J. These nuclear areas consist of a series of extended groups of cell (divisions) that are interconnected through irregular chains of neurosecretory cells. 45:424- Wilcox. H. /+l+:l84-186. 23: 375-381. Sex ratios and karyotype in the chicken-coturnix quail hybrid. H.426. K. Report. Genetics and Cytology 8~533-536. K.. 556-560. Sittmann. C. Physiological studies with coturnix have been reviewed by Wilson (1972). and H. J. Natl. G. Heredity 56:220-223. 1971.. L. Abplanalp and K.9 1966). 196Sa. McFarland. Poultry Sci. however. P. T. The cytology of the adenophypophysis of the male has been studied extensively by Trixier-Vidal et al (1967). E. W. J.. and A. thvrotropic delta cells.. The technique for hypophysectomizing coturnix has been published by Opel (1967). Growth rate inheritance in Japanese quail. Raising a new hybrid: Pheasant x Japanese quail. F. 196Sb. E. Inst. Poultry Sci.and gamma-gonadotropic cells. Chickenquail hybrids. L. Marks. Studies on inbreeding depression in Japanese quail. G. Canadian J. PHYSIOLOGY Physiological investigations of coturnix have been mostly on the effect of environment on reproduction. 1961. Abplanalp.The cell type kappa has been identified in other species of birds and may be related to the secretion of MSH. Abplanalp and R. Hypophysis Hill. and corticotropic ceils. A. Abplanalp. N. in quail and chicken-quail hybrids. 1. 46: Marks. 1965. P. Fraser. Enya. 17 In the hypothalamus of coturnix neurosecretory cells occur in two areas. K. The paraventricular nucleus is large and well developed (Oksche et al. H. L. Shoffner and G. Reprod. As determined with a coturnix bioassay. Heredity 57:119-124. 1963. Bammi. Micromelia in Japanese quail. 49: 1410. and C. 1966a. I.. Science 146:948950.. Genetics 51:983-986. J. J. Jap. Nishdia. Congenital loco in a third species of domestic fowl.. Haley. inheritance and fitness traits. J. A. E. Canadian J. Poole. Ann. 1970. and H.
initiating synthesis and release of neurosecretory material (Konishi and Kato. 196k Wentworth and Mellen. 1963 Abbott and Craig. 1968 and Freedland. Coturnix differ from other species in that lesions made in the posterior hypothalamic nucleus. 1968 and Lacy.2 0. F Hemoglobin.. with sexually active M Cloaca1 gland. during lay Cloaca1 gland. or the median eminence Value Metabolism Body temperature Respiratory rate per min Restrained. C. still block gonadotropic secretions. 1964b Wilson et al:.2 g i. with sexually active F Blood values Hematocrit. In poulards a daily dose of 225 mgm testosterone resulted in plumage most like that of intact males and showed a greater change in the plumage of capons treated similarly. F 18 completely blocked testicular development that would otherwise have been induced photoperiodically.. Lesions that destroyed either the nucleus hypothalamicus posterior medialis. a previously neutral stimulus. Sharp and Follett (1969) investigated the influence of hypothalamic lesions in the basal hypothalamus on gonadotropin release. 1962 McFarland and Lacy. D. unanesthetized F Clearance of ingesta Skin temperature (21 'C ambient) Reproduction Puberty egg.-M --Production rate Timefbr egg formation Testes weight Testes wt at first spermatozoa Semen concentration Semen volume Hatching time Number of developing ova (16L:8D) Ovary.. 