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Emi Course File

Emi Course File

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Padmasri Dr B V Raju Institute of Technology
Vishnupur, NARSAPUR, Medak (dist)

Study material on Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation (VI B.Tech ECE I Semester) 2011-12

Prepared by T.VASUDEVAREDDY Sr Asst professor ECE department








UNIT I Performance characteristics of instruments, Static characteristics, Accuracy, Resolution, Precision, Expected value, Error, Sensitivity, Errors in Measurement, Dynamic Characteristics, speed of response, Fidelity, Lag and Dynamic error. DC VoltmetersMultirange, Range extension/Solid state and differential voltmeters, AC voltmeters- multi range, range extension, shunt. Thermocouple type RF ammeter, Ohmmeters series type, shunt type, Multimeter for Voltage, Current and resistance measurements. UNIT II Signal Generator- fixed and variable, AF oscillators, Standard and AF sine and square wave signal generators, Function Generators, Square pulse, Random noise, sweep, Arbitrary waveform. UNIT III Wave Analyzers, Haromonic Distortion Analyzers, Spectrum Analyzers, Digital Fourier Analyzers. UNIT IV Oscilloscopes CRT features, vertical amplifiers, horizontal deflection system, sweep, trigger pulse, delay line, sync selector circuits, simple CRO, triggered sweep CRO, Dual beam CRO, Measurement of amplitude and frequency. UNIT V Dual trace oscilloscope, sampling oscilloscope, storage oscilloscope, digital readout oscilloscope, digital storage oscilloscope, Lissajous method of frequency measurement, standard specifications of CRO, probes for CRO- Active & Passive, attenuator type, Frequency counter, Time and Period measurement. UNIT VI AC Bridges Measurement of inductance- Maxwell’s bridge, Anderson bridge. Measurement of capacitance, Schering Bridge. Wheat stone bridge. Wien Bridge, Errors and precautions in using bridges. Q-meter. UNIT VII Transducers- active & passive transducers : Resistance, Capacitance, inductance; Strain gauges, LVDT, Piezo Electric transducers, Resistance Thermometers, Thermocouples, Thermistors, Sensistors. UNIT VIII Measurement of physical parameters force, pressure, velocity, humidity, moisture, speed,




proximity and displacement, Data acquisition systems.

TEXTBOOKS: 1. Electronic instrumentation, second edition - H.S.Kalsi, Tata McGraw Hill, 2004. 2. Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques – A.D. Helfrick and W.D. Cooper, PHI, 5th Edition, 2002. REFERENCES: 1. Electronic Instrumentation & Measurements - David A. Bell, PHI, 2nd Edition, 2003. 2. Electronic Test Instruments, Analog and Digital Measurements - Robert A.Witte, Pearson Education, 2nd Ed., 2004. 3. Electronic Measurements & Instrumentations by K. Lal Kishore, Pearson Education 2005.






R ECE DEPT 4 www.the primary objective is to bring these concepts within the reach of students (future engineers). Engineers in various engineering branches who have to get themselves involved with measurements of these electrical and non-electrical parameters by electrical transudation methods will find this material immensely useful in their work.jntuworld. mechanical and electrical variables encountered in experimental investigators and industrial processes.www.V.jntuworld. Similarly an instrumentation engineer working in a continuous/batch process industry will be benefited with these concepts as technology is shifting towards the implementation of electronic instruments in place of pneumatic type which are being used earlier .jwjobs.D. The primary emphasis of the subject is on the measurement of physical.com .com www.net SUBJECT OBJECTIVE Measurement in one form or another is used regularly by all sorts of people in all sorts of jobs. EMI COURSE FILE T.

EMI COURSE FILE T. Prerequisite: 1. The objective of fruitful completion in industrial terminology is obtained when process efficiency is maximum with minimum cost of production and desired level of product quality.com . Functional elements of an Instrument: Any instrument or a measuring system can be described in general with the help of a block diagram. Basic engineering mathematics Instrument: A device for determining the value or magnitude of a quantity or variable.D.jntuworld.www.jwjobs.V. which is done through a proper instrument.jntuworld.R ECE DEPT 5 www. Here measurement plays a vital role in determining a quantity or a variable.net UNIT – I OBJECTIVE: The basic purpose of instrumentation in a process is to obtain requisite information pertaining to the fruitful completion of process.com www. Basic Electrical Technology 2. The purpose this chapter is to study the basic characteristics of various kinds of instruments in conjunction to their qualitative and quantitative performance.

net Primary sensing element: First receives energy from the measured medium and produces an output depending. while preserving the information content of the original signal.www. Static characteristics 2. The main Static characteristics discussed here are EMI COURSE FILE T. the measured quantify (measurand). it becomes necessary to transmit the data from one to another.g.D.jntuworld. Static characteristics: Measurement of the quantities that are either constant or Vary slowly with time can be defined by a set of criteria that gives a meaningful description of quality of measurement. Dynamic characteristics 1.R ECE DEPT 6 www. an electronic amplifier. Data-presentation element: Presents the information about the measured quantity to one of the human senses. Data-transmission element: When the functional elements are separated. which makes a perfect measure theoretically impossible.V. memory Measurement system performance: The treatment of instrument and measurement system characteristics can be divided into two distinct categories: 1.com www. Variable-conversion element: Convert the output signal of the primary sensing element to another more suitable variable. Variable-manipulation element: Change. Data-storage/playback element: Storage-pen/ink Storage/playback – Tape recorder/reproducer. An instrument always extracts some energy from the measured medium. Good instruments are designed to minimize this loading effect. These characteristics are Static characteristics.com . Thus the measured quantify is always disturbed by the act of measurement. e.jwjobs. in numerical value according to the some definite rule but a preservation of the physical nature of the variable.jntuworld. in same way on.

Precision 3.com . The dynamic inputs to an instrument may be of following types: 1. precision is a measure of the degree to which successive measurements differ from one another.Static error Accuracy: Closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value of the variable being measured.e.D. Random inputs For studying the dynamic characteristics of an instrument it is necessary to represent each instrument by its mathematical model.Drift 5. The performance criteria based upon dynamic relations constitute the dynamic characteristics. EMI COURSE FILE T. Transient inputs 3. Linearity: One of the best characteristics of an instrument is considered to be linearity. Sensitivity: The ratio of output signal response of the instrument to a change of input or measured variable.. Periodic inputs 2. Accuracy 2. This is normally done with the help of differential equations. from which the governing relation between its input and output is obtained. 2. Expected value: The most probable value that calculations indicate one should expect to measure.com www.R ECE DEPT 7 www. given a fixed value of a variable.Sensitivity 4. Linearity defines in the terms of a linear relation between system’s input & output. Resolution: The smallest change in measured value to which instrument will respond. Error: Deviation from the true value of the measured variable. Precision: A measure of the reproducibility of the measurements i.jntuworld. Dynamic characteristics: Many are concerned with rapidly varying quantities and therefore for such cases we must examine the dynamic relation which exists between input and output. it is necessary to find the dynamic response characteristics of the instrument being used for measurement.Reproducibility 5.jntuworld. Dynamic characteristics of instruments When dynamic or time-varying quantities are to measure.jwjobs.www.net 1.V.

For theoretical analysis for any dynamic input a solution of its governing equations obtained from its mathematical model is desirable.D. D is time derivative operator of first order and hence system is called first order one.com www. the governing equation is given by a 2 d2X 0 + a1 dX 0 + a 0 X 0 =b 0 X i (t) dt2 dt The above equation can be written in dimensionless form as ( D2 W 2 + 2G D + 1) X 0 =K X i (t) W = static sensitivity Where K = b 0 / a 0 W= a 0 / a 2 = Un damped natural frequency G= a 1 2a 0 * a 2 D= d/dt = damping ratio Higher Order Systems: When the order of governing equation of an instrument or a combination instruments is high it is convenient to plot a frequency response of the system by logarithmic plots known as Bode Diagrams.V. while K and t are system constants.jntuworld.net Example: The relation between input and output signals of a temperature measuring element like thermocouple is: (1+ t D) Xo =KXi Where Xi and Xo are input & output signals respectively and both being function of time.R ECE DEPT 8 www. The dynamic characteristics of an instrument can be determined experimentally with a known dynamic input signals .jntuworld.com . The advantage of this method is the frequency response of a complex system can be obtained by adding the response due to various first and second order system’s responses EMI COURSE FILE T.www. Example For second order system: Taking second order instrument system.jwjobs.

1.www.456 volts. Don't quote ten significant figures when only two are trustworthy. Be. iii. or in the meter itself. it will give inaccurate predictions.jwjobs.com .D. Random errors: Those due to causes that can’t be directly established because of random variation in the parameter or the system of measurement. i.yond that. they are intrinsic in the physical processes of measurement making. and effects of environment on the equipment or the user. are suffcient to change the reading when it is delicately poised between the two values.V. as follows. incorrect adjustment and improper application of instruments. Small variations in the system under test. (a) Range of Validity: A model is applicable only within a limited range of conditions. Reading this at an oblique angle causes a misreading. Categories of measurement errors and some subcategories. EMI COURSE FILE T. for example a digital voltmeter (DVM) may alternately show 3. (b) Environmental errors: ambient factors. Parallax: Analog meters use a needle as a pointer to indicate the measured value.455 and 3. the display of the instrument. Last-digit bobble: Digital readouts re often observed to oscillate between two neighboring values. Systematic errors: Short coming of instruments such as defective or worn parts. among them misreading of instruments.net Errors in measurement: Gross errors: Largely human errors. known as a parallax reading error. or a difficulty in accurately reading. ii. This occurs when the actual value is about midway between the two displayed values.com www. Static errors: (a) Reading errors: Due to misreading. and on the visual acuity and experience of the person reading the meter.R ECE DEPT 9 Measurements can be affected by changes in www. Errors are to be expected. Theoretical errors : The explicit or implicit model on which we base our interpretation of our measurements may be inapplicable or inaccurate. (b) Approximation: Models have finite precision even within their range of validity. Interpolation: The needle often rests between two calibrated marks. 2.jntuworld. Guessing its position by interpolation is subject to an error that depends on the size of the scale.jntuworld.

