an introduction to reading and writing Japanese

..... ·150&

Helen Gilhooly
Do you want to leam the basics of reading and writing Japane. . and understand how the script works? Are you planning a trip to Japan or thinking about learning the language? If so, Teach Your••1f Seglnne,'. Japan ••• Script I. for youl

In this book, Helen Gilhooly has written a step-by-step introduction to reading and writing simple Japanese. She guides you through the basic techniques and teaches you how to build your skills, with tips and practice suggestions to help you memorize what you are learning and make it enjoyable along the way.

Teach Yourself Beginner's Japanese Script features: • the origins of the language • a systematic approach to mastering the script • lots of -hands on" exercises and activities • practical examples from real-life situations
Other titles from Teach Yourself by Helen Gilhooly

Beginner's Japsnese (book) Beginner's Japsnese (book/cassette pack)
Long-renowned u the authoritative IlOUrte for self-guided leamina-wltJl more than 30 million copies sold worldwi~he TttJth Yourself series includes over 200 liliel in the fields of languages. cnftt. hobbicl. ipOrts, and other Insure aclivities.

ISBN 0-8442-3708-6 ISBN 0-8442-3611-X

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Helen Gilhooly


For UK orden: please contact Bookpoint Ltd, 78 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OXl4 4TD, Telephone: (44) 01235 400414, Fax: (44) 01235 400454. Lines are open from 9.00- 6.00, Monday to Saturday, with a 24 hour message answering service. Email address: For U.S.A. &. Canada ordcrs: please contact NTC/Contcmporary Publishing, 4255 West Touhy Avenue, Lincolnwood, Illinois 60646- 1975, U.S.A. Telephone: (847) 679 5500, Fax: (847) 679 2494. Long renowned as the authoritative source for self-guided learning - with more than 30 million copies $Old worldwide - the Teach Yourself series includes over 200 titles in the fields of languages, crafts, hobbies, business and education. British Library auaioguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this title is available from The British Library. Libr.1ry of Congress Catalog Card Number: On fil e, First published in UK 1999 by Hodder Headline Pic, 338 Euston Road, London, NWI 3BH. First published in US 1999 by NTClContempontry Publishing, 4255 West Touhy Avenue, Lincolnwood (Chicago), Illinois 60646-1 975 U.S.A. The ' Teach Yourself' name and logo arc registered trade marks of Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. Copyright C 1999 Helen Gilhooly In UK: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any infonnation storage and retrieval system, without peonission in writing from the publisher or under licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited. Further details of such licences (for reprographic reproduction) may be obtained from the Copyright Ljccnsi ng Agency Limited, of9() TOilenham Court Road, London WI P 9HE. In US: All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, el~tronie, mechanical, photocopying, or Otherwise, without prior peonission of NTCtContemporary Publishing Company. Typeset by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong. Printed in Great Britain for Hodder & Stoughton Educational, a division of Hodder Headline Pic, 338 Euston Rood, London NWI 3BH by Cox & Wyman LId. Reading, Berkshire. Impn:ssion number

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99 Numbers 100.10.CONTENTS Introduction Unit 1 11I .10 Numbers 11.~ Linking kanji to pictures (I) How to read the days of the week Writing Practice ( 1) Unit 2 v 1 2 5 7 11 11I = ~ Linking kanj i to pictures (2) Reading dates and cale ndars Writing Practice (2) Test ( I) 12 16 23 27 Unit 3 11I = ~ Numbers 1.69 71 I .000+ Japanese moncy amounts Writing Practice (3) 28 28 31 32 34 38 Unit 4 11I1!!1~ Action word kanji (verbs) Reading sentences Writing Practice (4) Test (2) 42 42 49 53 57 Unit 5 l1Ili~ Reading and writing hiragana Simple hiragana rules Reading sentences in Japanese 58 60 66. 67.

136 143 148 149 164 171 175 180 191 Index (1) Japanese-English Index (2) English-Japanese . 135 Unit 10 Simple grammar rules for reading Reading and writing letters Japanese haiku (short poems) Key to the exercises -+. Recognising shop and place s igns Everyday s igns and information Map of Japan Reading authentic signs Unit 9 _11.. Unit 6 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT i1l*_ Remembering kanji through stories Building up kanj i Writing Practice (5) Test (3) Unit 7 _-t... 73 76 78 83 85 87 92 94 96 98 103 105 II I Locating the radical Linking components with readings Using kanji dictionaries Writing Practice (6) Unit 8 _A.. 11 5 11 8 Reading and writing katakana Simple kalakana rules Extra katakana sounds Reading authentic katakana information 125 127 130.

In actual fact. there arc many features of the Ja panese la nguage which make it relatively strai ghtforward to learn. the learning of Japanese script is spread throughout the nine years of compulsory education . challenging and also fun to learn. follows logical rules and is very regular. for example. A brief history The Japanese writing system was introduced into Japan by the Chinese around the middle of the 6th century AD. The aim of this book is to show you that written Japa nese can be interesting.INTRODUCTION The Japanese language presented such difficulties to sixteenth century European missionaries that they called it the Devif's tongue. learning and understanding the meaning of vocabulary and different types of texts takes a very long time. the Japanese student will have 'learnt 1942 kanji (Chinese characters). Although 1942 kanji sounds like a large amount. The grammar. By the end of this period. it is worth making the comparison with English where. This is the basic number prescribed by the Japanese Ministry of Education as essential for reading texts such as newspapers thoroughly. In the Japanese education system. This book will make the reading and writing of Japanese accessible to you through a step-by-step approach which will help you to gradually build up your knowledge of Japanese script. There are now three . The Chinese language is very different to Japanese in structure and so the writing system was gradually adapted to fit the structure of the Japanese language. There are many more kanji (over 5000 in many kanji dictionaries) which are used for more specialised vocabulary and texts. although we learn the alphabet relatively quickly. It is the reading and writing of Japanese which offers the greatest challenge to the learner.

