BIO 205 Chapter 3

Three Domain System

Prokaryote/Eukaryote Similarities
•Homeostasis is an organisms ability to maintain a stable internal state. •Many prokaryotes live in communal associations called biofilms. •Myxobacteria live in a social community dependent on cell-to-cell interaction and communitcation. •Prokaryotes carry out many of the same cellular processes as eukaryotes.
Myxobacteria Fruiting Body

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: The Similarities in Organizational Patterns •All organisms have similar genetic organization whereby heredity material is expressed •Both prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells have internal compartments •Metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm •Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: The Structural Distinctions •Eukaryotes have membrane-enclosed organelles •Protein/lipid transport in eukaryotes is carried out by the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus •Mitochondria perform cellular respiration in eukaryotes •Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes can perform photosynthesis

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: The Structural Distinctions Continued: •The eukaryotic cytoskeleton gives the cell structure and transports materials within the cell •Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes use flagella for motility, though the flagella differ structurally and functionally in the two groups •Many prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a cell wall to help maintain water balance

Bacteria and Archaea: The Structural Distinctions •The plasma membranes of archaea differ from those of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes •The cell walls of archaea are made of pseudomurein, or some other combination of proteins and carbohydrates, not peptidoglycan like prokaryotes •DNA replication in archaea is more similar to that of eukaryotes than prokaryotes •Gene expression in archaea is more similar to that of eukaryotes than prokaryotes

A Prokaryotic Cell

A Bacterial Cell

AAEukaryoticCell Eukaryotic Cell

Choices

Microscopy
Most Microbial Agents Are In the Micrometer Size Range Most bacterial and archaeal cells are 1-5 micrometers (µm) in length

Light Microscopy is Used to Observe Most Microorganisms •Visible light passes through multiple lenses and through the specimen •Light microscopes usually have at least 3 lenses: low-power, high-power, and oil immersion •The lens system must have high resolving power to see the specimen clearly

The Oil Immersion Lense

Staining Techniques to Provide Contrast • Simple Stain Technique • Negative Stain Technique • Gram Stain Technique

Simple and Negative Stains Simple and Negative Stains

Gram Stain Technique

A mixture of Gram + and Gram - bacteria

Choices

End of Chapter 3

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