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Negative Skin Friction ‘Negative skin friction’ or ‘down drag’ is a phenomenon which occurs when a soil layer surrounding

a portion of the pile shaft settles more than the pile. This condition can develop where a soft or loose soil stratum located anywhere above the pile tip is subjected to new compressive loading. If a soft or loose layer settles after the pile has been installed, the skinfriction-adhesion developing in this zone is in the direction of the soil movement, pulling the pile do Negative skin friction may also occur by the lowering of ground water which increases.

Negative skin friction may also occur by the lowering of ground water which increases the effective stress inducing consolidation and consequent settlement of the soil surrounding the pile.

25 mm per hour. It may be taken when a predetermined amount of settlement has occurred or where the load-settlement plot is no longer a straight line. About five to eight equal increments are used until the load reaches about double the design value. on a working pile or a test pile. If the ultimate load could be found. Each increment is maintained until the rate of settlement becomes a value less than 0. The final load is maintained for 24 hours.LOAD TEST ON PILE Load test on a pile is one of the best methods of determining the load-carrying capacity of a pile. while a test pile is one which is used primarily to check estimated capacities (as predetermined by other methods). Timesettlement data are recorded for each load increment. a suitable factor of safety—2 to 3—may be used to determine the allowable load. Procedure The most common procedure is the test in which the load is maintained slowly. and on a single pile or a group of piles. A working pile is one which forms part of the foundation. It may be conducted on a driven pile or cast-in-situ pile. Often the definition of ‘failureload’ is arbitrary. .

3. Two-thirds of the load which causes a net (plastic) settlement of 6 mm (total settlement minus elastic settlement).The allowable load on a single pile may be obtained as one of the following [I. . 50% of the ultimate load at which the total settlement is equal to one-tenth the diameter of the pile.S: 2911 (Part I)-1974]: 1. 2. Two-thirds of the load which causes a total settlement of 12 mm.