aygif ; csKyf q k ?

tvS a A'jzif h trsd K ;om;pmayqk w d k Y
&&SdcJhonf/
uavmifcGJrsm;rSm NrdKifoZif? armifeef;EG,f?
apmxGw?f apmwifr?l aX;NrdKif? armifopöm? armifbwif?h
armifp? Anm;oD[? armifprd ;f jr? OD;'*ke?f armifvif;xuf?
armifMumnGefY wdkYjzpfMuonf/
q&m'*kefwm&ma&;om;cJhonfh pmtkyfrsm;rSm

'*kew
f m&m
{&m0wDwdkif;? usdKufvwfNrdKUe,f? xdkifuljrpfwef;
&GmwGif tazOD;btke;f ? trda':zGm;&Siw
f rYkd S (1919)ck arv
(10)&ufaeYwGif? zGm;jrifcJhNyD; trnf&if;rSm OD;aX;NrdKif
jzpfonf/
&efukefatmifaZ,sr*Fvm jrefrmpmoifausmif;?
usdKufvwf trsdK;om;ausmif; (1927-36)?a&ausmf
ruf o 'pf a usmif ; (1936-37)? &ef u k e f w uú o d k v f
(1937-40)wdkYwGif ynmoifMum;cJhonf/
(1940)wGif td;k a0ESihf rsdK;nGerYf *¾Zif;t,f'w
D mcsKyf?
(1946)wGif wm&mr*¾Zif;xkwfa0olESifh t,f'Dwm?
(1950)wG i f jref r mEd k i f i H p ma&;q&mtoif h O uú X ?
(1951)wG i f pmayr*¾ Z if ; t,f ' D w m? (1962)wG i f
trsd K ;om;pmaynD v mcH A[d k a umf r wD ' k w d , Ouú X ?
pmayuvyftwGif;a&;rSL;wm0efrsm;udk ,lcJhonf/
yxryH k E S d y f 0 w¬ K rS m ]]Nrd K if o Zif } } uavmif
trnf j zif h a &;onf h ( rI e f j ym&D ) jzpf o nf / xif & S m ;aom
pmtkyrf sm;rSm ar? '*kew
f m&m\'*kew
f m&m? '*kew
f m&m\
'*kew
f m&mESihf ol\uAsm? ½kyyf v
kH mT ? py,fO;D 0w¬Kwdrk sm;?
tvuF m uAsmrsm;? Mumyef ; a&pif ? '*k e f w m&m\
0w¬Kwdak ygif;csKyf? 'daYk cwfukd a&muf&rnfrmS rvGyJ g? rm,m?
Mu,f&yd f yef;Ek0w¬Kwdrk sm;? pdr;f jr{&m? pE´,m;q&m(od)Yk
r[mtcspf? okemy&EÅESifh tvSaA'wdkYjzpfMuonf/
(1961)wG i f py,f O D ; jzif h pmayAd r mef 0 w¬ K wd k

2

1/ Mumyef;a&pif - (1963)ckEpS f
2/ Mum&dyyf ef;Ek - (1993)ckEpS f
3/ pHy,fO;D - (1961)ckEpS f
4/ pmvHk;? aq;puf? apmif;BudK;ESihf uwåDyg
um;vdyf - (1974) ckEpS f
5/ pmayoabmw&m;? pmaya0zefa&;? pmay
vIy&f mS ;rI - 1976 ckEpS f
6/ pE´&m;q&modUk r[kwf r[mtcspf - (1995)
ckESpf
7/ pdr;f jr{&m - (1994)ckEpS f
8/ w½kwf - jrefrmrdwfaqGjzpftoif;
9/ '*kefwm&mESihfol\uAsm - (1967)ckESpf
10/ '*kef wm&m 0w¦Kwkd aygif;csKyf - (1969)ckEpS f
11/ '*kef wm&m\ '*kew
f m&m - (1950)jynhEf pS f
12/ wkdUacwfudkawmh a&muf&rnfrSmrvGJyg (1979)ckESpf
13/ zswfceJawGU&aom ½kyfyHkvTmum;csyfrsm; (1997)ckESpf
14/ rm,m - (1991)ckEpS f
15/ rl;,pfa0aom aEGO;D nrsm; - (1968)ckEpS f
16/ ar - (1974)ckEpS f
17/ ½kyyf v
kH mT - (1955)ckEpS f
18/ va&mif½eT ;f jraom nwpfn - (1964)ckEpS f
19/ va&mif ½ T e f ; jraom nwpf n ES i h f tjcm;
0w¬K&Snf - (1995) ckEpS f
20/ oZifoif;jyefawmh - (1974)ckESpf
21/ okemy&EÑ - (1995)ckEpS f
22/ tvuFmuAsmaygif;csKyf - (1962)ckESpf
23/ tdyfruftjyifuvl - (1996)ckESpf
24/ t,f'w
D m pm;yG?J pmaytEkynm a0zefa&;ESifh
yef;Eka&miftdk - (1971)ckEpS f
25/ {&m0wD ,efpD aAmfv*g - (1972)ckEpS /f