which is why they must be regularly calibrated. Incorrect calibration can also contribute! ` i. but they might not the errors in the manufacturing process of one or more batches of rulers might be systematically biased.exact. for example spring scales lose some elasticity with every use. viii. however slightly. Pressure. Zero Offset: a meter (for example) may read zero when the actual value is nonzero. an instrument designed to be linear has an output which is proportional to its input. below) and are occasionally wrongly programmed: a small programming error often produces large errors in the results. iii. and propagating fields (radiation) can interfere with measurements.com . and then only within a range of validity. which is ideally a sinusoid. ii.net i. in Australia this is specialized to have a frequency of 50 Hz. optical instruments cannot easily resolve objects less than one wavelength apart. so it contributes interference at other frequencies also. Temperature. dynamic (changing) fields. Processing error: modern instruments contain complex processing devices such as analog computers which can introduce errors into the process leading to the displayed value of a measurement. and we may trust that “times 10” means precisely what it says only when the amplification has been carefully calibrated. A particularly common example is the mains electricity supply. vi.jwjobs. For example. just as a car must be serviced. iii. Digital devices have f i nite precision (see quantization errors.Electromagnetic (EM) fields: Static electric or magnetic f i elds. ii. Gain error: amplifiers are widely used in instruments such as CRO probes. (c) Characteristic errors: Static errors intrinsic to the measuring instrument or process.0000 millimeters apart. Hysteresis: Some measurement systems remember some of their past history. but this is only approximately true.D.www.R ECE DEPT www. mains power is not a pure sinusoid. distinguish) values that are suffi ciently separated. Drive an amplifier to too high a gain and it will operate in its nonlinear regions. vii. Hopefully some will be slightly above and some slightly below. In reality. and produce different results if a different path is taken to the same nal set of external conditions. v. even between consecutive measurements. Resolution: devices can only resolve (that is. Repeatability error: instruments change over time. the calibrated marks on a ruler are not 1. Physical limitations and manufacturing quality control are factors in several characteristic errors. EMI COURSE FILE 10 T. For example. This is a common form of calibration error. Instruments change. iv. so that over a series of measurements these errors will be random and so balance out. The act of measurement itself may affect the instrument. producing a severely distorted output signal. Manufacturing Tolerances: Design and manufacturing processes are frequently in.com www.V.jntuworld. Nonlinearity: ideally.jntuworld.

but of course we can only with the instrument present.com . In optics this can be a significant concern. a current of 3. (a) Mechanical: Such as the inertia of the needle of an analog meter. because the effect of the instrument is never zero. Procedural improvements may include using more accurate instruments. 3.18 A is recorded in a resistance of 35. Statistical averaging involves attempting the same measurement on different occasions. Dealing with errors To minimize measurement errors. and that constitutes a different system! The values can differ between the two systems. during measurement.68 * 3.jntuworld. Sol:. in particular meters that cause less disturbance to the system being measured.com www.jntuworld. Dynamic errors : Due to the measured quantity changing. one may improve the procedure. the values are rounded to the nearest available step. EMI COURSE FILE 11 T. and may not be negligible! (a) Classical insertion error: An example is the use of a voltmeter with a low resistance compared to the component or subsystem across which it is connected.D.4624=113V Since there are three significant figures involved in the multiplication the answer can be written only to a Maximum of three significant figures.Calculate the voltage drop across the resister to the appropriate number of significant figures. Quantization: When analog values are recorded on a digital system (analog to digital conversion). for example a voltmeter with an impedance that is much higher than that of the circuit under test. 4. Another is an ammeter with a large resistance compared to the current loop in which it is placed.68 .jwjobs.R ECE DEPT www.E=IR=35. used in an attempt to record a high frequency sine wave. a sample and hold circuit with a long time constant. or one may use statistical averaging. Carr mentions two kinds of dynamic errors.18 =113. Insertion errors: We wish to know the values that quantities have in a system when the measuring instrument is absent. (b) Electronic: For example.www. Example Problem1: In calculating voltage drop. (b) Quantum insertion error: The theory of quantum physics places restrictions on the precision with which certain quantities may simultaneously be measured (Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle).net ix. or the measured object moving. or by using different instruments — for example by measuring the current in a loop using several ammeters in series and reading them at the same time.V.

Sol: N 1 =826  5( 0. The coil deflection therefore is a measure of the magnitude of the current carried by the coil. the coil will rotate in the magnetic field when it carries an electric current. The fine filament suspension of the coil serves to carry current to and from it. and the elasticity of the filament sets up a moderate torque in opposition to the rotation of the coil.4%) .0.D.com . The coil will continue to deflect until its electro magnetic torque balances mechanical counter torque of the suspension.477%) Difference =1988(=  4.net ExampleProblem2: Subtract 628 3 from 826  5 and express the range of doubt in the answer as a percentage.V. The equation for the developed torque.com www.jntuworld.R ECE DEPT www.jwjobs. is T = B* A*I*N Where T = torque B = flux density A = effective coil area I = current in the coil N = turns of wire in the coil.605%) N 2 =6283(= 0.www.jntuworld. Suspension Galvanometer principle: A coil of fine wire is suspended in a magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet. According to fundamental law of electromagnetic force. EMI COURSE FILE 12 T.

jntuworld. PERMANENT-MAGNET MOVING –COIL MECHANISM: The basic PMMC movement is often called the d’ Arsonval movement. Electromagnetic damping: caused by induced effects in the moving coil as it rotates in the magnetic field. The PMMC basic movement is inherently insensitive to temperature. Mechanical damping: caused mainly by motion of the coil through the air surrounding it. after its inventor.D.jntuworld. 2. EMI COURSE FILE 13 T. but it may be temperature – compensated by the appropriate use of series and shunt resistors of copper and manganin.www.com .com www.R ECE DEPT www.jwjobs.net Types of damping Mechanisms: 1.V. This design offers the largest magnet in a given space and is used when maximum flux in the air gap is required.

jntuworld. called a shunt.V. it can carry only very small currents.com . The voltmeter must be connected across the two points or a component to measure the potential difference with the proper polarity. it is necessary to bypass the major part of the current through a resistance.R ECE DEPT - www. The multiplier limits the current movement so as not to exceed the value of full-scale deflection.D.jntuworld.net DC Ammeters: The basic movement of a dc ammeter is a PMMC galvanometer.www. The voltmeter measures the voltage across the two points of a circuit or a voltage across a circuit component. Im + Rs Rm The multiplier resistance can be calculated as: Let R m = Internal resistance of the coil i. Since coil winding of a basic movement is small and light.com www. meter R s = Series multiplier resistance EMI COURSE FILE 14 T. The shunt resistance R sh = I m R m / I-I m DC Voltmeter: The addition of a series resistor converts the basic d’Arsonval movement into DC Voltmeter. When large currents are to be measured. A universal or Ayrton shunt eliminates the possibility of having the meter in the circuit without a shunt and this is gained at the price of a slightly overall meter resistance.e.jwjobs.

jntuworld. This effect is called voltmeter loading. The voltmeter must be connected across or in parallel with the component voltage to be measured. S= 1 I fsd Ω V Voltmeter Loading Effects: When the voltmeter resistance is not high enough.V. Prevent parallax error The following SAFETY PRECAUTIONS should be observed when using a voltmeter.jntuworld.Rm Im The multiplying factor for multiplier is the ratio of full range voltage to be measured and the drop across the basic meter. Always set the range to the highest voltage and reduce as needed 2. EMI COURSE FILE T. because additional current is drawn by the voltmeter. • Always connect a voltmeter in parallel.net I m = Full scale deflection current V = Full range deflection voltage to be measured From figure.R 15 ECE DEPT www. • Always start with the highest range. connecting it across a circuit component can change circuit resistance.jwjobs.com www. which changes circuit current and voltage.D. V = I m (R m + R s ) V = Im Rs + Im Rm Rs = V . The measured voltage decreases compared to the voltage without the voltmeter. Observe polarity 3. An ideal voltmeter would have infinite resistance and no loading effects. Rs m=1+ Rm m = Multiplying factor Hence multiplier resistance can be expressed as R s = (m – 1) R m Voltmeter Sensitivity: The sensitivity S is reciprocal to full-scale deflection current of basic movement. Reading should be made as close to full scale as possible 5. 4.com . 1.www.

jwjobs. and R4 for voltage values V1. On a dc voltmeter. V2. Never use a dc voltmeter to measure an ac voltage.R ECE DEPT www. There are two methods to achieve this 1.net • • • De energizes and discharges the circuit before connecting or disconnecting the voltmeter. V3 and V4 AC Ammeters and Voltmeter: D’Arsonval movement responds to average or dc value of current through the moving coil. To measure ac D’Arsonval movement some means must be devised to obtain unidirectional torque that does not reverse each half-cycle.com www. Using Heating effect of alternating current to produce indication of its magnitude Extending the range of dc ammeter   To obtain a multi range ammeter.jntuworld. Rb. Rc and Rd which can be placed in parallel with the movement to give four different current ranges EMI COURSE FILE 16 T. Extending the range of dc voltmeter. R2.jntuworld. Using rectification methods 2.com .V. a number of shunts are connected across the movement with a multi-position switch Referring to the figure.D. the circuit has 4 shunts Ra. R3. observe the proper polarity.www. If the movement carries an alternating current with positive and negative half-cycles. the driving torque would be in one direction for positive alternation and the other direction for negative alternation.   A dc voltmeter can be converted into a multirange voltmeter by connecting a number of resistors (multipliers) along with a range switch to provide a greater number of workable ranges Figure below shows a multirange voltmeter using four position switch and 4 multipliers R1.

etc. • Be certain the circuit is de energized and discharged before connecting an ohmmeter.jwjobs. depending on the range. In its basic form. Ensure that power is removed from the circuit being measured 3.com www. Voltmeter and ammeter scales are linear.R ECE DEPT EMI COURSE FILE 17 www. the current is determined by the unknown resistance. When using an ohmmeter it is first necessary to zero it.jntuworld. the ohmmeter is nothing more than a meter movement.net OHMMETERS The basic meter movement can also be used to measure resistance. and a series resistance. To overcome this isolates the component. 2. T. a battery. OHMMETER SAFETY PRECAUTIONS The following safety precautions and operating procedures for ohmmeters are the MINIMUM necessary to prevent injury and damage. 1. Because zero is on the right side of an ohmmeter it is referred to as a back-off scale. If the component under test has a parallel connection of another component.V. 4.com .www.jntuworld.D. an invalid reading may be obtained due to the parallel combination of resistances. An ohmmeter forces current to flow through an unknown resistance and then measures the resulting current. 10. The ohmmeter scale is nonlinear. The resulting circuit is called an ohmmeter. Zero before using or changing ranges. For a given voltage. Connect the leads across the component and read the resistance multiplying by 1.

jntuworld.net • • Do not apply power to a circuit while measuring resistance.com . An analog to digital converter (A/D) is used to convert the analog values at the input into a digital (binary) form.c. voltage signal is applied to a small element. EMI COURSE FILE 18 T.V. Thermocouple meter The principle of operation of the thermocouple meter is shown in Figure. The output meter reading is an R. and ohmmeter into one unit.M. An LCD or LED display shows the value. quantity that varies in a non-linear fashion with the magnitude of the measured voltage. The VOM is a DC ammeter. voltage generated in the thermocouple is applied to a moving-coil meter. Most multi meters use the D’Arsonval meter movement and have a built-in rectifier for AC measurement.c.jntuworld. Thermocouple meter THE DIGITAL MULTIMETER (DMM) A digital multimeter displays a digital value of the measurement.www. Very high-frequency voltage signals up to 50MHz can be measured by this method. The d. and an ohmmeter all in one package. an AC ammeter. a DC voltmeter. The name multimeter comes from the term multiple meter. switch it to the OFF position if one is provided and remove the leads from the meter.com www.R ECE DEPT www. an AC voltmeter. It is also commonly called a VOM (volt-ohm-meter). • THE ANALOG MULTIMETER (VOM) The analog multimeter combines the ammeter. Always adjust the ohmmeter for 0 (or &infin.jwjobs.D.S. voltmeter. The measured a. This heats up and the resulting temperature rise is measured by a thermocouple. in shunt ohmmeter) after you change ranges before making the resistance measurement. When you are finished using an ohmmeter.

