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Objectives

1. To construct voltage level detector.
2. To construct an undervoltage indicator which gives L.E.D signal whenever a
low voltage is detected compare to reference voltage.
3. To combine voltage level detector and undervoltage indicator for observing
their relationship.

A. Voltage Level Detector

Components:

1. IC (Intergrationcircuit) LM741 ×3
2. L.E.D (light emitted diode) ×1 green
×1 yellow
×1 red
3. 330Ω resistor ×3
4. 3.3kΩ resistor ×3
5. 24kΩ resistor ×1

Procedures:

1. The voltage level detector is constructed as shown in the diagram.
2. The voltage level detector is connected to the voltage supply.
3. The diode change due to voltage changes is observed.
4. The changes of the diode is recorded in Table 1.
5. The observation is discussed.
B. Under voltage Indicator

Components:

1. 10kΩ resistor ×1
2. 680Ω resistor ×1
3. 4.7kΩ resistor ×1
4. 4.7MΩ resistor ×1
5. 43Ω resistor ×1
6. L.E.D ×1
7. 0.68uF capacitor ×1
8. PN2907 transistor ×1
9. PN2222 transistor ×1

Procedures:

+ Vref
-

+ Vin

-

1. The circuit shown in diagram is constructed.
2. 3V (around 0.07A) is supplied to Vref.
3. Vin with voltage below 3V and above is supplied, the difference is observed.
4. Vref with 2V,4V and 5V is supplied. When the LED begin to flash,the voltage
value of Vin is jot down in Table 2.
C. Combination of Voltage Level Detector and Under voltage Indicator

Procedures:

1. Both voltage level detector and undervoltage indicator is combined by
gathering both Vref of voltage level detector and undervoltage indicator while
VBat of voltage level detector with Vin of undervoltage indicator.
2. Vref with a constant voltage value which is 5V is supplied.
3. The combination of VBat and Vin is supplied with 5V,4.5V,4V,3.5V and until 0V.
4. The observation is recorded in Table 3.

Results:
Observation
Voltage Diode
Gree Yello
(v) Red
n w

5.0 On On On
4.5 < V <
On On On
5.0
4.5 Off On On
4.0 < V <
Off On On
4.5
4.0 Off Off On
3.5 < V <
Off Off On
4.0
3.5 Off Off Off
3.0 < V <
Off Off Off
3.5
3.0 Off Off Off

Table 1

Vref (v) Vin (v)
2.0 0.4
3.0 1.4
4.0 2.6
5.0 3.8

Table 2

Voltage (v) Observation
Diode
Vref Vin LED Green Yellow Red

5.0 5.0 Not flash On On On
4.5 < V <
5.0 Flash On On On
5.0
5.0 4.5 Flash Off On On
4.0 < V <
5.0 Flash Off On On
4.5
5.0 4.0 Flash Off Off On
3.5 < V <
5.0 Flash Off Off On
4.0
5.0 3.5 Flash Off Off Off
5.0 V < 3.5 Flash Off Off Off