Welcome to a Course On Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) Based on ASME Y14.
5M-1994 with Introduction to Dimension Management / Engineering For
General Motors Technical Center, Bangalore, INDIA
About iSquare …
(InterOperability & InterChangeability Solutions) Pune, INDIA
Focus Areas …
CAD Data InterOperability : Consistent representation of 3D CAD data in variety of CAD/CAM/CAE applications and platforms. InterChangeability: Predicting Dimensional Variations, its impact and causes at the product and assembly level at early design stage.
InterOperability: – With International TechneGroup Incorporated, USA having more than 20 years of Experience in CAD Data InterOperability technology, solutions and services.
Solutions and Services.Relationships …
• InterChangeability: • With Dimensional Control Systems Inc. USA having more than 15 years of experience in Dimensional Control Techniques..
.Our Offerings …
•CAD Data InterOperability:
•Focused & Customized Training Programs on:
•CAD/CAM/CAE Data Exchange : Problems and Solutions from CAD. •Model Quality Assessment from Downstream application perspective
•Quality Services for:
•Data Exchange. CAM Perspective. standard and formats !! Solutions Include CADfix. •CAD Model Quality Assessment : CAD Model Quality evaluation from downstream application perspective
•Software Solutions For:
•Effective Data exchange between heterogeneous CAD/CAM systems: Regardless of source. IGES/Works. Data Migration. target application.CAD/IQ. CAE. Lower version to higher or vice-a-versa •‘Vendor – Supplier’ data integration : ensuring effective data exchange with minimal / NO rework at either ends.
Takes participants thru evolution. Piece – part variations. includes 1D. reporting with suggestions and recommendations.
•Software Solutions For:
•Dimensional Management / Stack Analysis: Solutions embedded in CATIA V5 as Gold Partner and also Stand Alone solutions for data coming from other CAD platforms !! Solutions Include 1-DCS. 3DCS-SA. DCS-DFC. assembly variation prediction against desired objectives. Full 3D simulations. 3DCS-CAA V5 Analyst.
.Our Offerings …
•Focused & Customized Training Programs on:
•Dimensional Management : Understanding and appreciation of computer aided tools for. GDM3D
•Quality Services for:
•Dimensional Engineering / Management : Base Line tolerance model creation. 1D with GD&T. 3DCS-CAA V5 Designer. various approaches and real life problems from their application areas. Follow-on consulting •Per requirement.
32hrs (4 days) 24hrs (3 days) 8hrs (1 day) 24hrs (3 days)
Basic knowledge of GD&T Basic knowledge of GD&T
Basic knowledge of GD&T
.5M:1994 Advanced Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T): Concepts & Applications as per ASME Y14.43:2003 Engineering Limits & Fits with introduction to ANSI B4.5M:1994 Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using Co-ordinate System of Dimensioning and GD&T : A practical Approach to Solve Assembly Build Problems CATIA V5 Based GD&T/Tolerance Stack-up Analysis using DCS (Dimensional Control Systems Inc.Training Programs in Dimensional Management / Engineering
Courses from iSquare.2-1978 and ISO-286 Standards Introduction to Digital Product Definition Data Practices (Solid Model Tolerancing) per ASME Y14. USA) Software Solutions.
(Covers exposure to 1DCS. Pune in the domain of Dimensional Variation Management Sr#
Fundamentals and Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) as per ASME Y14..DCS-DFC and 3DCS-CAAV5 Analyst)
24hrs (3 days) 24hrs (3 days) 24hrs (3 days)
Basic knowledge of GD&T Basic knowledge of GD&T
32hrs (4 days)
Basic knowledge of GD&T preferred
GD&T and Tolerance Stack-up Analysis for an Automobile: A Practical Approach to Control and Calculate Dimensional Variations Introduction to Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principles for Gages and Fixtures Based on ASME Y14.
That’s about iSquare
How is this course organized?
Total 10 Sessions. 3days Pre-defined objectives at the beginning of each session Classroom exercises at the end of each session Homework Extended hours as necessary Assumption : Understanding of GD&T controls Feel free to interrupt and ask Questions
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
tolerances are specified in plus/minus Plus/minus system worked quite well and even today used in many applications.
In practice. the parts are produced with some variation to accommodate process capabilities and interchangeability – called tolerances Generally.
with round tolerance zone rather than traditional square tolerance zone introduced which later caught up and adopted by military standards and late became unified ANSI standard
. the idea of locating round features such as pins/holes etc.Later.
Volume production?: – Impossible to make every part identical – Every manufacturing process has unavoidable variations that cause variations in manufactured parts. he must communicate magnitude of such variations or TOLERANCE each characteristics can have and still contribute to functional assembly. – Designer.
. orientation and location. inspector and manufacturer are same! Designer often creates an assembly. He conveys ideal size (nominal dimensions) and shapes to each manufacturer. form.with due consideration must analyze how much variation may be allowed in size. parts fit together with optimal clearances.Introduction to GD&T
Simple part for own use… No need for drawings when designer. – Then along with nominal dimensions.
eg.How to Communicate such Variation?
Often words are inadequate. A note “Make this surface a real flat” only has meaning where all concerned parties can do following:
– – – –
Understand English Understand to which surface the note applies and extent of the surface Agree on what “Flat” means Agree on exactly how flat is “Real Flat”!!
To overcome miscommunication. Such language is currently recognized as “Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)”
. throughout 20th century a specialized language based on graphical representations and math has evolved to improve communication.
So. what is GD&T?
It’s a language for communicating Engineering Design Specifications. ASME and United States Department of Defense (DoD) GD&T Includes all symbols. approved by ANSI. It enhances co-ordinate system dimensioning and describes designers intent Designer’s requirements can be completely specified using GD&T symbols thus eliminating/reducing foot notes on drawings. mathematical formulae and application rules critical to embody a viable engineering language. It conveys both: ie. definitions. Nominal (or ideal) dimensions and variations (or tolerances allowed for that dimension.
Its incapable of specifying manufacturing processes to achieve desired tolerances/variations Its not a replacement to co-ordinate dimensioning system. GD&T specifications can address size. Eg. Designer created a bore to function as hydraulic cylinder to withstand 15kg/cm2 pressure. To summarize.
. GD&T is a language that designers use to translate design requirements into measurable specifications.What GD&T is NOT …
Its not a creative design tool. it can’t suggest how certain part surfaces should be controlled (methods …) It does not convey parts’ intended function. location and/or smoothness of bore based upon stress/fit considerations of design by designers’ experience. however GD&T can’t convey the purpose (intended function) of part. form. orientation.
Where does GD&T come from? (references…)
GD&T vocabulary and grammatical rules are provided in:
ASME Y14.5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing ASME Y14.5.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principals
To avoid confusion, hereafter we will call first standard as “Y14.5” and the later as “Math Standard” Later, we will see differences between other International Standard (more followed in Europe) “ISO GD&T” and the US dialect. ASME offers no .800. number for help on technical issues and interpretations. At times interpretation could be dispute, so users are advised to refer to text / reference books and your organization’s internal staff.
Why do we use GD&T?
•Designer specifies distance to holes’ ideal location •Manufacturer measures this distance and marks a “x” spot and drills a hole. •The Inspector then measures the actual distance to that hole. •ALL THREE PARTIES MUST BE IN PERFECT AGREEMENT ABOUT THREE THINGS: •From where to start the measurement? •What direction to go? •And where measurement ends?
When measurements are precise to two digits, the slightest difference in interpretation (origin / direction /end )can lead to a usable part or expensive paperweight!! Even if everyone agrees to measure to holes’ center, a egg shaped hole presents a variety of “centers” and each center is defensible based on different design considerations You may find claims that GD&T affords more tolerance for manufacturing, but by itself, it doesn't. GD&T affords however much or little tolerance the designer specifies. Just as a common claim that using GD&T saves money, but hardly such claims are accompanied with cost or ROI analyses.
Yet another example …
• Drawing of an Automobile Wheel Rotor • Has neat and uniform appearance •…. But leaves many features totally out of control!!
4 be on the same axis? Nothing on the drawing addresses it! Next slide shows the part that can be built and still meet specifications… however the part may not function in an assembly and therefore lead to assembly rejection…
.7 bore and OD n279.
What if it were important that the n 139.7 bore to be perpendicular to mounting face? What if it was critical that n 139.From Rotor Drawing.
94 178.08 20.24
68.78 20.The “no-sense” Wheel Rotor … dimensionally in
Manufactured part that conforms to the drawing without GD&T
Such system has three shortcomings: × × ×
Square or Rectangular Tolerance Zones Fixed Size Tolerance Zones Ambiguous instructions for Inspection
.Shortcomings of Co-ordinate System of Dimensioning …
Coordinate Dimension Usage
Overall Size of component Chamfers and Radii Locating Part Features Controlling angular relationships Defining the Form of part feature
Correct / Incorrect Use
Co-ordinate tolerancing is a dimensioning system where a part features are defined by means of rectangular dimensions with given tolerances.
