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Peter D Alison May 18, 2009

1

Problem 3.5

ˆ The hermitian conjugate (or adjoint) of an operator Q is the operator † ˆ Q such that ˆ ˆ < f |Qg >=< Q† f |g > (for all f and g). ˆ ˆ (A hermitian operator, then is equal to its hermitian conjugate: Q = Q† .) (a) Find the hermitian conjugates of x, i, and d/dx. We can rearrange the integrand of the inner product as such

∞

< f |xg >=

−∞

f ∗ xg dx =

∞ −∞

(xf )∗ g dx =< xf |g >

**The adjoint of the operator x† = x. Besides x is an observable so it is hermitian so this was obvious.
**

∞ ∞ −∞

< f |ig >=

−∞

f ∗ ig dx =

†

(−if )∗ g dx =< −if |g >

**i = −i The adjoint of i is its complex conjugate, seems logical, makes sense. For the operator < f|
**

d dx

**we can use integration by parts to ﬁnd the adjoint.
**

∞ −∞

∂g >= ∂x

f∗

∂g dx = f ∗ g|∞ − −∞ ∂x 1

∞

(

−∞

∂f ∗ ) g dx ∂x

d d The adjoint of dx is − dx . (b) Construct the hermitian conjugate of the harmonic oscillator raising operator, a+ (Equation 2.47).

1 1 ∂ (−ip + mωx) = √ (−i(−i¯ ) + mωx) h ∂x 2¯ mω h 2¯ mω h 1 ∂ + mωx) a+ = √ (−¯ h ∂x 2¯ mω h ∞ ∞ ∂g 1 f ∗ ( ) dx + mω f ∗ (xg) dx) < f |a+ g >= √ (−¯ h ∂x −∞ −∞ 2¯ mω h a+ = √ We can use the method of integration by parts to deconstruct the ﬁrst integral. =√ 1 (−¯ (f ∗ g|∞ − h −∞ 2¯ mω h

∞

(

−∞

∂f ∗ ) g dx) + mω ∂x

∞ −∞

(xf )∗ g dx)

1 ∂ a† = √ + mωx) = a− (¯ h + 2¯ mω ∂x h The adjoint of a+ is a− . ˆˆ ˆ ˆ (c) Show that (QR)† = R† Q† . ˆˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ < f |QRg >=< Q† f |Rg >=< R† Q† f |g >=< (QR† f |g > ˆˆ ˆ ˆ (QR)† = R† Q†

2

Problem 3.7

ˆ (a) Suppose that f (x) and g(x) are two eigenfunctions of an operator Q, with the same eigenvalue q. Show that any linear combination of f and g is itself ˆ an eigenfuction of Q, with eigenvalue q. ˆ We assume that Q is a linear operator by deﬁnition, we are in the realm of ˆ linear algebra, by the way. Q acting on f and g yield the eigenvalue q. ˆ ˆ Qf = qf, and Qg = qg

2

ˆ Let us now take a linear combination of f and g and have Q act on it. af (x) + bg(x) ˆ ˆ ˆ Q(af (x) + bg(x)) = aQf (x) + bQg(x) = aqf (x) + bqg(x) = q(af (x) + bg(x)) As we can see q is still an eigenvalue of the linear combination. QED. (b) Check that f (x) = exp(x) and g(x) = exp(−x) are eigenfunctions of the operator d2 /dx2 , with the same eigenvalue. Construct two linear combinations of f and g that are orthogonal eigenfunctions on the interval (−1, 1). d2 x [e ] = ex dx2 d2 −x [e ] = e−x dx2 These functions both have the eigenvalue of 1. We can make the linear combinations 1 1 x (e + e−x ) and (ex − e−x ) 2 2 These functions are orthonormal because

