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5

Chng 1
TNG QUAN V OFDM




Chng ny trnh by nhng vn c bn i vi cc h thng v
tuyn s mt t tc ln (bng rng), cc bin php khc phc i vi
pha-inh a ng chn lc tn s, nguyn l c bn OFDM v cc yu t
tc ng ti cht lng h thng OFDM.

1.1 NHNG VN C BN I VI CC H THNG V TUYN
S MT T DUNG LNG LN
1.1.1 H thng v tuyn s dung lng ln
Cng ging nh cc h thng truyn dn s khc, cc ch tiu k thut
c bn i vi cc h thng truyn dn v tuyn s bao gm: a) Tnh nhanh
chng, th hin qua dung lng C (Capacity) ca h thng [b/s], l tc bt
V ln nht c th truyn qua h thng vi mt chnh xc no cho; b)
Tnh chnh xc, th hin qua t l li bt BER (Bit-Error Rate) v jitter (l sai
lch tng i v nh thi tnh theo % gia u thu v u pht) [1].
Cc knh v tuyn c th c trng c mt cch s b bi rng
bng kt hp (coherence bandwidth) B
c
ca knh, l khong tn s m trong
hm truyn ca knh c th xem l bng phng (flat). Mt h thng v
tuyn s s c xem nh dung lng ln (bng rng) nu nh rng bng
tn hiu W ca n (t l thun vi tc d liu) vt qu rng bng kt
hp ca knh v tuyn gia u pht v u thu. Nh vy, dung lng ca h
thng v tuyn s nh th no c coi l ln th ph thuc vo cc iu kin
knh c th. Th d, i vi cc h thng vi ba s, dung lng C 70 Mb/s
(thng s dng iu ch M-QAM, vi rng bng tn hiu W vo qung 20
MHz tr ln) mi c th c xem l ln [8]. Trong khi , do c tnh
truyn a ng (multipath) rt mnh, cc h thng v tuyn di ng vi tc
bt V chng vi Mb/s tr ln c th xem l h thng bng rng, chng
hn nh cc h thng t th h 3 (3G 3
rd
Generation) tr i.


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hn ch phm vi xem xt i vi cc h thng v tuyn s dung
lng ln, y chng ta s ch xt ti cc h thng v tuyn s mt t cng
tc trong di sng siu cao tn tr ln. iu ny l do v mt cng ngh, hin
nay mi ch thc hin c cc h thng c rng bng tn hiu W vo c
1% ca tn s sng mang. Nu cc tc s thng thng ca cc dch v s
c ngha nht c xt n vo c vi Mb/s tr ln (chng hn nh tc
lung s ghp knh cp 1 chng 1.5 n 2 Mb/s hay cc dch v video c nn
vi tc vi Mb/s) th tn s sng mang s ln ti hng trm MHz, thuc
di sng cc ngn ( 1 m hay f
c
300 MHz, trong v f
c
tng ng l
bc sng cng tc v tn s sng mang). Vic truyn tn hiu s l kh hn
ch vi cc di tn s thp hn (sng ngn n sng di), vi cc tc lung
d liu thp t c ngha hn trong cuc sng. di tn s sng cc ngn
nh th, c ch truyn sng l trong tm nhn thng do sng cc ngn rt d
b chn bi cc chng ngi c kch thc c bc sng, tc l c kch thc
kh nh.
C rt nhiu vn t ra i vi cc h thng v tuyn s dung lng
ln, tuy nhin nhng vn c bn v quan trng nht t ra i vi cc h
thng nh th l s khan him v ph tn s v pha-inh a ng c tnh
chn lc.
1.1.2 S khan him ph tn v bin php khc phc truyn thng
a. S khan him ph tn
i vi cc h thng v tuyn s n sng mang truyn thng, trong
lung s cn truyn i c s dng iu ch mt sng mang cao tn n
(lm thay i mt hay vi tham s ca sng mang cao tn), tc lung bit
cng ln th ph chim ca tn hiu sau iu ch cng ln. iu ny hon ton
thy c t tnh cht ca bin i Fourier. Tc lung bt cng ln th
rng thi gian tng bt T
b
s cng nh, do vy, bin i Fourier ca tn hiu
ny (tc l ph ca n) cng rng trn min tn s.
Ti nguyn tn s, tuy vy, li kh hn hp do cho n hin nay con
ngi mi ch s dng c chng vi chc GHz u tin ca trc tn s cho
truyn dn v tuyn. Hn ch ny l do cc nguyn nhn c bn sau: a) V
mt cng ngh, vic ch to cc thit b phn v tuyn RF (Radio Frequency)
cc tn s rt ln, hng trm n hng ngn GHz chng hn, l rt kh khn,


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c v thit k ln linh kin in t; b) Tn s cng cao, tn hao ng truyn
cng ln. iu ny, n lt mnh, li i hi hoc my pht phi c cng
sut pht rt ln, trong i a s trng hp l khng th p ng c ngoi
tr cc h thng rt c bit, hoc phi hn ch c ly lin lc. cc di tn s
rt cao, ln ti 100 GHz hoc hn, c ly lin lc c th p ng c vi cc
thit b dn dng ang c pht trin hin nay ch vo tm vi m n vi
chc m. Gii tn s v tuyn hin dng c cho lin lc c ly xa (vi km n
vi ngn km) i vi cc h thng v tuyn mt t (ch khong vi chc
GHz), do vy, cn chia s cho rt nhiu loi h thng vi rt nhiu loi hnh
dch v (pht thanh, lin lc v tuyn sng ngn thng mi, truyn hnh, v
tuyn chuyn tip hay cn c gi thng dng Vit Nam l vi ba, thng tin
di ng). Ngay c khi cc di tn c th ti s dng qua nhng khong cch
xa (bo m nhiu ln nhau gia cc h thng s dng chung di tn nh
di mc cho php) th ti nguyn tn s vn c ht sc khan him do s pht
trin ngy mt mnh m ca cc nhu cu lin lc, vi tc truyn v cc
loi hnh dch v tng khng ngng. Vic phn b tn s v gi thu (hay u
gi) tn s do vy l nhng vn buc phi cn nhc i vi c cc c quan
qun l tn s cng nh cc nh khai thc dch v truyn v tuyn.
S khan him v ph tn s thc y vic p dng cc k thut
nhm thu hp ph chim W ca cc tn hiu khi tc truyn V tng cao, ni
cch khc, n thc y cc k thut nhm nng cao hiu qu s dng ph ,
c tnh bng t s gia tc truyn v rng ph chim ca tn hiu (
= V/W, [b/s/Hz]). Trong thc t, khc phc nhiu xuyn symbol ISI,
rng bng chim ca tn hiu W thng ln hn rng bng khng-khng
(null-to-null bandwidth) W
0-0
ca tn hiu bng gc mt cht: W = (1+)W
0-0
,
trong l h s un ca mch lc hn bng tn hiu, thng c dng mch
lc cn bc hai cosine nng (square-root raised cosine filter), thng thng
trong khong t 0.2 n 0.75 [1]. Tuy nhin, n gin trong so snh hiu
qu ph, ngi ta vn thng so snh vi rng bng tn hiu tnh theo
rng bng khng-khng.
b. Bin php truyn thng nng cao hiu qu ph
K thut thng c s dng nht i vi cc h thng v tuyn s
n sng mang nhm tng hiu qu ph l s dng s iu ch nhiu trng