jcL;qufrkd;yGifh
'D&moDb,fvkdjzpfvJrodbl;
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H ? q&m
rif;vl/ ESajrmp&maumif;wJh
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cH p m;&ygw,f / taeeD ; NyD ; awmh
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ocif o d e f ; armif ( 0g;c,f r )
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f eG o
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rmrmat;
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vnf; Nidrf;csrf;a&;awGvkyfcJhwmyJ/ uRefrvnf; olUudk
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tav;teuf uwday;vdkufNyD;om;yg/ OD;av;vnf; 'D
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vdkufNyD;om;/ trsm;BuD; rajymawmhygbl;/
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awG 'DavmurSm&Sd wJyh *k Kd¾ vfawGtm;vH;k [m '*kew
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qufvufvnfywf atmif BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfoGm;zdkYvdk
w,fvdkY uRefawmf,lqygw,f/ 'DaeY tckvdk ol

7

armifausmt
f aMumif;? rdrYk jYkd rifah tmift
aMumif ; ? pmayvk y f o m;r*¾ Z if ;
taMumif ; ? ok e my&EÅ t aMumif ; ?
rSefuGJprsm;taMumif;? tm;rmefopf
taMumif;a&mufomG ;jyefonf/ uAsm
q&mBuD;u ]avxefuek ;f }udpk w
d 0f if
pm; aejyefonf/ ]tJonfhrSm vlpHk
w,fAs .../ wpfcgawmhvmxdkifOD;
r,f a jym&if ? oabmusvd k Y a ejyef
onf/ uRefawmfwdkY jyefaomtcg
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wm;,l&onf/r&? olprf;prf;prf;prf;
jzifh NcHwHcg;0vdkufydkYonf/ olUajr;
av;u ausmif;rSjyefvmNyD; uAsm
q&mBuD;udk wGe;f wGe;f xd;k xd;k ESihf 0if
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awmh oabmusaejyefonf/ NyD;
awmh 0if;rif;axG;? ausmfrif;armif?
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awmh u Asmygovm;.../ 'gqd k
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[efopfr*¾Zif;?trSwf(4)?
1990?pufwifbmv

6

rEÅ a v;od e f ; aZmf
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paeaeY j zpf a yrif h 0gwG i f ; jzpf v m
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vlb
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qif;olqif; wufolwufESifh c&D;
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rd;k aiGUrsm;udk cHpm;&onf/ tif*sifpuf
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taqmuf t OD ; &if w k e f p &mrsm;ES i f h
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f ND rdKU t0if
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wkdufi,fuav;onf £ajE´BuD;pGm
NidrfoufvdkYaeonf/ 'grkqkd;BuD;tdrf
aygh/ cifarmifat;(rEÅav;)tdrfaygh/
q&mBuD;'*kefwm&marG;aeYyGJutjyef
aeY u av;ud k trS w f & vd k Y a eonf /

