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This training hand-out describes two linked theories that explore the stages or phases people pass through when experiencing change. In the first theory these stages are related to developmental stages we accomplish on our journey from birth to becoming an adult (Levin 1974). To explore this idea further it is useful to briefly identify these developmental stages before examining the relation between developmental stages and experience of change. STAGE 1: BEING - 0-6 MONTHS Being involves just experiencing the world. A baby will need to eat, drink, sleep, be comfortable and have affection at this stage. B e in g R e c y c lin g D o in g T h in k in g In te g ra tio n
Id e n tity
S k ills
Figure 1 Cycles of Development STAGE 2: DOING - 6 MONTHS - 18 MONTHS Here a child will want to be active. They are exploring the world they live in with their hands, their eyes and mouths. As the child becomes more mobile she will need to stray away from her carer to test, through experience, where boundaries exist. STAGE 3: THINKING - 18 MONTHS - 3 YEARS During this stage a child develops their thinking capacity. They will want to reason things out for themselves and make their own decisions. Decisions like what clothes to wear, whether they want to go out with you, what time they want to go to bed and so on. Unsurprisingly parents often refer to this stage of development as the "terrible 2's". Our future ability to think depends on how we develop in this stage. An overly controlled child for instance, where adults make most decisions for them, may have difficulty in making decisions for themselves when they are older.
At about 14 our developing adult revisits the stage of 'thinking'. and so on? By the time we are six we have written our script. From grownups in our life we gain options as to how we will structure our world. In a way making sense of and structuring the world as we experience it. the heroine. STAGE 5: SKILLS .6 YEARS Here children make the decisions as to what sort of person they will be. the robber. 43 divided by 19 = 2 remainder 5. Here previous decisions are reviewed and revised. so as to prepare for our 'friendly divorce' from our carers (Levin 1974).12-18 YEARS This stage has also been descriptively called. This is followed by a further period of 'skill' development.THE REST OF OUR LIVES During our 18th year we begin our second cycle in this spiral of development. thoughts and behaviour. minutes. Will we be frivolous or serious. The new one is a small cycle taking place within our larger life one. STAGE 6: INTEGRATION . sensitive or tough? Will we be the cop. Observing children at this stage we notice that at times they are alternatively helpful and compliant and at others testing. at whichever point we are within our own spiral we start a new one. For example. How we have completed the developmental stages in our earlier life will affect the way we manage this smaller spiral around these particular changes or transitions in our life. A story that will enable us to survive the environment and culture we find ourselves in. STAGE 7: RECYCLING . The decisions made in this stage are based on the decisions made in the early stage and so the skills and structure they develop are the ones the child sees relevant for their identity. this is how you would work out which stage you were currently recycling. It is as if our life .3 YEARS . The grownups they come into contact with both in real life and in fiction offer them a range of role models to choose from. 'Identity. when they will spend time resting. if you were 43. the rescuer. In fact they are testing their identity against the structures in their life to prove the validity of their decisions. eating and thinking about sex. You can. the story line we will try to fit our life to.6-12 YEARS During this period a child will be developing the skills they think they will need in life and that fit their identity. So in the ensuing stage of 'identity' the early decision about who we will be are updated in order to fit in with the grownup world we now know better. Here the young person will recycle through all the previous stages again. Sexuality and Separation' (Clarke 1987). This is followed by a further period of 'doing' where our young person has the opportunity to re-explore the world with a better understanding of her environment. We then continue to re-visit these stages through the rest of our lives. only this time they go at twice the speed.STAGE 4: IDENTITY . One factor obscures the veracity of the stage we are currently recycling and that is the affects that change has on our feelings. work out what stage you are currently at by dividing your age by 19 and comparing the remainder to the age and related stages of development described above. SPIRALS WITHIN SPIRALS Pamela Levin suggests that when we encounter any change in our life. Five years puts you at the end of the identity stage and about to start the skills stage. for instance. This spiral may last seconds. the hero. Using the limited resources we have at this age we write a fitting story. So there will be a new period of 'being' aged 13. hours or years.