D. capacitance. Un damped natural frequency is 3 Hz and damping ratio is 0. A 3 ½ digit DMM can display 19. A temperature measuring system with time constant of two seconds is used To measure temperature of heating medium which changes sinusoidal between 350 and 300 degree C with periodic time of 20s . 2. Subjective questions: 1. For AC measurements a rectifier is used.R ECE DEPT www. The frequency range for AC measurements is limited to 45 to 1000 Hz. A drawback is sample rate.com www.www.jntuworld. A second order instrument is subjected to a sine input. Many DMMs include additional types of measurements such as frequency. 5. The solution for the unknown resistance is stated as R=R1*R2/R3 Where R1=500 Ω ± 1% R2=615 Ω ± 1% R3=100 Ω ± 1% Calculate (a) nominal value of unknown resistor (b) Limiting error of in ohms (c) Limiting error in percentage 4. The resistance of an unknown resister is determined by wheat stone bridge method.V. Find the maximum and minimum of values of temp. and transistor testing. In most DMMs the left or most significant digit is known as a half digit because it can display only a 0 or 1.99 V is displayed as 30.net The input resistance is typically 10 M ohm on all ranges. Some DMMs have a bar-graph that updates 25-40 times per second. a DMM with four digits is often called a 3 ½ digit DMM. inductance.0 V.jntuworld. Many DMMs also have a diode test feature to measure the junction voltages. 3.com . What is the difference between accuracy and precision 2.5 – 4 times per second.Calculate the amplitude ratio and phase angle for an input frequency of 2HZ EMI COURSE FILE 19 T. List four sources of possible errors in instruments and Explain three general classes of errors. as indicated by the measuring system and time lag between output and input signals.jwjobs.99 V but 29.5 .

net Objective questions: 1. EMI COURSE FILE 20 T. The basic movement of a DC ammeter or voltmeter is___________ galvanometer. One having 3 significant figures and the other 4 significant figures is _______.V. 2. In a PMMC excitation force is generated by _________.jwjobs. controlling force by_______ and damping force by___________.com . 4. _______ is the smallest amount of input that can be sensed by instrument. In order to convert PMMC into an ammeter ________ is employed and to convert into voltmeter ______ is used. 6.com www. 8. Dead band is the total range of __________________.www.R ECE DEPT www.jntuworld.D. 7. 5. ________ is the smallest amount of input change that can be sensed by instrument. The significant numbers of an instrument who’s output is the sum of two subsystems. In watt-hour meter the movable coil is _______ coil and fixed coil is _________ coil.jntuworld. 3.

triangular wave and pulse trains. troubleshooting. such as function generators. There are many different types of signal generators. The term “Oscillator” used to describe an instrument that provides only sinusoidal output signal. pulse and sweep generators. 1. The frequency band limits of signal generators are as follows. in general. A signal generator is an electronic device that generates repeating or non-repeating electronic signals (in either the analog or digital domains). testing. The above mentioned requirements vary for special generators. as well as an amplitude modulated waveform.V.jntuworld. Signal generators provide a variety of waveforms for testing electronic circuits. flexible.D.www.R ECE DEPT www. 3. signal generators have been embedded hardware units. usually at low powers. and repairing electronic or electro acoustic devices. The signal should be distortion free. no device is suitable for all possible applications. square wave.net UNIT-II Signal generators A signal generator is very vital equipment in the test setups and in electronic developments and trouble shooting.jntuworld. They are generally used in designing. including sine wave. The amplitude of output signal should be controllable from very small to relatively large values. though they often have artistic uses as well.jwjobs. The output frequency and the amplitude of the signal should be very stable. 2.com . and the term “Generator” to describe an instrument that provides several output waveforms. with different purposes and applications (and at varying levels of expense).com www. Approximate Range Band Audio 20Hz-20 KHz Frequency (AF) Radio Above 30 KHz Frequency (RF) Very Low 15-100 KHz EMI COURSE FILE 21 T. Requirements of signal generators. Traditionally. programmable software tone generators have also been available. but since the age of multimedia-PCs.



Frequency (VLF) Low Frequency (LF) Broadcast Video High Frequency (HF) Very High Frequency (VHF) Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Microwave

100-500 KHz

0.5-1.5 KHz dc-5 MHz 1.5-30 MHz

30-300 MHz

300-3000 MHz

Beyond 3 GHz

The Audio frequency oscillators are divided into two categories. 1. Fixed frequency AF oscillators 2. Variable frequency AF oscillators Fixed frequency AF oscillator: Many instrument circuits contain oscillator as one of its integral parts to provide output signal within the specified fixed audio frequency range. This specified audio frequency range can be 1 KHz signal or 400 Hz signal. The 1 KHz frequency signal is used to excite a bridge circuit and 400 Hz frequency signal is used for audio testing. A fixed frequency AF oscillator employs an iron core transformer. Due to this a positive feedback is obtained through the inductive coupling placed between the primary winding and secondary winding of the transformer and hence fixed frequency oscillations are generated. Variable frequency AF oscillator: It is a general purpose oscillator used in laboratory. It generates oscillations within the entire audio frequency range i.e. from 20 Hz to 20 KHz. This oscillator provides a pure, constant sine wave output throughout this AF range. The examples of variable AF oscillators are used in laboratory are RC feedback oscillator, beat frequency oscillator. Audio frequency Sine and Square wave generator: Wien bridge oscillator is the heart of an AF sine and square wave generator. Depending upon the position of the switch the generator gives the output as sine wave or square wave. The Wien bridge oscillator generates a sine wave. Depending upon the position of the switch, it is switched to either circuit. In the square wave generation section, the output of the Wien bridge oscillator is fed to square wave shaper circuit which uses Schmitt trigger circuit. The attenuators in both the sections are used to control output signal level. Before attenuation the




signal level is made very high using sine wave amplifier and square wave amplifier.

Square wave and Pulse generator: The square wave generator and pulse generators are normally used as measuring devices in combination with the oscilloscope. The basic difference between the square wave generator and pulse generator is in the duty cycle. Duty cycle: The ratio of average value of a pulse over one cycle to the peak value. (OR) The ratio of the pulse width to the pulse period of one cycle. The square wave generator produces an output voltage with equal ON and OFF periods as duty cycle is 0.5 or 50% as the frequency of oscillation is varied. Then we can state that irrespective of the frequency of operation, the positive and negative half cycles extend over half of the total period.

If you consider a pulse, the total period of the pulse is T. This pulse can be divide into two parts namely ON and OFF period. The ON and OFF period when combined together gives a period of one pulse. The pulse width is t.




Duty cycle for a pulse = Pulseperiod = T According to other definition, Duty cycle of a pulse =
Averagevalue t = Peakvalue T = t


Thus depending on the ON period of the pulse the duty cycle may vary between 50% and 95%. Generally the pulse generator can supply more power than square wave generator during ON period of a pulse. The square wave generators are used when the system is analyzed low frequency characteristics, testing of audio system. Function generator: The function generator is an instrument which generates different types of wave forms with a wide range of frequencies. The most required common waveforms are sine wave, saw tooth wave, triangular wave and square wave. These different output waveforms of the function generator are available simultaneously.

An arbitrary waveform generator An arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) is an advanced signal generator that can generate a waveform of almost any shape. The generated waveform can then be inserted into the device you wish to test and then analyzed as it progresses through the device to confirm correct operation, or to highlight a fault. Arbitrary waveform generators are often expensive and so are usually only found in high-end test equipment, however, several Pico Scope PC Oscilloscopes include a built-in AWG. The arbitrary waveform generator is programmed with a data file, supplied by the user, which defines the output voltage at a number of equally spaced points in time. The circuit uses this data to reconstruct the waveform with a specified amplitude and frequency





Harmonic distortion can be expressed as a power ratio or as a percentage ratio.com .www.jwjobs. P fund is the fundamental signal power in dB or dBm.R ECE DEPT www.com www.net UNIT-III Harmonic Distortion Harmonic distortion is a measure of the amount of power contained in the harmonics of a fundamental signal. EMI COURSE FILE 25 T. Harmonic distortion is inherent to devices and systems that possess nonlinear characteristics—the more nonlinear the device.jntuworld.V. Convert the powers to voltages to express harmonic distortion as a percentage ratio: In some applications. defined in the following equation: Wave analyzer An apparatus that assesses a complex mixture of wave forms by separating out their component frequencies and displaying their distribution. Use the following formula to express it as a power ratio: where P HD is the power of the harmonic distortion in dBc. the harmonic distortion is measured as a total percentage harmonic distortion (THD).D. This measurement involves the power summation of all the harmonics in the spectrum band.jntuworld. and P harm is the power of the harmonic of interest in dB or dBm. the greater its harmonic distortion.

com . and especially any form of transmitter including those in cellular. as well as having many applications for specialist field service. The spectrum analyzer is similar to an up converting super hetero dyne receiver . although audio spectrum analyzers are also widely used.jntuworld.looking at how a signal varies in amplitude as time progresses. and other radio or wireless applications. and it is quite natural to look at waveforms on an oscilloscope display. Also the width of signals when modulation has been applied is important. It is also worth noting that the mathematical Fourier transformation also accommodates the phase of the signal. Looking at signals in the frequency domain with a spectrum analyzer enables aspects such as the harmonic and spurious content of a signal to analyze. However in reality it is sufficient to know that the waveform is continuous over a period of at least a few seconds. However this is not the only way in which signals can be displayed Spectrum analysis is nothing but viewing a signal in frequency domain for signal analysis. Looking at the spectrum of a signal they are able to reveal elements of the signal. Wi-Fi. Spectrum analyzers are able to make a large variety of measurements and this means that they are an invaluable tool for the RF design development and test laboratories. RF and audio signals. The frequency of local first oscillator swept electronically usually using varactor.com www. and it is therefore very important to ensure any unwanted signals are kept below an acceptable level. Practical spectrum analyzers use the same principles as a super heterodyne receiver.V. However for many testing applications the phase information is not needed and considerably complicates the measurements and test equipment. In exact terms it is necessary that the signal must be evaluated over an infinite time for the transformation to hold exactly. EMI COURSE FILE 26 T. The radiation of unwanted signals will cause interference to other users of the radio spectrum.The input of the spectrum analyzer is first converted to an IF higher than highest input frequency. and only the amplitude is important.net Spectrum analyzer: The most natural way to look at waveforms is in the time domain . Also the information is normally not needed. in the time domain.jwjobs. and the performance of the circuit producing them that would not be possible using other means.D. Spectrum analyzers are widely used within the electronics industry for analyzing the frequency spectrum of radio frequency. The instrument that is being used for this task is spectrum analyzer. i.R ECE DEPT www. By being able to look at signals in the time domain provides many advantages and in particular for RF applications.e.jntuworld. These aspects are of particular importance for developing RF signal sources. and this can be monitored with a spectrum analyzer. This is what an oscilloscope is used for. or understand the effects of changing the signal.www.