onftcsdef q&mcifarmifat;onf
td y f a rmusaeqJ y J v m;/ a&S U em;
a&mufawmh um;xdk;&yfoGm;onf/
qDjznfrh aS [h? rufoaem "mwfaiGUeHY
jyif;&S&SwdkYu touf½SLvrf;aMumif;
ay: jzwfqif;vmMujyefonf/ c&D;
onfpkH t&dyftm0go&Sd&m ajcqefY
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av;qD ai;&D a eMuonf / arS m f b D
acguf q G J w pf x k w f ( 25d ^ )usyf w J h /
oHaps;rSm (20d^)a&mif;onf/ arSmf
bDrmS aum 0ufom;b,faps;&Syd gvdrhf
[k rqDrqdik af wG;vku
d jf zpfonf/ arSmf
bDum; jrpfem;acsmif;em;eD;ojzifh opf?
0g;? om;? ig;aygrnfxifonf/
arSmfbDaps;udk jzwfaomtcg
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0uf * G e f u m;pd r f ; jzLud k awG U vk d u f &
onf/ raeYu A[ef;t0dik ;f rSm awGU
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tcsdKU ... tcsdKU ... NcHawG0,fxm;
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trsdK;rsdK;jzifh &yfzl;? jzwfzl;?oGm;zl;
vmzl;aecJo
h nf/ 'Dwpfacgufvmjcif;
um; vk y f i ef ; oabmod y f r ygvS /
q&m'*kefwm&mESifh at;at;aq;
aq;pum;ajym&if;? pmrlawmif;&if;?
q&mhusef;rma&;ar;&if; xGufvm
Mujcif;jzpfonf/ abmvkH;puf½kHa&SU
a&mufawmh um;u wkefYceJ&yfay;
onf/ acgif;cef; (20d^)? aemufcef;
(10d ^ )wJ h / um;aps;,mOf p D ; cEI e f ;
awGu vrf;vlqv
kd Qif yg;pyfxBJ uHK&m
ajymaeava&mhovm;/ rajymwwf/
um;ay:qif;&if; &efuek -f jynfvrf;r
BuD;tay: &Jwif;wif;ajccsjzpfonf/
rdk;pufrsm;um; NzdK;NzdK;azsmufazsmuf
um;vrf;ay:odYk &TUH vl;aya& aeaom
uRJwpftyk f aoG;at;pGm ajcvSr;f av;

3

uef u ef j zif h jzwf o G m ;Muonf /
wd&pämefqdkwm t0wftpm; rvdk?
xD;rvdk?em&Drvdk?xrif;rvdk?ydkufqH
rvd k ? pd w f a umuf p &mrvd k twif ;
ajymp&mrvdkyguvm; .../
abmvk H ; puf ½ k H 0 if ; ab;buf
ajreD u k e f ; vrf ; ray:rS m wa&T U a&T U
vmaeoludk rIefjyjyjrifae&onf/
'gjrifhjrifhpdefyJjzpfrnf/ oif;jrpE´DyJ
jzpfrnf/ q&mBuD;wlryJjzpfrnf/ 'DaeY
paeaeY/ oltvkyfcGif0ifzdkYayyJvm;/
aps;xGuf0,fonfvm;? wa&TUa&TU
vS r f ; aeaom ½k y f y k H v T m ueD ; uyf
vmonf/ oif;jrpE´u
D m; ajymp&m&Sd
wmajymNyD ; ol Y a jcvS r f ; ol v S r f ;
oGm;onf/ pmoifcef;xJrS rwfwyf
&yf'Pfay;cH&aom uav;oli,frsm;
u vlpdrf;rsm;rdkYvSnfhMunfhMuonf/
q&mrwdkYuvnf; olwdkYpum;0kdif;
&yf&if; vSnphf ;l prf;Muonf/ xdu½ke;f
yif rsm;um; ajcoHjyif;jyif;rsm;aMumifh
td y f c sif a ,mif a qmif o G m ;Muonf /
awmyef;rsm;um; vlprd ;f eH&Y í acgif;
axmif;xvdkufMuonf/ awmyef;
wpfyiG u
hf ckd ;l olu cl;Munfo
h nf/ ajreD
auGUcsdK;a&mufNyD; odyrf Mum? wnfNidrf
vSaom tdrif ,fuav;udk tMurf;
xnfykHMurf;avmif;xm;aom yef;csD
um;wpf c syf y rm jrif v d k u f & onf /
wnfNidrv
f eG ;f vSonf/ twm;tqD;rJh
0if;x&Hukd ausmfjzwf&if;NcH0if;twGi;f
0if v k d u f M uonf / onf a e&mwG i f
uAsmq&mBuD ; wrf ; qG w f z l ; aom
qd w f z vl ; &eH Y u oif ; xk H r aeacs/
touf ( 70)ausmf v mNyD j zpf a om
uAsmq&mBuD ; onf ol Y v uf q G J
&wem ajr;i,faqmhupm;cJhaom
pmtk y f r sm;wpf p pD j yef Y u sJ a erI u d k
jyefppk nf;aeonf/ uRefawmfb,fol
vJ?toHrSwfrdvm;?ar;awmh uAsm
q&mBuD;u&,fvaYkd eonf/ pGyu
f s,f
vuf j ywf r QES i h f aygh a ygh y g;yg;usef ;
usef;rmrmawG&Y onfrmS awmh MunfE;l
p&mjzpfonf/ uAsmq&mBuD;a&;cJh
[ef w l a om yef ; csD u m;wpf c syf u
eH&rH mS Nidro
f uf vsuf/ tpdr;f a&mif