You wi ll learn morc about this in unit 2.BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT scripts which make up the Japanese writing system (four if you include roma]. For example a a -. rate.U-S-E.. There are two types of pronunciation known as onyomi (Chinese reading) and kunyomi (Japanese reading). This differs from the roman alphabet system where letters are grouped into sounds and where the same letter can be pronounced in differcnt ways depending on its grouping (eg: a in rat. They are phonetic alphabets or syllabaries which means that each symbol represents one sound only.~~): ~ • •• You will learn more about this in unit I.t. I? The hiragana and katakana scripts represent the same set of 46 basic sounds but the symbols are written differently and the two scripts are used for different purposes as described in the fo llowing section. or roman script. ie. The two other scripts in the Japanese writing system are called hiragana and katakana and are known collectively as kana. hence kanji is translated as 'Chinese characters' . Kana fJ. The difference between the Japanese phonetic system and the alphabet system can be shown through an example: In English the word house is made up of five letters: H-O. far and fare). These sounds are represented by two hiragana symbols: . Kanji are ideographs.. This was the script which was invented by the Chinesc and introduced to Japan. this means that the whole character conveys a meaning or idea (whereas in the roman alphabet system. In Japanese the word for house (uchi) is made up of two sounds U-CHI. letters are grouped together to make words). Let 's look at each of these in turn. alphabet). . Kanji 1I* Kan is an ancient word meaning 'Chinese' and] i means ' letter' or 'character'.. There is usually more than one pronunciation for a kanji character. Kanji were originally drawn from pictures of nature and gradually developed into the standardised sun developed like this: kanji used today. For example is the kanji for sun .

this isn't always the case. the katakana symbol I. Hiragana is also used to indicate how to pronounce a kanji when it is first learnt or if it is unusual. The left side remains very similar in the hiragana symbol. The same kanji lit) conveys the meaning listen. Katakana :b 'Y :b 'T The kata of katakana means partial and this is because each katakana symbol was developed from part of a kanji with the same pronunciation. when writing verbs (action words) the kanji is used to express the main idea or meani ng and hiragana is used to indicate the function of the verb: I listen is written: Pfl ~ i t The kanji IIH conveys the meaning listen. (In this example. Each symbol was developed from simplified kanji with the same pronunciation. . The four hiragana show that it is a past action: I listened. You will learn more about this in units 5 and 10.) The katakana script represents the same set of sounds as hiragana but the symbols are written differently and are used for different purposes. For example.J (ka).t. Hiragana is used to write the grammatical parts of words and sentences and to write Japanese words which don' t have a kanji. For ex.. the same kanji is the root of both the hiragana and katakana symbol. the right side ' box ' has been reduced to a slanting line.ample. Japanese children learn hiragana first and then gradually replace words and parts of words with kanji as they progress.lifi ed version of the kanji 1m (pronounced ka). ~ i -t are three hiragana wh ich show that the action is present tense I listen. it is called furigana and is written beside or above the kanji . For example. This wi ll become more apparent once you have worked through units 5 and 9. The word hiragana means rounded/easy to use and indicates both the shape and the relative simplicity of the script. the hiragana symbol tJ\ ( ka) is a simp. When used in this way. comes from 1he left side of the kanji :bn (pronounced 'ka') . In overall appearance. hiragana symbols are rounded in shape and katakana symbols are more angular. I listened is written: M ~ i l.INTRODUGION Hiragana D GtJVJ.

. There are plenty of hints to aid your learning and you will learn to build stories to remember the meanings of the kanji. as you will learn. ital ics or capitals.t.. for slang words and exclamations. ?. 4) The classification of plants and animals About this book The 10 units which make up this book wil l gradua lly increase your knowledge of written Japanese. Examples include: . for pop group names and in headlines.. T v 1::' (terebi) means teievi!. You will also encounter different styles of printed and handwritten text. Units 8 and 10 give you the chance to put your learning into practice. 1) Loan words There are also two categories in whi ch katakana is used for writing Japanese words: 3) To make words stand out Katakana makes words stand out in a similar way to writing a word in bold. ~ ~ (pan) = Paris. ~ . About 3% of kanji fa ll into this category but. These fa ll inlo two categories: For example. cities and personal names: 7 . 2) Foreign names For example. :3 7 (Toyota) and r~ 1. There are lots of practice activities and .the Japanese pinball game).viii BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Katakana has a number of uses. it is used for writing non-Japanese words which have been introduced into the language.'I "?' Y (wokuman) means walkman... Firstly.J. ~ :IJ (amerika ) = America. .t. Units 1 to 4 introduce mainly kanji which developed from pictures of nature. II is used increasingly in advert ising (to make the product stand out). Unit 8 introduces you to a number of practical kanji words such as signs.Y ::z (Pachinko . Two of the units are devoted to teaching the two phonetic scripts. they are also used as components of more complex kanji . notices and warni ngs of the kind you would see all around you in Japan. countries. Units 4 and 6 to 8 will teach you how to decipher these more complex kanj i giving you the tools to take your study further on completion of this book.. Unit 10 introduces a number of reading passages and helps you to decipher them and extract their meaning. hiragana (unit 5) and katakana (unit 9).:t .·ion.. (sumisu) = Smith.

Start your own dictionary too. you may wish to leave these out and concentrate on reading only. but if you take your study of Japanese fu rther. my students ( including Margaret Teasdale) for being 'gui nea pigs' . Acknowledgements Thank you to everyone who has advised me on the writing of this book. • Build up a set of small flashcards with kanji on one side and English on the other to test yourself from time to time. Robert Gilhooly for providing the photographs. Miyuki for the artwork and ideas for mnemonics.keep enjoyment of. Sheffield University . There are sections throughout the book which concentrate on the teaching of written Japanese.INTRODUCTION ideas to help you learn and remember these two scripts . Sue Hart and Carolyn Taylor at Hodder and Stoughton.Masae for the calligraphy and for reading and commenting on the text. Dublin City University for reading the text and makingJots of useful suggestions. use a notebook to write down new words. Pacing yourself • Remember that it is YOU who sets the pace . Again. and John Rogers for doing all the' cooking! The publishers and author would like to thank the following for the use of material in this book: Kyoto Newspaper Company and Nobuko Kogawa (29/ 10/98) and Kinako Matsumoto. then a knowledge of these scripts is essential. You can leave these units out and come back to them later if you wish to concentrate only on kanji . In particular. to Niamh Kelly of the Japanese Department. to Masae Sugahara and Miyuki Nagai of the School of East Asian Studies. Don't expect to remember everything (even Japanese people forget kanji!) and use the indexes at the back where possible to find words you have forgotten. Seikyo Newspaper (14/9192). learning at the top of your agenda! • Find a balance between moving through the book and revi sing what you have learnt. Mavis Pilbeam of the Japanese Department of the British Museum for her thorough and very helpful proof-reading. .