16 • The Dia 139 bore has been made Perpendicular to mounting face. Datum A) and labeled as Datum B
• Together Datum A and B form a sturdy reference from which dia.Wheel Rotor in ‘Control’ with GD&T
• Mounting face being important for the function of the rotor. • Later Mounting face assigned as Datum A (foundation for drawing.) • Another critical face of Rotor has been made parallel to Datum A within 0.. therefore directly controlled to our foundation (ie. 10 bolt holes and other round features can be derived/ located
.1. has been made flat within 0.
Clear communication assures that manufactured parts will function and that those functional parts will not be rejected later due to misunderstanding / miscommunication. unambiguous meaning for each control. is simply means of controlling surfaces more precisely and unambiguously.Contd …
Datum features A and B provide a very uniform and well aligned framework from which a variety of relationships and fits can be precisely controlled. So. GD&T then. GD&T provides unique. fewer arguments … Less Scrap. Thus. This is fundamental reason for using GD&T.
The co-ordinate system had square tolerance zone that rejected some good parts!!
.Hence. GD&T …
Adds clarity over co-ordinate system of dimensioning Eliminates notes on the drawings Depicts designers intent and inspection criteria Most significant difference between GD&T and co-ordinate dimensioning is location of round features.
Handling and documentation of functional parts that are rejected! Sorting. corrective actions. BOTTOM LINE? USE GD&T BECAUSE ITS RIGHT THING TO DO. product recall. shimming of parts … often additional operation. loss of market share.Hidden costs that GD&T reduces (Quick
Designers / Manufacturers / Inspectors wasting time to interpret drawings and questioning the designers Rework of manufactured parts due to misunderstanding Inspection deriving meaningless data from parts while failing to check critical relationships. drawing changes and interdepartmental vendettas resulted from failure! ALL THE ADD UP TO AN ENORMOUS. filing. Customer complaints. Meetings. loss of customer loyalty. debates. reworking. Assemblies failing to operate. IT’S ALL PEOPLE ALL OVER THE WORLD UNDERSTAND AND IT SAVES MONEY
. YET UNACCOUNTED COST. failure analysis. Quality problems.
So.0002mm. Experienced manufactures develop fairly reliable sense as what the part is suppose to do. But these standards are minimal requirements. Sometimes. Title Block. Every industry has unwritten customary standards of product
quality and most workers strive to achieve them. Further there is no way to predict what process may be used.
Probability. Common Sense. Even without inadequate specifications. Where designer deems the high risk. therefore.005”
All above “laws” carries obvious risk. But often they are very old and inadequate for modern high-precision tools. Today’s modern precision machine tools have accuracy / repeatability say upto
0. these provide clarification. Further workmanship customs of precision aerospace machinists are rarely shared by ironworkers. he will try to make bore straight and smooth if he suspects it’s a hydraulic cylinder. or contractual standards.
. An example of a title block note is “All surfaces to be flat within 0. GD&T Specifications should be spelled out rigorously . how many and in what sequence to produce a part. a parts’ ability to satisfy design requirements depends largely upon four “laws” Workmanship Skills / Pride. When do we use GD&T?
In absence of GD&T specifications. it is assumed that part dimensions should never vary more than that.
GD&T achieves this goal through four simple steps:
. direction and destination for each measurement. including the origin. we alluded to goal of GD&T: To guide all parties towards reckoning part dimensions the same.
Identify part surfaces to serve as origins and provide specific rules explaining how these surfaces establish the starting point and direction for measurement. Allow dynamic interaction between tolerances (simulating actual assembly possibilities) where appropriate to maximize tolerances.Overview
In previous slides. Convey the nominal (ideal) distances and orientations from origin to other surfaces Establish boundaries and / or tolerance zone for specific attributes of each surface along with specific rules for conformance.
3.How Does GD&T Work? .
Expressing Size Limits
Size Limits (Level 1 Control)
For every feature of size, the designer shall specify the largest and the smallest the feature can be. Previously we discussed the exact requirements these size limits impose on the feature. The standards provide three options for specifying size limits on the drawings.
Symbols for Limits and fits For example, n12.45LC5 or 30f7 (ANSI B4.1 (inch) or ANSI B4.2 (metric)) Limit dimensioning
φ12.45 − 12.49
Plus and Minus Tolerancing
0.35 φ 24.54+ −0.25
11.65 ± 0.45
• When a dimension is less than one mm, zero must precede the decimal point ex. 0.4 NOT .4 • When a dimension is a whole number, neither a decimal point nor zero is used ex. 45 NOT 45.00 • When a dimension is a whole number and decimal, zero does not follow decimal number ex. 47.5 • A dimension does not use a comma or space ex 3450 NOT 3,450 or 3 450 • A tolerance for dimension can have more numbers of decimal places than dimension itself. ex. 47`0.34 • • When unilateral dimension is used, no sign be used with zero; ex. φ 450
φ 340 −0.45
When a bilateral tolerance is used, both; the plus and minus tolerance must have identical number of decimal places ex.
0.76 φ 45+ −0.45
0.55 φ 34+ −0.4
• When a limit dimension is used, the decimal places must match. ex:
• Basic dimension can have any number of decimal places in Feature Control Frame. ex. 50 or 50.35 NOT 50.00
If part measures 80.
.199… part is rejected .Few Examples
20.5 .2000… 160 means 160. A dimension is considered to be followed by zeros after the last significant digit.0000… Interpreting 80.80.2 : -If part measures 80.499… part is accepted
All dimensional limits are absolute.2 means 20.
Usually. and apply GD&T controls to features only. hole or a slot.Part Features
Up till now. pin.5 Feature is the general term applied to physical portion of a part such as surfaces. You can establish datums from. There are two general types of features. tab. Those that have built-in dimension of “size” and those that don’t. To speak GD&T.
. we should begin to use terms as defined in Y14. part feature is a single surface (or a pair of opposed parallel plane surfaces) having uniform shape. we used term Surfaces and Features loosely and almost interchangeably.
Non Size Features
A nonsize feature is a surface having no unique intrinsic size (diameter or width) dimension to measure. A spherical radius – a portion of a spherical surface encompassing less than 180deg of arc length. A revolute – a surface such as cone. generated by revolving a line about an axis. A radius – a portion of cylindrical surface encompassing less than 180deg of arc length. It includes following: A nominally flat planer surface An irregular or ‘warped’ planer surface. such as face of windshield or airfoil.
we can make a meaningful measurements of size between them. associated with size dimension. Only then. it must be possible to construct a perpendicular line intersecting both surfaces. Pins are ‘external’ features of size. To qualify as ‘opposed’. we will call this type of feature a width-type feature
.Features of Size
A feature of size is one cylindrical or spherical surface or a set of two opposed elements or opposed parallel surfaces. Holes are ‘internal’ features of size. From now on. Features of size are subject to principals of material condition modifiers
(to be discussed later…)
‘Opposed parallel surfaces’ means the surfaces are designed to be parallel to each other.
. Although feature has obvious MMC and LMC boundaries.95
4.2 5`0.1 20.15
5`0.Bounded Features (Partial Size Features)
12`0.1 5`0. yet has two opposed elements. nor width type feature. cylinder. we’ll consider this type feature as bounded feature of non size
This type of feature is neither a sphere.2
The “D” hole for example is called “irregular feature of size” by some text books. its arguable whether feature is “associated with size dimension” For now. Y14.15
5`0.5’s own coverage for this type of feature is limited.1 20`0.1 95
cannon gets bigger. If a mating feature of size is as small as it can be. it will fit loosely regardless of its type.Material Condition
Material condition is yet another way of thinking about the size of an object considering object’s nature.
The Nature of a cannon is that its void. nature of a pizza is base with topping. its’ material condition increases and pizza gets bigger and thicker. as erosion decreases its material condition. If you have exxxtraa topping. but when you know feature of size has less material.
For example. Material Condition is features size in the context of its intended function. will it fit tighter or sloppier? We can’t answer until we know whether we’re talking of internal or external feature (hole / pin). In layman’s term.
One can think of MMC as the condition where the most part material is present at the surface of feature. relative to specified size limits.
Least Material Condition (LMC l) is the condition in which feature of size contains minimum amount of material within stated limits of size. or where part weighs the most (everything else being same). This translates to largest allowable hole or the smallest allowable pin.MMC & LMC
Maximum Material Condition (MMC m) is the condition in which a feature of size contains maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size. relative to specified size limits. This translates to smallest allowable hole or the largest allowable pin. or where part weighs the least (everything else being same).