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thi, chng hn s dng cc s iu ch M-PSK hay M-QAM, trong
tng cm m bt t lung d liu nh phn u vo c ghp thnh cc
symbol c th nhn M trng thi (M = 2
m
) v iu ch pha (vi M-PSK) hoc
iu ch c pha ln bin (vi iu ch M-QAM) ca sng mang cao tn.
C th thy c kh nng tng hiu qu ph ca cc s iu ch k trn
nh sau.
Do c ghp t m bt, mi symbol s c rng thi gian l T
s
= mT
b
,
trong T
b
l rng ca mt bt, v mi symbol c th biu din nh mt
tn hiu xung ch nht vi M bin khc nhau c th c. rng bng
khng-khng ca tn hiu symbol W
s0-0
= 1/T
s
do vy s hp hn m ln
rng bng khng-khng ca tn hiu nh phn (bt) W
b0-0
= 1/T
b
, ngha l W
s0-0

= W
b0-0
/m. Do vy c th thy, vi cng tc bt V th

s
= V/W
s0-0
= V/( W
b0-0
/m) = mV/W
b0-0
= m
b
(1.1)
trong
s
v
b
ln lt l hiu qu ph trong cc trng hp truyn
theo symbol (iu ch M trng thi) v truyn theo bt (tn hiu nh phn).

T (1.1), ta c th thy rng hiu qu ph cn t cng cao, m v M
cn cng ln.
Cc s iu ch v gii iu ch M-PSK v M-QAM
+ S iu ch v gii iu ch M-PSK
S thng dng iu ch v gii iu ch M-PSK vi M = 4, cn gi
l QPSK (Quarternary Phase Shift Keying), c th hin trn hnh 1.1 [1].
i vi s iu ch 4-PSK (hnh 1.1a), lung d liu nh phn li
vo c chia thnh cc cp bt, qua b bin i ni tip-song song S/P
(Serial/Parallel) c chia lm hai nhnh, mi nhnh mt bn symbol gm 1
bt vi rng c m rng thnh T
s
= 2T
b
. Cc bt (bn symbol) ca tng
nhnh ny, sau khi qua cc b lc thng thp LPF (Low-Pass Filter) hn bng
v to dng xung (pulse shaping) dng cn bc hai cosine nng mc ni tip
vi mt mch sa dng xung x/sinx, c nhn vi cc thnh phn ng pha
cos2f
c
t hoc vung pha sin2f
c
t ca sng mang trung tn IF (Intermediate
Frequency). Tn trn hai nhnh sau c cng vi nhau, to nn tn hiu
QPSK trung tn. Tn hiu ny sau s c a ti tuyn RF (Radio
Frequency) trn ln tn s v tuyn cao tn, khuch i v truyn i.
Chm sao tn hiu QPSK (biu din vector tn hiu) c th hin trn hnh


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1.2 gm M im chia u vng trn tm gc ta , bn knh
s
E , trong
E
s
l nng lng ca mt symbol. Hiu qu s dng ph ca QPSK l [1]:

QPSK
= 2/(1+) [b/s/Hz] (1.2)
Tng qut, hiu qu ph ca kiu iu ch M-PSK l [1]:

M-PSK
= m/(1+) [b/s/Hz] = (log
2
M)/(1+) [b/s/Hz] (1.3)














Hnh 1.1 S iu ch v gii iu ch QPSK







Hnh 1.2 Chm sao tn hiu M-PSK
i vi s gii iu ch 4-PSK (hnh 1.1b), tn hiu nhn c bao
gm c tn hiu hu ch v tp m sau khi c trn xung IF t mch trn
xung (down converter) s c a song song ti 2 nhnh ca b gii iu
ch. Ti cc nhnh ny, tn hiu s c nhn vi cc thnh phn ng pha
S/P
LPF
LPF
data
tng 2 bt
90
o
~

Tn hiu
QPSK
cos2f
c
t
sin2f
c
t
Ti tuyn RF
a)
b)
Tn hiu QPSK
+ tp m
P/S
LPF
LPF
90
o
~
cos2f
c
t
sin2f
c
t
t=kT
s
A/D
A/D
T b trn xung

data
(tng 2 bt)
M =4



d
P
sin( / )
P sPSK
d E M t =
0

I

Q

sPSK
E



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hoc vung pha ca sng mang trung tn nhm loi b thnh phn tn s cao.
Cc b lc thng thp (cng thng l cc mch lc cn bc hai cosine nng),
mch ly mu ti cc thi im t = kT
s
(k l ch s khe thi gian ca cc
symbol hay cp bt) v cc mch bin i A/D (thc cht l cc mch so
ngng nhm quyt nh gi tr bt trn cc nhnh l 1 hay 0) hnh thnh nn
my thu ti u tn hiu s, cho t s tn/tp SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) ln
nht (v do , t l thu li nh nht). Cc bt nhn c trn 2 nhnh s c
ghp tr li thnh cp bt ban u qua b bin i song song-ni tip P/S.
+ S iu ch v gii iu ch M-QAM
iu ch bin vung gc (M-QAM) l phng php iu ch kt
hp gia iu ch bin v iu ch pha. Tn gi iu ch bin vung
gc xut pht t thc t l tn hiu M-QAM c to ra bng cch cng hai
tn hiu iu ch bin c L = M mc trn cc sng mang vung pha vi
nhau. Cng nh M-PSK, iu ch M-QAM l mt phng php iu ch tn
hiu hai chiu tuyn tnh, cho php nng cao hiu qu ph.
iu ch v gii iu ch M-QAM c s khi trn hnh 1.3 [4].
Vi iu ch M-QAM (hnh 1.3a), b bin i ni tip-song song S/P
(Serial/Parallel) thc hin bin i tng symbol gm m = log
2
M bt t chui
bt d liu ni tip li vo thnh hai bn symbol, mi bn symbol gm m/2
bt. Cc khi i mc 2/L thc hin bin tng cm m/2 bt nh phn thnh
cc tn hiu khng v khng NRZ (Non Return to Zero) nhiu mc A
k
v B
k