She is also a teacher trainer of Japanese at Nottingham University. She has an MA and a PGCE in Japanese and has been the Co-ordinator of Japanese for Derbyshire County and Derby City Councils. Previous publications include Teach Yourself Beginner's Japanese (Hodder and Stoughton).x BEGINNER'S WANESE SCRIPT About the author Helen Gilhooly has lived and worked in Japan and has extensive experience of teaching Japanese and writing teaching materials at secondary school and adult level. .

4 is going to be on ~* (kanji) and by the end of these four units you will have learnt to recognise 58 ~* (kanji) characters and also to understand the meanings of words made up from combinations of these.I (moon) developed something like this: ~ ~ E ~)j~Fl . . 11 7 iJ t. tJ{ 1" (hiragana).~~j: ~ .* (kanji) symbol for sun il"'i= (knnji) symbol for moon As you learnt in the introduction.(katakana). Look at these developments: a (sun) developed something like this: -. the pictures which each m~ (kanji) developed from can be very useful in helping you to remember the meanings. These two concepts are connected because the rising and setting of the sun defines a day.' As well as sun it also has the meaning day. standardised into regular shapes with rules about how to write them correctly. over time. . This means that each character represents a whole object or idea.. For example: JJ a is the is the il. The focus of Units 1. ~* (kanji) were written originally as pictures of the world which the ancient Chinese saw around them.ill Dai ikka (hajime nil Introduction In the introduction to this book you learnt about the history and development of the Japanese writing system and about the three different scripts or writing forms: () f. These pictures were gradually. il*" (knnji) characters are ideographs. J.1 UNIT 1 Ii V 3b1: . and ~* (kanji). However.

• stone 10) 6.. l1l'i*" 111{ A-li'"? -C (ganbatte) . You can see from these two examples that Ii*" (kanji) do not necessarily have only one meaning but can represent a number of associated ideas.I at the top of the opposite page. W'CA. To carry oul this activity.. These two concepts are connected because the length of a month (28 days) is measured by the progress of each new moon.good luck! 1) 2) gold 5) 6) tree 7) wood 8) forest ~ mountain 9) ) • • "/' / ' ". look at pictures 1.. J.? (yonde mimasho) Let's have a go at reading! The aim of this section is to give you the opportunity to work out for yourself the meanings of~* (kanjI) by linking them to pictures of the objects they represent.\?~* l.2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT As well as moon it also has the meaning month. 12) water bamboo ground nver rice field . The ~* (kanji) you will start with all have meanings linked to nature and the world which surrounded the ancient Chinese. Try to match the shape of the pictures to the ~~ (kanji) characters.12 below and then see if you can link them to the (kanji) a.

. ~ ~ 71<-I' '-j' ~/ 'r'r ~ it bamboo fire * *' tree wood forest water ground ...) III b) )II h) k) ± 15 j) Check your answers at the back of the book then look again at the pictures and see if you can env isage how the pictures became the standardised il¥ (kanji) which are used today.- .... :t..... .. g) . 14.:L .... "* d) EO * e)tt f) I) 1< JWJIIt(kanji) C haracter (kaisetsu .ichi) Explanation 1 ~ (e) Picture ~1Ili (eigo) English Look at the following artist's impression of the sequence o f progressive changes.UNIT 1 3 il* (kanj') . -"J' . W ..+.. ' . T .n&L EO ffi -> ffi ~ -$- 1< ..... ...~~ 4 ~!t..... 'k .... .. )II .. ifi* u.. ~ ± .. ~ cL~t. . rfh mountain n ver gold/money rice field -+ /...Ij ~ ~ £ ~. ... 1t -> 11 .lL ' 'I ~ "I ..... from standardised 1l ~ (kanjI) character back to original picture.. /.. :k.±....1:1 .

j( *. 9 --'> stone moon sun Fl--'>8-'J3. water.U< 9) )11 * m 1<. '8: Activity 1 Did you notice how two trccs are used to represent a wood and three trees a forest? You will learn more about this type of ~* (kanji) in Unit 2. fire.G -. *-. earth . ~ MtW- (renshu . ± sun. moon.ichi) How well can you remember the il* (ku. Explanation 2 il* (kanjI) that follow and remind yourself of their meanings: a..• (kanji) C haracter BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ilYi<J< fit (e) Picture ~m(eigo) English :.'1i. Jl JO ~ Jb. i'z. 'it lIl: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) I) m) water ( moon ( ) ) earth ( ) river ( ) tree ( ) forest ( ) fire ( ) IO)± II ) 12) ~ 13) 13 14) Jl '* stone ( ) sun( ) mountain ( I ) rice field ( ) bamboo ( ) wood ( ) n) gold ( ) Ml&= Look at the (kaisetsu . I) 2) 3) 4) 5) ill 1i 6) 7) 8) ..~iJ 8 ~ G .i) and meanings you have learnt so far? Test yourself by linking each ~¥ (kanji) with its English meaning. gold. tree. The fi rst one is done for you .

Tuesday derives from the word Tiw who was the Norse god of war. The first two are easy! • a a j.easy to remember because both start with 'W'! Tree also represents Thursday . If you connect the ideas of war and fi re in your mind then you will remember that FIREday is Tuesday! 71< Water also represents Wednesday . JJ is the fi rst part for the days of the week. This is the beginning of the weekend and a good day for working in the garden! ~ .UNIT 1 These ~*" (kanji) are also used to represent the first part of the words is the first part of Sunday. In fact. Moon --+ MOONday or Monday as it has become in English. In English. Fire also represents Tuesday.(kanji) represents which day of the week.both start with ' T ' (but do not confuse with Tuesday).(kanji) in the left column with the corresponding day of the week in the right. if*i#i*- il*a .J *- *- Sun --+ SUNday. of Monday and so forth. The other two are III and they represent day. the days of the week are written using three (kanji) characters.Friday is often payday! ± Earth/soil and Saturday. this section will give you opportunities to put into you have learnt. a a) b) c) d) e) 7) * Monday ( ) Tuesday ( ) Wednesday ( ) T hun. practice and fu rther develop your reading of (kanji) in Activity 2 represent the fi rst part of the words for The the days of the week. ~ Gold/money also represents Friday .ni) Activity 2 Link the ~*.day ( ) Friday ( ) f) Saturday ( ) g) Sunday ( ) iilM:r. Here are some tips to help you remember which ~*.-W (yomu renshu) Reading practice Throughout the book.-W= I) 1<2) 3) ± 4) 71< 5) fl 6) ~ (renshu .