1965 et al. 1962 Wilson et al. Exogenous testosterone resulted in lighter-colored plumage of capons.. He used normal and castrated males (capons) and females (poulards) as well as hypophysectomized coturnix. They concluded that the AF-positive neurosecretory was not related to gonadal growth..Moroholonicallv the neurosecretors cells vary exzensivelyeven in normal birds.9 million/mm 3 10 ul/bird 394 hr 3. Plumage was darker in poulards than in intact males. unanesthetized M.17 6. F Sperm. There may be small indistinct cells with very little stainable neurosecretory material. Farris (1967) reported that male coturnix could be classically conditioned to display courting behavior at the sound of a buzzer. The large paraventricular nucleus is striking because of its very intense neurosecretory activity. laying Oviduct. al. 1966 42. In addition to the accumulation of neurosecretory material in the neural lobe of the hypothalamus there is a second star age site in the zona externa of the median eminence. M Hematocrit. Restrained. coturnix appear well suited for behavioral studies.. Rhythmic changes of the concentration of nourosecretory material in the median eminence were found to be inversely related to the volume of the stainable portion of the median eminence.. leaving the tubero-hypophysial intact.. 1964 1964 1964 1964 . Neuroendocrine Control of Behavior and Plumage According to Reese and Reese (1962). 1965.65 mm Wilson et al. Warner (1970) reported interesting effects of gonadal steroids and pituitary gonadotropins on plumage colorations. whereas injection of testosterone into submissive birds changed the established dominance relations (Selinger and Bermant. 1960 Homma et al. Injections of estradiob resulted in lighter plumage color in poulards. M Hemoglobin.0°c 42 days Sda ys & 'hr 2500 mg 59 mg 5. al. 1967). 1968 McFarland and Lacy. The initial part of the neurosecretory tract is clearly evident because the neurosecretory substance is stainable. Wilson et al. These rhythms in the median eminence as well as the morphological observation of neurosecretory material in the supraoptic nuclei suggest that the onset of light and dark periods activates the hypothalamic neurosecretory system. or relatively large cells filled with homogeneous neurosecretory material.. and breast spots (characteristic of female plumage) were typically absent. 1968 Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal et et et et al. Physiological Values Reference Woodard and Mather. 1967). 1964a McFarland McFarland McFarland McFarland and Lacy. i963 Wentworth and Mellen.. al. 1962 Mather and Wilson. tuber0 hypophysial system. Castration of male coturnix destroyed their aggressiveness as measured by paired encounters. 1961 Mather and Wilson. In the latter the initial sections of axons are frequently conspicuous because of the presence of neurosecretory granules. 1964 Wilson et al.2% 56(40-85) 71 (45-93) 1-I l/2 hr 39. 1961 Woodard and Mather.