(vi k l ch s khe thi gian ca symbol c truyn), c th nhn L = M
tr bin , ty thuc vo mu cc bt ca cm bt li vo. Dng ph tn hiu
u ra c hnh thnh nh cc b lc thng thp pha trc mch nhn, m
trong thc t thit k chng thng l nh nhau v l mch lc cn bc hai
cosine nng (square-root raised cosine filter) mc ni tip vi mt mch sa
dng xung x/sinx. Cc mch nhn c s dng sau mi mch lc nhm thc
hin iu ch bin tuyn tnh, vi cc sng mang IF cng tn s song trc
giao (cc sng mang cos2f
c
t v sin2f
c
t). Cc tn hiu li ra cc mch nhn
c cng vi nhau to nn tn hiu M-QAM. B iu ch M-QAM nh vy
c to ra t hai b iu ch bin trc giao nhau vi sng mang b nn.
Tn hiu iu ch M-QAM trung tn ny sau khi trn ln RF, khuch i, tn
hiu s c pht i qua h thng ng-ten, phi- ra mi trng v tuyn.


11





















Hnh 1.3 S iu ch v gii iu ch M-QAM [4]















Hnh 1.4 Chm sao tn hiu 16-QAM
Hiu qu s dng ph ca iu ch M-QAM cng c tnh theo (1.3)
[1]. Chm sao tn hiu iu ch M-QAM c nhiu dng khc nhau, ngoi cc
dng chm sao hnh trn s dng cho truyn d liu trn knh thoi trong cc
S/P
i mc
2/L
i mc
2/L
m bit

m/2 bit

m/2 bit

A
k
B
k


~
90
o
E
cos2tf
c
t
sin2tf
c
t
tn hiu M-QAM

A
k
a
T
(t)cos2tf
c
t

B
k
b
T
(t)sin2tf
c
t

LO

Lc
thng thp
Lc
thng thp
a)
dy bt li ra
90
0
LPF
LPF
A/D
&
gii
m
A/D
&
gii
m




P/S
V
d1
(t)
ng h
-
-
tn hiu li vo


m/2
m/2
1
1
t=kT
S
b)
~
cos2tf
c
t
sin2tf
c
t
- - - -
- - - -
- - - -
- - - -
I
Q
1 3 -1 -3
1
3
-1
-3
2d
Q
M = 16
2( 1)
sQAM
Q
E
d
M
=


sQAM
E



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modem tc thp hay dng ch thp trong cc h thng iu ch m li
TCM (Trellis Coded Modulation), s iu ch M-QAM vi chm sao tn
hiu vung (square constellation) l s thng dng nht trong cc h thng
v tuyn s mt t hin nay. Chm sao tn hiu M-QAM dng hnh vung
c th hin trn hnh 1.4, th d cho trng hp M = 16.
S khi b gii iu ch M-QAM c trnh by trn hnh 1.3b. Tn
hiu li vo b gii iu ch trong khe thi gian ca symbol th k c nhn
vi cc sng mang trc giao v loi b thnh phn hi bc hai ca sng mang.
Cc b lc thng thp, thng cng l cc b lc cn bc hai cosine nng,
mch ly mu v bin i A/D cng hnh thnh nn my thu ti u nhm cc
i ha SNR. Cc tn hiu sau lc (c c tp m) c ly mu theo nhp
symbol ti cc thi im t=kT
S
v c bin i ti cc b bin i tng
t/s A/D thnh cc tn hiu
k
A

v
k
B

vi L tr bin c th c ri c gii
m thnh cc t hp c m/2 bt. Hai nhnh tn hiu c a ti b bin i
song song-ni tip (P/S) to tr thnh cm m bt li ra.
+ So snh M-PSK v M-QAM
Vic so snh gia hai kiu iu ch nhiu mc M-PSK v M-QAM
c thc hin da trn nguyn tc cho chng c cng hiu qu s dng ph,
cng t l li thu symbol, kiu iu ch no i hi nng lng cao hn th ti
hn. Theo (1.3), hiu qu ph ca c M-PSK v M-QAM nh nhau vi cng
gi tr M v h s un lc . V l thuyt, t l li ph thuc khong cch t
im tn hiu ti bin quyt nh gn nht d
P
v d
Q
(hnh 1.2 v 1.4), cng t
l li symbol c ngha l d
P
= d
Q
, theo cc hnh 1.2 v 1.4 th iu kin ny l:
sin( / )
2( 1)
sQAM
sPSK
E
E M
M
t =

(1.4)
Nh vy, so snh hai loi iu ch ny ta c th xt t s sau, l mt
hm ca M:

2 2
( ) 2( 1) sin ( / )
sQAM
sPSK
E
A M M M
E
t = = (1.5)
Vi M = 4, A(4) = 1, c 4-QAM v QPSK u yu cu nng lng nh
nhau khi c cng hiu qu ph v cng t l li, do chng hon ton tng
ng nhau, cc s iu ch v gii iu ch l nh nhau. Vi 4 < M 8,


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A(M) > 1, c ngha l M-PSK tt hn M-QAM. Khi M > 8, A(M) < 1, M-
QAM tt hn M-PSK, iu ny l gii thc t l hu nh khng gp cc s
iu ch M-PSK vi M > 8.
V mt ng dng trong thc t, khi dung lng h thng t thp ti
trung bnh, hiu qu ph i hi khng cao lm (m ch cn khng ln), ngi
ta thng s dng iu ch M-PSK vi M = 2, 4 hoc 8. Vi cc h thng v
tuyn s dung lng t trung bnh n ln, s iu ch thng p dng l
M-QAM vi M = 16, 64 hay 256. T cc xem xt trn, trong lun vn ny ta
s gii hn ch xem xt vi cc h thng s dng iu ch M-QAM. S
khi tng ng bng gc ca mt h thng v tuyn s M-QAM n sng
mang tiu biu c th hin trn hnh v 1.5 [4].