Types of spectrum analyzer Just as in the case of other instruments.jwjobs.jntuworld.jntuworld. This means that the spectrum analyzer. the display shows the level of any signals at that particular frequency. the vertical or amplitude axis is normally on a logarithmic scale and is calibrated in dB in line with many other measurements that are made for signal amplitudes. It is therefore essential to choose the right type of RF test equipment to meet the measurement requirements for the particular job in hand. like that of an oscilloscope has two axes. Test Instrument Type Intensity (I) Frequency amplitude Application measurement measurement Use for accurate total power Power meter N Y measurements Used to provide very accurate Frequency Y N measurements of the dominant counter frequency within a signal Used primarily to display the spectrum of a radio frequency signal. there are a number of types of spectrum analyzer that EMI COURSE FILE 27 T.com .D. as the name indicates analyses the spectrum of a signal. It shows the relative levels of signals on different frequencies within the range of the particular sweep or scan.com www.V. whereas the horizontal axis displays frequency. i.net Spectrum analyzer basics There are many different types of RF test equipment that can be used for measuring a variety of different aspects of an RF signal. This can be adjusted to cover the required range. Spectrum Y Y Can also be used to make power and analyzer frequency measurements. A spectrum analyzer display. Terms like scan width per division may also be used and refer to the coverage between the two major divisions on the screen. The horizontal scale conversely is normally linear.www. it is possible to see many new aspects of the signal. Therefore as the scan moves along the horizontal axis.R ECE DEPT www. although not as accurately as dedicated instruments RF network Used to measure the properties of RF Y Y analyzer devices Properties of RF measuring instruments in common use The spectrum analyzer is able to offer a different measurement capability to other instruments.e. General format of the display on a spectrum analyzer In view of the very large variations in signal level that are experienced. showing the spectrum. The term span is used to give the complete calibrated range across the screen. For the spectrum analyzer the vertical axis displays level or amplitude. Its key factor is that it is able to look at signals in the frequency domain.

As a result an FFT analyzer is able to capture short lived. processing the FFT and then displaying the result.R ECE DEPT www. i. ADC. • • Both swept / super heterodyne and FFT spectrum analyzer technologies have their own advantages. This may be considered as the more traditional form of spectrum analyzer. These two types are: • Swept or super heterodyne spectrum analyzers: The operation of the swept frequency spectrum analyzer is based on the use of the super heterodyne principle. In view of the fact that both FFT and super heterodyne analyzer technologies have their own advantages. as the name indicates. many modern analyzers utilize both technologies. While ADC technology has improved considerably. EMI COURSE FILE 28 T.jwjobs. and they are not able to capture any phase information. and this means that low frequency techniques can be adopted.com www. FFT analyzers: These spectrum analyzers use a form of Fourier transform known as a Fast Fourier Transform. sweeping the frequency that is analyzed across the required band to produce a view of the signals with their relative strengths. However a swept frequency analyzer is only capable of detecting continuous signals. FFT analyzer technology is able to capture a sample very quickly and then analyze it.e.net can be seen in the manufacturers catalogues. this places a major limitation on the bandwidths available using these analyzers. and it is the type that is most widely used. An analyzer will often determine the best method dependent upon factors including the filter settling time and sweep speed. Audio spectrum analyzer: Although not using any different basic technology. The more commonly used technology is the swept spectrum analyzer as it the type used in general-purpose analyzers enabling these analyzers to operate up to frequencies of many GHz.jntuworld. They are also able to capture phase information. the result cannot be displayed until the FFT processing is complete. whereas the FFT capabilities are introduced for narrower band measurements and those where fast capture is needed.V. Audio spectrum analyzers are focused. It is even possible to run them on PCs with a relatively small amount of hardware . CW as time is required to capture a given sweep.D. the result will seen as sweep progresses. on audio frequencies. otherwise it will use the more traditional fully super heterodyne / sweep approach.sometimes even a sound card may suffice for some less exacting applications. the internal software within the unit determining the best combinations for making particular measurements. audio spectrum analyzers are often grouped differently to RF spectrum analyzers. or one-shot phenomena.jntuworld. This makes them much cheaper.www. converting the signals into a digital format for analysis digitally. it will opt for an FFT approach. The super heterodyne circuitry enabling basic measurements and allowing the high frequency capabilities. FFT. The difference between the two measurement techniques as seen by the user is that using a traditional sweep approach. Fast Fourier Transform. These analyzers are obviously more expensive and often more specialized. when an FFT measurement is made. However the disadvantage of the FFT analyzer is that its frequency range is limited by the sampling rate of the analogue to digital converter.com . If the spectrum analyzer determines it can show the spectrum faster by sampling the required bandwidth.

Swept or sweep spectrum analyzer basics The swept spectrum analyzer uses the same super heterodyne principle used in many radio receivers as the underlying principle on which its operation depends.jntuworld. The mixing principle used in the spectrum analyzer operates in exactly the same manner as it does for a super heterodyne radio.com . Cannot measure transient events: FFT analyzer technology is able to sample over a short time and then process this to give the required display. this takes longer and as a result it is unable to capture transient events effectively. Combining the two technologies in one item of test equipment can enable the advantages of both technologies to be utilized.D. As the super heterodyne analyzer sweeps the bandwidth required. it is necessary to understand the differences between them and their relative merits. typically lower in frequency. In this way it is able to capture transient events.V. it offers excellent performance for the majority of RF test equipment applications.www. Wide bandwidth: Again as a result of the super heterodyne principle this type of spectrum analyzer is able to have very wide scan spans. When choosing which type will be suitable. Using a fixed frequency filter in the intermediate frequency section of the equipment enables high performance filters to be used.many extend their coverage to many GHz. The super heterodyne principle uses a mixer and a second locally generated local oscillator signal to translate the frequency. The signal entering the front end is translated to another frequency. • • Disadvantages of the super heterodyne spectrum analyzer technology • Cannot measure phase: The super heterodyne or sweep spectrum analyzer is a scalar instrument and unable to measure phase .com www. the FFT style ones are more expensive for a similar level of performance as a result of the high performance ADCs in the front end. this type of spectrum analyzer is able to operate up to very high frequencies . the super heterodyne or sweep spectrum analyzer is less expensive. This means that for the same level of base performance.R ECE DEPT www.jntuworld. • Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of the swept or super heterodyne spectrum analyzer. and the analyzer or receiver input frequency can be changed by altering the frequency of the local EMI COURSE FILE 29 T. Advantages of the super heterodyne spectrum analyzer technology • Able to operate over wide frequency range: Using the super heterodyne principle.jwjobs.it can only measure the amplitude of signals on given frequencies. These may extend to several GHz in one scan.net Advantages and disadvantages of a swept or sweep spectrum analyzer The sweep or swept spectrum analyzer has a number of advantages and disadvantages when compared to the main other type of analyzer known as the FFT spectrum analyzer. Not as expensive as other spectrum analyzer technologies: Although spectrum analyzers of all types are expensive.

the input attenuator can be adjusted to give additional attenuation. It is quite possible for very large signals to damage the mixer.jntuworld.com www. Super heterodyne or swept frequency spectrum analyzer block diagram The frequency of the local oscillator governs the frequency of the signal that will pass through the intermediate frequency filter. In this way the position of the scanned point on the screen relates to the position or frequency of the local oscillator and hence the frequency of the incoming signal. they are not cheap to replace. This is swept in frequency so that it covers the required band. not only may the reading fall outside the display. RF attenuator: The first element a signal reaches on entering the spectrum analyzer is an RF attenuator. A further element of protection is added.V. 1. The input RF attenuator also serves to provide some protection to very large signals. EMI COURSE FILE 30 T. Elements of a super heterodyne spectrum analyzer Although the basic concept of the sweep spectrum analyzer is fairly straightforward a few of the circuit blocks may need a little further explanation. Although the basic concept of the spectrum analyzer is exactly the same as the super heterodyne radio. the particular implementation differs slightly to enable it to perform is function as a spectrum analyzer.R ECE DEPT www. Its purpose is to adjust the level of the signal entering the mixer to its optimum level.jwjobs. In fact when false signals are suspected. As these mixers are very high performance components. Often the input RF attenuator includes a capacitor and this protects the mixer from any DC that may be present on the line being measured. If the signal level is too high. detected and often compressed to create an output on a logarithmic scale and then passed to the display Y axis. Also any signals passing through the filter are further amplified. It is possible that the mixer may run outside is specified operating region and additional mix products may be visible and false signals may be seen on the display.g. but also the mixer performance may not be optimum.www.jntuworld.D. +10 dB.net oscillator signal entering the mixer.com . The sweep voltage used to control the frequency of the local oscillator also controls the sweep of the scan on the display. If the signal level falls by more than this amount then it is likely to be an unwanted mix product and insufficient RF attenuation was included for the input signal level. e.

It must be capable of being turned over a very wide range of frequencies to enable the analyzer to scan over the required range. These would appear as signals on the display and as such must be removed.com www. It ahs to be used in conjunction with the RF gain control. Great care must be taken when using a super heterodyne spectrum analyzer not to feed excessive power directly into the mixer otherwise damage can easily occur. Narrowing the IF bandwidth reduces the noise floor and enables lower level spurious signals to be viewed. Too high a level of IF gain will increase the front end noise level which may result in low level signals being masked.jwjobs. As a result it is often good practice to use an external fixed attenuator that is capable of handling the power. In this way the noise performance of the overall unit is optimized.V. IF amplifier: Despite the fact that attenuation is provided at the RF stage. 6. 5. This is often used and ensures that the IF stages provide the required level of gain. Its performance governs many of the overall performance parameters of the whole analyzer. As such the mixers are high performance items and are generally very expensive. Local oscillator: The local oscillator within the spectrum analyzer is naturally a key element in the whole operation of the unit.R ECE DEPT www.D. It must also have a very good phase noise performance. there is also a necessity to be able to alter the gain at the intermediate frequency stages.jntuworld.jntuworld. If damage occurs to the mixer it will disable the spectrum analyzer and repairs can be costly in view of the high performance levels of the mixer. and its response is obviously tailored to the band of interest 3.com . IF filter: The IF filters restrict the bandwidth that is viewed. Any spurious signals that are generated may mix with incoming signals and result in spurious signals being seen on the display. Mixer: The mixer is naturally key to the success of the analyzer. 4. If the oscillator has a poor phase noise performance then it will not only result in the unit EMI COURSE FILE 31 T. effectively increasing the frequency resolution. Accordingly the RF gain control should generally be kept as high as possible without overloading the mixer. Microwave spectrum analyzers often replace the low pass filter with a more comprehensive pre-selector. However this is at the cost of a slower scan rate.net 2.www. They must be able to operate over a very wide range of signals and offer very low levels of spurious responses. Low pass filter and pre-selector: This circuit follows the attenuator and is included to remove out of band signals which it prevents from mixing with the local oscillator and generating unwanted responses at the IF. This allows through a band of frequencies. This can happen when testing radio transmitters where power levels can be high and accidentally turning the attenuator to a low value setting so that higher power levels reach the mixer.