43:1392-1401. 39:827-830. No. Freedland. Lacy. 1964. Time required for ingesta to pass through the alimentary tract of coturnix. 14: 239-245. You&f and W. T. 1968 (personal communication) McFarland and Lacy. 1968 (personal communication) McFarland. et al.. Sharp. 1965. Follett. F Total leucocytes. 1964 Atwal et al. Wilson.9 et al. Na Plasma electrolytes.. The effect of hypothalamic lesions on the gonadotropin release in Japanese quail. 0.. M Eosinonhils. K. K Plasma electrolytes. Zellforschung 61:688-709. 1966 McFarland and Lacy.. Wilson and L. &':985'-991. Pharm. 1967. 1968 (personal communication) Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal Atwal et al.. et al. F 4% Basophils. K..al. 1969.. 2001. Oksche.. Konishi. Zeit. Life Sciences McFarland. Poultry Sci. The time of release of ovulating hormones in the coturnix quail as assayed by hypophysectomy. Farris. Freedland. species. 5:205'-218. and B. and R. L. Reese. et . The quail Coturnix coturnix japonica as a labora. D. et al. M . J.. Neuroendocrinol. Z. Martin and L. 5':&2. Appl. R.. 1967. Wilson. Zool. unanesthetized F Systolic blood pressure References Abbott. K. Mather. S. W..al.. McFarland. 1703. 1964 Atwal et al. Kato. A. 43:860McFarland. Jap. unanesthetized 1 . 1968 (personal communication) McFarland and Lacy. et al. 0. 2. A. 864. L.. Poultry Sci. M Monocyctes. J. L. 0. E. K. Z. Amer. Behavior 5:265-270. Poultry Sci.1 million/mm3 4. McFarland. Analysis of Behavior lO:2l3217. 1964 Koike.9 et al.. J. P. :$ Plasma protein. Koike.. 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 1964 Percentage distribution in blood Heterophils. Yolk dye deposition as an index of ovum maturation in coturnix. 1964. F Plasma osmotic pressure Plasma refractive index. Poultry Sci. M. Reese. 1966. Endocrinol. Z.. McFarland. F Plasma protein. H. . S. F Blood volume Plasma electrolytes.. McFarland and W. F Eosinophils. W. et al. E. McFarland. L.. Anal.. 0. Exptl. and W.1'8 g Freedland et al. 1968 McFarland and Lacy. Farner. 1960. 1968 (personal cdmmunication) McFarland. and M. 1968 McFarland. M Total leucocytes. Exptl. Personal communicatiqn. and T... Light induced rhythmic changes in the hypothalamic neurosecretory activity in Japanese quail. 196k(personal communication) McFarland and-Lacy. etal. Z. L. and R. 1962. Acute anticholinesterase toxicity in ducks and Japanese quail. 0. A. F. system of Coturnix coturnix japonica. Opel. 1968 (personal communication M 369(249-494) 432(265-531) 152(120-165) mm Hg Restrained. McFarland. R. L.I Value Blood values (continued) Red blood cells. M. B. et .. Amer.. NAS publ. Z. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Homma. Washington. Classical conditioning and courting behavior in Japanese quail.3 millio /m1n3~ 24 I 00ohJ 25 1ooo/mn3 :2y4. M :$ Basophils. D. Postnatal testicular development in Japanese quail. 0.tory animal. 1966. U. Atwal.. T. Observations on hatching time in three avian Poultry Sci. Lacy. 4 meg/l 124 me&l Reference Atwal et al. 5:&l. and P. The hypothalamic neurosecretory 1964. C. F ?46 Cardiovascular Heart weight Heart rate per min Restrained. M Heterophils. 1965. Wilson. B. Personal communication. Cl a 5..5% of body wt 180 meg/l 1 . Craig. Wilson and D. et al. W. 1964 Atwal et al. M Red blood cells. A survey of glutamic dehydrogenase activity in four tissues of normal and starved coturnix. Toxicol. 1969. Coturnix-Standards and guidelines. 1964. and P. 1967. The influence of ambient temperature and hypothalmic lesions o the disappearance rates of Thyroxin-I !f31 in the Japanese quail. M i&4 Lymphocytes. 1968. H. 1968. Hematology of coturnix from birth to maturity. M Plasma refractive index. F Lymphocytes. 19 5:309-315. 12:105-115. 1968. 1968 (personal communication) McFarland. Personal communication. F Monocyctes. B. A. 46:1302.sm/kg of H20 1 :3468 6. Z. L.