One can think of LMC as the condition where the least part material is present at the surface of feature.
When a basic dimension is used to define part features. true profile. orientation or (2) a location of feature or a gage information (datum targets). it provides nominal location from which permissible variations are established by Geometric Tolerances.Basic Dimensions
Basic Dimension is a numerical value used to describe (1) the theoretically exact size. Basic dimensions are usually denoted by numerical value enclosed in a rectangle or by addition a general note such as “un-toleranced dimensions are basic” Basic dimensions must be accompanied by geometric tolerance to specify how much tolerance the part feature may have
•Are theoretically exact (but gage makers’ tolerance do apply)
. •That define gage information do not have a tolerance shown on the drawing. orientation or true profile of part features or gage information.Basic Dimension Example
Basic dimensions … •Can be used to define theoretically exact location. •That define part features must be accompanied by a geometric tolerance.
Compare this with GD&T’ed Drawing and find all positional callouts… !!
. •Symbols are compact and reduce clutter •Quicker to draw and CAD softwares can draw them automatically. •They can be easily spotted visually. •Any one can read write symbols •Symbols mean exactly same thing to everyone.GD&T Symbols
(An attempt to explain Wheel Rotor Drawing w/o GD&T Symbols)
Tedious to Explain requirements. They are better. instead use symbols.
Form and Proportions of GD&T Symbols
h = size of letter
Feature Control Frames (FCF)
Geometric Characteristic Symbol Tolerance Modifying Symbol Geometric Tolerance Value Primary Datum Secondary Datum Datum Material Condition Modifiers Tertiary Datum
•1st Compartment contains geometric characteristic symbol from 14 available symbols.Feature Control Frame (FCF)
Each geometric control for a feature is conveyed on a drawing by a rectangular box called feature control frame. A typical FCF is divided in compartments expressing following sequentially left to right.
4.2 6.2(a) 6.General Characteristics (Type wise) and corresponding ASME sections
Geometric Category Tolerance Type Description Straightness Flatness For Individual Features For Individual or Related Features Form Circularity Cylindricity Line Profile Profile Surface Profile Angularity Orientation Perpendicularity Parallelism For Related Features Position Location Concentricity Symmetry Circular Runout Runout 110 Total Runout Symbol u c e g k d a b f j r i h t ASME Section 6.1 6.3 5.7.4 6.2 188.8.131.52 6.7.2 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.13 6.1.2
.2.2(b) 22.214.171.124 6.
Modifying / Modifier Symbols
.Feature Control Frame Placement
Place the frame below or attached to a leader-directed callout or dimension pertaining to the feature.
Feature Control Frame Placement
Run a leader from the frame to the feature.
.Feature Control Frame Placement
Attach either side or either end of frame to an extension line from the feature. provided it is a plane surface.
.Feature Control Frame Placement
Attach either side or either end of the frame to an extension of the dimension line pertaining to a feature of size.
Reading Feature Control Frame …
It is easy to translate FCF into English and read a loud from left to right. Then we just add the following English language preface for each compartment: 1st Compartment: “The …” 2nd Compartment: “… of this feature shall be within …” 3rd Compartment: “… to primary datum …” 4th Compartment: “… and to secondary datum …” 5th Compartment: “… and to tertiary datum …”
With this.111) show equivalent English words to the left of each symbol. Previous tables (slide# 110. feature control frame shown above is reads as: “The Position of this feature shall be within cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 1 at maximum material condition to primary datum A and to secondary datum B at maximum material condition and to tertiary datum C at maximum material condition” Isn’t it Easy?
orientation and position of features. thus providing setup for mfg and inspection. FCF contain information for proper part orientation in relation to specified Datums
.Summarizing FCFs …
FCF is specified to each feature or group of features FCF provides instructions form.
Four Fundamental Levels of Control for FOS
Features of Size : Four fundamental Levels of Control
Four different levels of GD&T control can apply to a feature of size. however as we move up the level ladder. the lower level control remain in effect. Each higher level control adds a degree of constraint demanded by features functional requirement. Thus a single feature may subject to many tolerance simultaneously! Level 1: Controls size and (for cylinders and spheres) circularity at each cross section only Level 2: Adds overall Form Control Level 3: Adds Orientation Control Level 4: Adds Location Control
Level 1 : ‘Size’ Control
Generating a Size Limit Boundary
we take another spine and sweep another ball whose diameter = large size limit of the cylindrical feature
generates second 3D boundary. this time for the features’ largest size.
balls’ center along the spine.Math Standard : establishing size limit boundaries
with geometric element: Spine
Spine for a cylindrical feature (such as pin / hole) is a simple non-self-intersecting curve in space.
generates a “wormlike” 3D boundary for the features’ smallest size
could be straight or wavy
a imaginary steel ball whose diameter = small size limit of the cylindrical feature.
except that the small size boundary shall be entirely contained within large size limit boundary
Conformance to limits of size for a cylindrical feature
Under Level 1 Control.Math Standard : establishing size limit boundaries
This shows a cylindrical feature of size conforms to its size limits when its surface can contain the small boundary and be contained within larger boundary. the curvatures and relative locations of each spine may be adjusted as necessary to achieve the hierarchy of containments as above.
Level 2 : ‘Form’ Control
internal and external is Straight. the designer knows that n20. features of size should achieve clearance fit in an assembly
Designer calculates the size tolerances based on assumption that each feature.
. In this example.Level 2 Control: Overall Feature Form
As shown in figure left.6 min hole if both are straight.5 max pin will fit in a n20.
they usually won’t go together.6
. they can’t assure assemblability. Level 2 adds control of overall geometric shape or “form” of a feature of size by establishing a perfectly formed boundary beyond which feature’s surface(s) shall not encroach. because Level 1’s size limit boundaries can be curved. 20.5
If pin is banana shaped and hole is lazy “S” shaped.Level 2 Control:
Overall Feature Form (contd …)
5 established a default rule for perfect form based upon assumption that most features of size must achieve a clearance fit. This invokes a boundary of perfect form at MMC (also called an envelope) Rule #1 does not require the LMC boundary to have a perfect form. Y14.Perfect Form at MMC Only (Rule #1)
Y14. This Rule #1 is also referred as ‘Taylor’s Envelope Principle’
.5’s Rule #1 decrees that. a features MMC size limit spine shall be perfectly formed (straight or flat depending upon type). unless otherwise specified or overridden by another rule.
20.501 envelope and any hole that can contain its n. .502 envelope.Perfect Form at MMC Only (Rule #1)
The figure left shows how Rule #1 establishes a n.501 boundary of perfect form at MMC (envelope) for pin. . The figure also shows how matability is assured for any pin that can fit inside its n.5 20.4 20.6
.. Rule #1 mandates a n.6 20.5
21. This simple hierarchy of fits is called as the envelope principle.5
19.502 boundary of perfect form at MMC (envelope) for the hole. Similarly. .
Rule #1 Example (External FOS)
Part shall be always contained within MMC Envelope
Every Cross-sectional measurement must be within limits of Size
Rule #1 Example (Internal FOS)
Boundary of Perfect form MMC Envelope
Hole shall be always outside the MMC perfect form Envelope
Every crosssectional measurement must be within limits of size
Perfect Form at neither MMC nor LMC
Figure above is a drawing for electrical bus bar. Note that cross sectional dimensions have relatively close tolerances, not because bar fits closely inside anything, but rather needed to assure a minimum current carrying capacity without wasting expensive copper. Neither the MMC nor the LMC boundary needed perfectly straight.
However, if bus bar is custom rolled, or machined from a plate, it won’t automatically be exempted from Rule #1. In such a case, Rule #1 shall be explicitly nullified by adding a note as shown.
Rule #1 Arguments …
Many experts argue that Rule #1 is actually the “exception” that fewer than half of all features of size need any boundary of perfect form. Which means, for majority of features of size, Rule #1’s perfect form at MMC requirement accomplishes nothing except to drive up costs!! The Solution is that Y14.5 prescribes the “perfect form not required” note and engineers simply fail to add it more often. Interestingly, ISO defaults to “perfect form not required” (sometimes called as independency principal) and requires special symbol to invoke the “envelope” of perfect form at MMC. This is one of the major differences between ISO and Y14.5
Every engineer should consider for every feature of size whether a boundary of perfect form is a necessity or a waste?
Why Rule #1?
Ensures assembleability through InterChangeability Automatically separates bad parts that encroach envelope of perfect form at MMC For welded parts. rule #1 applies after welding operation is performed (since one or more parts when welded become single part)
modifier s is no longer used.Rule #2
Rule #2 states that in absence of modifier (such as m or l) in tolerance or datum compartment.15
φ15 ± 0.