Hnh 1.5 S khi tng ng bng gc h thng v tuyn s M-QAM [4]
1.1.3 Pha-inh a ng chn lc tn s v cc bin php khc phc
a. Pha-inh a ng chn lc tn s (selective fading)
V c bn, M-QAM l s iu ch bin , do vy rt nhy cm vi
mo phi tuyn gy bi cc b khuch i cng sut ln my pht. Khi tc
bt tng mnh do cc yu cu tng khng ngng ca cc dch v mi trong
mng vin thng, gim hn na rng bng tn hiu cn phi s dng s
iu ch M-QAM vi M rt ln, 1024 hoc hn. Gi tr rt ln ca M nh
th li b hn ch v mt cng ngh (quan trng nht l s i hi v cng
sut pht phi rt ln nhm t c t l li bt BER nh theo yu cu,
ko theo i hi cc b khuch i cng sut ln phi rt tuyn tnh, khng
p ng c v cng ngh), v vy trong thc t, M ti a hin c th p
dng l 256, thng th M = 64 l kh ln. Nh vy, mc d s dng
cc s iu ch nhiu mc nng cao hiu qu ph, v bn cht l lm
gim b rng ph chim ca tn hiu, khi tc bt cn truyn t ti kh ln
B
iu ch
B
lc pht
M.trng
truyn
Tp m
Ngun
symbol
KCS
C
k
B
lc thu
B
san bng
k
C


B gii
iu ch
KPSM KPH
Thit b
qu. nh
Nhiu
Ch gii:
KPH = Khi phc ng h; KPSM = Khi phc sng
mang; KCS = Khuch i cng sut


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th rng bng tn hiu vn rt ln. Th d nh cc h thng vi ba s bng
rng ng trc) tiu biu s dng s iu ch 64-QAM, khi truyn cc
lung ghp knh cn ng b PDH (Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy)
tc cao nht l 135 Mb/s (h M) hay 140 Mb/s (lung E4 h chu u),
vi h s un lc va phi ( hiu qu ph t ln, va d ch to v
khng i hi yu cu v ng b ng h qu ngt ngho) khong 0.30.35
th b rng ph chim s vo khong 30 MHz, ln lt c phn b cc knh
c rng bng 28 MHz (h M) v 29.65 MHz (h chu u) vi nhiu cn
knh ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference) vn cn chu c [6].
Vi rng bng chim ca tn hiu ln nh vy, vt qu rng
bng kt hp B
c
ca knh v tuyn, hm truyn ca knh s khng bng
phng trong bng tn hiu na. iu ny s dn ti xuyn nhiu gia cc
symbol truyn lin tip ISI (InterSymbol Interference). V c bn, i vi cc
knh v tuyn truyn trong kh quyn gn mt t th vn ny ny sinh do
hin tng truyn theo nhiu ng khc nhau (i thng hay phn x, khc
x), do vy tn hiu thu ti my thu l tng ca nhiu phin bn tn hiu tr
so vi nhau (do i theo nhiu ng) mt cch ngu nhin (do mi trng kh
quyn thay i ngu nhin), gy nn s thng ging ngu nhin ca cng
trng ti im thu, gi l pha-inh a ng (multipath fading). Tnh cht
chn lc theo tn s ca pha-inh a ng khi bng tn hiu vt qu B
c
c
th gii thch v mt vt l nh sau. Ti cc tn s trong bng tn hiu m cc
tn hiu ny ng pha nhau th chng c cng li tng cng ln nhau, cn
ti cc tn s trong bng tn hiu m cc phin bn tn hiu khng ng pha,
thm ch ngc pha nhau th chng khng tng cng nha, thm ch trit tiu
ln nhau. Vic truyn dn v tuyn a ng c minh ha trn hnh v 1.6.





Hnh 1.6 Truyn dn v tuyn a ng
V mt ton hc, c th phn tch hin tng pha-inh a ng chn
lc tn s nh sau. Gi hm truyn ca knh v tuyn gia my pht (Tx) v
Bt ng nht trong kh quyn
Tx
Rx


15
my thu (Rx) l H
c
(f) v p ng xung knh l h
c
(t), H
c
(f) = F[h
c
(t)] vi F[.] l
bin i Fourier. p ng xung ca knh, theo nh ngha l phn ng li ra
knh khi u vo l mt xung Dirac o(t). Gi s ti u vo knh, Tx pht i
mt xung o(t), do c truyn theo nhiu ng vi cc di khc nhau,
xung ny s ti Rx vi cc tr khc nhau t
i
, i = 1, 2,, N. Tn hiu thu
c ti my thu, chnh l p ng xung ca knh, khi l:

1
( ) ( )
N
c i i
i
h t a t o t
=
=

(1.6)
Do vy, hm truyn ca knh l:

2
1
( ) const
i
N
j f
c i
i
H f a e
t t
=
= =

(1.7)
T (1.7) c th thy rng hm truyn ca knh khng phi l hng s
trn trc tn s m c nhiu cc tr (ti cc cc tr ny, cc tia sng cng tng
cng nhau hay trit ln nhau ty theo chng l cc i hay cc tiu). C th
xem nh B
c
xp x khong cch trung bnh gia cc tn s ca cc tr k tip
ca hm truyn knh ti vng tn s ca di sng cng tc. Ty thuc vo
tnh cht thng k ca cc tr truyn vi cc ng khc nhau, B
c
c th kh
ln hoc kh nh. Trong thc t, ni chung s tia sng truyn cng ln vi tr
so vi nhau khng qu ln th B
c
cng nh. iu ny ct ngha ti sao cc h
thng khc nhau (vi ba s hay v tuyn di ng, vi c im chng ngi
gy a ng khc nhau) c gi tr rng bng c xem l rng li kh
khc nhau (B
c
kh khc nhau).
Do c tnh bng thng hn ch, ch t l do phi chia s bng tn gia
cc h thng, vic truyn cc symbol lin tip s gy nn ISI. l do p
ng xung ca h thng c bng thng hn ch s tri rng v hn trn min
thi gian, dn n cc symbol truyn lin tip ln ln nhau, gy nhiu ln
nhau (ISI). Vic thit k h thng c hm truyn tng cng ca cc mch lc
pht v thu dng cosins nng (nh thy trong cc s iu ch M-PSK
hay M-QAM mc trc) l nhm trit tiu ISI [1]. Tuy nhin, khi c pha-
inh chn lc tn s, hm truyn tng cng ca c h thng (l tch ca cc
hm truyn lc pht, thu v hm truyn knh v tuyn) s khng cn c dng
cosine nng na, gy nn ISI c th rt ln, lm suy gim nghim trng cht
lng ca h thng (t l li bt BER ln n khng th chp nhn c).