4

rsm; ,Suaf jy;aeonf/ tcef;axmifh
wpf a e&mwG i f aq;om;rS d e f j yjyeJ Y ?
trsd K ;orD ; yk H r S e f y ef ; csD u m;csyf o nf
t&if w pf a cguf r sm;xuf rI e f & D a e
onf/ yef;csDum;a&SUrSm ol&ówD
r,fawmf½kyfxk/ q&mBuD;u tvS
aA'orm;?onfol&ówDr,fawmf
½kyfxku oif;jrpE´DudpöjzpfEdkifonf/
tcef;usOf;uav;rSm uAsmq&mBuD;
arG;aeYukd usif;ycJMh uzl;onf/ uAsm
q&mBuD ; arG ; aeY u d k usif ; ycJ h M uzl ;
onf/uAsmq&mBuD;onf olYoli,f
csif ; rsm;?rd w f a qG r sm;?&J a bmf r sm;?
a&;azmfrsm;?wynfw
h yef;rsm;jzifh aysmf
ae cJzh ;l onf/ tckuRefawmfwv
Ykd pl Ek iS hf
uAsmq&mBuD;?'gyJjzpfonf/
uRefawmfa&mufvmawmh uAsm
q&mBuD;aysmfaeonf/ uRefawmfrS
r[k w f y gbl ; av/ b,f { nf h o nf
vmvm q&mBuD ; aysmf v d k Y a ewwf
onf/uRefawmfrh mS uAsmq&mBuD;ESihf
ywfoufí aysmfp&mawG wpfoBD uD;
pD&DayGUydkufvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ uRef
awmh f & if x J r &S i f ; onf h Munf a t;
uAsmpmtkyfudpöawG ar;jzpfonf/
uAsmq&mBuD;u olr&Si;f onfh ar;
cGe;f rsm;udk jyefveS af r;cGe;f xkwo
f nf/
Munfat;uAsmawG ... vuf
a&;rleYJ olroGm;cifvm;ay;xm;wm/
acgif;pOfawmifrygbl;/ ola&;csifwm
awGa&;xm;wmyJ/ olub,fvakd jym
rvJ/xifay:ausmfMum;vdkwJh olawG
&Sw
d ,f/ ay;&r,fqakd wmhrS acgif;pOf
awGa&;ay;oGm;wm? olYvufa&;rl
awG uRefawmftMumBuD;odrf;xm;
ao;w,f/aemufawmh [dka&TU'Da&TUeJY
olvnf; [dak &mufawmh uRefawmfqD
pma&;ay;w,f/ uRefawmfu jyefr
a&;bl ; / ol Y u AsmawG vuf E S d y f
puf½kdufxm;wJh zdkif&Sdw,f/ tJ'gudk
xD v mppf o l u a&;csif w ,f q d k v d k Y
uRefawmfay;xm;vdu
k w
f m/ wpf&uf
awmh rZÑ d r pmayu b,f o l v J /
ud k & J j rif h v m;? tJ ... ol & ,f ?
armif j rif h j rwf & ,f ? ud k x if v if ; &,f
a&mufvmw,f/ Munfat;uAsmawG