Tues. ~ed ' in English. Notice that the groups and events are written partly in English script.' . on calendars and diary sheets.6 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Vou already know and have learnt that it can mean day. for example. The effect of the script is often far more important than the meaning of the words. the way. a This is what the comp lete words for the days of the week look like in i1I!'l' (!wnj<): IHIH! flllIH! !kIlIH! JJ<ilIH! *iIfI!l'l ~iII!l'l t Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday ±iII!l'l Saturday When two or morc ~¥ (kanji) are combined in this way to produce new words and meanings. they are called ~lm (jukugo) or compound words. Notice that only the first (knnjl) for each of the days of the week is written. It is highly fashionable in the Japanese music world (and not only there) for group names and song titles to be written in English.san) Activity 3 The following is part of a music events column from a teenage magazine. ~ ~ . You will learn more about these in Unit 2. 7l* 131*' 151.W':::: (renshu . This is like writing 'Mon. !Ill represents the concept of weekday but simply remember them as together representing the day part of Monday. Tuesday.30th). Now have a go at answering the questions that follow the text. (Rancid Japan Tour and Michelle Gun Elephant from the extract are just two examples of this!) The day of the week 00 which each of the events will take place is written in brackets next to the date (13th. etc. you will often see the days of the week written with the first ~* (kanji) only.

f -t>-t~tt't' ~ 2. . OOO-~ 2 ot*ItJI/DJ KEN ·B/l KOVA.-'l-~7-... The rules for writing il* (kanji) arc very precise and Japanese children spend many hours of their school life learning and practising the correct order for writing each (kanji). (In a similar way.. 8?"~""~1I""-~-~-9600 eIMi~y[llowe«a/~ 7 17 ( B) I 2.F ~ Mi (kakijun) or stroke order.1'*1 H. (kanji) are written is called 1!. we learn how to write the letters of the alphabet correctly at school).SOO(7 " . '".UNIT I THE MICHEllE GUN ELEPHANT rWORLD PCHYCO BLUES TOUR 'ALL STANDINGf MAXIMUMl ' *J ""/a'IiJ"'} ..-t>·711-"" ~~. Tour Rancid Japan Tour World Connection ' Kool'. You will learn some further rules in Unit 2 and will then practise writing some of the rl¥ (kanji) you have learnt.. 1!}<""'!1l- I!* ..*. ~""!1 :n" ~ ."y".ichi) Writing practice 1 This section will introduce you to some simple rules for writing ~¥ (kanjI).2OCI IIIJOP ENI6 : 00-STARTl8 : ~7JW{t.. ATSUSHt!IlJI<IJHIP On which day of the week do the following events take place? I) 2) 3) 4) 5) Rotten Orange Tour Down Beat The Michelle Gun Elephant . Each s ingle part of a ~* (kanji) is caJled a stroke a nd the order in which if. How many events a re taking place on : 6) 7) 8) 9) a Friday a Saturday a Thursday? Which day of the week is not represented in the events extract'! (kaku renshu .

fJlJ (rei) Example: river ) 1 t. Rule I : Horizontal nt~ (kanji) strokes are written from left to right.--t) i?lJ (rei) Example: earth .. you can use clear squares or use smaller squared paper/graph paper for practising and perfecting your technique.t-±-. ..) • Rule 2: Vertical jJ~ (kanji) strokes are written from top to bottom. The il¥ (kanji) taught in the earlier units will also have an example written in this type of square so that you can copy exactly from the book. • . ~ - . Here are some simple rules to get you started and examples to copy. and top and bottom of each (kanjI). ) I 1 Rule 3 : Where the il~ (kanji) character has an intersecting horizontal and vertical stroke. ± • Notice you work downwards. • • • • . the final stroke is the bottom horizontal one. This will help you to balance left and right. Alternatively you could use graph paper and have four smaller squares making up one larger square. use large squared graph paper which is subdivided into fou r smaller squares during the initial stages of learning to write. If you can. i9IJ (rei) Example: three • • . Once you feel confident. t . the starting stroke is usually the horizontal one (but there are some exceptions).• il* BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT The Japanese use squared paper when they arc learning how to write because it helps to ensure that ~* (ka nj i) are all the same size and are balanced correctly.

you fi ll in this part before writing the bottom line of the square. l c1 0 (1 R £3 .fj jfu• . river. _--_ . 0 #1J (rei) . Rule 6: When the square contains other strokes within it.*. You can combine these rules you have learnt to write . you have learnt to write the fo llowing ~*" (kanjI) in th is section: = _JII _±. . T r. sun. stone) .UNIT 1 9 Rule 4 : A lefthand diagonal line is written before a rightband diagonal line.t Jf ~ t * ll* (kanji). . . . . . earth. ~J (rei) Example: Iree Rule 5: Here is a squ~re .0 (slone): . tree.15 (three.. Example: sun 8 -\ 8 .a.kl D Using these six rules.

seven compound words (days of the week) and six basic rules for writing if*. In the meantime. although it is important to unde rstand and apply the basic rules for writing jl*" (kanji). Unit I hajime ni Introduction kanji Kanji (Chinese characters) yonde mimasho Let's have a go at reading kaisetsu Explanation renshu Activity/practice yomu renshii Reading practice kaku renshii Writing practice m Example owanm Conclusion The English meanings of these words and phrases wi ll not be given again in future units in order to help you to build up your 11* (kanjI) recognition skills but you can refer back to this list if you need to jog your memory! However. you will be given lots of help and advice in the writing sections of this book.10 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Now see if you can write them on square paper in the correct order from memory (refer back to the rules to check when you have finished). As a fi nal note in this section.I! il'1' (! 1. il* The followi ng terms and sub-headings have been used in this un it: m. Units 2.1I. . and the unit summaries at the back of the book give the stroke orde r for the main (kanjI) taught in each unit.-' ~ (~ liit.*" j~~ I: (owari ni) Conclusion This section in each unit will summarise the main aspects of the unit. iJ. 6 and 8 contai n a test so that you can evaluate how (kanji) you have learnl up to that well you have remembered the point. however.(kanji).* il.-C"". 1W1& jj1J l!I! '&' liit trl!l!'&' {i}( l!I!'&' 11 ~ (~ dai ikka .1/. any key words or tenns w ill be given at the beginning of the unit. 4. In this unit you have learnt 14 il~ (kanji). there arc some aspects of stroke order which do not fall easi ly into rules and so you also need to learn and practise the stroke order fo r each ~* (ka nji) character. Do not be daunted by this.t.-J:. In addition. because ' practice makes perfect' and if you write (kanji) over and over again and concentrate on the correct stroke order you w ill begin to deve lop a feel for the order in which they are written. You w ill also begin to develop your own way of remembering and to apply this to writing more complicated ~~ (kanji).