φ15 ± 0. the tolerance applies on RFS (Regardless of Feature Size) basis.25
0. In short.
Virtual Condition (Fixed Size) Inner & Outer (Variable Size) Worst Case IB/OB (Fixed Size)
since mating connector has flared lead in. Pin being slender.Virtual Condition Boundary for Overall Form
There are cases. but at different size than MMC or LMC. where perfect form boundary is needed. Figure on left shows a slender pin that will mate with very flexible socket in a mating connector. its difficult to manufacture pins satisfying Rule #1’s boundary of perfect form at MMC and LMC. such near perfect straightness isn’t functionally necessary.
MMC virtual condition of a cylindrical feature
Virtual Condition Boundary for Overall Form
Another example shows a flat washer to be stamped out of a sheet. nevertheless. Rule #1 would be unnecessarily restrictive. Here again. Note that thickness has close tolerance because excessive variation may cause motor shaft misalignment. for the tolerance and aspect ratio. envelope is needed to prevent badly warped washers jamming in an automated assembly equipment
MMC virtual condition of a width-type feature
Virtual Condition Boundary is…
Virtual Condition is NOT a Control It’s a condition of a feature established by collective efforts of Size.So. Geometric Tolerances and Modifiers Virtual Condition Boundaries can be established for Internal and External Features of size.
VCB of Location for Internal FOS controlled at MMC
Total Tol 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.15 0.3 0.1 0.25 0.75 29.75
VCB = Hole Size – Total Tolerance OR VCB = MMC Size limit – Geo Tol
.35 0.15 30.5
VCB 29.95 30 30.75 29.85 (MMC) 29.1 0.25 0.1 30.75 29.1
Bonus Tol 0 0.25 (LMC)
Position Tol 0.75 29.1 0.1 0.VCB of Location for Internal FOS controlled at MMC
Hole Size 29.75 29.4 0.
VCB of Location for External FOS controlled at MMC
VCB 29.1 0.4 29.1 0.65 29.3 (LMC)
Position Tol 0.65 29.5 29.15 0.1
Bonus Tol 0 0.55 (MMC) 29.25
Total Tol 0.1 0.65
VCB = Pin Size + Total Tolerance OR VCB = MMC Size limit + Geo Tol
.VCB of Location for External FOS controlled at MMC
Pin Size 29.65 29.3 0.65 29.05 0..1 0.15 0.1 0.25 0.35 29.2 0.
9 In this case VCB is same as Inner Boundary (worst case)
In either case. VCBs lie in air space.0.3 = n12.3 at MMC VCB = MMC + GTol VCB = 12. controlled feature never encroaches respective VCBs.
.3 at MMC VCB = MMC .3 = n12.6 + 0.GTol VCB = 13.9 In this case VCB is same as Outer Boundary (worst case)
Tolerance Zone = n0.VCB of Orientation (controlled at MMC)
Tolerance Zone = n0.2 .
LMC Virtual Condition Example
Figure at left shows a part where straightness of datum feature A is necessary to protect wall thickness.4 Note the difficulty of verifying conformance where the virtual condition boundary is embedded in part material and can’t be simulated with hard gages. The tolerance establishes a virtual condition boundary embedded in a part material beyond which feature surface shall not encroach.7n0. the straightness tolerance modified to LMC supplants the boundary of perfect form at LMC. Here. LMC virtual condition of a cylindrical feature For OD For datum feature (external) A.3=n19. the diameter of such virtual boundary equals to LMC size limit minus the straightness tolerance value: n19.
3 = n12. controlled feature never encroaches respective VCBs.3 = n13.3 .GTol VCB = 12.0.VCB of Orientation (controlled at LMC)
Tolerance Zone = n0.9 In this case VCB is same as Outer Boundary (worst case)
In either case.3 at LMC VCB = LMC + GTol VCB = 13.6 + 0.
.0 In this case VCB is same as Inner Boundary (worst case)
Tolerance Zone = n0. VCBs are embedded in material.3 at LMC VCB = LMC .
Inner & Outer Boundaries
As per Y14. the WCB can be Inner or Outer or Virtual Condition Boundary.5.
Outer Boundary is defined as:
A Worst case Boundary (ie locus) generated by the largest feature (LMC for Internal Feature and MMC for External feature) plus the stated Geometric Tolerance Value and any additional Geometric Tolerance (if applicable) from the features’ departure from its specified material condition.
Worst Case Boundary is defined as:
It is a general term to refer to the extreme boundary of a FOS that is the worst case for assembly. Inner Boundary is defined as:
A Worst case Boundary (ie locus) generated by the smallest feature (MMC for Internal Feature and LMC for External feature) minus the stated Geometric Tolerance Value and any additional Geometric Tolerance (if applicable) from the features’ departure from its specified material condition.
. Depending upon dimensioning method.
Inner & Outer Boundaries Example
OB = n20.15
OB = (n20.86
IB = (20 .0.14)=19.15+0.45
OB = n20.3) = n20.
3 = n12.6 + 0.2 .9 For External FOS: WCOB = MMC + Geometric Tolerance WCIB = LMC – Geometric Tolerance For Internal FOS: WCIB = MMC – Geometric Tolerance WCOB = LMC + Geometric Tolerance
. i.RFS Case : Inner and Outer Boundaries
•When Geometric tolerances are applied on RFS Basis.9 WCOB = MMC + GTol = n12.0.e.9 OB = n12.3 = n12.GTol = n12. there is no modifier such as m or l in tolerance portion of FCF.9 WCIB = MMC . the OBs and IBs are calculated as:
IB = n13.
GTol OB = MMC + GTol IB = VCB = MMC – GTol OB = LMC + GTol + Bonus OB = VCB = MMC + GTol IB = LMC – GTol .Summarizing Boundary Calculations …
Type of Control
FOS Type Internal
Formula to calculate WCB IB = MMC OB = MMC IB = MMC .GTol
FOS with no GD&T FOS with GD&T at RFS FOS with GD&T at MMC
External Internal External Internal External Internal
FOS with GD&T at LMC External
GTol = Geometric Tolerance
.Bonus IB = MMC – GTol – Bonus OB = VCB = LMC + GTol OB = MMC + GTol + Bonus IB = VCB = LMC .
Actual Mating Envelope/Size Bonus Tolerance Actual Minimum Material Envelope/Size
or the orientation and location of an actual mating envelope shall be restrained to one or two datums (see next figure)
. which can be circumscribed about the feature so that it just contacts the feature surface(s). which can be inscribed within the feature so that it just contacts the feature surface(s). the orientation. of perfect form which correspond to a part feature of size as follows: For External Feature: A similar perfect feature counterpart of smallest size. For Internal Feature: A Similar perfect feature counterpart of largest size.Actual Mating Envelope
The Actual Mating envelope is a surface. In certain cases. or a pair of parallel plane surfaces. For examples a smallest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes of perfect form at minimum separation that just contacts the surface(s). For example a largest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes of perfect form at maximum separation that just contact(s) the surface(s).
Thus this increase or extra tolerance is called as ‘Bonus Tolerance’
. a bonus tolerance is permissible When MMC modifier is used in tolerance portion of FCF. it means the stated tolerance is applies when toleranced FOS is at its maximum material condition. Whenever a geometric tolerance is applied to FOS and it contains an MMC (m) or LMC (l) modifier in the tolerance portion of FCF. an increase in the stated tolerance = amount of departure is permitted.Bonus Tolerance
Bonus Tolerance is an additional tolerance for geometric control. When the actual mating size of feature departs from MMC (towards LMC).
Specified Straightness Tol 0.6 3. • Bonus tolerance comes from the FOS tolerance •Bonus tolerance is the amount the actual mating size departs from MMC (or LMC)
Plate Thickness 3.8(mmc) 3.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 0. • Bonus tolerance is only permissible when an MMC (or LMC) modifier is shown in the tolerance portion of a feature control frame.7
.7 3.1 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.Bonus Tolerance Examples
Wide gage (2 plates) • Bonus tolerance is an additional tolerance for a geometric control.3
Total Tol 0.4
Bonus Tol 0 0.
m denotes Bonus tolerance is permissible
Bonus tolerance comes from Size (FOS) Tolerance. In this case.Bonus Tolerance Examples
Bonus tolerance comes from Size (FOS) Tolerance.2
No Bonus applicable. Max bonus=0. In this case. Tolerance applied to non FOS
m denotes Bonus tolerance is permissible
Level 3 : ‘Orientation’ Control
Level 3 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation
For two mating features of size, Level 2 control “overall perfect form boundary” can only assure assemblability in absence of any orientation or location restraint between two features. Ie. Features are “free floating” to each other.