∞ −∞

and

1 x 1 (e + e−x ) (ex − e−x ) dx = 0 2 2

3

Problem 3.11

Find the momentum-space wave function, Φ(p, t), for a particle in the ground state of the harmonic oscillator. What is the probability (to 2 signiﬁcant digits) that a measurement of p on a particle in this state would yield a value outside the classical range (for the same energy)? Hint: Look in a math table under ”Normal Distribution” or ”Error Function” for the numerical part or use Mathematica. The ground state of the harmonic oscillator is ψ0 (x) = ( mω 1 − mω x2 h ) 4 e 2¯ π¯ h 3

The time-dependent ground state wave function is then mω 1 − mω x2 − 1 ıωt h Ψ0 (x, t) = ( ) 4 e 2¯ e 2 π¯ h The momentum-space wave function is given the Fourier transform Φ(p, t) = √ Φ(p, t) = √ 1 2π¯ h

∞ −∞ h e−ıpx/¯ Ψ(x, t) dx

∞ 1 h mω 1 − mω x2 − 1 ıωt h ) 4 e 2¯ e 2 dx e−ıpx/¯ ( π¯ h 2π¯ −∞ h Using Mathematica this integral turns to be

Φ(p, t) = (

√ The momentum p that is outside the classical range is mω¯ . Because h the momentum-space wave function is even around zero and the probability must sum up to 1, the probability that a measurement of p would outside the classical range can written as

√ mω¯ h

p2 1 1 1 h ) 4 e− 2mω¯ e− 2 ıωt mωπ¯ h

1−2

0

|Φ(p, t)|2 dp

**Although the true way to write this would be
**

√ − mω¯ h −∞

|Φ(p, t)|2 dp +

∞ √ mω¯ h

|Φ(p, t)|2 dp

Mathematica yields the Error Function value of Erfc[1] which numerically is P = 0.157.

4

Problem 3.14

Prove the famous ”Alison Uncertainty Principle”, relating the uncertainty in position (A = x) to the uncertainty in energy (B = p2 /2m + V ): σx σH ≥ h ¯ | < p > |. 2m 4

For stationary states this doesn’t tell you much - why not? The general Heisenberg uncertainty relation is 1 ˆ ˆ < [A, B] >)2 2ı We now must ﬁnd the commutator of x and H.

2 2 σA σB ≥ (

h2 ∂ 2 ¯ ˆ x = x and H = − ˆ +V 2m ∂x2 I will stick a dummy function on the commutator to make things easier. h2 ∂ 2 g ¯ h2 ∂ 2 ¯ [ˆ, H]g(x) = x(− x ˆ ) 2 − (− ) (xg) 2m ∂x 2m ∂x2 h2 ∂ 2 g ¯ h2 ∂ ¯ ∂g x 2+ [ (g + x )] 2m ∂x 2m ∂x ∂x 2 2 2 h ∂g ∂g ¯ ∂ 2g h ∂ g ¯ x 2+ ( + + x 2) =− 2m ∂x 2m ∂x ∂x ∂x 2 h ∂g ¯ = m ∂x Removing the dummy function we obtain =− [ˆ, H] = x ˆ which can be rewritten as ı¯ h ∂ ı¯ h (−ı¯ ) = p h m ∂x m Plugging into the uncertainty relation

2 2 σx σH ≥ ( 2 2 σx σH ≥ (

h2 ∂ ¯ m ∂x

1 ı¯ h | < p > |)2 2ı m

1 ı¯ h h ¯ 2 2 | < p > |)2 ⇒ σx σH ≥ ( | < p > |)2 2ı m 2m σx σH ≥

Finally, h ¯ |<p>| 2m The Alison Uncertainty Relation, now if only we could ﬁnd the element Alisonium, atomic number 1200. 5