Remember it is the first ~* which tells you which day of the week it is. so test yourself and check back to Unit I if there are any you are unsure about.1) that fo llow them. Yonde mimasho In this section . 2) Can you remember which ~* represents which day of the week? They arc li sted below in their full the 14 you have learnt al ready learn the Japanese pronunciation of these nl~ apply your learning to real reading situations learn more about writing Japanese script Key word : jM* Kanji Hajime ni I) Can you remember the meanings of the ll~ you were introduced to in Unit 11 You can see them in the following list. ~~a a~a ±~a *~a ~~a *~a ~~a Again.2 • • • • . =ilI Dai nika UNIT 2 In this unit you will add some new ~¥. Most of the introduced in this unit are associated with the human body. as with Unit 1. In two cases ill!*" il*" . Try matching the pictures with the (a. you will be introduced to some new I!=¥ thro~~h the pictures of natural objects that they are derived from. check back to Unit I if you are unsure of any them.

Check your answers to the previous activity with thi s sequence. ~ mouth 0 1'1 j] ® 11 ) eye 12) foot --- 9) 10) hand a) g) \. 7) child 8) 6) " .2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT (eye and car/vehicle) you may need to imagine the pictures turned on their side to identity them.x-->J.y child . ~(e) Picture *m (eigo) English A-+k-. ') 3) 4) gate woman / \ ') horse ~ ea. t-~-k~j:~j: person woman +-+}--'-j--->.~ T f) 1) r~ A M1lIt~ Kaisetsu 1 An artist's impression of the changes fro m standardised iI¥ back to picture follows.Li7J~ power car/vehicle person 1=1 1+ b) h) JE 'f c) i) d) n1!l Y: e) k) .:..

.• " r. -> b!!l I"J iJ .. Another po int of interest is that 111 originally developed from the picture of a cart which would have been the type of transport or vehicle used when ~* were first developed.d:..E->} car mouth hand foot o O~O~O-O 1'-->f -+ %-+tJ: JL -> /i:. -> ~ l -+ . iJJ ..fEI . _* build up Complex ll'¥ The pictorial that you have been introduced to so fa r not only have meanings in themselves but are also used as parts or components of Ii¥: that are more complex. being portrayed in picture form through the image of the muscles in the ann... In modern times it has taken on the meaning of car. --.. .. r~ ..UNIT 2 13 ~(e) Picture ~Mt (eigo) English eye Jf~q ~.1'0 -> h.. 11 (power/strength)..w" --> . I=Et :h ~ power/strength horse cart/vehicle/car gate ! --.. In thi s set of new Ii¥: there is an example of an abstract noun.. You actually learnt two of these morc complex tl* . "f!1):. . This section in this unit and throughout the book will introduce you to new ~¥: and new words based on the ~* you have learnt so far.

a (root. origin).(complex il¥) which means lovell ike. This is a combination of -J. . ~) or they can form compounds of two or more fi~ (for example. A D). They were (wood) and.~ can join together and form one ~* (for example. tf (like. In other words. This is where the term ' land of the rising sun' comes from.r: (woman) and T (child). *- _* ** . three trees a fo rest. (forest) . This is a combination of (sun) and 1) (moon) .r:=f means girl ('woman child' ) (Notice that these are two separate ~~. (tree) with a horizontal line through the " runk' indicates the root of the tree. For example.+. Unit 4 will look at these complex il* in more detail but you can see from these examples that a knowledge ofthc simplcr il* can also hclp you to decipher the more complex ones . Notice that the simpler ~~ when used as components of more complex 14¥ may change their shape slightly or appear ' squashed' . JJ III means Monday. • iIi (Jukugo) The four you have just been introduced to are created by combining simpler . Here are some more examples: il* ll'i' Compounds a means population ('people's mouths' = number of mouths to feed) ~ iJ means horse power ]. Thi s is made from the components fB (rice field) and j] (power).) A0 a *' To summarise the two points in this section: . *' ijJJ (bright). The sun and moon shining together would create a very bright light. Both are created (tree) ~ two trees represent a wood. the man uses his power to work in the rice fields. Another way in which iM~ are used to create new meanings is by forming words from two or more separate iI*. . Here are from four more built from simpler ones which you have learnt already. The abstract idea of love is expressed through the love between women and children.9j (man). unlike M. The meanings of the components arc incorporated into these complex m~ fonns. love).) means Japan ('sun's root' describes Japan as the place east of China whe}e the sun ri ses..~ to fonn one complex jl~ .:. Three separate i1l¥ are used to make up each day.14 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT il~ in Unit 1. You have already been introduced to this idea through the days of the week .

A ~ (in the public eye). once you know what the meanings are they are easy to remember because the pictorial ~¥ act as a visual jog to the memory. An:$ means literally ' human-powered vehicle' and that is what a rickshaw is as the follow ing illustration shows. I) 4) 7) 9) 10) 3) Japanese person volcano 2) boy carnage 5) in the publ ic eye 6) water power gateway 8) manpower a rickshaw (man-pulled carriage) a paddy fi eld (a field fl ooded with water fo r wet rice growing) Kaisetsu 2 You w ill have not iced that somet imes the meanings are a direct 'translation' of the separate ~¥ into their new meaning.) b) ~T g) 7l< Bl e) j) At) A I'l Once you have thought about the possible meanings of these words. However. For example. For example. For example. . In other' cases you need to think more laterally or abstractly.UNIT 2 15 t!J IlkW- Renshu 1 Some compound words made up of two or three il* fo llow. Can you work out their meanings? (You may want to look back at the il¥ you have learnt so far in Units I and 2 and refresh your memory before trying this activity. look at the list of English meanings that follows and decide wh ich best fi ts each ~* before you check the answers at the back of the book .LlI ('fire mountain' or volcano). And words are created in a very logical fashio n. *.