9. Average egg weights on the respective diets were 8.. A. E. They can tolerate 203 ppm fluoride ion in drinking water without adverse effect.. Protein Requirements Coturnix requirements have been estabblished for some trace elements: zinc.7 to 2. 6: Wilson. 30.2 87. Evaluation of coturnix (Japanese 1961. B. World's Poultry Sci. Poultry Sci. B. Trace Elements Required Coturnix can utilize diets containing 2200 to 3400 kcal/kg metabolizable energy (ME) equally well if the protein level is about 25%. The average body weight and egg weight of females was lower with 15% protein than with the other diets. A dietary level of 20% protein gave optimal production. and 9. 1964a. 1 118. E. 9.D. 50: 115. Abbott and H.. K. R. Hormonal control of aggressive behavior in Japanese quail. O. U. Follett and D. The Woodard. A. Davis. A. B. Mather and L. C. Arrington. as affected by changes in photoperiod. H. Reprod. W.7 111. Mather. J. Egg oroduction and fertilitv following various methods of insemination o? Japanese quail. timing of ovulation. Poultry Sci. Abplanalp and L. Bermant. 215-220.. 1970. B. --Behavior 28:255268. 1971. By the 6th week. and F. and magnesium.44 to 2. The identification and function of cells in the adenohypophysis of the Japanese quail.I Selinger. whereas 500 ppm was lethal. E.5. movement of the ovum through the oviduct. Table 12 gives the body weights of coturnix raised on diets containing 20. B. Wilson. 2 5 . 20. Gen. 40:651-657. Tixier-Vidal.3 94:7 Vohra and Roudybush. NUTRITION The nutrient requirements of coturnix has been reviewed extensively by Vohra (1971). 41:17-22. The body weight of coturnix fed 2% dietary protein level was not different 20 A deficiency of choline in growing coturnix is reflected in an increase of lipid content of liver. C. 0. the body weights on all the four protein levels were of the same magnitude. Woodard. Energy Requirements Growth. fertility. Mellen.0 3’ 4 2 1081-1084. Comp. Z. but was far lower than those fed 30% protein by the 5th week of age. K.8% phosphorus in their diet. and bone ash did not differ significantly when calcium level varied from 0. Ph. Sexual development of coturnix 1962.3% and calcium/ phosphorus ratio varied from 0. 25.6 113. Table 12. and F.5 Calcium and Phosphorus Requirements XII. 196413.6 117. D. Poultry Sci. W.9%.9 gm. A level of 23: dietary protein is recommended for optimal growth. Nature 203:422-423. Kcal/kg (Calc) Age (weeks) 0 25 2880 6 8 17:2 30 2770 6 8 21 :2 96:4 35 2660 6 8 30:1 Body weights (gm) 56. although the requirement for choline is much higher in breeder coturnix than in chickens. Mather. Wilson. Paris 264:739-742. Poultry Sci. and 35% protein. H. or 35% protein. No perosis-like condition has been observed to result from choline deficiency. Wentworth. feed efficiency. Tanaka. It has been suggested that breeders should have a higher level of calcium (2. O. F. and hatchability of eggs.5-3s) and 0. 28:413-429.2 102. R. and sodium for growth and egg shell formation. pigmentation and shell deposition in Japanese quail. 1963. Acad. and G. 20 2990 6 8 1h:8 $ protein in diet ME. Diurnal variation in the gonadotropin potency of the adenohypophysis of the Japanese quail. 1967. . S. Coturnix need potassium for survival. E. Abplanalp. Sci. 1972. A review of the physiology of Coturnix (Japanese quail). Fertil. quail) as pilot animal for poultry. K.9 32. dissertation. 43:1427-1432. L. McFarland. and W.. Endocrine control of sexual dimorphic plumage in Japanese quail..5 123.9 99:1 $iJ:! kc?40 iii. J. W. selenium. The standard metabolic rate of adult coturnix of both sexes can be reasonably predicted by the following equation: Heat production (kcal/ho r) = 70 (kg body weight)2Y3 A. J. 6:1-4. W. Endocrinol.5. c. 1967. B. Vitamin Requirements Coturnix chicks weigh about 7 gm at hatching. 1966. Farner.8. The body weights (gm) of quail chicks fed diets containing 4 different levels of nrotein. Recommended for egg production is a dietary protein level of 20%. Warner. University of California. statistically from those fed 25$. Wilson. Effect of photoperiod on cyclic' patterns of body temperature in the quail.. O. Coturnix were raised to sexual maturity on a diet containing 25% protein and then fed diets containing 15. No significant differences were observed in the body weights of coturnix fed 30 or 35% protein.