D. Any conditioning and switching for this will be contained within the level detector and associated display circuitry.R ECE DEPT EMI COURSE FILE 32 www. but a variety of more modern types of display are used these days. but it will also prevent it making any meaningful measurements of phase noise itself . too T. Advantages and disadvantages of FFT analyzer technology FFT spectrum analyzer technology has a number of advantages and disadvantages when compared to the more familiar super heterodyne or swept frequency analyzer. If the signal level is too high. revealing aspects that other instruments are unable to do. but it is able to offer some distinct advantages over the more common swept frequency analyzer. Ramp generator: The ramp generator drives the sweep of the local oscillator and also the display. 9.net not being able to make narrow band measurements as the close in phase noise on the local oscillator will translate onto the measurements of the signal under test. In general.jwjobs. then clipping and distortion will occur. Originally cathode ray tubes were used. By combining the two technologies the advantages of each can be utilized to offer extremely high performance items of test equipment. 7. enabling fast capture and forms of analysis that are not possible with sweep / super heterodyne techniques alone. Level detector: The level detector converts the signal from the IF filter into a signal voltage that can be passed to the display.a measurement being made increasingly these days. • Analogue front end attenuators / gain: The FFT analyzer requires attenuators of gain stages to ensure that the signal is at the right level for the analogue to digital conversion. it is necessary to understand the differences between them and their relative merits. the spectrum analyzer is uniquely placed to offer views of the spectrum of a signal. With the FFT analyzer able to provide facilities that cannot be provided by swept frequency analyzers. In this way the horizontal axis of the display is directly linked to the frequency. spectrum analyzers are used to provide a view of radio frequency.www. Display: In many respects the display is the heart of the test instrument as this is where the spectra are viewed.jntuworld.com . Normally a logarithmic output is required for the display.V. With other instruments able to provide views of other aspects of signals. When choosing which technology will be suitable. or in some case audio frequency waveforms in the time domain.com www. FFT analyzer The FFT analyzer technology is the less commonly used on its own. although occasionally linear displays may be required. and this enables far higher degrees of functionality to be introduced into these test instruments. 8. Additionally significant amounts of signal processing are used in spectrum analyzers these days.jntuworld.

This filter must have a cut-off frequency which is less than half the sampling rate. The importance of this rate has been discussed above.5 times less than the sampling rate of the FFT spectrum analyzer. This results from the where the actual values of the higher rate fall when the samples are taken. although typically to provide some margin.V. • Analogue low pass anti-aliasing filter: The signal is passed through an anti-aliasing filter. and also any component whose frequency is higher than the Nyquist rate will appear in the measurement as a lower frequency component . Sampling and analogue to digital conversion: In order to perform the analogue to digital conversion.net low and the resolution of the ADC and noise become a problems. this is then converted into the frequency domain by the FFT analyzer. Able to capture non-repetitive events: The short capture time means that the FFT analyzer can capture non-repetitive waveforms. The display elements of the FFT spectrum analyzer are therefore very important so that the information captured and processed can be suitably presented for the user. The first is a sampler which takes samples at discrete time intervals .the sampling rate. The waveform must be sampled at a sufficiently high rate. • • • Advantages of FFT spectrum analyzer technology • Fast capture of waveform: In view of the fact that the waveform is analyzed digitally. Display: With the power of processing it is possible to present the information for display in a variety of ways. To avoid aliasing a low pass filter is placed ahead of the sampler to remove any unwanted high frequency elements. the waveform can be captured in a relatively short time.a factor known as "aliasing". The samples are then passed to an analogue to digital converter which produces the digital format for the samples that is required for the FFT analysis.jntuworld.R ECE DEPT • • 33 EMI COURSE FILE www.jwjobs. This is required because the rate at which points are taken by the sampling system within the FFT spectrum analyzer is particularly important. According to the Nyquist theorem a signal must be sampled at a rate equal to twice that of the highest frequency. Today's displays are very flexible and enable the information to be presented in formats that are easy to comprehend and reveal a variety of facets of the signal. In turn this determines the maximum frequency of operation of the FFT spectrum analyzer. Able to analyze signal phase: As part of the signal capture process.www. This is then able to further process the data using digital signal processing techniques to analyze the data in the format required. which is in the time domain. FFT analyzer: With the data from the sampler. and then the subsequently analyzed.com www. This short capture time can have many advantages. data is gained T.D.jntuworld. the low pass filter cut-off frequency is at highest 2. giving them a capability not possible with other spectrum analyzers. two elements are required.com . Matching the signal level to the ADC range ensures the optimum performance and maximizes the resolution of the ADC.

Cost: The high level of performance required by the ADC means that this item is a very high cost item. Essentially a logic analyzer enables traces of logic signals to be seen in such a way that the operation of several lines in a digital circuit can be monitored and investigated. Having decided whether a line is high or low.V. above a certain trigger voltage. One of the main points to note about a logic analyzer is that it does not give a full analogue display of the waveform. Since then the need for logic analyzers has grown.jntuworld.D. Disadvantages of the FFT spectrum analyzer technology • Frequency limitations: The main limit of the frequency and bandwidth of FFT spectrum analyzers is the analogue to digital converter.www.e. the analyzer is more suited to operating in a digital environment because it is able to display relative timing of a large number of signals. and in this way enable tracking and fault finding on much more complex systems. However the main drawback of the PC logic analyzers is that their functionality is not as great as the dedicated logic analyzers. typically they may have anywhere between about 32 and 132 channels they can monitor. i. it only looks for whether the state of a line is high. While technology is improving this component still places a major limitation on the upper frequency limits or the bandwidth if a down-conversion stage is used. below the trigger voltage. i.jntuworld. Logic analyzers come in a variety of formats.com www. One of the most popular is a typical test instrument case.e. more than could be seen using a conventional oscilloscope.com . Although it shows the logical high and low states as a waveform on the display. However some specialized logic analyzers are suitably scaled to be able to handle many more lines. ADC that is used to convert the analogue signal into a digital format. • Logic analyzers Logic analyzers are widely used for testing digital or logic circuits.R ECE DEPT www. this results in the costs rising for these items. EMI COURSE FILE 34 T.jwjobs. They appeared shortly after the first microprocessors were used because to fault find these circuits required the instrument to have access to a large number of lines. The actual choice of logic analyzer will depend upon the cost budget and the actual requirements. or low. which is only to be expected in view of the cost differential.net which can be processed to reveal the phase of signals. Although oscilloscopes can perform many of the functions of a logic analyzer. In addition to all the other processing and display circuitry required. TH PC logic analyzers are a particularly cost effective method of creating an analyzer. As logic analyzers are optimized for monitoring a large number of digital circuits. especially as the complexity of circuits has continued to grow. However it is also possible to utilize the processing power of a computer and PC based logic analyzers are available. They possess a horizontal time axis and a vertical axis to indicate a logic high or low states. each channel monitoring one digital line. What makes a logic analyzer Logic analyzers are designed to monitor a large number of digital lines.

however the state of the lines and their timings are displayed.www.jwjobs. The logic analyzer probes contain an internal comparator where the voltage of the waveform on the board is compared against the threshold voltage.com www. As the name implies. This facility has to be designed on to the board and may only be retained for the development phase where access for a logic analyzer is required. This can be set using the main instrument to a variety of levels so that signals from a variety of logic families can be monitored. and the timings of any transitions. EMI COURSE FILE 35 T. Contacts on the board are required for this type of connection. To achieve this logic analyzer will sample the waveforms states and store the level as either high or low at each sample time. As this may involve a number of lines to be in a given state. Triggering • • One of the key features of a logic analyzer is its triggering capability. these probes are on a flying lead that is connected to a small electronic unit that contains the electronics for detecting the high and low levels.R ECE DEPT www.jntuworld. the design of the probes can be a critical issue. High density compression probes. often from a small area on a board and possibly even from one integrated circuit. In this way it is possible to analyze the waveforms produced by the circuit and ensure they match those that are expected.com . This means that it is not possible to see small amplitude variations such as ringing on the signal. Logic analyzer probes can take a variety of physical forms.net the logic analyzer then displays the relevant level. These probes use a compression contact that does not have a dedicated connector.D. This facility is one of the key advantages of logic analyzers and enables them to be used to quickly home in on problems that may only occur under a particular set of circumstances.V. Flying lead probes. These probes enable a large number of points to be accessed using a high density connector. However these flying lead probes are used to monitor points that may not be included on any of the other access points.jntuworld. When investigating and debugging complex software driven digital circuits it is necessary to be able to see the response of the system after a particular occurrence. Any differences can then be used to trace any problems in the circuit design Logic analyzer probes With the large number of signals required to be monitored. but generally fall into one of three categories: • Multichannel probes that use a dedicated connector on the circuit board. it is necessary for the logic analyzer to be able to trigger after this combination occurs. The displayed waveform will then look like a timing diagram from a simulator or data-book. It will display the state of the lines.

triggering once only. With the basic set-up of the logic analyzer complete the capture mode for the data needs to be chosen. Once the probes are connected. UNIT-IV OSCILLOSCOPES EMI COURSE FILE 36 T. The data that is captured can then be displayed and analyzed.R ECE DEPT www. or repeatedly. This can be set to one of two modes: • Timing mode Using this mode signals are sampled at regular intervals based on an internal or external clock. State mode Here one or more of the signals are defined as clocks. The analyzer can also associate several signals into groups so that they can be manipulated more easily.jntuworld. and data is sampled on the edges of these clocks.D. the logic analyzer is programmed with the names of each signal.com www. With the trigger condition set.www.jntuworld.V. a methodical approach to the use of one enables it to be set up correctly and to be used effectively. The analyzer trigger condition may vary from a very simple signal edge to a set of conditions that must be met across a variety of lines.net Logic analyzer operation Although the operation of a logic analyzer may appear to be fairly complicated at first sight. the logic analyzer can be set to run.jwjobs. The complex trigger conditions aid in locating problems that occur when a particular set of conditions occur.com . • Once the logic analyzer mode is chosen then the trigger condition can be set.

Prerequisites: Electrical sciences Basic Mathematics Important points: The heart of the oscilloscope is the cathode ray tube.R ECE DEPT www. and contains the phosphor screen where the electron beam eventually becomes visible.jntuworld. S=D/E The deflection sensitivity and deflection factor indicate that the sensitivity of a CRT is independent of the deflection voltage but varies linearly with the accelerating potential EMI COURSE FILE 37 T.jwjobs. the luminous spot can be used to create two-dimensional displays.com www. whether they be voltage. To accomplish these tasks. deflects the beam to create the image. Relatively high voltages are required by cathode ray tubes. which emits the electrons.V.www. which generates the electron beam. current. various electrical signals and voltages are required. etc. which is then made visible by allowing the beam to impinge on a phosphor surface. to be displayed primarily as a function of time.com .. The oscilloscope depends on the movement of an electron beam. in the order of a few thousand volts for acceleration's as well as a low voltage for the heater of the electron gun. accelerates the beam to a high velocity. which produces a visible spot.net OVERVIEW AND IT’S OBJECTIVE The cathode ray oscilloscope is probably the most versatile tool for the development of electronic circuits and systems. such as the familiar X and Y axes used in conventional graph construction. and has been one of the more important tools in the development of modern electronics. power. If the electron beam is deflected in either of two orthogonal axes.jntuworld. The cathode ray oscilloscope is a device that allows the amplitude of electrical signals. The strength of the electric field is categorized by the amount of force a charged particle would experienced in the field and is described by e = f/q. The overall objective of this chapter is to study the principle of working of a CRO and its applications. The deflection sensitivity S of a CRT is defined as the deflection on the screen per volt of deflection voltage.D.

