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1 Recruitment: Meaning and Definition
Successful human resource planning should identify our human resource needs. Once we know these needs, we still want to do something about meeting them. The next step in the acquisition function, therefore, is recruitment. This activity makes it possible for us to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the Organisation. Recruiting is the discovering of potential candidates for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies or from other perspective, it is a linking activity- bringing together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. “ Recruitment a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force” Yoder & others “It is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an Organisation. It is often termed positive in that it stimulates people to apply for jobs to increase the “hiring” ratio i.e the no. Of applicants for a job.” Flippo Technically speaking, the function of recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only finding, developing the sources of prospective employees and attracting them to apply for jobs in an organization, whereas the selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attracted (recruited).
6.2 Objectives of recruitment:
♦ To attract people with multi dimensional skills and experience that suit the present and future organizational strategies; ♦ To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company;
♦ To anticipate and find people for positions that do not exist yet.3 Factors affecting Recruitment There are a number of factors that affect recruitment. ♦ To search or head hunt/ head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values. Factors affecting Recruitment: 6. ♦ To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. ♦ To search for talent globally and not just with in the company. ♦ To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits. . These are broadly classified in to two categories: 1. External Factors. 1:Recruiting and other Human Resource Management activities Human Resource Planning Recruiting Job Applications Selection Which provides new employees ♦ Orientation. ♦ To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent.♦ To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the Organisation. ♦ Etc. Internal Factors. for ♦ Training/ Development. Fig. ♦ To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum. 2.
Policies. company’s product and services. growth opportunities. Company’s size. company’s growth rate. legal and governmental factors. . Employment rate. Political. employment opportunities and /or unemployment rate. Geographical spread of the company’s operations. Role of trade unions. 6. Supply and demand factors. Internal factors: Company’s pay package. Information systems. labour market conditions. fringe benefits and incentives. size of the company. political and legal requirement and govt.3. organizational culture. Company’s growth rate.6. External factors: Socio economic factors.1 External Factors: The external factors include supply of and demand for human resources. Career planning and growth. Company’s products and services. Company’s name and fame. Labour market conditions. Quality of worklife. social factors. Cost of recruitment. information systems etc. career planning.2 Internal Factors: The internal factors include the company’s pay package including salary. quality of work life.3. Organizational culture. role of trade unions and cost of recruitment.
which stimulate the prospective employees to apply for jobs like nomination by employees.4 Sources of Recruitment Recruitment is more likely to achieve its objectives if recruiting sources reflect the type of position to be filled. promotion etc. Attitudes Preferences. ♦ Job analysis. Personality. ♦ Labor relations. Competitive services. ♦ Selection. ♦ Location of the Organisation. ♦ Career planning and development. advertising. ♦ Training and development. Competitive products. Accident rates. 6. Sources are those where prospective employees are available like employment exchanges while techniques are those. ♦ Safety. ♦ Composition of the labour force. Requirements. regulations and laws. Scrap rates. People Abilities. ♦ Recruitment. Motivation. ♦ Planning. Turnover. ♦ Organizational Culture. ♦ Benefits and services. ♦ Economic conditions. . ♦ Goals. Organisation End Results. Certain recruiting sources are more effective than others for filling certain types of jobs are. ♦ Discipline. Satisfaction. ♦ Leader’s style and HRM activities: ♦ Equal employment opportunities. Effectiveness Criteria: Performance. ♦ Work Group.Fig.2 Factors Affecting Recruitment of Employees External Environmental Influences: ♦ The union. ♦ Nature of the task. Absenteeism. ♦ Govt. Grievance rates. Internal Environmental Influences: ♦ Strategy.
Why do organizations prefer Internal Source? Internal recruitment can be used as a technique of motivation. Dependents of Deceased. (f) Transfers. trade union pressure and the like. Morale of the employees can be improved. Such organizations find this source as an effective source of recruitment. (b) present temporary/ casual employees. (d) dependents or deceased. Sometimes the organizations prefer to re employ their retired employees as a token of their loyalty to the Organisation or to postpone some inter personal conflicts for promotion etc. (c) retrenched or retired employees. The Organisation takes of the candidates for employment from the retrenched employees due to obligation. disabled and present employees. It includes (a) Present permanent employees.1 Internal Sources: are the sources within organizational pursuits. Retrenched or Retired employees: Generally a particular Organisation retrenches the employees due to lay-off. . Retired and Present Employees: Some organizations with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of build up image provide employment to the dependent(s) of deceased. Transfers: Employees will be stimulated to work in the new sections or places if management wishes to transfer them to the places of their choice. disabled. 6. Disabled. Present temporary or Casual employees: Organizations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at lower levels owing to the availability of suitable candidates or trade and pressures or in order to motivate them on the present job. Promotions: Most of the internal candidates would be stimulated to take up higher responsibilities and express their willingness to be engaged in the higher level jobs if management gives them the assurance that they will be promoted to the next higher level. retired and present employees.4. (3) to the policy of the Organisation to motivate the present employees.The sources of recruitment are broadly classified in to internal sources and external sources. Present Permanent Employees: Organizations consider the candidates from this source for higher level jobs due to: (1) availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to the external source. (2) to meet the trade unions demands. (e) Promotions.