KCl. Co(CH3COO)2 .C.009. Biol. Poultry Sci.0 --mm 386. Sot. Vohra and Roudybush. I. Poultry Sci. 5H2?.97.. 0.0 ---70. 3. Med.297./kg die&!/ 1200 Vitamin D3. Poultry Sci. Commercial-type Growing 286. Poultry Sci..U.~. mg/kg diet 2500-3500 Linoleic acid *I .28 0./kg dietPantothenic acid? mg/kg diets/ Choline.0 3. 1000.28 0. 0100066.U. 4/~a~2joK~~31:a~o~09hs~~~~~~ . riboflavin. 4. 5H2 'b. 2. 1972.0 ---- 40. vitamin E.0 15.5. Exptl.11 3303 1200 ? 3300 Vitamin A. 46:486-492 4. the balance starch. Price. Nutrition 102:749-755 3300 1200 4: 1045:2090%/ needed Med. 0.. ?q ::. niacin. 3:25-26 Spivey-Fox and Harrison. 49:54-59' :: Miller. Arch Geflugelk. 1972.f. The composition of the commercial and purified diets for quail. Chang and McGinnis. 1966. 44% protein Isolated soybean protein Fish meal. choline chloride.) Table 14. folic acid. calcium pantothenate. CuSO4 . 1500 I.0 1'.11 0. 21 Ingredients Ground milo Ground corn Corn starch Soybean meal. 4 iodized MnS04 . $ diet Phosphorus Zinc. IO. 1966. Proc.0 15. Jensen. 34:41-44 :<: Latshaw and Jensen. Spivey-Fox.U. BHT. 1968.IS Table 13. 116:256-259 124:1131-1135 (Abst. 1970. 1967. Sot. vitamin B12. thiamin HCl.0 25. 0.0 400.0 ---_ 4.H20 ZnO .2H20 Nacl.0 415. A/The mineral mix supplied (in mg): NaCl.644. 9.y DL-Methionine diet Breeding 200. 10. vitamin B12 10 pg..0 ---25.0 :-i 102 ---- E-2 ---1 OX' . 1000. Hudson and Hintz. pyridoxine HCl.C. 40. Krishna and Howes. 6. 88.50 0. Unpublished data Shellenberger and Lee.95.11 I. 25:3007 Vogt. 50:1081-1084 Svacha. niacin. ^ . 120. balance starch. Growing quail 3-5 weeks 20 2600 1.0 20. 1966.5 l/Vitamin mix supplied (in mg): menadione.d~.R.1 e-m_ ---- ---- 110.1 200. K2HP04. 0. 62% protein Alfalfa meal. 2H20.m:. ZnO. 4000 I. 10.0 40.2 0. 2503. 10 pg. BHT.12. mg/ki ?&I7 Selenium. 11. Fed. riboflavin. 1964. 128:970-972 Vohra. 4H2O. vitamin D3.U. Biol. Proc. vitamin A. 30. 5.on only a few nutrients. biotin. vitamin E.0 ---_ 3.0 70.:g. Na2Seo3 . IO.C. 0.9. H20. 10 gm for breeder hens substituting an equivalent amount of starch. Poultry Sci. Med. MgSO * 7H20. Sot. Weber and Reid. 40. vitamin A. vitamin D?. 10. Quail Quart. Proc.U. FeS04 * 7H20. J. 0./kg d+Tjs' Vitamin E. 4500 I. O-3 weeks Nutrient Requirement of Poultry gives some data. Exptl.:5dL/ 30. rag/kg diet/ dietI/ Magnesium. MnS04 .. 3.U. 1970. choline chloride 800. (In Press) i: Lumijarvi and Vohra.71 1. 0. folic acid. 1971. Nutrient requirements of coturnix.U. I.tai: .4. 10..0 10.0 ---- 230.C. Proc. 5000 I. 1968.28 IY Od' Breeder quail Adult 26% ? ? 25 2900 I. Exp. The 1971 edition of N. 20% protein Solkafloc (cellulose) Soybean oil CaCO CaHP a .~et8/ 150 0. Biol.097.3 Calcium. I. 1967. 47:1037-1038 12.97. ---- ----w-m 10 di 22:9 . /Supplied lin mg): menadione.1 am/b? Purified diet ---- ---- ---300. calcium pantothenate. Poultry Sci. 2. 1972. 45:708-713 9.Table 13 summarizes the current information on the nutrient requirements of coturnix.
