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Transformer Heat, Copper and Iron Losses
http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/transformer-heat-copper-and-iron-losses Edvard May 20, 2013
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Transformer Losses (Heat)
The the rmal ratings of a transforme r are de te rmine d by the follow ing thre e factors: 1. The amount of heat produced in the windings and connections. 2. The amount of heat produced in the iron core. 3. How effectively the heat can be removed from the transformer when the thermal rating of the transformer is reached. At this point, the heat being produced must equal the heat being removed or dissipated – thermal equilibrium. The efficiency of power transformers is high, especially, for large transformers at full load . However, losses are present in all transformers. These losses may be classified as copper or I 2 R losse s and core or iron losse s .
Copper (or Winding) Losses
Copper losses are resistive and proportional to load current and are sometimes called “load losse s ” or “I 2 R losse s “. As the transformer is loaded, heat is produced in the primary and secondary windings and connections due to I2R. At low loads, the quantity of heat produced will be small but as load increases, the amount of heat produced becomes significant. At full load, the windings will be operating at or near their design temperature. Figure 1 shows the relationship between load-curre nt and the he at produced in transformer windings and connections.
com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. will try to flow at angles to the core and will cause eddy currents to be set up in the core itself. the core is laminated as illustrated inFigure 3 . the core is laminated as illustrated in Figure 3 . The laminations provide small gaps between the plates. The term eddy is used because it is aside from the main flow. Some of the flux however. stray flux that can cause core losses is minimized. The laminations provide small gaps between the plates. The majority of the flux is as indicated in the following Figure 2 . create PDFs Iron (or Core) Losses The iron loss is due to stray eddy currents formed in the transformer core. The term e ddy is used because it is aside from the main flow. Lines of flux are formed around the current-carrying conductors. Some of the flux however. What Is Eddy www. As it is easier for magnetic flux to flow through iron than air or oil. To combat this effect.com: Print web pages. To combat this effect.com/transformer-heat-copper-and-iron-losses 2/4 . will try to flow at angles to the core and will cause eddy currents to be set up in the core itself. stray flux that can cause core losses is minimized. flowing around the core. As it is easier for magnetic flux to flow through iron than air or oil.printfriendly.5/20/13 PrintFriendly.
5/20/13 PrintFriendly.com/transformer-heat-copper-and-iron-losses 3/4 .printfriendly.com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. Copper and Iron Losses (on photo courtesy of Siemens: Geafol-Castresin transformer) Current? (VIDEO) Re source : Science and Reactor Fundamentals Electrical – CNSC Technical Training Group EEP recommends Figure 1 . create PDFs Transformer Heat.com: Print web pages.Relationship between Load and Heat Produced in Transformer Windings www.
printfriendly.5/20/13 PrintFriendly.Circulating Core Flux Figure 3 .com/print/?url=http://electrical-engineering-portal. create PDFs Figure 2 .com: Print web pages.com/transformer-heat-copper-and-iron-losses 4/4 .Transformer Core Laminations www.