a sense of belongings and security of the present employees can be enhanced. These sources include: (1) Campus Recruitment. Social responsibility towards employees may be discharged. Cost of training. Employee’s psychological needs can be met by providing an opportunity for advancement. period of adaptability to the Organisation can be reduced. this practice is not followed.2 External Sources: External Sources are those sources. Most of the universities and institutes imparting technical education in . induction. (7) Advertisements. Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer does. (5) Data Banks. style designing and basic research). As promotion is based on seniority. commerce. which are outside the organizational pursuits. Loyalty. Cost of selection can be minimized. There are possibilities that internal source may “dry up”. Suitability of the internal candidates can be judged better than the external candidates as “known devils are better than unknown angles”. orientation. commitment. and it may be difficult to find the requisite personnel from within an Organisation.4. no innovations worth the name can be made. (8) Employee Referrals. Campus Recruitment: different types of organizations like industries. (5) Similar Organizations. (3) Public Employment Exchanges. (6) Casual Applications. (2) Private Employment Agencies/ Consultants. arts. on jobs which require original thinking (such as advertising. the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. Therefore. Employees economic needs for promotion. Stability of employment can be ensured. (6) Trade Unions. social or religious organizations can get inexperienced candidates of different types from various educational institutions like colleges and universities imparting education in science. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play an important role in the selection of personnel. engineering and technology. 6. (4) Professional Associations. higher income can be satisfied. Why organizations don’t prefer internal sources? It often leads to inbreeding and discouraging new blood from entering in an Organisation. business firms. agriculture. Medicines from the training institutes. service organizations.
Line mangers are relieved from recruitment functions so they can concentrate on their operational activities and recruitment functions are entrusted to a private agency or consultants. set up Public Employment exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organizations in finding out suitable .various disciplines provide facilities for campus recruitment and selection. Fig.3 process of Campus Recruitment: Form manpower addition plan Identify campuses to recruit on Conduct pre-placement Tasks Secure place in the queue on each campus Check application form of candidates Conduct written test for knowledge Cross check for inconsistencies Stay in touch with those who accept Advice through final year’s specialization Provide support to ease stress Interview intensively for competence Identify suitable candidates Make job offers Continue informal interaction Employment Agencies: These agencies or consultants perform the recruitment function on the behalf of a client company by charging fee. Public Employment Agencies: The govt. These agencies are also called Executive Search Companies.
Trade Unions: Generally. Employee referrals: Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn. radios. its prompt response. clarifying doubts etc. . Advertising: Advertising is widely accepted technique of recruitment. level of unemployment. It provides the candidates in different sources. candidates apply casually for the jobs through mail or hand over the applications in Personnel Department. candidates. participation of the Organisation in the local activities. Professional Organizations: Professional organizations maintain complete data of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. large employers frequently offer their employees’ bonuses or prizes for any referrals that are hired and stay with the company for a specific length of time. unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leader with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter’s intimacy with management. and feed them in the computer. though it mostly provides one way communication. Data Banks: The management can collect the bio data of the candidate from different sources like employment exchanges. This would be the most effective source for executive positions and for newly established organizations or diversifies or expanded organizations. experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. They also act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firms in exchanging information. Public sector and private sector industries have to depend on public employment exchanges for the specified vacancies. candidates etc. educational Training Institutes. It will become another source and the company can get the particulars as and when they need. the information about the job and company and stimulates them to apply for jobs. Casual Applicant: Depending upon the image of the Organisation. television etc. When the labour market is very tight. magazines of all kinds. It includes advertising through different media like newspapers. The management can get most suitable candidates from this source. Similar Organizations: Generally. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs.
The companies select the suitable candidates from among such candidates through the selection process.3 Modern sources or techniques of Recruitment: WALK IN: The busy organizations and the rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. In addition. the organizations themselves approach the prospective employees to place their human resources. Business Alliances: Business alliances like acquisitions. the companies do also have alliances in sharing their human resources on ad-hoc basis. Tele Recruitment: The technological revolution in the Tele communication helped the organizations to use Internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the vacancies through the World Wide Web (www) Internet. The professional organizations search for the most suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. Head Hunting: The companies request the professional organizations to search for the best candidates particularly for the senior executive positions. These institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. 6.4. . mergers. The suitable candidates among the interviewees will be selected for appointment after screening the candidates through tests and interviews. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. A proper organizational structure. and takeovers help in getting human resources. Consult In: The busy organizations encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs.5 Summary In short: Successful and effective recruitment programme necesseciates to have certain attributes such as: A well defined recruiment policy. The job seekers send their applications through e-mail or Internet.6. they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified place. headhunters are also called search consultants. Body shopping: Professional organizations and the hi tech training institutes develop the pool of human resources for the possible employment. Therefore. Otherwise.
if selected. An ethically sound and fool proof practice telling an applicant all about the job and its position. What are the various sources of recruitment? Discuss their relative merits and demerits? 3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Questions 1. . A suitable method and technique for tapping and utilizing these candidates. the firm to enable the candidate judiciously decide wether or no to apply and join the firm. A continous assessment of effectiveness of recruitment programme and incorporation of suitable modifications from time to time to improve the effectiveness of the programme. Bring out the factors which effect recruitment? 2. A well laid down procedure for locating potential job seekers. If you were a personnel officer in a scientific institution and asked to recruit scientists. Define recruitment. which source of recruitment you will use for this purpose and why? 4. What are the key attributes that make recruitment programme effective.
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