16
Hnh 1.7 l cc kt qu m phng my tnh bng gi phn mm ASTRAS
(Analog Simulation of TRAnsmission Systems) [2] vi mt h thng vi ba s
64-QAM truyn lung E4 (140 Mb/s), = 0.35, c pha-inh a ng chn
lc vi su khe pha-inh 8 dB theo m hnh knh Rummler [9].

a) Chm sao tin hiu thu b) T l li bt ca h thng
Hnh 1.7 nh hng ca pha-inh a ng chn lc
i vi mt h thng E4/64-QAM, su khe pha-inh B = 8 dB
T kt qu m phng ta c th thy, ISI xut hin v th hin dng
cc cm im tn hiu trn chm sao tn hiu thu (hnh 1.7a), thay v M im
nh chm sao tn hiu pht, cc cm im ny ln n ni hu nh khng th
phn bit gia cc tn hiu. Kt qu l BER > 10
-3
vi mi t s SNR (hnh
1.7b), khng thch hp cho truyn bt k dch v vin thng no [1]. H thng
nh th c xem l t lin lc (outage).
b. Cc bin php thng thng khc phc pha-inh a ng chn lc
Cc bin php thng thng nhm khc phc pha-inh a ng chn
lc bao gm:
+ S dng san bng thch nghi (adaptive equalization):
V bn cht, san bng l vic mc thm ni tip vo b lc thu mt
mch in, c nhim v san bng hm truyn ca knh, th d nh c th
hin trn hnh 1.5. Gi hm truyn ca mch san bng l E(f), khi hm
truyn tng cng ca c h thng H(f) c dng:
H(f) = H
T
(f)H
R
(f)H
c
(f)E(f) (1.8)
vi H
T
(f) v H
R
(f) ln lt l hm truyn ca cc b lc pht v thu.


17
Cc b lc pht v thu, nh ni, thng c thit k c dng cn
bc hai cosine nng, do vy tch cc hm truyn ca chng H
T
(f)H
R
(f) c dng
cosine nng H
RC
(f) bo m truyn khng c ISI nu hm truyn knh v
tuyn bng phng l tng (bng hng s). truyn khng c ISI, H(f) cn
c dng cosine nng. Ngha l, H(f) = H
RC
(f), do vy t (1.8) ta c:
H(f) = H
RC
(f) = H
RC
(f)H
c
(f)E(f) (1.9a)
v H
c
(f)E(f) = 1, tc l E(f) = 1/H
c
(f) (1.9b)
Ngha l, v bn cht mch san bng l mt mch lc c hm truyn
c thit k v iu chnh bng vi nghch o ca hm truyn knh v
tuyn. V hm truyn knh thay i theo thi gian do s thay i ca mi
trng kh quyn (hay thay i v a hnh i vi cc h thng di ng),
mch san bng cng phi c kh nng iu chnh bm theo c s thay i
ca knh. Mch san bng nh th c gi l thch nghi. Vi cc h thng
n sng mang truyn thng, mch san bng thch nghi thng c thc
hin trn min thi gian (ATDE Adaptive Time Domain Equalizer) bng b
lc gin (tapped delay line) tng i phc tp vi tc tnh ton iu khin
rt cao. Khi knh thay i kh nhanh v mnh (pha-inh mnh), cc ATDE c
th bm v b knh khng tt.
+ S dng m sa li hng i FEC (Forward Error Correction):
Pha-inh a ng chn lc c xem l gy mo tuyn tnh tn hiu
v lm t l thu li tng. S tng ca BER ny c th lm gim c nh s
dng m sa li hng i FEC. Tr gi gp phi i vi phng php ny l
sa tt cc li, d tha m phi ln, do vy tc bt m cn truyn ca
h thng li tng dn n m rng thm bng chim ca tn hiu, lm gim
hiu qu s dng ph. V vy, FEC cng khng th gii quyt trit c
tc ng ca pha-inh a ng chn lc nu xt ti cc rng buc v hiu
qu s dng ph.
+ Phn tp (diversity):
V bn cht, phn tp l vic truyn ng thi tn hiu trn nhiu knh
(thng l 2) c lp nhau v pha-inh, ngha l nu pha-inh xy ra trn
knh ny th hu chc li khng xy ra trn (cc) knh kia. My thu c th
chn ly tn hiu trn knh tt hoc kt hp (nh mch kt hp combiner)
cc tn hiu t cc knh x l.


18
C nhiu loi phn tp c th p dng ring r hoc kt hp: phn tp
khng gian (space diversity), phn tp tn s (frequency diversity), phn tp
theo gc (angle diversity) trong , a) Phn tp khng gian c thc hin
nh s dng nhiu (thng l 2) ng-ten thu t cch nhau xa hnh
thnh hai knh v tuyn c lp, nhc im l tn ng-ten, cc thp ng-ten
cn cao v vng hn do phi chu ti ca nhiu ng-ten, hiu qu phn tp
thng khng cao lm; b) Phn tp tn s c thc hin nh truyn ng
thi trn hai tn s sng mang RF cch nhau xa, nhc im l tn ph; c)
Phn tp gc thc hin bng cch s dng hai hay nhiu u nui ng-ten
(feedhorn) trn cng mt gin phn x ca ng-ten, hnh thnh ng-ten c
nhiu bp sng v s dng cc bp sng khc nhau to nn cc knh v
tuyn khc nhau t cc tia sng ti theo cc gc ti khc nhau. Phng php
ny hin vn cn ang c nghin cu vi vic xut hin ca cc ng-ten
mng (array antenna) thng minh.
+ Tri ph tn hiu (spectrum spreading):
Tri ph tn hiu l vic tri tht rng ph ca tn hiu truyn i vi s
tr gip ca chui tri ph gi ngu nhin PN (PseudoNoise), nguyn thy l
nhm chng nhiu c (jamming) v bo mt tin tc. u thu, tn hiu
mang tin c khi phc nh mt bn sao ng b ca chui PN bn pht.
Mt dng thng c p dng ca tri ph l tri ph chui trc tip (Direct
Sequence Spectrum Spreading), trong tn hiu mang tin c nhn trc
tip vi chui tri ph PN chui chip, c tc rt ln hn tc chui bt
d liu. i vi h thng nh th, cc tia tr sau tia u tin qu mt rng
chip T
c
s xut hin nh mt nhiu gn trng c mt ph cng sut rt thp
do c tnh t tng quan ca chui chip PN. Nh th, vic truyn theo nhiu
tia s rt thnh mt tia vi cc tia tr b nn xung nh nhiu, hn ch c
nh s dng mch lc. Ngha l tri ph c th khc phc kh tt hiu ng
truyn a ng. Hn th na, nu s dng my thu co (RAKE receiver), cc
tia tr c th gom li thnh cc chm c tr l nguyn ln T
c
v c th kt
hp li cho tng hp nhau v pha thnh mt tn hiu tt hn.
+ Truyn dn a sng mang truyn thng (Multi-Carrier transmissions)
Khi tc bt V qu ln, rng bng tn hiu W rt ln, do
chnh lch cng sut trong bng IBPD (InBand Power Difference) tr nn rt


19
ln (hnh 1.8a), ch yu l do c tuyn tn s ca b khuch i cng sut.
Hm truyn knh tr nn rt khng phng, n ni cc ATDE cng khng th
b p c. Gii php khi ny l chia chui bt tc V rt ln u vo
thnh N lung con c tc V/N kh nh, sau cc lung con c s dng
iu ch cc sng mang con (subcarrier), hnh thnh cc knh con
(subchannel) c rng bng W/N kh nh vi IBPD
i
trong tng knh con
nh (hnh 1.8b) ATDE c th b kh tt.