P2.jntuworld. 2. These electrons are collected by Aquadag coating. 3.P31……. causes released the secondary electrons. and loss of luminance efficiency.net Screens for CRTs: The front of the CRT is called the face plate which converts electrical signal in to light in accordance with the variation of vertical input signal. The metal layer acts as a heat sink and reduces the danger of phosper burn The light scatter from the phosper is reduced and the aluminuim reflects light going back in the tube towards the viewer. 3. It is also feasible to have a small fiber optic region which is direct contact exposure of photographic film.jntuworld. External graticule Internal graticule Projected graticule External graticule: The graticule can be easily changed to make different types of measurements and its EMI COURSE FILE 38 T. So it increases the brightness Electron are strike the phosper the screen. Long persistence prospers more prone to permanent discoloration. Graticule: The graticule is a grid of lines that serves as a scale when making the time and amplitude measurements.www.R ECE DEPT www. Many types of phosper are used for CRT like P3. There are three types of graticule 1. Long persistence is even needed storage type oscilloscopes.P1. The effects of the characteristics of phosper are its luminance efficiency. The inside surface of the face plate is coated with phosper. It is determined by the luminance efficiency of phosper.P11.com www.A phosper must be refreshed by electrons before end of its decay time inorder to give a flicker free display. Short persistence phosper require more frequent refresher. spectral emission and persistence. where as long persistence phosper may result in characters feeding slowly.com . The luminance of phosper is measure of its brightness. 2.D.jwjobs.V. 1.

We can change the sweep rate in steps by switching different capacitors into the circuit. i) ii) It provides excellent impedance matching purpose.The face plate is some times tinted neutral grey to reduce ambient light interference or external filters. Voltage gain may be scarified in favour of greater bandwidth. resistors and capacitors timing circuits.com www.D. or vice versa with out significantly effecting cost of the amplifier.jntuworld. The preamplifier is generally field effect transistor (FET). A voltage with this characteristic is called ramp voltage.net position can be adjusted to align it when the trace on the CRT. During the sweep time the beam moves left to right with respect to the input amplitude. This entire operation done by active devices like transistors and UJT.V. striking the screen release secondary emission electron. These secondary are collected by a solution of graphite called Aquadag. Aquadag: The bombarding electrons.it require some method of electrical alignment.jntuworld. But it suffers from parallax errors. Internal graticule: This is deposited on the internal surface of the CRT face plate and is there fore on the same surface is phosper. However if the gain and bandwidth product increases the cost of the amplifiers is increases. If the wave form is to be accurately reproduced the beam must be constant horizontal velocity with respect to the wave form. It offer high input impedance and low output impedance. Its totally depends up on the bandwidth of the vertical amplifier. Horizontal Amplifier: EMI COURSE FILE 39 T. If the voltage decreases rapidly the input amplitude will be decreases repeatedly reproduced. Vertical Amplifier: The vertical is principle factor is determining sensitivity and bandwidth of the oscilloscope. It consists of pre-amplifier and main vertical amplifier. Time base generators: Oscilloscopes are generally used to display a wave form that varies as a function of time.jwjobs. Projected graticule: It is available with some camera’s and provides flexibility . The timing decided by the values of resistor and capacitors. The gain of the amplifier increases a sensitivity increase which allows observing small amplitude levels.www. During the retrace time the beam returns quickly to the left of the screen.com .R ECE DEPT www. This is also difficult to illuminate for photography unless special illumination is provided. It provides large bandwidth and high gain.

The distributed parameter consists of specially manufactured co-axial cable with a high value of inductance for unit length causes to reduce eddy currents losses. 2. causes certain amount time delay in the transmission signal voltage to the deflection system. When the oscilloscope in the X Y mode. pulse shapers and amplifiers.D.R ECE DEPT www. When the oscilloscope is being used in ordinary mode of operation to display a signal applied to vertical input.com . Delay lines are two lines 1.jntuworld. Delay Line: The oscilloscope having attenuators. Dual Beam CRO EMI COURSE FILE 40 T. The amplifier stage preceded by the attenuator network and followed by the push pull amplifier. The sweep generator output is amplified by the horizontal amplifier and is fed to the push pull amplifier. The inductance can be o increased helical inner conductor on a ferromagnetic core and causes to increases time delay terminated by characteristic impedance.V. Distributed parameter delay line Lumped parameter delay lines are simply constructed a cascaded T-sections terminated by the characteristic impedance Z 0 . Lumped parameter delay line 2.jwjobs.com www.net The horizontal amplifier basically serves two purposes. and the pass band upper limit is given by F c 1/ lc.www. which increases the power level of the signal and is sufficient to drive the Horizontal deflection system. 1. Especially in the horizontal generators.jntuworld. to generate ramp signal and is fed to the deflecting systems to move the electron beam so it takes the some nano seconds time so we need delay line. the signal applied to the Horizontal is amplified by the horizontal amplifier. It amplifies the sweep generator output.

jwjobs.net • A Dual Beam CRO consists of two complete separately electron guns.V. • Since a single set of HDPs is used.www.D.com www.com . EMI COURSE FILE 41 T. • The Sweep produced by the Time Base Generator is common for both channels. two sets of VDPs and a single set of HDPs.jntuworld.R ECE DEPT www. only one beam can be synchronized at a time.jntuworld. hence the signals must have the same frequency or must be related harmonically in order to obtain both beams locked on the CRT screen.

• It is often required to display and compare two signals at the same time.D. an electronic switch which switches the two signals to a single vertical amplifier and a single pair of horizontal deflection plates. • The repetition frequency is usually so high that the waveforms appear to be displayed simultaneously.com . electronic switch feeds each signal alternately to the Vertical Amplifier. Signals from A and B are applied through a pre-Amplifier and attenuator.jntuworld. Hence two traces are required one the screen of the CRO. • The electronic switch alternately connects the main Vertical Amplifier to channels A and B and at same time adds a different DC offset component to each signal. which bring the signal within an acceptable level for amplification. as compared to a Dual beam CRO. the switching frequency is as sawtooth (time base) signal frequency.www. Two channels A and B are used. • ALTERNATE mode.jntuworld.com www. the input to channel A is traced in the upper half of the screen then the input to channel B is traced in the lower half.R ECE DEPT www. alternate and chop mode Alternate mode: • When the switch is in the ALTERNATE position.jwjobs. The Single Beam Dual Trace CRO consists of one electron gun. EMI COURSE FILE 42 T. • This DC component directs the beam alternately to the upper or lower half of the screen. which operates in two modes.net UNIT-V Special Oscilloscopes Dual Trace Oscilloscope A single beam CRO gives a single trace on the screen. The output from both channels A and B are applied to an electronic switch.e. i.V.

Storage Oscilloscope: In the conventional CRT the persistence of phosphorus ranges from a few milliseconds to several seconds so that event that occurs only disappears from the screen after a relatively short period of time. So.www.jwjobs.jntuworld.jntuworld. EMI COURSE FILE 43 T. CHOP MODE: When the switch is In the CHOP mode position. • The chop mode is preferred for low frequency inputs. So target is appearing for longer time to go for storage oscilloscope. • If the chopping rate is slow.com www.V.com .R ECE DEPT www. the continuity of the display will be lost.e a very high rate). the duration of sawtooth (time base) signal is divided into small segments and the electronic switch moves between the two input with the frequency of these segments (i. So the switch successively connects small segments of A and B waveforms to the main Vertical Amplifier at a relatively fast chopping rate.net • The alternate mode is preferred for high frequency inputs.D.

but in case of tone tube image varying lengths of time and that different levels of image bright\ness.com . both use Phenomena of secondary emission to build up store electro static charges.D. The sampling oscilloscope basically pickup samples from the sampling pulses in accordance with the input applied signal. In most communication systems an absolute precise estimation of frequency is required with small distortion with the advent of digital logic. Frequency measurement usually requires high precision standard. Electronic systems have developed to estimate their time intervals of signals and frequency counting. The frequency and phase measurement has become much easier compared to early frequency comparator and interpolation oscillators. Frequency comparators and a lot of operator skill. In order to understand the basic signal characteristics (Frequency Phase). we need to study their basic features and as well as their measurement techniques.net Storage CRTs can be classified as bistable tube and half tone tube. FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER EMI COURSE FILE 44 T. The reconstructed from many samples taken during recurrent cycles of the input wave form. So we increase the ratio of the secondary machine the storage time will be increased. This came to an end with the development of frequency counter. The resolution of final image on the CRT screen is determined by the size of steps of stair case generator FREQUENCY AND TIME MEASUREMENT Frequency and time are reciprocal to one another is their corresponding domains.R ECE DEPT www. The bistable can store an event and produces only one level of image of brightness.com www. So we need sampling oscilloscope. The horizontal displacement of the beam is synchronized with trigger pulses which also determine the moment of sampling.jntuworld. FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT Frequency measurement has not always been easy measurement task. the writing speed of electron beam increase causing reduction in image intensity on the CRT screen. In order to obtain sufficient image brilliance the electron beam must be accelerated with higher velocity.V. Sampling Oscilloscope: When the frequency of the vertical deflection signal increases.jwjobs.jntuworld.www.

Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) : It is the source of the output frequency and has the ability to be tuned electronically usually by applying variably voltage 2.www.R ECE DEPT www. 1. • • The unknown input is accumulated into the counter by using AND gates or an OR gate If an unknown frequency were gated into the counter for exact 1 second. Digital Counter • • • • • The counting circuit is constructed by using integrated circuit counters The heart of frequency counter is the decade counter.jwjobs.com www.com . It has five main components. Phase Detector: It provides an analog output i. EMI COURSE FILE 45 T. The loop Filter: It is an analog filter and is required to assure stable and noise free operation of synthesizer. 3. In synchronous counter all the flip flops to be clocked are connected together which greatly reduces propagations delay and allows higher counting speeds..jntuworld.jntuworld.V.net One method of frequency synthesizers is called the indirect method or phase locked loop. which is constructed by using four flip flops and AND gate. Programmable dividers: It divides the frequency of VCO by an integer that can be entered via programming switches. FREQUENCY COUNTER The frequency counter operates on the principle of gating the input frequency into the counter for a predetermined time.D.e. 4. Reference Source: It is very accurate and stable frequency source which is typically a quartz crystal. function of the phase angle between the two inputs. But decade counter involves propagation delay A superior method of constructing a counter is to use a synchronous counter. the number of counts allowed into the counter would be precisely the frequency of input. microprocessors. 5.