xk w f c sif w ,f q d k v k d Y ? uRef a wmf u
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rIdif;(tm;rmefopf)uxkwfr,fjzpfvm
awmh ... uAsmq&mol&defudkudk
vnf;ygvmw,f/ jzKwfoifw
h hJ uAsm
awG u Ref a wmh u d k vmajymMuao;
w,f/ 'Dvu
l awmhrqd;k ygbl;/ udn
k Kd
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f mygyJ/
uAsmq&mBuD ; u Munf a t;
uAsmpmtkyjf zpfvmyHk aemufcu
H m;csyf
udk jc,fa&;jyonf/ pkwfcsufzGzG?
ta&mif E k E k w d k Y j zif h a jymonf / uRef
awmfu pkwfcsufMurf;Murf;Munfhvdk
jcif;jzpfonf/ uAsmq&mBuD;uaoG;
qlwwfolr[kwf/
]tJonft
h rSm;udpu
ö b,frmS yg
wmvJ? ½ky&f iS af w;uAsm [kwv
f m;?
armif o if ; cd k i f w d k Y v nf ; vmw,f /
'gayr,f h tJ o nf h p mtk y f y grvm
bl;?zwf&&ifawmhuRefawmf ajymvdkY
&w,f ...? rSm;w,fqkd wmawmh
raumif ; bl ; aygh / 'grrS m ;oif h w J h
udpyö aJ ygh? Munfat;udx
k cd u
kd w
f maygh?
armifjrifhjrwfudkawmhuRefawmfar;
rMunfh&ao;bl;/ tm;rmefopfrSm
b,fvjkd zpfwmvJvYkd uRefawmf ar;
Munfah wmh ul;ay;wmu wuúov
kd f
pmMunfw
h u
kd rf mS oGm;ul;ay;wJh aumif
rav;awGw?hJ uRefawmhrmS vufa&;
rl&Sd&ifvnf; wdkufMunfhvdkY&w,f?
armifjrifhjrwfwkdYqdkwmu Munfat;
uAsmawG p mawG t vG w f & wJ h o l y J ?
tJonfhpmtkyfvkyfwJhtcsdefrSm armif
jrifhjrwfu ayzl;vTmudkjrvIdifwdkYeJY
tqifrajyjzpfaecsdefrdkY tm;rmefopf
rS m oG m ;vk y f & w,f v d k Y a jymw,f /
cufwmu uRefawmhrmS vnf;? zwf
ay;r,f h v l r &S d b l ; ? jrif h j rif h p d e f u
vnf ; rd k ; vif ; urd k ; csKyf o l U tvk y f e J Y
ol a usmif ; awG yd w f x m;wk e f ; u
zwf a y;wJ h aumif r av;&S d w ,f /
tckausmif;awGzGifhawmhaumifrav;
uvnf;rtm;bl;/ [dw
k pfaeYuawmh
zwfay;zdYk oluar;w,f/ tJonfah eY