5

Problem 3.17

Apply Equation 3.71 to the following special cases: (a) Q = 1; (b) Q = H; (c) Q = p. In each case, comment on the result, with particular reference to Equations 1.27, 1.33, 1.38, and conservation of energy (comments following Equation 2.39). Equation 3.71 states that ˆ i ∂Q d ˆ ˆ < Q >= < [H, Q] > + < > dt h ¯ ∂t (a)Q = 1 d ı ∂(1) ˆ < 1 >= < [H, 1] > + < > dt h ¯ ∂t ı ˆ ˆ = < H − H > +0 = 0 h ¯ The conservation of normalization as in chapter 1. (b)Q = H ı ∂ h2 ∂ 2 ¯ d ˆ ˆ ˆ < H >= < [H, H] > + < (− +V)> dt h ¯ ∂t 2m ∂x2 ı < HH − HH > +0 = 0 h ¯ The conservation of energy. (c)Q = x ı ∂x d ˆ < x >= < [H, x] > + < > dt h ¯ ∂t ı h2 ∂ 2 ¯ h2 ∂ 2 ¯ = < (− + V )x − x(− +V)> 2 h ¯ 2m ∂x 2m ∂x2 From a previous problem = ı¯ h ı¯ h ˆ ˆ [x, H] = p so [H, x] = − p m m d ı ı¯ p h < x >= < − > dt h ¯ m d <p> < x >= dt m 6

This is the classical equation for momentum otherwise known as p = mv. (d)Q = p ı ∂ ∂ d ˆ ˆ < p >= < [H, p] > + < (−ı¯ ) > h dt h ¯ ∂t ∂x ˆ ˆ What is [H, p]? Let’s use a dummy function to help a bit. ˆ ˆ [H, p]g(x) = [(− h2 ∂ 2 ¯ ∂ ∂ h2 ∂ 2 ¯ + V (x))(−ı¯ ) − (−ı¯ )(− h h + V (x))]g(x) 2m ∂x ∂x ∂x 2m ∂x2

h2 ∂ 2 ¯ ∂ ∂ h2 ∂ 2 ¯ = (− + V (x))(−ı¯ )g(x) − (−ı¯ )(− h h + V (x))g(x) 2m ∂x ∂x ∂x 2m ∂x2 ∂g ∂ h2 ∂ 2 g ¯ h2 ∂ 2 ¯ + V (x))(−ı¯ ) − (−ı¯ )(− h h + V (x)g) = (− 2m ∂x ∂x ∂x 2m ∂x2 ∂g ı¯ 3 ∂ 3 g h ∂g ∂V ı¯ 3 ∂ 3 g h − ı¯ V (x) h − + ı¯ V (x) h + ı¯ g h 3 3 2m ∂x ∂x 2m ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂V ∂x d<p> ı ∂V = < ı¯ h > +0 dt h ¯ ∂x ∂V d<p> =−< > dt ∂x which is Newton’s Law concerning conservative forces. ˆ ˆ [H, p] = ı¯ h So

6

Problem 3.23

ˆ H = E(|1 >< 1| − |2 >< 2| + |1 >< 2| + |2 >< 1|),

The Hamiltonian for a certain two-level system is

where |1 >, |2 > is an orthonormal basis and E is a number with the dimension of energy. Find its eigenvalues and (normalized) eigenvectors (as linear ˆ combinations of |1 > and |2 >). What is the matrix H representing H with respect to this basis? Let us take the wave function that is a linear combination of the vectors ψ = a|1 > +b|2 > 7

ˆ H|ψ >= E(a|1 >< 1|1 > +b|1 >< 1|2 > −a|2 >< 2|1 > −b|2 >< 2|2 > +a|1 >< 2|1 > +b|1 >< 2|2 > +a|2 >< 1|1 > +b|2 >< 1|1 >) = E(a|1 > −b|2 > +b|1 > a|2 >) = E((a + b)|1 > +(a − b)|2 >) The term on |1 > went from a to a + b, and the |2 > went from b to a − b. The matrix H is then 1 1 E 1 −1