In the example at left, pin fitting into a hole. We added a large flange for each part. The requirement is the both flanges shall bolt together and make full contact. This introduces an orientation restraint between two mating features. When flange faces are bolter together tightly, the pin and the hole must be square to their respective flange faces. Though the pin and the hole might each respect their MMC boundaries of perfect form; nothing prevents from boundaries being badly skewed to each other. (see
fig on next page)
Level 3 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation
We can address the requirement by taking the envelope principle one step further to Level 3 Control. An orientation tolerance applied to a feature of size, modified to MMC ot LMC, establishes a virtual boundary beyond which surface(s) of features shall not encroach
In addition to Level 2 control of perfect form, this new boundary has perfect orientation in all applicable degrees of freedom (360deg) relative to any datum features we select. The shape and size of the virtual condition for orientation are governed by the same rules as for form at Level 2. Again, a single feature of size can subject to multiple levels of control, thus multiple virtual condition boundaries. In figure above, we’ve restrained virtual condition boundary perpendicular to flange face and shows how matability is assured for any part having a pin that can fit inside its n21 MMC virtual condition boundary and any part having a hole that can contain its n21 MMC virtual condition boundary.
Level 4 : ‘Position’ Control
Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location
For two mating features of size, Level 3’s virtual condition boundary for orientation can only assure assemblability in absence of any location restraint between two features, for example where no other mating features impede optimum location alignment between or pin and hole. In the figure left, we moved the pin and hole close to the edges of flange and added a large boss and bore mating interfaces at the center of the flanges.
When flange faces are tightened together with bots and the boss and bore are fitted together, the pin and the hole must each still be very square to their respective flange faces. However the parts can no longer slide freely to optimize the location alignment between the pins and the hole. This necessitates the additional restraint that the pins and holes must be accurately located relative to its respective boss or bore.
For spherical feature. the new boundary shall have perfect location in all applicable degrees of freedom relative to any datum features we select.Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd …)
A Positional tolerance applied to a feature of size. modified to MMC or LMC. n20. The shape and size of virtual boundary for location is governed by the same rules as for form at Level 2 and for orientation at Level 3 with one addition. orientation. location tolerance applied
. takes the virtual condition one step ahead: Level 4. A single feature of size may be subjected to multiple levels of control thus multiple virtual condition boundaries … one for each form.7 VCB n35 VCB In addition to perfect form and perfect orientation. the tolerance is preceded by the ‘Sn’ symbol and specifies a virtual condition boundary that is sphere.
. The bore has an MMC limit of n35. Since its internal feature of size. its virtual condition is n35. we identified two datums for each part and added dimensions and tolerances for our understanding of assembly. Since its external feature of size. derived from flange face.5 at MMC.5 and perpendicularity tolerance of n0.5+n0.5 and perpendicularity tolerance of n0.5 at MMC.Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd …)
In the example above. The center boss has MMC size limit of n34. the datum feature is the flange face Each virtual condition boundary for orientation is restrained perfectly perpendicular to its referenced datum. its virtual condition is n34.5-n0.5=n35 Note that for each perpendicularity tolerance.5=n35.
Each boundary is additionally restrained perfectly located relative to its referenced secondary datum. Note that each location tolerance.4+n0.3 at MMC. the primary datum feature is the respective flange face and secondary datum feature is center boss or bore.3=n20. thus assemblability.4 and a positional tolerance of n0. The pin and hole combination requires MMC virtual condition boundaries with location restraint added.7 The hole has an MMC size limit of n21 and a positional tolerance of n0. Try this without GD&T!!
. Since its internal feature of size. Since its external feature of size.3=n20. Each virtual condition boundary for location is restrained perfectly perpendicular to its referenced primary datum.Level 4 Control: Virtual Condition Boundary for Location (contd …)
Next. This restraint of both orientation and location on each part is crucial for perfect alignment between boundaries on both parts. its virtual condition is n21-n0. derived from flange face.7 boundary.7 boundary can assemble with any hole containing its n20. derived from boss or bore. its virtual condition is n20. The pin has MMC size limit of n20.7 Any pin contained within its n20.3 at MMC.
Many Geometric Elements can be derived from any feature. a separate tolerance controls overall feature form by constraining a derived median line or derived median plane (according to type of feature)
. 2. 4. Instead.
Derived median line(from a cylindrical feature) Derived median plane (from a width type of feature) Feature center Point (from a spherical feature) Feature Axis (from a cylindrical feature) Feature center plane (from a width type feature)
A Level2 (straightness or Flatness) tolerance nullifies Rule #1’s boundary of perfect form at MMC. A Geometric tolerance RFS applied to a feature of size controls’ one of the following:
1. 5. 3.
within which the derived median line shall be contained. This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by a cylinder having a diameter equal to the tolerance value.Derived Elements (Contd…)
As shown in figure left.
Tolerance zone for straightness control at RFS
. in absence of material condition modifier means that straightness tolerance applies RFS by default.
But where its’ necessary to control overall form within a tolerance that remains constant. within which the entire derived median plane shall be contained. regardless of feature size. there is no simpler options.
. As you will note. separated by a distance equal to tolerance value.Derived Elements (Contd…)
Tolerance zone for Straightness control at RFS In above figure. Both size limits are still in force. it’s a difficult deriving a median plane. but neither the spine for the MMC size boundary nor the spine for LMC size boundary need to be perfectly formed.This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel planes. the Straightness tolerance applies RFS by default.
When to Use MMC / LMC / RFS ?
and the features controlled to it likewise make clearance fits. Because clearance fits are so common and permits functional gaging. now its RFS).Use MMC for clearance fits…
Use MMC for any feature of size that assembles with another feature of size on a mating part and foremost concern is that the two mating features clear (not interfere with) each other. Use MMC on any datum reference were the datum feature of size itself makes a clearance fit. Where a screw thread must be controlled with GD&T or referred as datum. try to use MMC
.5 made it the default. many designers have wisely adopted MMC as a default (previously Y14.
LMC applied to both datum features guarantee a minimal offset between the two parts regardless of how the loose the fit. This is a valuable technique for protecting other mating interfaces in the assembly. For a non mating bore.
. to protect minimum wall thickness for strength For a gaging features of a functional gage to assure the gage won’t clear a non conforming part …. but consider an assembly where datum features of size pilot two mating parts that must be well centered to each other. LMC is an excellent choice for datum references on functional gages. For a non mating boss around a hole. forged or rough machined feature to assure stock for cleanup in a subsequent cleanup operation.. for example:
– – –
For a cast.Use LMC for Minimum stock protection
Use LMC where you must guarantee a minimum ‘shell” of material all over a surface of any feature of size. fluid passes etc to protect minimum wall thickness for strength.
We don’t often see LMC applied to datum features.
Certain geometric characteristics. RFS principal now apply by default in absence of any material condition modifier. or elastic intermediate parts such as “O” rings An adjustable interface where an adjusting screw. For these type of tolerances. In fact. RFS always applies. RFS is a poor choice for in clearance fit mating interfaces because it does not allow dynamic tolerance interaction. such as run out and concentricity where MMC or LMC are so inappropriate that the rule prohibit material condition modifiers.Use RFS for Centering
RFS is obsessed with a feature’s center to the point of ignorance of features’ actual size. RFS does not allow dynamic interaction between size and location or between size and orientation of feature. However. shim. this apparent limitation of RFS actually makes it an excellent choice for self centering mating interfaces where the mating features always fit together snugly and center on each other regardless of their actual mating size. That means smaller tolerance. Elastic parts. For example:
– – – –
Press fits Tapers such as Morse Tapers and countersinks for flat headed screws. usable parts are rejected and higher scarp and costs
. sleeve etc will be used on assembly to center a mating part.
Straightness Flatness Circularity Cylindricity
Straightness Tolerance for Line (Surface) Elements
When straightness tolerance FCF is specified as shown in figure above. the tolerance controls only line elements of that feature. Tolerance specifies a tolerance zone plane containing a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel lines separated by distance equal to tolerance value.
. the surface’s intersection with plane shall anywhere be contained within the tolerance zone (between two lines). Within the plane. The FCF may only appear in a view where the controlled surfaces is represented by a straight line. As the tolerance zone plane sweeps the entire feature surface. the location and orientation of tolerance zone may adjust continuously to part surface while sweeping.
Straightness Control Applied to Line (Surface) Element
When straightness control is applied to surface elements.