Hnh 1.8 Truyn dn a sng mang truyn thng
Cc nhc im c bn, dn n gii php truyn thng truyn a sng
mang MC (MultiCarrier) ny ch c p dng trong cc trng hp bt kh
khng (vi N kh nh, thng ch l 2 nh trong cc h thng vi ba s truyn
ti ghp knh ng b SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy ca cc hng
Siemens, Bosch Telecom, Nera), l: a) Tn thm ph do gia cc knh con
cn c cc khong phng v GB (Guard Band) trnh nhiu gia cc sng
mang con ICI (InterChannel Interference); b) Thit b rt phc tp do cn ti
N cp Tx-Rx, ng vi N sng mang/knh con.
1.2 NGUYN L OFDM V MT S VN VI H THNG OFDM
1.2.1 Nguyn l OFDM
a. Gii thiu chung
T mc 1.1 ta thy i vi cc h thng v tuyn s dung lng ln
hiu qu ph c th tng c nh s dng cc s iu ch nhiu trng
thi v pha-inh a ng chn lc c th khc phc c nh mt lot cc
IBPD
i
nh
IBPD ln
f
f
GB
a)
b)
f
c1
f
cN
W
W/N


20
bin php khc nhau. Tuy nhin, khi dung lng ca h thng tr nn rt cao
do nhu cu pht sinh bi s ra i ngy mt nhiu cc dch v bng rng
(cuc gi thy hnh video call, hi ngh truyn hnh video conference,
truyn hnh s v truyn hnh s di ng, trao i cc file d liu dung lng
ln) vi s tham gia ca ngy cng nhiu ngi s dng, th d c s dng
cc s iu ch nhiu mc nh M-QAM vi M ln, rng bng tn hiu
cng vn tr nn rt ln. Cc i hi v tng hn na hiu qu ph cng nh
khc phc tt pha-inh a ng chn lc, do vy, vn c khng ngng c
t ra, thc y vic nghin cu tm kim cc gii php mi p ng c cc
yu cu ny. Cng vi s pht trin v cng ngh trong lnh vc cc vi mch
quy m ln VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated circuit) c tc x l rt
ln, k thut OFDM tr thnh hin thc v c p dng ngy mt nhiu
trong cc h thng truyn dn s, c v tuyn cng nh hu tuyn, cho php
tng hiu qu ph v chng pha-inh a ng chn lc rt hu hiu.
OFDM c xem rng ri l mt phng thc iu ch s hn l mt
phng thc ghp knh, trong lung d liu tc rt cao u vo V vi
rng bng rt ln W c chia thnh N (kh ln) lung con d liu tc
thp hn N ln (do c rng bng nh hn nhiu, W/N) v iu ch song
song cc lung con ln N sng mang con trc giao nhau.
V khong thi gian symbol tng ln do cc knh sng mang con song
song c tc thp hn N ln nn rng bng ca tng knh con rt hp,
nh hn B
c
ca knh, do vy pha-inh a ng chn lc tn s c hu i
vi cc h thng v tuyn li xem nh ch gy ra pha-inh phng vi tng
knh con. ISI gy bi pha-inh a ng do hu nh rt nh i vi tng
knh con, cn ISI gy ra do tri tr th c th c hn ch hu nh hon ton
do vic a vo mt khong thi gian bo v trong mi symbol OFDM.
Gia k thut iu ch a sng mang khng chng ph truyn thng
nh nu mc trc v OFDM c s khc nhau rt c bn. Th nht, i
vi k thut truyn dn a sng mang khng chng ph truyn thng, trit
ICI cn tn cc khong bng bo v GB gia chng. Trong k thut OFDM,
do cc sng mang con trc giao nhau nn vic chng ln v ph gia cc sng
mang con khng gy nn ICI v nh s chng ln v ph ca cc knh con,
c th tit kim c gn 50% bng thng (hnh 1.9) so vi truyn n sng


21
mang. Th hai, trong khi vic iu ch cc knh con i vi cc h thng a
sng mang khng chng ph truyn thng i hi N cp my thu-pht (Tx-
Rx) rt tn km th vic iu ch/gii iu ch i vi tn hiu OFDM c
thc hin bng cp thut ton bin i Fourier nhanh IFFT/FFT (Inverse Fast
Fourier Transform/Fast Fourier Transform) kh tit kim v chi ph thit b.

Hnh 1.9 So snh k thut a sng mang truyn thng (a) v OFDM (b)
b. Nguyn l OFDM
bt u vic phn tch nguyn l hot ng c bn ca h thng
OFDM, trc ht chng ta s xem xt khi nim trc giao gia cc sng
mang con.
OFDM phn lung bt u vo thnh cc khi c di Nm bt, gi l
cc symbol OFDM, gm N symbol con m bit (c di T). Khi Nm bt lin
tip u vo ny s c chia thnh N lung song song (mi lung gm mt
symbol con m bit), m chng ri s c truyn i bng cch iu ch N sng
mang con ri rc. Gi rng ca symbol OFDM u vo l T
u
(T
u
= NT), khi
rng ca cc symbol con trn tng sng mang con s tng N ln so vi
rng T ca symbol m bt ban u v di bng T
u
. Gi c
k
(t) l cc sng
mang con trong mt h thng OFDM, k = 0, 1, 2 N1. my thu c th
tch ring cc lung con m khng b ICI, cc sng mang con phi trc giao
vi nhau, ngha l chng phi tha mn:

( 1)
*
0,
( ) ( )
0,
u
u
i T
k l
iT
k l
c t c t dt
k l
+
= =


= =

}
(1.10)
Gi s sng mang con th k c tn s l f
k
= kW/N = kf, vi W l
rng bng tng cng ca tn hiu OFDM (trng hp n gin nht th W =
N/T
u
), cn f = W/N = 1/T
u
. D dng thy rng, khi chun ha T
u
= 1 th:


22
( 1) ( 1) ( 1)
* 2 2 2 ( )
0,
( ) ( )
1,
u u u
u u u
i T i T i T
j k f j l f j k l f
k l kl
iT iT iT
k l
c t c t dt e e dt e dt
k l
t t t
o
+ + +
A A A
=

= = = =

} } }
(1.11)
Tc l cc sng mang con c tn s kf trc giao nhau.