1 152.0 153.. Waggoner and-C. in adult coturnix. Lymphoid leucosis and fowl paralysis in the quail. -l_-. 52 Data based on approximately 100 females and males at start of test. 1965. J. A. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. infections Salpingitis Tape worms 'Tumors Ulcers Table 16.6 . 6th revised edition. Veterinary Record 75(27):685-687. 1964.7 125. ” Coturnix have been reported to be susceptible to some of the common poultry diseases. coturnix can be raised successfully on commercial turkey starters. caused by a virus. L. Age (weeks) 0 c 86 12 16 g i. A.C. A diagnostic survey of 400 individuals at this laboratory showed the coturnix to be subject to many ailments common to other fowl (Table 16).. 130:1 142. Hill. 1962. Avian Diseases 6:226-227. and R. Flanagan. World's Poultry Sci. P. 22 . Avian Diseases 9:212-219. S. P. Raymond.0 120. Various manifestations of the leukosis complex have been diagnosed in the strain of coturnix at this laboratory (Bigland et al.. 1963. cannibalism Impaction. Lymphomatosis Mucopurulent airsacculitis Nephritis Pericarditis Peritonitis Reproductive disorders Salmonellal/ Sinusitis Staph. Newcastle disease (B. 43:1315. Susceptibilitv of coturnix ouail to certain disease broducing agents canmon to poultry. and infectious bronchitis et al (1964 1. DaMassa and A. Wight. $ 10 8 8 1 1 13 Reported cases 1/ Salmonella species: give anatum infantis london kentucky 14 1 1 XIII. J. Apparent natural infection of coturnix quail hens with the virus of avian encephalomyelitis --Case report. S.2 5210 125. When facilities are lacking for mixing diets. H. References N. Coturnix have also been found susceptible to fowl pox. DISEASES References Bigland. avian encephalomyelitis. A review of the nutrition of Japanese quail. Poultry Sci. emaciation Leukosis .8 : lz.3 123. viruses. Average body weight of coturnix females and males to 52 weeks of age.This information has formed the basis for the formulation of diets of a commercial type as well as a purified type that have been used successfully in nutritional studies.R.3 I 52.6 7i 125. C. I 116.*z 48 128. and GrumblesBoney strains). R. Edgar. pallinarum.5 123. W. typhimurium. Vohra.Salmonella pullorumr S. Body weight (gm) Female Male $4 $:H 11112 Wight (1963) reported that both leukosis and fowl paralysis have been observed in coturnix. Table 15 gives the body weights of male and female coturnix on this type of a diet up to age 52 weeks. Woodard. A flock survev of diseases of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). G. 27:26-J&. E. Pasteurella multocida..l_ --m-w -~~--Diagnosis Freouency Abscesses Ascites Aspergillosis Candidinsis Coli-granuloma Enteritis Fibrosis Hemorrhage Heoatitis Injury..5 155. Hill and Raymond (1962) reported a natural infection. and experimental transmission of selected avian pathogens.8 122. A. 1971. according to Edgar -2 Those workers also reported that coturnix are susceptible to the following bacterial pathogens. Their composition is given in Table 14.9 124.1 : 65?6' G&4.. 1971. A summary of common ailments and frequency of occurrence in 400 individual coturnix necropsied. 1965).8 127. az one pathogenic strain of Escherichia a: Coturnix are also sub ject to fungus infections by Aspergillus fumigatus. Table 15. R.4 t:: 125.
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