u {nfo
h nfawG&adS evdYk rzwfvu
kd &f
bl;/ zwfvu
kd &f &ifawmh Munfat;
uAsm [kwrf [kwf uRefawmford ,f/
tJonfrh mS ]tzsm;aoG;}qdw
k mygvm;
.../ tzsm;aoG ; qd k w myg&if
tJ'gMunfat;pum;vHk;yJ}/
uAsmq&mBuD;um; Munfat;
uAsmrsm; trSm;udpu
ö akd oaocsmcsm
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onf/ pmtky&f &ifaum? b,fou
l
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txD;usefqefvGef;vSonf/ 'gudkyJ
olaysmfarGUaea&mhovm;/ uRefawmf
ujzifh uAsmq&mBuD;b0udak wG;&if;
rGef;usyfvmjyefonf/
uRefawmfu'DrSmtNyD;aezdkYxGuf
vmwmr[kwfbl;/ cPqdkNyD;awmh
ukudúKif;tdrfrSm pmtkyfawG usefcJh
w,f / tJ o nf h p mtk y f a wG x J r S m
wpfu,fph mtkyaf umif;awGygw,fAsm
.../ pmtkyaf wGu jcudu
k Nf yD;ysufp;D
uk e f N yD / [d k w pf a vmucif r mvm
qDzek ;f qufawmh? uRefawmft
h cef;udk
bk&m;pifawG bmawGeYJ bk&m;cef;vkyf
xm;NyDwJh/a[rm&Sdwkef;u uRefawmh
tcef;qdo
k nfaumifu ody&f iS ;f wm/
jcwuf N yD q d k & if t jyif u k d x k w f N yD ; cg
wmyJ?NyD;awmh txJujkd yefo,fw,f/
uRef a wmf u a[rmh u d k a jym&w,f /
a[h a umif jcud k u f N yD ; &if v T i f h y pf
vdu
k af [h? pmtkyu
f &Smvd&Yk w,f/ jyef
o,fvm&iftukef ysufpD;ukefrSmvdkY
...? a[rmuodyf&Sif;wm? rsufpd
½I y f r cH b l ; ? ol & S i f ; wmu tm;vH k ;
axmifu
h yfypfwm? wpfcgwpfavrsm;
uRefawmhzikd af wGbmawG cifrmvmwdYk
td r f c ef ; xJ o G m ;yH k x m;wm .../
jrif u G i f ; xJ u aysmuf a tmif u d k
&S i f ; ypf w m/ tJ o nf h p mtk y f a wG
Mum;xJrmS Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;a&;wJh
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vef'efrSm&SdaewJh udktkef;qDvSrf;NyD;
wdik w
f nfMuwJh pmaygh .../ tJonf
pm&&if uRefawmfaqmif;yg;a&;rvdkY?
[d k w pf a vmu ud k t k e f ; trsd K ;orD ;

a'gufwm b,fov
l AJ sm? oufouf
aqGvm; ..? vmawmh AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;pmudak wmh armfueG ;f wdu
k f
vSL vdu
k Nf yDajymw,f/ uRefawmfwYkd
rd w ¬ l u l ; ay;zd k Y a jymxm;w,f .../
a&;p&mtrsm;BuD;yJav/
uAsmq&mBu;D ua0&D&ED iS t
hf a0;udk
rSef;q&if;ajymonf/ uRefawmfu
½kyfyHkvTmtzGJUtEGJUrsm;udk vGrf;qGwf
vmonf / Ad k v f c sKyf a tmif q ef ; ud k
]t½d k i f ; }[k z G J U EG J U zl ; wmowd & onf /
uAsmq&mBuD;um; ½kyyf v
kH mT tzGUJ tEGUJ
rTef;&mwGifaq;om;rsm;udk wdkYum
xdumjzifh yHak zmf,jl cif;jzpfonf/ 'g
ayr,fh ]um½dkufwmpuufcsfyHkay:
atmif a zmf E d k i f p G r f ; &S d o l j zpf o nf /
uRefawmf0,fodrf;xm;aom½kyfyHkvTm
rl(2)ckpvHk;um; pmolcdk;vufxJyg
oGm;cJhNyD; pmpkolrsm;&Sdovdk pmtkyf
olcdk;&Sdaejyefojzifh a'gojzpf&mi&J
BuD;&yHkawG jyefowd&vmjyefonf/
½kyfyHkvTmtzGJUtEGJUrsdK;um; onf
bufacwfrmS awmh Edik if aH &;orm;awG
taMumif; zGJUEGJUvdkYr&bl;vm;? tck
avmavmq,f cs,&f rD mS A*saD tmifp;kd
½kyfyHkvTmawmha&;jzpfonf/ aemuf
awmh b,foUl udk a&;jzpfr,frodb;l /
b,folUa&;jzpfr,fqdkwm ajymvdkY
r&bl; .../ uRefawmfa&;jzpf&ifawmh