– – – – – – – – –
The tolerance zone applies to surface element The tolerance zone is two parallel lines Rule#1 applies The Outer/Inner Boundary is not affected No tolerance modifiers may be specified The straightness tolerance value specified must be less than the size tolerance. No Datum reference required in FCF The control must be directed to surface elements The straightness control must be applied in the view where the controlled elements are shown as a line
it establishes a Level 2 virtual condition boundary as described earlier. Unmodified. Where the tolerance is modified to MMC or LMC.Straightness Tolerance Applied to a Cylindrical FOS
A straightness tolerance control frame placed according to option a or d specified in slide #108 replaces Rule #1’s requirement of perfect form at MMC with a separate tolerance controlling the overall straightness of the cylindrical feature. the tolerance applies RFS and establishes a central tolerance zone as described earlier within which the features’ derived median line shall be contained.
Straightness Applied on MMC Basis
a diameter symbol n should be specified in the tolerance portion of FCF
. the bonus tolerance applies The straightness tolerance value specified may be greater than the size tolerance. No Datum references can be specified in the FCF The control must be associated with a FOS dimension If applied to cylindrical FOS.
– – – – – – – – – –
The tolerance zone applies to the axis or centerplane of the FOS Rule#1 is overridden The Virtual condition or Outer/Inner Boundary of the FOS is affected The MMC Modifiers may be specified in the tolerance portion of the control If tolerance modifiers are specified (MMC).Straightness Control Applied to a Cylindrical FOS
When straightness control is applied to a FOS. A fixed gage may be used to inspect straightness.
The orientation and location of tolerance zone may adjust to the part surface. MMC/LMC does not apply to flatness control because only surface area is controlled and area have no size
. A flatness tolerance cannot control whether the surface is fundamentally concave. Rule #1 automatically limits the flatness deviation of each surface. The specified tolerance in the FCF is implied as RFS.Flatness Tolerance Applied to a Planer Surface
When a Flatness FCF is placed according to options b or c as in slide #78. Thus to have any meaning. the tolerance applies to single nominal flat feature. convex or stepped. just the maximum range between its highest and lowest undulations. This specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two parallel planes separated by distance equal to the tolerance value. within which the entire feature surface shall be contained.
For a width type of feature of size. a separate flatness tolerance applied to either single surface must be less than the total size tolerance. The flatness FCF may be applied only in a view where the element to be controlled is represented by a straight line.
Flatness Control Applied to a Planar Surface
When Flatness control is applied to Planar Surface:
– – – –
No Datum references can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to a planar surface No tolerance Modifiers can be specified in the FCF The tolerance value specified must be less than any other geometric controls that limit the flatness of the surface.
Typical Flatness Control Application:
– – –
For a Gasket or a Seal To attach a mating part For better contact of datum feature with datum plane.
. The tolerance value specified must be less than the size tolerance.
tubular shapes. So. the tolerance specifies a tolerance zone plane containing an annular tolerance zone (ring shaped) bounded by two concentric circles whose radii differ by an amount equal to tolerance value.
. torus shapes. including sphere. When applied to non-spherical feature. a circularity tolerance may be applied to any type of feature having uniformly circular cross sections. revolute (cones).Circularity Tolerance
A circularity tolerance controls a features’ circularity (roundness) at individual cross section. rods. cylinders.
Between two circles). the surfaces’ intersection with the plane shall anywhere be contained within an annular tolerance zone (ie. So. While sweeping. the tolerance zone may continually adjust in overall size. Additionally. This effectively removes diametrical taper from circularity control. As the tolerance zone sweeps the entire feature surface. It is preferred that circularity tolerance be less than half the size tolerance to limit multi-lobbed deviations (egg shaped or tri-lobed).Circularity Tolerance (contd…)
The tolerance zone plane shall be swept along a simple non-self-intersecting tangent continuous curve (spine). At each point on the spine. but shall maintain the specified radial width. in addition this effectively removes straightness from circularity control A circularity tolerance greater than the total size tolerance has no effect.
. the spines orientation and curvature may be adjusted within aforesaid constraints. the tolerance zone plane shall be perpendicular to the spine and tolerance zone centered on the spine.
When Circularity is applied to circular elements:
– – – – – – –
The diameter must be within its size tolerance The circularity control does not override Rule #1 The circularity tolerance must be less than size tolerance The circularity control does not affect the Boundaries of the FOS No Datum references can be specified in the FCF No Tolerance modifiers can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to diametrical feature
provided their radial separation remains equal to the tolerance value . A cylindricity tolerance specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two concentric cylinders whose radii differ by an amount equal to the tolerance value. a cylindricity tolerance must be less than half the size tolerance to limit multi-lobbed from deviations Since neither circularity nor a cylindricity tolerance can nullify size limits for a feature. The entire feature surfaces shall be contained within the tolerance zone (between two cylinders). and taper of a cylindrical feature. The tolerance zone cylinders may adjust to any diameter.Cylindricity Tolerance
A Cylindricity tolerance is a composite control of form that includes circularity. As with the circularity tolerance. straightness. there is nothing to be gained by modifying either tolerances to MMC or LMC
. This effectively removes feature size from cylindricity control.
. as shown above. Form tolerance applies only within the limits as indicated by chain line. rather than the entire surface. In such cases. draw a thick chain line adjacent to the surface.Cylindricity Tolerance over a Limited Length or Area
Some designs require form control over a limited length or area of the surface. dimensioned for length and location as necessary.
When Cylindricity is applied to cylindrical surfaces:
– – – – – – –
The diameter must be within its size tolerance The cylindricity control does not override Rule #1 The Cylindricity tolerance must be less than size tolerance The Cylindricity control does not affect the OB of the FOS No Datum references can be specified in the FCF No Tolerance modifiers can be specified in the FCF The control must be applied to cylindrical feature
. establishes a zone bounded by a minimum radius arc and maximum radius arc. within which the entire surface feature shall be contained. A radius tolerance denoted by R. each arc shall be tangent to the adjacent part surfaces.Radius Tolerance
A radius is a portion of a cylindrical surface encompassing less than 180o arc length. By default.
But there are additional requirements for the surface. The surface contour shall be fair curve without any reversals.Controlled Radius Tolerance
Where a symbol CR is applied to a radius. This means a tangent continuous curve that is everywhere convex or concave. the tolerance zone will be as described in previous slide #176.
A flatness tolerance might be appropriate for a surface that seals with a gasket. For example. assembly or function of the part.When Do We use a Form Tolerance?
As a general rule. inspection. A roller bearing might be controlled with a cylindricity tolerance A conical bearing race might have both a straightness of surface element tolerance and a circularity tolerance
. apply a form (only) tolerance to a non datum feature only where there is some risk that the surface will be manufactured with form deviations severe enough to cause problems in subsequent manufacturing operations.
Use of m or l?
Are boundaries affected?
c e g
Yes Yes Yes Yes
No Yes No No
No May* No No
No May* No No
No May* No No
No No No No
* When applied to FOS
..Summarizing Form Tolerances
Correct to apply to .
A datum is an origin from which the location or geometric characteristics of features of a part are established.What is Datum?
A Datum is a theoretically exact point. axis or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a specified datum feature. A datum reference is an alphabetic letter specified in a compartment following a Geometric tolerance in a feature control frame. A datum feature is an actual feature of a part that is used to establish a datum. A feature control frame may have zero. one.
. It specifies a datum to which the tolerance zone or acceptance boundary is basically related.two or three datum references.
Establishing Datum Reference Frames from Part Features
“Datum feature” begets “True geometric counterpart” which begets a “datum” which is building block for “Datum Reference Frame”. which is the basis of establishing tolerance zone for other features.
We shall refer to this figure often
For precision manufacturing. Although any type of part feature can be a datum feature. what qualifications of CEO should we look for…?
Recall our session #1. It was a patch of leveled ground once. it’s a flat surface or a straight and round diameter on a machine part. selecting one is bit like hiring a CEO who will provide strong moral center and direction for the entire organization. So. where we said: The first step in GD&T is to “identify part surfaces to serve as origins and provide specific rules explaining how these surfaces establish the starting point and direction for measurements” Such a part surface is called as “datum feature” Builders understood the need for a consistent and uniform origin from which to base their measurements.
should have “broad shoulders” able to take on the weight of the part and provide overall stability. A good datum feature is a surface that most strongly influences the origin and/or location of parts in its assembly. Just as you want your CEO highly visible.Datum Feature Selection
The most important quality you want in CEO (datum feature) is leadership. Avoid shaky and unfinished surfaces with high and low spots. choose a datum feature that is always accessible for fixturing manufacturing. or at various stages of inspection during stages of manufacturing
. a good datum feature such as shown below. We shall call it a functional datum feature. Rather than a being a slender and small.
we intuitively rank the dependencies as: Engine block makes a foundation.Functional Hierarchy
Its tough to judge leadership from void Spot it intuitively when you see how a prospect (parts and features) relates to each other In the assembly figure left for a car engine. consisting of three parts : Engine block.
. to which we bolt on the cylinder head to which in turn we bolt rocker arm cover. Cylinder Head and Rocker Arm cover.