Match the following il¥ with their English meanings from the selection in the box . • . • . the word ' rickshaw' is a corruption of the Japanese word l in-rikisho' . r~ . Try saying the Japanese ' rikisha ' and you' l! see what I mean! fj[fI (Fukushii) Review Before continuing any further. vehicle) have had their pronunc iation ' angliciscd ' .•. • .. he re is an activity to help you review the s ingle iM* learnt so far in this unit. This is how a typical Japanese cale ndar looks for the month of January: il* a a IJ'l ' 1'1 11'1 81'1 1 51'1 221'1 291'1 J'l 21'1 91'1 161'1 231'1 301'1 9< 31'1 101'1 171'1 241'1 311'1 41'1 I I 1'1 181'1 25 1'1 * . A. .~ . ~ . • .. 'jin' (person) has been dropped and the other two words (power. In English. You were introduced to the for moon 11 a nd sun in Unit 1 and you a lso learnt that these ~* have the connected meanings of day and month ~ .is: 51'1 I 2 1'1 191'1 261'1 ~ ±' 71'1' 141'1 211'1 281'1 61'1 13 1'1 201'1 27 1'1 .iE vehicle cae mouth man fool like eye woman hor.16 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT In fact. Ir there are any of these characters that yOll are not sure about. ~ .is:.Jl first. ~ . look back throug h the unit and check your answers.e ' 001 gate power pc""n hand bright chi ld . * .so let us look at how this works in practice. 00 .. Q . Then try the activity in reverse by taking the English meanings from the bo. Yomu renshii T he way in which dates are written in Japanese is interesting.

try answering the following questions. Japanese months do not have a name as such. b) are the il~ for the days of the week (as you learnt in Unit I). Each number is followed by (si milarly in English we fo llow the dates with st. nd. a l!J I!I!fl =: Renshu 2 Using the calendar and information just given. Wed.7th). 6 JJ is June (the sixth month). I) On which day of the week is a) 1st b) 4th c) 9th d) 14th? 2) How many days in the month fall on a Wednesday and what are they? 3) On which day of the week will IJJ 1 a fall ? (Note that Japanese dates are written in the order: month t hen date.) l!J I!I!fl::::: Renshu 3 On the next page is a calendar from a Japanese travel brochure. Look at it and answer questions 1-4. They are shortened in this case to just the first ~~ of the three which you learnt (for exampl e. 1 JJ is January (the first month) and 12 JJ is December. = Wednesday) because th is is all that is needed to identify each day of the week. (This is rather like writing Tues. rd or Ih . etc. so they arc assigned a number from I to 12.UNIT 2 · 17 a) is the month written in numerals and il~ . For example. in English. ISI. Therefore. I) What are the starting and fini shing months on this calendar? 2) In which months do the following happen : a) the 2nd is a Tuesday c) the 6th is a Friday? b) the 24th is a Monday 3) On what day of the week is: a) May 5th d) August 21 st b) October 26th e) December 25th? c) February 18th .) *l1li a c) are the days of the month.

date. BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 4) On what days of the week do these Japanese festivals fall : a) b) c) d) e) Girls' Day (March 3rd) New Year's Day Tanabata (Star Festival. day. Remember the Japanese order: month. Rei ( I) 8ft3 /II] Rei (2) a (!J() = Tuesday 3rd August (order: August 3rd Tuesday) 101126 a (~) = Friday 26th October b) 1111201'1 Ot. July 7th) Golden Week (29th April-5th May) Emperor's Birthday (December 23rd)? l!J Ilkfll!!l WI] Renshu 4 Convert the fo ll owing random dates into English as in the examples.:) e) 1211251'1 (7l<) c) 51151'1 (JI) f) a) 211141'1 (±) d) 911101'1 (Ell 41JI a (~) .I.

Here is an illustration of this. notice that kawa (the kunyomi) when written in romaji (romanised script or alphabet) is written in lower case and SEN (the onyomE) in upper case. if you wish to focus on just understanding the meaning of M$ then you can miss these sections out throughout the book or come back to them later. the kunyomi (Wl[iJl~) or Japanese reading and the onyomi (ifn~) or Chinese reading. lIN and KO are-the onyomi of A and 0 respectively. the kunyomi is used for single words whereas the onyomi is used for compound ~$: words of two or more il$ . nYi* 1) Jlm~ (kunyomi) and 'j}'m~ (onyomi) In the int roduct ion you learnt t hat there are two ways of reading il~ in Japanese. The onyomi has developed from the .. _* . This system is used in many Ii$: workbooks and dictionaries and is also followed in this book. By the way. The kunyomi is the native Japanese word. 2) Rules for using kunyomi and onyomi As a general rule. a) Single words A (person) is pronounced hilo (kunyomE) 1=1 (mouth) is pronounced kuchi (kunyomE) il* _* b) Compound words The above if$: make up the compound word A D (popul ation) which is pronounced JINKO. original Chinese pronunciation but over the centuries it has been adapted to and become part of the Japanese language. )II (river) can be pronounced SEN (onyomi) and kawa (kunyomi) . Kawa was the Japanese word for rivcr and so when il¥ were introduced from China this word was linked to the ll$ character )11 . For example. There are exceptions _ * . As suggested in the introduction.UNIT 2 _*O)iWE~jj Readings (Kanji no yomikata) This section wil l teach you about reading in Japanese. There will be further examples and the opportunity to practise new infonnation and rules as you progress through the book so do not worry if you have understood only some of the details so far.