F c = crystal frequency of instrument f x = frequency of unknown input signal.V. the number of pulses counted equals N p = F c /f x Where. Long term stability error: It is because of aging and deterioration of crystal EMI COURSE FILE 46 T. 2. And to close the gate at the falling edge of the pulse in case of negative going pulse.jntuworld. the time interval between the two input signals could be measured.jntuworld.jwjobs. the gate is to be opened at a point of the input wave form and closed at precisely the same point in next cycle. In measuring low frequencies the gating error may have appreciable effect on the result. TIME BASE ERROR Time base error consists of calibration error. In a period measurement.com www.R ECE DEPT www. Another time measurement can be made using a single input. of pulses counted N f = F x GATING ERROR Gating error occurs when frequency and time period measurement are made. Short term stability error: It is caused by voltage transients short frequency 3. The input signal must be proceed in the same fashion as the count input signal. Short term crystal stability errors and long term crystal stability error 1. To measure the period of pulse wave form it is necessary to open the count gate at the rising edge of the pulse.net TIME MEASUREMENT If two input signals were substituted for the open and close gate signal and one of the internal clock signals. For frequency measurement the No.D.com . the gating signal in the input and interval frequency clocks are used as the timing sources. their procedure is reversed One very important period measurement is the period measurement to determine the frequency. In this mode of operation. This would be useful for determining the period of pulses and other signals. In this case.www. Calibration Error : One of the simplest calibration techniques is to zero – Beat the crystal oscillator against the standard frequency transmitter.

net OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS: 1.. 6. 2.and -------------- The phase measurements are made by use of ------------. What is counter Contrast frequency and time What is full form BCD word What is gating error What is time base error Define cross over frequency Define gate time 1. 6. 8.jwjobs.V. --------------Oscilloscopes are used to study the transient responses. 4. What are major blocks of oscilloscope and what does each do 3. the deflection sensitivity & accelerating voltage exhibit--------relationship The purpose of Aquadag in CRO is to ----------------------------- 3. --------------is the phenomenon in which the energy level of phosphor crystal increases when electron beam strikes phosphor.D. 4. 7. What are major components of CRT 4. 5. 3. In CRO. 7.in CRO In order to examine periodic and very fast signals ----------. ---------.R ECE DEPT www.oscilloscopes are used. 2.when the electron beam is switched off. Why is an attenuator probe used? 2. Focusing lenses in CRO consists of -------------.com . phosphor crystals emit light by returning to their initial states which is called as-----------------.jntuworld.jntuworld.com www. Emission of light during phosphor excitation is called -----------------. What is delay sweep and when it is used and write short notes on delay lines EMI COURSE FILE 47 T.www. Non circular apertures are used in CROs to reduce ------------- Essay Type Questions: 1. 5.

R ECE DEPT www. What are the applications of oscilloscope? Explain.com . Explain storage oscilloscope 6.net 5. 8. Graticules II) CRT Screens.com www.V.jntuworld.D.jwjobs. Write short notes on I).jntuworld. EMI COURSE FILE 48 T.www. Explain sampling oscilloscope 7.

4. These are fully automatic bridges that electronically null a bridge to make precision component measurements. The wheat stone bridge is limited to the measurement of resistances ranging from a few EMI COURSE FILE 49 T.D.com . Measurement errors: The main source of measurement error is found in limiting errors of the three un known resistors and other errors as follows: 1. At the end of the course: The reader should be familiarized with different bridge circuit topologies and their operations.V. There is an entire group of ac bridges for measuring inductance. 3. the fourth may be determined from equation.The simplest form of bridge is for the purpose of measuring resistance is called Wheat stone bridge.www. errors due to the resistance leads. we study this chapter which is devoted to bridge circuits.jntuworld.jwjobs. For this reason. Important points: Wheat stone bridge: This bridge has four arms (resistive).R ECE DEPT www. The concept of guarded measurements and three –terminal resistance measurement is covered. He should also be familiar to various measurement errors and guard circuits. together with source of emf(a battery) and a null detector. If three of the resistances are known values. Insufficient sensitivity of null detector. admittance. Change of resistance due to heating effects.com www.jntuworld.net UNIT -VI AC & DC Bridge measurements Overview and Objective: Bridge measurements play a vital role in instrumentation . usually a galvanometer or the current meter. Thermal emf in bridge circuit. To calculate the sensitivity of galvanometer . there is an entire group of ac bridges for measuring very high and low resistances. 2. Condition for bridge balance is R1*R4 = R2*R3. capacitance. conductance etc. Prerequisites: Basic Electrical technology Elementary mathematics.it is required to change the given circuit into its Thevenin’s equivalent. Generalpurpose bridges are hardly used anymore.

Commercial Kelvin bridge is capable of measuring resistances from 10 ohm to 0. Due to electrostatic effects. Methods of Measurements of high resistance: 1.V.com www. Measurement of high resistance: Difficulties in measurement of high resistances: High accuracy is rarely required in such measurements. much sensitive galvanometers are required in operations.jntuworld.com . generally below one ohm Kelvin double bridge: The term double bridge is used because the circuit contains a second set of ratio arms.00001 ohm. stray changes occur in the measuring circuit causing errors. Loss of charge method 3.D. Direct deflection method 2.R ECE DEPT www. hence simple circuits are used.net ohms to several mega ohms. Guarded wheat stone bridge: Guard circuits: these are the special circuits used for eliminating errors caused by leakage currents over insulation.jwjobs. EMI COURSE FILE 50 T. The upper limit is set by the reduction in sensitivity to unbalance. Here small currents are encountered in measurement circuits. Kelvin Bridge: Kelvin bridge is a modification of the Wheatstone bridge and provides greatly increased accuracy in the measurement of low –value resistances. Here.jntuworld. Megohm method. This second set of arms connects the galvanometer and it eliminates the effect of the yoke resistance. The lower limit is set by the resistance of the connecting leads and the contact resistance at the binding posts.www.

Schering Bridge: The schering bridge is used and extensively for the measurement of capacitance. It is particular useful for measuring insulation properties. The power line may serve as a source of excitation and at higher frequencies an oscillator generally supplies the excitation. The Wien Bridge has a series RC EMI COURSE FILE 51 T.jntuworld. Wien Bridge: Wien bridge is used to measure frequency and this is used in harmonic distortion analyzer where it is used as notch filter. Power Factor: This is defined for RC combination as cosine of Phase angle of the circuits Dissipation factor: It is defined for an RC combination as Cotangent of phase angle.V.com www. MAXWELL Bridge: The Maxwell bridge measures an unknown inductance in terms of known capacitance.jwjobs. Hay Bridge: Hay bridge differs from Maxwell bridge by having a resister R1 in series standard capacitor C1 instead of parallel.jntuworld. The standard capacitor is usually a high quality Mica capacitor for general measurement work or an air capacitor for insulation measurements.D.www. Z x =Z 2 Z 3 Y 1 The Maxwell bridge is limited to the measurement of medium Q-coils.com .net AC BRIDGES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS AC bridge is natural outgrowth of DC bridge and its basic form consists of four bridge arms a source of excitation and null detector.R ECE DEPT www. Maxwell bridge is unsuited for the measurement of coil with very low Q value because of convergence problems. The balancing equation is given by Z 1 Z 4 =Z 2 Z 3 • • The products of magnitudes of the opposite must be equal The sum of the phase angles of the opposite arms must be equal. One of the ratio arms has a resistance and capacitance in parallel and it may now prove somewhat easier to write the balance equations. The Hay circuit is therefore more convenient for measuring High Q-coils. The power source supply an AC voltage to the bridge at the desired frequency for measurements at low frequencies.

Why low resistances are provided with four terminals 5. This does not eliminate completely but makes them a constant in value and they can there fore be compensated. Wagner ground connection: In practice however stray capacitances exist between various bridge elements and ground.com .R ECE DEPT www. Explain Maxwell bridge and its application Explain Wheatstone bridge and guard circuits Write about Kelvin double bridge Write the importance of three terminal resistances Write about hay bridge Describe about capacitance measurement using appropriate bridge What is stray capacitance and explain about wagner ground connection EMI COURSE FILE 52 T. 3. 6.D.www. These stray capacitances shunt the bridge arms and cause measurement error particularly at high frequencies. and also between the bridge arms themselves. One of the most widely used method of eliminating the stray capacitance is the Wagner ground connection Objective Questions: 1. One way to control stray capacitances is by shielding the arms and connecting the shields to the ground.jntuworld.V. Why in a Kelvin ‘s double bridge to sets of readings are taken when measuring low resistances 4.jwjobs. Equation for frequency (F) is given by F=1/2  C1C3R1R3.jntuworld.net combination in one arm and parallel RC combination in the adjoining arm. Why a Wheatstone bridge cannot be used for precision measurement 2. The frequency can be measured by using ------------6.com www. The equation under balance conditions for bridge is -----------7. Wagner’s earth devices are used in AC bridge circuits for --------- Essay Type questions: 1. 5. The Maxwell bridge is used for measurement of inductance of-----coils 8. The value of resistance of an earthing electrode depends on ------3. 4. 2. 7.

V. optical(radiant). The input quantity for most instrumentation systems is non electrical.when actuated by energy in one transmission system. Prerequisite 1.com . In this chapter .com www. supplies energy in the same form or in another form to a second transmission system. 3. mechanical.jntuworld.R ECE DEPT www. Basic mathematics Solid state physics At the end of the course student should understand the following 1. 2. In order to use electrical methods and techniques for measurement manipulation or control the non electrical quantity is converted into an electrical signal by a device called Transducer.net UNIT -VII TRANSDUCERS Overview and Objective: An instrumentation system generally consists of three major elements: An input device receives the quantity under measurement and delivers a proportional electrical signal to the signal-conditioning device. The output device may be a simple indicating meter.www. 2. EMI COURSE FILE 53 T. or thermal. Here the signal is amplified.D.we are going to study different types of transducers and their principles of operation.jntuworld. Transducer consists of two parts. The transmission may be electrical. specifications and related concepts. or otherwise modified to a format acceptable to the output device. chemical.jwjobs. One definition states ” A transducer is a device which . Basic physical sciences. filtered. Various process measuring Device’s operations and Instrumental sizing and selection Important points: Transducer is confined to device that covers the entire detector Transducer stage wherein the Transducer converts a non electrical quantity into an electrical signal. an oscilloscope or chart recorder for visual display.

capacitive etc Sensitivity: Transducer must be sensitive enough to produce detectable output Operating range: Transducer should maintain the requirements Accuracy: High degree of accuracy and repeatability are required for some critical applications Errors: Transducer should maintain input and output relationship Loading effects: Transducer should have high input impedance and low output impedance Likewise environmental computability and stability are required Strain gauges: If a metal conductor is stretched or compressed its résistance changes on account of the fact both length and diameter of conductor change.D.com www. This is property is called Piezoresistive effect. 2. Transduction Element: Transduction element transforms the output of sensing element to an electrical output. 4. Classification of Transducers: 1. inductive. On basis of Transduction form used Primary and secondary Transducers Passive and active Transducers Analog and digital Transducers Transducer and inverse Transducers Characteristics and choice of Transducer: When choosing a Transducer for any application the input.R ECE DEPT www. Sensing element: A detector or a sensing element is a part of Transducer which responds to physical phenomenon the response of sensing element must be closely related to a physical phenomenon.jwjobs. 2. Summary of factors influencing the choice of Transducer: Operating Principle: The operating principles used may be resistive.net 1. 3.jntuworld.com . 5.www. transfer and output characteristics has to be taken into account.V.jntuworld. EMI COURSE FILE 54 T. Also there is change in the value of resistance.