How to Identify Datum Features and Apply Symbols?
Each datum feature shall be identified with a different latter of alphabet (except I. a leader line extending from the frame to datum feature and a terminating triangle.
. When alphabets are exhausted. he needs to put a ‘badge’ to denote its’ authority.Identifying Datum Features
Once the CEO (datum feature) has sworn in. Q). double letters (AA through AZ. The symbol consists of a capital letter enclosed in a square compartment. we use the ‘datum feature’ symbol as shown below. BA through BZ etc) are used and compartment is stretched to fit. making it easier to spot on a drawing. So. The triangle may be solid filled. instead of a star. O.
dimension line.Datum Feature Symbol Application
A Datum feature symbol is applied to concerned feature surface outline. extension line.
. or on an extension line of feature outline. or feature control frame (FCF) as follows: (a) Placed on the outline of a feature surface. clearly separated from dimension line. when the datum feature is surface itself.
one of the arrow may be replaced with datum feature triangle
.Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd…)
(b) Placed on an extension of a dimension line of a feature of size when datum is an axis or center plane. If there is insufficient space for two arrows.
when the datum is the axis. The triangle may be drawing tangent to the feature
. separated from the size dimension.Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd…)
( c ) Placed on the outline of a cylindrical feature surface. or the extension of the the feature outline.
(e) Placed above or below and attached to the feature control frame when the feature (or a group of features controlled is the datum axis or datum center plane
.Datum Feature Symbol Application (contd…)
(d) Placed on a dimension leader line to the feature size dimension. where no geometric tolerance and feature control frames are used.
Summarizing Datum Feature Symbol Application ( for FOS datum features)
(a) Datum is axis
(b) Datum is axis
(c) Datum is common axis
(e) Datum is centerplane
(d) Datum is center plane
Introduction to True Geometric Counterpart (TGC)
Datum Features and their TGCs
Go Slide 300 Go Slide 301
Go Slide 302
Datum Reference Frame (DRF)
Datum Reference Frame (DRF) (contd…)
Datum Reference Frame as Per ASME Y14. it takes two or three datums to build this complete DRF.5
. nor it is obvious how to build DRF needed for a particular application. Since each type if datum has different abilities. it is not vary obvious which one can be combined.
Datum Reference Frame (DRF) (contd…)
Degree of Freedom (DOF)
DRF Development Examples
answer following questions … • How many datum features are there for this part? • What are types of datum features and Datums? • What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? • How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? • Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible . operation? • How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end?
.DRF Development Example 1
With reference to this drawing. how ) much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? • Write down your observation on selection of datum features • Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg.
DRF Development Example 2
With reference to this drawing. how much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? • Write down your observation on selection of datum features • Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg. operation? • How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end?
. answer following questions … • How many datum features are there for this part? • What are types of datum features and Datums? • What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? • How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? • Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible .
how much is maximum permissible bonus tolerance ? • Write down your observation on selection of datum features • Does the DRF imply any sequence of mfg. operation? • How many DOF each datum feature removes from part? How many DOF available at the end?
.DRF Development Example 3
With reference to this drawing. answer following questions … • How many datum features are there for this part? • What are types of datum features and Datums? • What are tolerance zone shapes and sizes for various FCFs? • How are tolerance zones orientated and/or located to DRF? • Are the tolerance zones fixed or flexible ? If flexible .
Comparison of Datum Precedence
•Once datum feature A is simulated.Comparison of Datum Precedence – Case B
• To simulate datum feature A. and perpendicular to datum feature simulator for B •Note that small holes’ axis is not perpendicular to datum feature B •No relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator. •The axis of two small holes shall be parallel to datum A. an adjustable gage/fixture is required. it decides orientation of part.
Ref Slide 268
Comparison of Datum Precedence – Case C
•Once datum feature B is simulated.
•The axis of two small holes shall be perpendicular to datum feature B •To simulate datum feature A.
Ref Slide 268
. an adjustable gage/fixture is required. •No relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator. it decides orientation of part.
Such relative movement could cause the two small holes to shift more wrt to datum axis A
Ref Slide 268
.0 is required. •relative movement allowed between datum feature A and its simulator. a fixed gage/fixture of dia 16.Comparison of Datum Precedence – Case D
•The axis of two small holes shall be perpendicular to datum feature B
•To simulate datum feature A.
Also. Each TGC has either no size. adjustable size or fixed size depending upon type of datum feature and referenced material condition. each type of datum feature has corresponding TGC.TGC Types
As we have already seen. TGC is either restrained or unrestrained depending on datum precedence
Same as axis of chuck Stepped Shaft Example
.Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (axis) at RFS
Adjustable Chuck to Simulate datum feature A Datum Axis A.
Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (axis) at RFS
Expandable mandrel used to simulate datum feature B
Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (centerplane) at RFS
Adjustable Vice to Simulate datum feature C
Adjustable Size TGC : Primary Datum (centerplane) at RFS
Expandable plates to Simulate datum feature D
Adjustable Size TGC : Secondary Datum (Axis) at RFS + Tertiary
Datum (Centerplane) at RFS Example
Datum axis F Expandable mandrel to simulate datum feature F Expandable width to simulate datum feature G
Surface plate to Simulate datum feature E
Datum centerplane G 315
Adjustable Size TGC : Datum Axis from Co-Axial diameters RFS
MMC and LMC virtual boundaries. and MMC and LMC profile boundaries. the TGCs include MMC and LMC boundaries of perfect form.
.Fixed Size TGC
For features of size and bounded features referenced as datums at MMC or LMC.
Each of these TGCs have fixed size and/or fixed shape.
Fixed Size TGC (contd…)
Dia 89.31 fixed size opening in gage/fixture to simulate Hm
61(=VCB size of H) fixed size opening in gage/fixture to simulate Hm
.Fixed Size TGC (contd…)
DRF Displacement Example 1
• Datum shift can result in an additional tolerance for a geometric control • Datum shift is only permissible when a modifier is shown in datum compartment of a feature control frame • Datum shift results when the AME of the datum feature departs from given material condition (in this case MMC • The maximum allowable datum shift is the difference between the gage size (for the datum feature) and LMC size of the datum feature.
..Effect of Datum Shift on hole location .
DRF Displacement Example 2
When a special-case FOS datum is referenced at MMC. datum shift may be possible when the datum feature is at MMC
Datum Shift = Fixed gage size – AME of Datum feature 340
73 .76 .2 = 58.DRF Displacement Example 6 : Datum Axis MMC
Secondary. Center plane of G will align with datum axis F
.2 = 126.96.36.199
Both the simulators will be perpendicular to datum E.0.25) . Datum Centerplane MMC Tertiary
A gage pin of dia = VCB of datum feature F = MMCGTol = (58.25) 0.28
A gage block of width = VCB of datum feature G = MMC-GTol = (18.
4 Pins of dia = VCB of one small hole = 10. MMC Secondary.15 346
.15 = 18.3
1 Pin of dia = VCB of center hole = 18.DRF Displacement Example 7 : Datum Axis from a
Pattern of Holes.2 = 10.5 – 0.3 – 0.
Perpendicularity Angularity Parallelism
an orientation tolerance is useful for relating one datum feature to another and for refining the orientation of a feature already controlled with a positional tolerance.
.Orientation Tolerance (Level3 Control)
Orientation is feature’s angular relationship to a DRF. Thus. An Orientation tolerance controls this relationship without meddling in location control.
How to apply Orientation Tolerance?
An orientation tolerance is specified using a feature control frame one of the three orientation characteristic symbols. Where the parallelism or perpendicularity is used. The only difference is that where angularity symbol is used. The symbol used depends on the basic orientation angle as follows: 0o or 180o – “parallelism” symbol 90o or 270o – “Perpendicularity” Symbol Any other angle – “Angularity” Symbol All three symbols work exactly same. The feature control frame includes the orientation tolerance value followed by one or two datum references.