i of hit) mi-zu (i of hit. e of end) (i of hit) (i of hit) ha-ya-shi (a of mat. Look over these and practise saying them. i of hit) (i of hit) * *" ± '* 1i }J ki hayashi mori mlZU forest water ground. ll'j< LlJ Jif ~ 17 m 1<.20 BeGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT to the rules about when to use kunyomi and onyomi but these will be pointed out to you when necessary and explained. ~ . They are always pronounced in the same way. earth slone moon sun tsuchj ish. and there will be lots of reinforcement activities too. i of hit) mo-ri (0 of hot. u of blue) ts u-c hi (tsu is o ne syllable. ~ Meaning mountain nvcr gold/ money rice field bamboo fire tree wood Kunyomi yama tama Pronunciation ya·ma (a of mat) ka-wa (a of mat) ka-ne (a of mat. e and o. u.fHi Renshu 5 In this unit you are going to concentrate on the kunyomi (Japanese reading) only. These are D.?sc readings. tsuki hi a (hinto) Hints: Pronunciation There a re five vowel sounds in Japanese. looking al the 1l~ and saying them ll* from m emory. i. In the following list are the you learnt in Unit I with their kunyomi and a guide to how to pronounce th. e of end) ta (a of mat) kane ta take hi ta-kc (a of mat. chi of chin) i-shi (i of hit) l<>U-ki (l<>U is one syllable. Then see how well you can remember them by covering up the kunyomi column. A general guide to their pronunciation can be seen in the list just given and can be summarised as follows: a as in mat i as in hit u as in blue e as in end 0 as in hot .

it is one beat or syllable. ka"" k.before trying the following activity. fire and day are the same . The sound tsu is an unfamiliar one in English . 0) 'It 0) ± 0) ~ 0) )II 0) ± a 0) * 71< ii) This time tic k the correct kunyomi: I) ~ 2) 'It 3) fl 4) ~ 5) 71< 0) kane a) ta 0) Isuchi 0) hayashi 0) mori b) b) b) b) b) kawa hayashi Isuki c) k. c) mizu iii) Now you a re going to test your unde rstanding of the three aspects of il* you have learnt . i) Tick the correct 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ta il*: b) Ell b) ~ b) 15 b) W b) !k 0) )II 0) l!it 0) 0) mon ish.the il~ itself. There are many examples in English. too.fI:t\ Renshii 6 How well can you remember the kunyomi reading and pronunciation of each jl!:J!:? You may want to look back at the readings on the previous list and practise saying them oul aloud . the of words which are pronounced in the same way but which have different meanings. the kunyomi and the meaning in English. You will link these three aspects by choosing one from each of two categories (a.looking at the iI* as you do so . These differences in meaning are indicated by the spelling or the context or both. There are many examples of Japanese words which have the same pronunciation but a re written with different il¥. The difference in meaning can be understood from reading or from the context.UNIT 2 21 These vowels are attached to consonants to make new sounds but remember. You may have noti ced that the readings of 9<.c and i.iii) to match the first item as in the examples: . the pronunciation of each vowel re mains constant. ' squash' the I and s together as you say it. c) lake ki kawa c) ishi c) mor.they are both pronounced hi. a il*- ~ .

. When saying Japanese surnames you use the kunyomi.u i) kawa a) wood i) take a) water b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) b) ii) '" hi hay ashi trce it rive r ~ kan e c) !k ii i) mlzu c) ishi iii) fo rest c) IlJ iii} wood c) !k iii) mori bamboo tsuk.~ used in surnames are often fairly simple ones including some of those you have learnt in Units I and 2. )If bamboo Isuchi moon Isuki wood mori gold forest hayashi l!J tU'l-t Renshu 7 The following activity gives you the opportunity to use the kunyomi for ~* learnt so far in a rcal rcading situation. ii) moon. Although 1l* used surnames have literal meanings (for example. names are an exception to this rule. in _* .J ii) moon b) Isuch.) !k 7) stone 8) a) Ell ish.r. Rivers. c) forest ii i) c) i3 iii} ki c) earth iii) ish. the surname 11"LlJ (Takeyama) literally means 'bamboo mountain '). The . c) it iii) river c) tree iii) ki * ± 9) ka"" 10) "" i) a} i) a) i) a) i) sun 'such. the Japanese do not think of them in this way. You learnt at the beginning of this section that in general the onyomi is used for com]X>und words. Many English surnames also have literal meanings (for example. 71< c) nver iii) tsuch..J c) Ell. they are known as names not meanings. moon . iii) gold c) hi iii) earth WIt Rei} I) fi . Japanese surnames are made up of either single ~~ or two or three compounded together.) day a) 71< i) ki a) mOrl i) wood a) )If 3) yama 4) gold 5) i) mountain a) ' " it 6) m iz. Robinson) but again. However. a) tsukN . Hill..22 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT {JIJ Rei t la a) JI b) i3 i) rice field. * .

oj / . Cl a . Rules 1. where two lines intersect. once you are familiar with these. and then you work downwards. Rule 5: Vou also learnt in Unit I how to write a square.\ . . the highest horizontal line is written before the vertical line. 4- ----"'. For example. How do you say these names'! i) ~ III j) III is pronounced ' da' instead of ' ta ' I) Illlll m) tt III k) 'lilll JIIIll In Unit I you learnt some basic rules for writi~. Thi s is how 'mouth' is written (notice that the shape is different from the square). For example.-.4/ / Rule 4 : Diagonal lines follow the same rule of writing the left diagonal before the right.3: You learnt in Unit I that you write from left to right and from top to bottom. 0) ttlll b) ~Ill f) ~ c) ~Ill g) :>!elll d) IllJII h) 'liJ II For the following surnames (i. 0 -\3. Usually. .UNIT 2 23 Can you say these common surnames in Japanese: a) :Ij.~ jM*. Note: the short top stroke is written from right to left. Vou wi ll learn some further rules and . . you will have a go at writing ~$: in the correct order.m). Now you are going to revise these rul es with some new ~$: you have learnt in this unit. 'person ' . ' hand'.

f} f?f . For example. For ex.ample. 'eye'. tilII A Fl .24 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Rule 6: When there is a middle part to the square. the left section is written before the right and where it has a distinct top and bottom part. § And ' rice field' (but noti ce this is an exception to Rule 3 because the vertical intersecting line inside the square is written be fore the $I ill \ Cl III ffi EEl Here are two further rules. .f r~ . . . Rule 7: Where a ~~ has a distinct left and right part. you write the bottom line last.t Note that the left section is smaller than the right. ' wood' . § l horizontal). the top section is written first.f .

A~ - -r * • . ' water' . .f-. d:i.UNIT 2 25 And 'forest' is similar. 6 and 7 to write 'gate' .I Ll J-J . 7K ~ j/ /'~ • j 71 7Y 7K And 'mountain' is another similar instance . FE] F ri r r r F' r1 F1 p~ I Rule 8: Where a Wi¥: is symmetrical with a central 'axis' .if ""- ~ You combi ne Ru les 5. you write the 'axjs' first followed by the left side and then the right side. For example.