Hnh 1.10 Dng 4 sng mang con trong mt chu k OFDM [3]
C th nhn xt rng, trong tng chu k symbol OFDM, T
u
, mi mt
sng mang con c nguyn ln chu k. Minh ha mt chu k symbol OFDM
vi vi 4 sng mang con cha iu ch c th hin trn hnh 1.10.
Xt mt xung ch nht c rng T
u
, ph bin ca xung ny nhn
c qua bin i Fourier c dng hm sinc nh trn hnh v 1.11.


Hnh 1.11 Dng ph mt xung ch nht [3]

Tm thi gi s rng tng sng mang con c iu ch bin xung
PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation) vi cc xung c s hnh ch nht. Sp
xp cc sng mang con c iu ch (cc knh con) trn trc tn s khi
c th thy nh trn hnh 1.12.

Hnh 1.12 Sp xp cc knh con trn trc tn s [10]



23
Tnh trc giao c th thy trn min tn s theo ngha ti cc gi tr ri
rc f
k
ch c ph knh con th k khc 0 cn ph ca cc knh con khc u
bng khng. iu ny c ngha l nu ly mu trn min tn s ti cc gi tr
f
k
th gia cc knh con s khng c nhiu.
iu ch v gii iu ch OFDM
Nguyn l iu ch v gii iu ch OFDM c Chang R. W. (thuc
Bell Labs) xut ln u tin vo nm 1966. S khi iu ch v gii
iu ch OFDM ca Chang c v trn hnh 1.13 vi s sng mang con
mang tin by gi c k hiu l N
c
(Number of Carrier).

a) S iu ch OFDM

b) S gii iu ch OFDM
Hnh 1.13 S iu ch v gii iu ch OFDM (Chang, 1966) [3]
T hnh 1.13a, tn hiu OFDM trong mt chu k T
u
c th vit c l:

1 1 1
2 2
0 0 0
( ) ( )
c c c
k
N N N
j f t j k ft
k k k
k k k
s t x t A e A e
t t

A
= = =
= = =

(1.12)
Vo nm 1971, Ebert P. v Weinstein S. nhn xt rng v phi ca
(1.12) c dng ca mt bin i Fourier ngc ri rc IDFT (Inverse Discrete
Fourier Transform). Di dng ri rc ha, vi tn s ly mu f
s
= 1/T
s
=
Nf, trong N > N
c
v cn ln tha mn nh l ly mu, (1.12) c th
vit li thnh:


24

1 1
2 ' 2 /
0 0
( )
c
s
N N
j k fnT j kn N
n s k k
k k
s s nT A e A e
t t

A
= =
= = =

(1.13)
trong :

'
0 1
0, 1
k c
k
c
A k N
A
N k N
s s

s s

(1.14)
vi A
k
v A
k
l cc s phc, l kt qu ca iu ch bng gc symbol
con m bt ca tng lung con.
IDFT c th thc hin bng thut ton IFFT, khi N cn c chn l
mt ly tha ca 2. Cc s hng t N
c
n N1 ca (1.13) c gi l cc
sng mang con 0 c nhi thm (zero-padding). S iu ch do Ebert P.
v Weinstein S. xut c th hin trn hnh 1.14.

Hnh 1.14 iu ch OFDM bng IFFT (Ebert & Weinstein, 1971) [3]


Chn CP nhm chng ISI gy bi tri tr
Nh thy, do rng bng cc knh con rt hp nn hm truyn
knh v tuyn c th xem nh bng phng trong tng bng con, v vy ISI
gia cc symbol m bt ca tng knh con gy bi pha-inh a ng chn lc
l khng ng k. Tuy nhin, do hin tng tri tr c hu ca cc knh v
tuyn trong mi trng a ng (c nhiu chng ngi vt phn x/nhiu x
sng), cc symbol OFDM truyn lin tip c th ln ln nhau ti u thu gy
ra ISI (gia cc symbol OFDM). Hin tng gy ISI do tri tr c th thy
trn hnh v minh ha 1.15.
khc phc ISI gy bi tri tr ny cn phi c cc khong thi gian
phng v GP (Guard Period) ln hn hoc bng lng tri tr cc i D
max

nh trn hnh v 1.16.


25

Hnh 1.15 Hin tng tri tr gy ISI gia cc symbol OFDM


Hnh 1.16 Thm khong bo v GP [3]

Tuy nhin, nu trong GP khng truyn g li ny sinh vn ph ca
tn hiu pht m rng do tn hiu pht gin on trong GP. iu ny dn ti
cc knh con c ph m rng s khng tha mn tnh trc giao na v do
s gy ra ICI, lm suy gim cht lng lin lc.
Lu rng trong tng khong T
u
, cc sng mang con c nguyn ln
chu k (hnh 1.10). tn hiu pht lin tc, i vi tng chu k tn hiu
OFDM, mt on tn hiu c di ng bng khong GP c sao (copy)
ri em dn (paste) vo on GP u symbol OFDM, nh vy tn hiu
OFDM s lin tc trong ton khong thi gian tch phn v ph tn hiu pht
s khng m rng, khng gy nn ICI. Khong nh vy c gi l tin t
vng CP (Cyclic Prefix). Vic to CP c minh ha trn hnh 1.17.

Hnh 1.17 Chn CP [3]
S khi tiu biu ca mt h thng OFDM
S khi ca mt h thng OFDM tiu biu c th hin trn hnh
1.18. u tin, dng d liu nh phn li vo tc cao c m ha knh ri
c chia thnh nhiu dng d liu song song tc thp hn nhiu nh b


26
chuyn i ni tip/song song S/P. Ty h thng, cc tn hiu d ng to
nn cc sng mang con pilot c th c thm vo nhm h tr pha thu
nh gi tnh trng knh. Cc lung d liu song song tc thp th c
iu ch bng gc ri c a song song cng vi cc d liu pilot ti cc
u vo ca khi IFFT, cc sng mang con 0 (zero-padding) cng s c
thm vo s mu li vo ca khi IFFT l ly tha ca 2. Khi IFFT s
tnh ton cc gi tr mu trn min thi gian ca tn hiu d liu tng cng.
Sau , vic chn khong bo v CP nhm chng ISI do truyn trn cc knh
v tuyn a ng v vic bin i song song/ni tip P/S c thc hin.
Sau b lc thc hin bin i s/tng t D/A (Digital/Analog Conversion),
tn hiu thi gian lin tc tng cng s c chuyn i ln tn s cao nh
trn tn ln UC (Up-Conversion), khuch i cng sut (HPA) ri bc x ra
mi trng nh h thng phi-/ng-ten truyn qua knh v tuyn. Trong
qu trnh truyn trn knh v tuyn, c th c cc ngun nhiu i(t) gy nh
hng ti vic truyn tin, ngoi ra cn c tp m chun trng cng AWGN
(Additive White Saussian Noise) quy ra t my thu.