7. In the half and quarter circuits.jntuworld.jntuworld. Types of Strain gauges: 1. a single gauge (quarter bridge). torque sensors. Unbonded metal strain gauges Bonded metal wire strain gauges Bonded metal foil strain gauges Vaccum deposited thin metal film strain gauges Sputter deposited thin metal strain gauges Bonded semiconductor strain gauges Diffused metal strain gauges The strain gauge has been in use for many years and is the fundamental sensing element for many types of sensors.V. the bridge is completed with precision resistors. 6. the resistance of the foil changes in a defined way. 3. Resistance Thermometers: EMI COURSE FILE 55 T. corresponds to the dimensional change in the length and the area of cross section. including pressure sensors. or. less commonly.www. This property is exploited in designing strain gauges for strain measurements.D. etc. position sensors.R ECE DEPT www. 2. available in a wide choice of shapes and sizes to suit a variety of applications. 4. The majority of strain gauges are foil types. two gauges (half bridge). They operate on the principle that as the foil is subjected to stress. The strain gauge is connected into a Wheatstone Bridge circuit with a combination of four active gauges (full bridge).jwjobs. load cells.net Theory of Strain Gauge: The change in the value of résistance by straining the gauge material.com .com www. They consist of a pattern of resistive foil which is mounted on a backing material. 5.

Control or error detection type 2. This effect known as piezo electric effect. Torque transmission type Resolvers: Resolvers are used for conversion of angular position of shaft into Cartesian coordinates.www. EMF depends up on the difference between hard junction and cold junction temperatures.com www. Piezo Electric Transducer: The piezo electric material is one in which an electric potential appear across certain surfaces of crystal if dimensions of the crystal are changed by mechanical force. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS heat 1. Gold and silver rarely used for construction of RTDs. Cobalt. This property is utilized for the measurement of temperature. Copper. Thermocouples are cheaper compared to RTDs.jntuworld.com .R ECE DEPT www.V. Thermistors are composed of sintered mixture of metallic oxide such as manganese. Photo Voltaic cell: The photo voltaic cell or solar cell producers an electrical current when connected to load and here the light is transferred into an electrical energy. Iron and uranium.D. Thermocouples: In thermocouple. Thermistors: Thermistor is contraction of a term “thermal resister”. This exhibits negative temperature coefficient.net The resistance of a conductor changes when temperature is changed. The common piezo electric materials include Rochelle salts. This is also used as a temperature Transducer. measurement of power at high frequency measurement of composition gases and vaccum measurements. ammonium die hydrogen phosphate Quartz and ceramics. Pressure Transducer: Bourdon tube and pressure gauges are used for pressure measurements Hotwire anemometer: This Transducer is used for gas flow and pressure measurements based on exchange. An inverse Transducer converts---------------EMI COURSE FILE 56 T. There are two types of Synchros 1. A Transducer converts-------------2. Nicole.jntuworld. The temperature of the latter should remain constant in order that calibration holds good and there are no errors on account of change in ambient temperature. Synchros: A synchro is an electro magnetic Transducer which is commonly used to convert the position of shaft into an electrical signal.jwjobs.

com www.jwjobs.www.Scale errors ii. 9. 15.Bourdon Tubes ii. Explain the following types of errors for a Transducer i.Dynamic errors iii. 16.is considered While selecting Transducer for a particular application A renold’s number of 1000 indicates------------A resistance potentiometer is a ---------------------The gauge factor is defined as---------------what is the principle of strain gauge? what is the principle of RTD? why RTDs use platinum so commonly? what is the property of thermister? the thermocouples are_____________________. 4.Noise and drift errors c.net 3.R ECE DEPT www. 7. Describe the functionality of thermocouples f. 6.D.Diaphragms b. 10. Explain the operation of Thermistors for temperature measurment d. ---------------. Describe the functionality of hot wire anemometer e. 11. 18. 12. 5.jntuworld. 17.Bellow and iii. Describe with neat sketch the following types of primary detecting elements i. 8.V. Write short note on piezo electric and photo electric Transducers EMI COURSE FILE 57 T. what is synchros? ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS a. Write about various transduction methods g. 14.acts as an inverse Transducer ---------------acts as an ACTIVE Transducer A strip chart recorder is----------------------------.com . 13.jntuworld. 19. what are piezo-electric transducers? what is hall effect? what is photodiode? name a gas flow transducer.

jntuworld.www. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT): The most widely used inductive Transducer translate the linear motion into electrical signals is linear variable differential transformer. b) Rotational displacement: The motion of a body of angular type.D.These are primary sensing elements which are in direct contact with the system and follow the changes in system during measurement. Here the change in the displacement corresponds to change in inductance.net UNIT VIII In many industrial applications it is required to measure large number of mechanical quantities like temperature. which gives differential voltage output. In practice different variety of translational displacement transducers and rotational displacement transducers are available. To measure the above mentioned physical quantities the mechanical transducers are used . pressure. force. acceleration and temperature. acceleration and so on.V. These quantities are measured with high degree of accuracy by using primary measuring system which is made up of primary sensing element or sensor and supporting elements.com www. EMI COURSE FILE 58 T. The translational displacement transducers are not only useful to translational motion but can be used as secondary transducers in measurement systems which are used to measure various physical quantities like pressure. One of the important translational displacement transducer is LVDT.R ECE DEPT www. flow.jwjobs. about some rotation axis.jntuworld.com . Measurement of displacement In general displacement can be classified as a) Translational displacement: The motion of a body in a straight line between two points. velocity.

The primary coil is excited by an a.net (a) A sectional view of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). an output voltage v {0} =v {1}-v {2} is developed. When the core moves from the center position. the voltage and displacement will be linearly related. The motion (from a mechanical input) changes the characteristics of the flux path and the changes can be detected in the circuit. The magnetic core can move within the bobbin and provides a path for the magnetic flux linkage between the primary and the secondary coils.com . When the core is centered between the two secondary coils. An LVDT consists of three symmetrically spaced coils wound onto an insulated bobbin.R ECE DEPT www.com www. and as long as the displacement is within the working range of the LVDT. (b) Circuit diagram for an LVDT. signal and voltages are induced in the two secondary coils.jwjobs. The secondary coils are wired in a series-opposing circuit so that when the core is centered between them the voltages induced are opposite but equal.www.jntuworld. EMI COURSE FILE 59 T.D.jntuworld.V. The induced voltages depend on the position of the core inside the bobbin.c . The circuit is shown in part (b) of the figure. the induced voltages v {1} and v {2} are equal but out of phase by 180 degrees. and they cancel to give a zero output voltage.

Explain the use of trigger circuit in getting wave forms displayed on the oscilloscope. Explain procedure to obtain the bridge balance. 6. with the help of neat sketches. a) Define terms i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Accuracy Measurement Precision Error Resolution Sensitivity b) 2. Explain the difference between super heterodyne wave analyzer and Distortion factor meter. explain with respect ordinary (D’Arsonval) voltmeter b) What is the type of voltmeter that uses thermocouples? Explain the same with the help of neat block diagram. 3.jwjobs. 7. 4.com . b) Draw the circuit diagram of a Maxwell’s bridge. Distinguish between accuracy and precision and explain about them in detail with the help of example a) What is meant by an electronic volt meter.jntuworld. 5. a) Describe the time base unit in a sophisticated universal frequency Counter timer. b) How the above instrument is organized to measure (i) Frequency (ii) Period (iii) Time delay. b) Show the arrangement of spectrum analysis along with a high frequency oscilloscope as an attachment. suggest suitable indicating element (Meter).R ECE DEPT www. Derive expression for the unknown element for which it is meant.V.www. Draw block diagram and state various measures taken to maintain accuracy. Explain spectrum analyzer block diagrams and principle of operation. bridges with help of diagrams and expressions. a)Draw the Trigger circuit of an oscilloscope and wave forms with common time scale. b) Draw the diagram showing constructional details of LVDT.C. Explain principle of operation with the help of neat wave form and characteristics.net QUESTION BANK 1.D. a) Explain the difference between AC bridges and D.jntuworld.com www. Draw various block diagrams connected with the above. b) Draw the block factor meter and explain the procedure to measure distortion factor. a) How do you understand the Distortion of a given wave. and Hot wire ammeter in Engineering measurements. a) What are the applications of a piezo electric transducers. 8. Write short notes on the following : EMI COURSE FILE 60 T.

a) Discuss the working of Analog Phase meter and Digital Phase meter. b) List the advantages and EMI COURSE FILE 61 T. 13. Does the accuracy depend upon number of digits of display.www. a) Classify errors and explain them. b) What is the importance of control logic block in case of Dual slope integration type of DVM.com .jwjobs.c.c. Draw the neat sketch of the CRT and explain the main components of it. voltage to d. b) Explain the basic principle of digital frequency measurements. voltage in case of general purpose electronic voltmeter. b) Discuss the use of guard circuits in measuring very high resistances using wheat stone bridge. iii) resolution and iv) accuracy with reference to a DVM.D. a) Draw the rotational type potentiometer to measure angular position. b) Suggests methods to minimize and eliminate errors. 10 a) Draw the circuit arrangement to convert a.R ECE DEPT www. a) Explain the operation of photodiode. 11. 17. a) Derive an expression for balance in an Anderson's bridge.net Resistance thermometer Delay lines ii) Q meter 9.jntuworld. Draw the phasor diagram under balance conditions. and discuss the various sources of measurement errors. Explain the block diagram of frequency counter with waveforms associated with the gating function of the frequency counter. Explain with sufficient reasoning. b) Explain terms i) input impedance ii) Sensitivity. 18. i) 19.com www. What method can be used to increase the frequency range of a frequency counter? How can this be achieved without degrading the accuracy of the counter? 12. 15. a) Derive an expression for balance in a Wheatstone bridge. a) Define the following : i) Accuracy ii) Error iii) Linearity iv) Precision b) Discuss main differences between accuracy and precision. b) Explain the electrostatic focusing used in all CROs. 14. a) In case of Digital Volt Meter (DVM) discuss importance of number of digits. b) Explain the use of photoconductive cell in controlling a relay.jntuworld. 21. b) What are linearity and sensitivity of resistance transducers? 16. 20.V.

EMI COURSE FILE 62 T. Briefly explain the logic diagram of a binary synchronous counter and also explain the principle and operation of a cascading synchronous counter. b) How are random errors are analyzed ? Explain with examples. b) Explain about the conversion logic used in case of simultaneous type of A/D DVM. a) Draw the circuit of a Schering bridge and discuss its principle with the help of suitable derivations and phasor diagram at balance. b) What are the advantages & limitations of ultrasonic method of measuring flow. 32. 26. 27. b) Explain the operation of drum type movie fringe optical encoder.D.Write short notes on the following: a) Electrostatic Deflection b) Screens for CRTs 30. a) Derive the relation for deflection sensitivity "S" of a CRT. b) Distinguish between period and frequency measurements. Classify it in terms of wavelength in nanometer.R ECE DEPT www. a) Explain briefly about Wave meter.jwjobs. a) Explain terms : i) Significant figures ii) Conformity. b) What are the applications of CRO? 23.www. 28. 24. a) What is heliport? Where it is used? b) Explain the principle of operation of resistive transducers. 29. a) What is delay and briefly explain how do you measure the delay practically. 25. What is the significance of 1/2 digit. 24.net disadvantages of Anderson's bridge. a) Explain with neat diagram the operation of ultrasonic method for measuring flow in a pipe.V. b) Write a note on the dissipation factor of a capacitor. 22.jntuworld. b) Draw vacuum type photo emissive cell and explain its operation. b) Discuss the working of fundamental suppression distortion meter. a) Draw the optical spectrum.com ..com www. 31. a) Explain the operation of fiber optic transducer for measuring temperature.jntuworld. ii) 5 1/2 digits. a) Explain in case of DVM i) 3 1 / 2 digits.

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