7

Problem 3.27

ˆ Sequential Measurements. An operator A, representing observable A, has two normalized eigenstates ψ1 and ψ2 , with eigenvalues a1 and a2 , respecˆ tively. Operator B, representing observable B, has two normalized eigenstates φ1 and φ2 , with eigenvalues b1 and b2 . The eigenstates are related by ψ1 = (3φ1 + 4φ2 )/5, ψ2 = (4φ1 − 3φ2 )/5. (a) Observable A is measured, and the value is a1 is obtained. What is state of the system (immediately) after this measurement? The measurement value of a1 corresponds to ψ1 , so the system is in the state ψ1 . (b) If B is now measured, what are the possible results, and what are their probabilities? ˆ The possible results for B are b1 and b2 and because we are in the state ψ1 their probabilities are their corresponding φ1 and φ2 constants squared. Prob.b1 = Prob.b2 = 9 25

16 25 (c) Right after the measurement of B, A is measured again. What is the probability of getting a1 ? (Note that the answer would be quite diﬀerent if 8

I had told you the outcome of the B measurement.) First we solve for φ1 and φ1 in terms of ψ1 and ψ2 . 1 φ1 = (3ψ1 + ψ2 ) 5 1 φ2 = (4ψ1 − 3ψ2 ) 5 Now, we need to ﬁnd the probabilities of measuring a1 in each of possible ˆ states for B. 9 Prob.a1 inφ1 = 25 16 Prob.a1 inφ2 = 25 Now we multiply the probability of a1 with the probabilities of the possible ˆ B states and then add. So the probability of ﬁnding a1 is ( 9 2 16 337 ) + ( )2 = = 0.5392 25 25 625

8

Problem 3.38

1 0 0 H = hω 0 2 0 ¯ 0 0 2

The Hamiltonian for a certain three-level system is represented by the matrix

Two other observables, A and B, are represented by the matrices 0 1 0 2 0 0 A = λ 1 0 0 ,B = µ 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 where ω, λ, and µ are positive real numbers. (a) Find the eigenvalues and (normalized) eigenvectors of H, A, and B.

9

H:

hω − c ¯ 0 0 0 2¯ ω − c h 0 (H − cI3 ) = 0 0 2¯ ω − c h det(H − cI3 ) = 0 = (2¯ ω − c)(2¯ ω − c)(¯ ω − c) h h h c = 2¯ ω, 2¯ ω, hω h h ¯

These are the values down the diagonal so the eigenvectors are 1 0 0 |h1 >= 0 , |h2 >= 1 , |h3 >= 0 0 0 1 A: −c λ 0 0 (A − cI3 ) = λ −c 0 0 2λ − c det(A − cI3 ) = 0 = (2λ − c)(c2 − λ2 ) = (2λ − c)(c − λ)(c + λ) The eigenvalues are c = 2λ, λ, −λ Plugging in ±λ we obtain the systems

**λ λ 0 −λ λ 0 λ −λ 0 and λ λ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 which gives the eigenvectors 1 1 1 1 |a1 >= √ 1 , |a2 >= √ −1 2 0 2 0 and by default 0 |a3 >= 0 1
**

10

**B: 2µ − c 0 0 0 −c µ (B − cI3 ) = 0 µ −c det(B − cI3 ) = 0 = (2µ − c)(c2 − µ2 ) = (2µ − c)(c − µ)(c + µ) The eigenvalues are c = 2µ, µ, −µ Plugging in ±µ we obtain the system
**

**0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −µ µ and 0 µ µ 0 µ µ 0 µ −µ which yield the eigenvectors 0 0 1 1 |b2 >= √ 1 , |b3 >= √ 1 2 1 2 −1 by default the last eigenvector is 1 |b1 >= 0 0
**

(b) Suppose the system starts out in the generic state c1 |S(0) >= c2 c3 with |c1 |2 + |c2 |2 + |c3 |2 = 1. Find the expectation values (at t = 0) of H, A, and B.