Hnh 1.18 S khi tiu biu h thng OFDM [3]
pha thu, tn hiu c khuch i cao tn, sau c trn tn
xung DC (Down-Conversion), lc ri ly mu (bin i A/D) c c dy
cc gi tr mu trn min thi gian. Khong bo v c loi b v cc mu
cn li c chuyn t min thi gian sang min tn s nh php bin i
Fourier ri rc DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) dng thut ton bin i
Fourier nhanh FFT. Sau , s dch chuyn v bin v pha ca cc sng
m
knh
S/P
BB
MOD

chn pilot
&
zero-padding
I
F
F
T
P/S
chn
CP
D/A
UC&
HPA
knh
radio
DC A/D
loi
CP
S/P
F
F
T
c lng
knh
BB
DEM
P/S
gii
m
+
AWGN
A
k
s
n
s
f
(n) s(t)
y
f
(n) y(n)
D liu
nh phn
D liu
nh phn
i(t)
'

k
A



27
mang con s c cn bng bng b cn bng knh (khng c th hin trn
hnh 1.18) theo thng tin v tnh trng knh c c nh c lng knh theo
cc pilot, nu c, hoc nh chui hun luyn v bm theo tnh trng knh. Cc
symbol c iu ch trn tng sng mang con c gii iu ch thnh
cc t hp bit tng ng v c sp xp ngc tr li thnh chui bt ni
tip nh khi bin i song song/ni tip (P/S) ri c gii m knh. Cui
cng chng ta s thu nhn c dng d liu nh phn ni tip ban u.
Trong h thng OFDM, tn hiu u vo l chui tn hiu nh phn. V
vy, iu ch trong OFDM l iu ch s. Dng bit u vo c chia thnh
cc khi, mi khi gm N
c
m bt, hnh thnh symbol OFDM. Tng symbol
OFDM c chia thnh N
c
nhnh, mi nhnh gm m bit tng ng vi
phng thc iu ch s M mc (M = 2
m
). Ni khc i, phng thc iu ch
bng gc s quyt nh s bit u vo b iu ch.
Vic s dng iu ch nhiu mc trong h thng OFDM cho php kt
hp kh nng tng hiu qu ph ca c iu ch nhiu mc ln OFDM. Trong
truyn dn OFDM, vic m bo s trc giao gia cc sng mang con ht sc
quan trng. Do , ch c nhng phng thc iu ch tuyn tnh c s
dng. y thng thng l M-PSK v M-QAM ( c trnh by trong
mc 1.1) kt hp vi m ha Gray. Phng thc iu ch kha dch tn FSK
khng c dng v l iu ch phi tuyn, ph tn hiu iu ch khng c
dng hm sinc m l dng hm Bessel, khng c cc im khng ca ph ti
kf, ngha l cc sng mang con mt tnh trc giao v c th gy ICI rt ln.
Nh vy, cc tn hiu sau iu ch bng gc i vi mi knh con trong
OFDM s l cc s phc M trng thi.
1.2.2 Mt s vn i vi OFDM
Bn cnh cc u im vt tri ca OFDM, cng cn c cc nhc
im cn c khc phc nhm m bo cht lng lin lc:
+ T s gia cng sut nh v cng sut trung bnh PAPR cao. Tn
hiu OFDM l tng ca mt s kh ln cc sng mang con hnh sin c iu
ch v bin v/hoc pha, bin tng cng ca chng do vy c th t rt
ln vi bin nh tng cng c th ln ti N ln bin ln nht ca mt
sng mang con. T s gia cng sut nh v cng sut trung bnh v th kh
ln, dn ti tn hiu c th b mo nghim trng khi qua b khuch i cng


28
sut ln HPA phi tuyn. Mo phi tuyn gy bi HPA c th gy cc tc ng:
a) M rng ph tng knh con, dn n ICI; b) M rng ph ca tn hiu
OFDM tng cng, mc pht x khng mong mun ngoi bng tng, c th
gy nhiu cn knh ACI vi cc h thng khc cng tc trn cc di bng ln
cn; c) Gy ISI i vi cc symbol trn tng sng mang con.
C mt s cc gii php nhm gim PAPR c th p dng: a) Xn nh
(clipping) hoc s dng ca s nh; b) S dng m hoc xo trn
(scrambling) nhm hoc l chn ra cc t hp m khng gy PAPR cao trong
s cc t hp m c th c, hoc l tng tnh ngu nhin, gim kh nng kt
hp gia cc sng mang con dn n tn hiu tng cng t ti gi tr nh rt
cao cc phng php ny s c xem xt k trong chng 2.
+ S nhy cm i vi sai lch ng b sng mang: Sai lch ng b
sng mang biu l hai tc ng l tp m pha ca cc sng mang v lng
dch tn (frequency offset) gy bi mt ng b tn s thu-pht hay do hiu
ng Doppler. Mt lng dch tn
f
dn n cc sng mang con ca h thng
s c cc tn s kf +
f
, khng cn l nguyn ln f. iu c ngha l cc
sng mang con khng cn c nguyn ln chu k trong thi gian ca symbol
OFDM (T
u
) v do chng mt tnh trc giao ln nhau, gy nn ICI. Tp m
pha cng gp phn ph hoi tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang con v cng
gy nn ICI. V vy, ng b tn s sng mang i vi OFDM i hi kh
ngt ngho.
+ Vic s dng CP lm gim t nhiu hiu qu ph: trit tiu ISI
gia cc symbol OFDM, di CP phi ln ( D
max
), thm ch c th ln
ti ~20% ca T
u
. Khong thi gian ny nh ra c th c dng truyn
thng tin hu ch nhm tng tc truyn tin. Vic s dng CP nh vy
tng ng vi lm gim hiu qu ph ca h thng.
KT LUN CHNG 1
Chng 1 trnh by mt cch c ng nhng vn t ra i vi
cc h thng v tuyn s dung lng ln nh hiu qu s dng ph v pha-
inh a ng chn lc tn s. Cc bin php ch yu nhm p ng yu cu
v hiu qu ph (iu ch nhiu trng thi) v khc phc pha-inh a ng
chn lc cng c xem xt kh k lng. OFDM l mt gii php p
ng hn na cc yu cu i vi cc h thng dung lng ln cng c


29
gii thiu mt cch ngn gn v y cng vi cc bn lun v nhng vn
quan trng i vi cc h thng OFDM. Trong , vn PAPR cao v
cc tc ng ca n cng nh mt s bin php khc phc ch yu s c
cp su trong chng 2 theo mc tiu ca lun vn.

Lu hnh ni b