pmaypdppfa&;&JY
aiGrSiftydwfcHxm;cJh&wJh
ae&m

pmaypdppfa&;&JY
aiGrSiftydwfcHxm;cJh&wJh
ae&m

ajymyghr,f/
uAsmq&mBuD;ajymjyaeonfrSm
ol u csa&;jzpf v Qif ½k y f y H k v T m tzG J U
tEGUJ rsm;jzpfvmEdik o
f nf/ uRefawmfwYkd
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rxdk;jzpfonfxm;? a&;xm;cJhapcsif
onf/ aemiftqifajyvQif pmzwf
y&dowfxJtzdk;rjzwfEdkifonfh vuf
&mawG j zpf v mEd k i f o nf r [k w f v m;
.../
]cifAsm;vnf;owdeJYaeOD;? cif
Asm;vdak &;yHrk sdK;uonfrmS awmh cifAsm;
pwmyJ/ [dkrSmawmh]a*gZpf (yf)}vdkY
ac:w,f / emrnf u awmh od y f r
aumif ; bl ; aygh .../ 'gayr,f h
vlawGpdwf0ifpm;Muw,f/ vlawGeJY
b0taMumif;aygh/ onfrmS awmh'grsdK;
odyfr&ao;bl;? ta&rxl;Muao;
bl;? wpfu,fqdk udk,fhtaMumifh
pd w f 0 if p m;vd k Y a &;wmyJ / aus;Zl ;
awmif w if z d k Y aumif ; ao;w,f /
cifAsm;udak wmh vlrek ;f rsm;rSmaygh ...}/
uAsmq&mBuD;ESifhuRefawmfwdkY
r*¾Zif;rsm;taMumif; a&mufoGm;jyef
onf/ Ny;D awmh r*¾Zif;rsm; ESiphf yfquf
aeonfh pmaypdppfa&;taMumif;?
0d"&l ocifcspfarmiftaMumif; a&muf
oG m ;Mujyef o nf ...? Oya'
taMumif;? a[rmtaMumif;? OD;armif

5

uG,fvGefoGm;jcif;[m tpm;xkd;
r&wJh BuD;rm;wJhqHk;½HI;rI BuD;jzpfyg
w,f/ olxkwfjyefcJhwJh olBudK;yrf;
cJhwJh olcsrSwfcJhwJh vkyfief;awG
ud k uRef a wmf w d k Y quf N yD ;
Bud K ;yrf ; Mur,f q d k & if a wmh
ajzodrEhf ikd f p&m&r,fvYkd xifyg
w,f/ olU&JU 'Drdkua&pDpuf
BuD;(3)&yfudk qufvufNyD;
BudK;pm;oGm;MuygvdkY pmay
avmuorm; awGa&m Nidr;f
csrf;a&;orm;awGa&m trsKd;
om;jyefvnf oifjh rwfa&;orm;
awGa&m tm;vHk;udk uRefawmfwdkufwGef;csifygw,f/
OD;odef;ñGefY(aumhu&dwf)
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdkYESifhtwl jrefrmEkdifiHausmif;om;
or*¾rSma&m? wuúodkvfausmif;om;or*¾rSma&m acgif;
aqmifBuD;tjzpfeJY yg0ifcJhw,f/ tJ'D EkdifiHa&;tpOftvmudk
uRefawmf tifrwefrS av;pm;wefzdk;xm;ygw,f/ usefwJh
b,folrStjiif;ryGm;Edkifwmuawmh q&mBuD;ocifudk,f
awmfrdIif;NyD;&if Nidrf;csrf;a&;uAsmq&mBuD;u q&m'*kef
wm&myJ/ ol tckuG,fvGefqHk;½HI;oGm;jcif;um; uRefawmf
wdkYwdkif;jynf&JU ouf&Sd orkdif;yk*¾dKvfBuD;wpfa,muf jrefrmh
Ekid if aH &;ZmwfcakH y:uae aysmufu,
G o
f mG ;jcif; jzpfwt
hJ wGuf
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