< H >=< S(0)|H|S(0) > 11

= hω ¯

c∗ c∗ c∗ 1 2 3

1 0 0 c1 0 2 0 c2 0 0 2 c3

= hω ¯

c∗ c∗ c∗ 1 2 3

c1 2c2 2c3

< H >= hω(|c1 |2 + 2|c2 |2 + 2|c3 |2 ) ¯ < A >=< S(0)|A|S(0) >

=λ

c∗ c∗ c∗ 1 2 3

0 1 0 c1 1 0 0 c2 0 0 2 c3

=λ

c∗ c∗ c∗ 3 2 1

c2 c1 2c3

< A >= λ(c∗ c2 + c∗ c1 + 2|c3 |2 ) 1 2 < B >=< S(0)|B|S(0) >

=µ

c∗ c∗ c∗ 3 2 1

c1 2 0 0 0 0 1 c2 c3 0 1 0

=µ

c∗ c∗ c∗ 3 2 1

2c1 c3 c2

< B >= µ(2|c1 |2 + c∗ c3 + c∗ c2 ) 2 3

(c) What is |S(t) >? If you measured the energy of this state (at time t), what values might you get, and what is the probability of each? Answer the same questions for A and for B. The time-dependent state is

h h h |S(t) >= c1 e−ıE1 /¯ t |h1 > +c2 e−ıE2 /¯ t |h2 > +c3 e−ıE3 /¯ t |h3 >

= c1 e−ıωt |h1 > +c2 e−ı2ωt |h2 > +c3 e−ı2ωt |h3 > 12

The possible values are the eigenvalues of the operator H. hω, 2¯ ω ¯ h So the probabilities are the corresponding constants absolute value squared. E = hω ⇒ Prob. = |c1 |2 ¯ E = 2¯ ω ⇒ Prob. = |c2 |2 + |c3 |2 h To calculate the probabilites for the operators A and B, we perform a preform a projection on |S(t) > with corresponding eigenvectors. On the operator A the possible values are the eigenvalues 2λ, λ, −λ For c = λ 1 < a1 |S(t) >= √ 2 1 1 0 c1 e−ıωt c2 e−2ıωt c3 e−2ıωt

**1 = √ (c1 e−ıωt + c2 e−2ıωt ) 2 1 Prob. = | √ (c1 e−ıωt + c2 e−2ıωt )|2 2 1 = (|c1 |2 + |c2 |2 c∗ c2 e−ıωt + c∗ c1 eıωt ) 1 2 2 For c = −λ 1 < a2 |S(t) >= √ 2 1 −1 0 c1 e−ıωt c2 e−2ıωt c3 e−2ıωt
**

1 = √ (c1 e−ıωt − c2 e−2ıωt ) 2 1 Prob. = | √ (c1 e−ıωt − c2 e−2ıωt )|2 2 1 = (|c1 |2 + |c2 |2 − c∗ e−ıωt − c∗ c1 eıωt ) 1 2 2 13

For c = 2λ < a3 |S(t) >= 0 0 1 = c3 e−2ıωt

**c1 e−ıωt c2 e−2ıωt c3 e−2ıωt
**

Prob. = |c3 e−2ıωt |2 = |c3 |2 The possible values for the operator B are the eigenvalues 2µ, µ, −µ For c = µ 1 < b2 |S(t) >= √ 2 0 1 1 c1 e−ıωt c2 e−2ıωt c3 e−2ıωt

**1 = √ (c2 e−2ıωt + c3 e−2ıωt ) 2 1 Prob. = | √ (c2 e−2ıωt + c3 e−2ıωt )|2 2 1 = (|c2 |2 + |c3 |2 + c∗ c2 + c∗ c1 ) 1 2 2 For c = −µ 1 < b3 |S(t) >= √ 2 0 1 −1 c1 e−ıωt c2 e−2ıωt c3 e−2ıωt
**

**1 = √ (c2 e−2ıωt − c3 e−2ıωt ) 2 1 Prob. = | √ (c2 e−2ıωt − c3 e−2ıωt )|2 2 1 = (|c2 |2 + |c3 |2 − c∗ c3 − c∗ c2 ) 2 3 2 For c = 2µ < b1 |S(t) >= 1 0 0 c1 e−ıωt c2 e−2ıωt c3 e−2ıωt
**

14

= c1 e(−ıωt Prob. = |c1 e−ıωt |2 = |c1 |2 A lot of probabilities ﬁnally done. QED.

15

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