Change acts like boulders or snags in the flow.to sit at our desk or just be around work colleagues. as they progress over time. CHANGE AND THE COMPETENCE CURVE For a long time now it has been recognised that during any change people go through certain stages.spiral is a river flowing swiftly through a landscape of life. This depicted in figure 2. This is how the stages in the competence curve are matched against stages in the developmental cycle (Hay 1992). Completion/ recycling Application/ integration Denial/doing Frustration/ thinking Immobilisation/ being Change Development/ skills Acceptance/ identity IMMOBILISATION/BEING During a change there will be a period where we feel "frozen" or "locked up". Competence/ esteem Time Figure 3 change curve linked with cycles of development . As the waters reach the snag eddies and ripples breakout across the smooth flow. for a while we are almost in a state of shock. These stages. change the way we are seen by others and how we feel about ourselves. unable or unwilling to make decisions. In a change like having a new job we may just want to be . These stages can be plotted on a graph known as the Change or Competence Curve. Figure 2 Spirals within our life spiral are caused by change.
At this stage we are thinking about the change. We start to question our abilities and so appear less confident and less competent. ACCEPTANCE/IDENTITY The identity stage would suggest that here we are becoming clear about our new role. We might feel better because we are active and doing something. It might be useful to spend some time pampering ourselves doing things where we can just be. In a new job we may find that we do what we used to do. It is the period where we discover how we should be in order to fit in with the new circumstances we find ourselves in. During this stage it is useful to have someone that we trust who will give us feedback on our behaviour. through feedback or our own insights. . these activities are likely to be unhelpful or unnecessary or even unwanted in the new situation we are in. we stop denying the change and its effect. Our managers. or our new identification with our part in our new situation. During this stage it is useful to recognise that we may feel angry and make arrangements in our life to let off steam safely. In the new job. for example. to help us grasp the new reality we are in and yet at the same time understanding the need to be active. DEVELOPMENT/SKILLS Now we are ready to learn to cope with the new situation and make sense of our new identity. It is helpful now to look back at where we were least effective in the past in order to decide how to develop in the future. may experience frustration as it appears that we are not doing the job that we were taken on for. It is useful to plan ways to look after yourself. If things have changed however. This is a period where.This would be a time to consider past successes. we are discovering our role and understanding better what is expected of us and what we expect of ourselves. Everything is in place for us to start a learning curve and to develop. DENIAL/DOING During this stage we may appear to be very active as we look to be busily occupied doing things. FRUSTRATION/THINKING Eventually it dawns on us that what we are doing is not actually what is required. In the example of a job we would start thinking about courses and plan to develop learning activities that would develop skills and knowledge to do the job that we are in. on the other hand. We fall back on the old and tried and tested techniques that worked in the past. and this is how we feel too. Things are just not working out and so there is a feeling of frustration.
1971 cycles3.Cycles of Power: A User's Guide to the Seven Seasons of Life. Health Communications 1974 Pamela Levin . Transactional Analysis for Trainers .Sherwood 1992 Pamela Levin.Now is the time for managers to help the worker make these learning plans. Penguin. powered by the life force we all have to continue developing. It is almost as if there has not been a change. We would be able to incorporate old skills and knowledge in a way that is congruent with the new expectations of us.10. In the work setting we feel on top of the job and may be looking for fresh challenges. In the work setting we will be seen to have "got the job under our belt". Hazelden. Barry Hopson et al . knowledge and skills integrated and compatible with our new identity. Eric Berne called this life force Physis (1971) Bill Heasman References and Sources Julie Hay. Becoming The Way We Are. planning not just for courses but other activities that will promote development. At this stage do congratulate yourself for having completed the transition.BH revised 18. 1989 Eric Berne. Having said this I would like to suggest that recycling should not be seen as going round in circles. LAST WORDS The spiral of development is a metaphor to describe a complex system and like all metaphors fails in its description when pushed too far. Martin Robertson.00 Physis Fig ure 4 cycles of d evelopm ent seen from side elevation . APPLICATION/INTEGRATION Here we apply our skills in the new situation appropriately. either by expanding our present job or by looking for a new one. During this stage it is helpful to review `old` skills and review what worked in the past whilst asking the question.sam/091195KL. Health Communications 1988 John Adams. Growing Up Again. and it is a time when we can usefully use previous behaviour.Transitions: Understanding & Managing Personal Change. A layman's Guide to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis. We feel more engaged and confident. rather the spiral should be seen as moving upward. 1976 Jean Illsey-Clarke and Connie Dawson. is this appropriate here and now? COMPLETION/RECYCLING At this stage we are completely at ease with the new situation.
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