. the basic angle is implied by the drawing view that shows parallel or perpendicular relationship. basic angle should be explicitly specified.
secondary datum is needed to orient/locate tolerance zone plane for controlling elements of feature
. However in some cases.Datums for Orientation Control
Orientation control requires a DRF. rotation it may be necessary to restrain rotation about third axis and in such case. A primary datum plane or axis always establishes rotation about two axes of the DRF and usually the only reference needed for orientation control.
tolerance zone applies RFS and establishes a central tolerance zone as described earlier within which the features axis or center plane shall be contained When applied to feature of size. orientation tolerance provides no additional form control beyond level2 In the figure at left. Where tolerance is modified to LMC/MMC. the tolerance controls the orientation of the cylindrical or width type of feature. Unmodified. Alternatively the “center method” discussed earlier may be applied to an orientation tolerance at MMC/LMC. the center plane of the slot is held within the central parallel plane tolerance zone
.Angularity Tolerance applied to a Width-Type FOS
When an orientation tolerance FCF is placed as per options (a) or (d) in previous table (associated with a diameter or width dimension). it establishes a level3 virtual condition boundary as described earlier.
such application usually accompanies a larger positional tolerance.Angularity Tolerance applied to a Cylindrical FOS
Y14. Thus for a feature of size.5 also allows orientation of axis to be controlled within a parallel plane tolerance zone. an orientation tolerance equal to or greater than its positional tolerance is meaningless. a “diameter” symbol precedes the orientation tolerance value. however this would not prevent axis from revolving like a compass needle between two parallel planes. This is more like a positional tolerance except the orientation zone is not basically located from the datums. In the figure left. Conversely. Here the tolerance zone is bounded by a cylinder having dia.
. equal to tolerance value. A positional tolerance also controls orientation for a feature of size to the same degree as an equal orientation tolerance. when engineer needs to maximize positional tolerance while protecting orientation. a generous positional tolerance can be teamed up with more restrictive orientation tolerance.
Parallelism with Tangent Plane Modifier
it is recommended to use position or runout tolerance. difficult to establish the location of that features’ median point. regardless of feature size. 458
. in such cases
finding median point may be very time consuming. The specified tolerance and datum references can apply on Irregularities in the form of a actual feature to be inspected may make it RFS basis only. Therefore unless there is definite need to establish median points.Concentricity Tolerance
Concentricity is that condition where median points of all diametrically opposed elements of figure of revolution (or correspondingly located elements of two or more radially disposed features) are congruent with the axis (or center point) of a datum feature. For Concentricity tolerance requires the establishment example a nominally cylindrical surface of revolution may be bowed or out and verification of features’ median points of round in addition to being displaced from its datum axis. Concentricity tolerance is a cylindrical (or spherical) tolerance zone whose axis (or center point) coincides with the axis (or center point) of datum feature(s) The median points of all correspondingly located feature(s) being controlled. must lie within the cylindrical (pr spherical) tolerance zone.
Difference between Coaxiality and Concentricity Controls
Both parts are acceptable from coaxiality control inspection.
While parts as shown in previous slide may get rejected when inspected from concentricity viewpoint.
. if their median points do not lie in 0. Note that there are no material modifiers specified for tolerance value as well as for datum feature reference.4 central tolerance zone cylinder.Difference between Coaxiality and Concentricity Controls
This is the one part configuration acceptable under concentricity control.
symmetry is used on planar feature of Size
. The difference is that while concentricity is used on surface of revolution.Symmetry Tolerance
Symmetry control is same as Concentricity control.
Circular Runout Total Runout
location and orientation control of permissible error in the desired part surface during a complete revolution of part around datum axis
Runout is the oldest and simplest concepts used in GD&T Runout is a composite form.
There are two levels of runout : Circular Runout Total Runout
. As shown in figure at left. A designer can control such wobble by specifying runout control. runout of ring groove diameters relative to pistons’ diameter may cause rings to squeeze unevenly around the piston or force the piston off center in its bore. A motor shaft that runs out relative to its bearing journals will cause motor to run out of balance shortening its working life.Runout Tolerance – Why we use it?
In precision assemblies runout causes misalignment and/or alignment problems.
the datum feature might be placed on V block or fixtured in a precision spindle so that the part can be rotated about the axis of datum features’ TGC. In addition datum feature should be accessible for fixturing and probing. since designer wish to control the runout of surface as directly as possible. In the figure above. During inspection for the part shown above.Datums for Runout Control
A runout tolerance controls surface elements of a round feature relative to a datum axis. This requires datum feature be long enough and its form be well controlled (by own size limits or separate form tolerance (level2 control)). Every runout tolerance shall reference a datum axis.
. its important to select the functional feature to establish a datum axis.
the surface elements are circles of various diameters. each concentric to the datum axis and each evaluated separately from the others.
.Here.Circular Runout Tolerance
Circular runout tolerance can also be applied to a face or a face groove that is perpendicular to datum axis.
wobble in the controlled feature will increase FIM. The control imposed by this type of total runout control is identical to that of an equal perpendicularity tolerance with a RFS datum reference. Any taper or hourglass shape in the controlled feature will increase FIM For a nominally flat surface perpendicular to datum axis. as the part is rotated 360o about the datum axis. the indicators body shall be swept parallel to the datum axis.Total Runout Tolerance
Total runout is greater level of control. the indicators body shall be swept in a line perpendicular to the datum axis. covering the entire length of controlled feature. Rather than each circular element being evaluated separately. Its tolerance applies to the FIM while the indicator sweeps over the entire controlled surface. Any conicity. the total runout FIM encompasses the highest and lowest of all readings obtained at all circles For a nominal cylindrical feature. covering entire breadth of controlled feature.
circular runout tolerance applied to internal groove with internal bore as datum feature makes groove inaccessible for inspection! Following equations pertain to the controls imposed by circularity. Circular runout tolerance is often ideal for O ring grooves. and where alignments and dynamic balances are critical. cylindricity. where cylinder bore is datum. circular runout and total runout when applied to a revolute or cylindrical feature. Remember that the datum feature and controlled feature should be accessible for fixturing/inspection as the case is.
Circularity + Concentricity = Circular Runout Cylindricity + Concentricity = Total Runout
. For example. concentricity.When do we use a Runout Tolerance?
Runout tolerance is especially suited for parts that revolve about a datum axis in an assembly.
Such profile can contains straight lines. arcs. If the drawing specifies individual tolerances for elements or points of a profile.Profile Control
What is Profile?
A profile is outline of an object in a given plane (2D figure) Profiles are formed by projecting a 3D figure onto a plane or by taking cross sections through the figure. these elements or points need individual verification
form. the profile tolerance must be contained within the size limits. Where used as refinement of size. phantom lines are drawn parallel to true profile to indicate tolerance zone boundary Phantom line should extend only a sufficient distance to make its application clear. For an unequally disposed or unilateral tolerance.
. orientation or location. the tolerance may be divided bilaterally to both sides of true profile or applied unilaterally to both sides of profile. When an equally disposed bilateral tolerance is needed. Depending upon design requirements. It is used to control form or combination of size. its necessary to show only FCF with leader directed to surface.Profile Tolerancing
The profile tolerance specifies a uniform boundary along the true profile within which the elements of surface must lie.
. the symbol used to designate “all around” is placed on the leader from the FCF.Profile Tolerancing
Where a profile tolerance applies all around the profile of a part.
Where segments of profile have different tolerances.
If some segments of profile are controlled by a profile tolerance and other segments by individually toleranced dimensions. the extent of each profile tolerance may be indicated by the use of reference letters to identify the extreme positions or limits of each requirement. the extend of profile tolerance must be indicated.
. a part with profile of line tolerance where size is controlled by a separate tolerance.Combining Profile Tolerance with other Controls
In this case. Line elements of the surface along the profile must lie within the profile tolerance zone and within a size limiting zone.
No datums are specified as in case of flatness as the considered surfaces themselves establishes a plane
. As shown in figure at left. the control provided is similar to that achieved by flatness tolerance applied to a single planar surface. the profile of a surface tolerance establishes a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes within which considered surfaces must lie. In this case.Profile tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces
Coplanarity is the condition of two or more surfaces having all elements in one plane.
A profile of a surface tolerance may be used where it is necessary to treat two or more surfaces as a single interrupted or noncontinuous surface.
The tolerance zone thus established applies to all coplanar surfaces including datum surfaces
. Datum reference letters are added to the FCF for the features being controlled. it may be desirable to identify specific surface(s) to be used as datum feature(s). Datum feature symbol is applied to these surfaces with appropriate tolerance for their relationship with each other.Profile tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces
Where two or more surfaces are involved.
Profile tolerance for Plane Surfaces
Profile tolerance may be used to control form and orientation of plane surfaces. profile of surface is used to control a plane surface inclined to a datum feature. In this case.
GD&T Reference Chart
Dimensioning Habits (?)
Manufacturing.Suggested Readings & References …
Credit is given and acknowledgement is made for certain references and definitions derived from the following:
ASME Y14. and Inspection .5M-1994 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing ASME Y14. Dimensioning & Tolerancing Handbook : Paul Drake Jr. Meadows Tolerance Design: A Handbook for Developing Optimal Specifications – Clyde M.James D. Creveling – CAD/CAM Theory and Practice : Ibrahim Zeid Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing : Daniel Puncochar.1M-1994 Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principals Geometrics IIIm . Fundamentals of GD&T : Alex Krulikowski
.Lowell W.5. Foster Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in Design.