1<. For 1. The following new terms and sub-headings have been used in this unit: W. Owari ni In this unit you have been tntroduced to 16 new single il* as well as 14 compound il* words and 13 Japanese surnames. it look up their stroke order in the unit-byunit il¥.W A Can you applying the rules you have been introduced to so far? Remember to usc squared paper to achieve the right balance and proportions. Then use the wriling sections and charts for Units I.charts at the back of this book .26 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT l!J .4: Renshu 8 write the following iil* )II (river) = (three) 11 (power) A (person) exception to Rule 3) Rules 5 and 6: a (sun) Rule 7: ~ (moon) m(rice fi eld - # (wood) it (bamboo) Unit 6) Rule 8: tl' (small - :. and 2 to practise writ ing al l the ~¥. You have also learnt to read dates and have been introduced to the readings of some il*. The rules given in these two units will give you general guidance in most cases but they are not exhaustive so pay attention to the stroke order for individual il¥ and remember that there are exceptions to have learnt so far.. Rules 1. (water) III (mountain) You can check your answers by looking back through the writing sections of units I and 2. And you have reviewed writing rules and learnt two new ones. tip . J) . '8/ ~~ ~*O)lilt""1J t:y~ 1iJ lililt "" i}'lilt"" jukugo fukushii kanji no yomikata kunyomi onyomJ hinto Compound Kanji words Review Kanji readings Japanese reading Chinese reading Hint.

2) What do these compound .~ words mean? «f) is a new word) : b) fI* f) !1J3( 3) Match these dates to the festivals and holidays on the right : 12Jl25f1 b) l Jl lfi c) 7Jl4f1 d) 3Jl2 1fl e) 4Jllfl f) loJl31fl g) 5Jl l fl a) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) April Fool ' s Day Christmas Day Hallowe'en (October 3 1sl) May Day (May lsI) Spring Equinox (March 21st) New Year's Day American Independcnce Day (July 4th) 4) Can you say these Japanese surnames? (.UNIT 2 27 'j.A J-. 1JIl . indi cates a change in pronunciation from fa to da): a) llJEEI- b) ttllJ c) ~EEI d) ~ e) :OEEl- 5) Can you write the follow ing nl* in thc correct stroke order? ±. Which is the odd one out? a) Parts of the body: ~. i'l. fJ .~. . I) The b) c) d) _* below are grouped by theme. ±. !J! • . !k. llJ ..Jj. fl .'f-. fl.=f-.( Abstrnct ideas: }J. f. (tesuto) Test This section is designed to test how well you have remembered what you have learnt in Units I and 2. 7J *.*. . EEl .~. :::r-.*. jji. 1+ Days of the week: Jl.It< People and animals: .

.• . You are now going to review this by reading the following dates .). In Japanese there are ~* which represent the words for numbers. . (Remember that the order in Japanese is month. One of these is the Arabic number system ( 1. They have been used alongside Arabic numbers in this book to number activities and explanations. French: un.3 .. deux. ). trois . Yonde mimasho Two systems of numbering have already been used in t his book. .2. three . = :" Dai sanka 3 UNIT 3 In this unit you will • learn to read numbers in Japanese • use these numbers in real reading situations • practise writing ~* Hajime ni In Unit 2 you learnt how to read dates. . Choose the Engl ish equivalent from the selection below the dates. date. two. T h is system is internationally recognised and is used widely in Japan. etc. every language has its own words when counting (English: one.. day. These are the ili=numbers \-10: . .) a) 4J1211'l Uk) b) 1I}'l51'l (±) c) 9}jIOI'l Cd<) i) Wednesday 2 1 April Ii) Wednesday 10 September iii) Tuesday 2 1 April IV) Saturday 5 November If you are still unsure about reading dates then look back at the section on dates in Unit 2 to refresh your memory. However.

two lines. you should sec a rocket laking off in this ~*! ~ -.- Kaisetsu 1 ( I. First. Now look at the pictu~es. There is also a picture to help you remember the difference: you bend your ann inwards to flex your muscle 1L has a Q-shape.. ~T " 't"" ~ rt ~ t }\. =. though. fo r ' nine ' jL so loo k carefully at the Thi s looks similar to the difference. Try it! /'\ The number 6 in Japanese is pronunced 'roku' . 1i When you look at Ihis . nl* en).UNIT 3 29 The follow ing section gives some tips fo r memoris ing thesc ~¥ and you may already have thought of some. T hese ~¥= represent abstract concepts and so instead of developing from pictures. a continental number 7 emerges. 3) are easy as you have probably noticed .'one line. = Here are some tips for remembering the jl¥ for numbers: ft 'I' ~ -t If you tum this jl¥ upside-down.j) ( power/strength). MllI!. a word on how they developed. they are made up ofa series of points and lines. Imagine that the is a road leadi ng inlo the distance and on into infinity! _* . three lines' 1m is a fou r-sided square and so is easy to relate to the number 4. You have learnt one other abstract ftl¥= so fa r . you can trace the arabic number 5 in it. 2. The A rabic number 8 turned on its side is also the mathematical symbol for infinity.nol unlike the English word ' rocket'! With a little imagination.¥.

6. You may find your own ways of remembering these and other ~* . and of course 8 + I = 9. I!!l.6.8.2 4 . . )0 . 8 iii) 8. d) ~ - +..8.8. The following sequences of ~* numbers all have one number missing when matched with the Arabic numbers on the right. 4 v) 1. 4.~ 3) The odd one out.8 2. -I:.4. 4.:Jt"I\. 9 Ii) 2.:Ji. 7 vi) 10.30 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT :tL + With a lot of imagination this looks like a combination of the ~* for 8 and for 1. This looks like the ~¥ tilted to one side. +.~.. / \ .6. ~ d) . / \ .3. I!!l. I find that it really helps to try to associate a new ~* with an idea or picture in your mind (and you will be learning more about this in future units). 10 IV) 1. . e) ..7.fla) b) Renshu 1 1) Match the sequence of~~ numbers on the left with their equivalent sequences on the right: c) . + .9. -. b) c) I!!l . ...3 . /\ . 2.. 6 10.. :Jt" + I\... 4.7 2) The following sequence of numbers \-\ 0 is out of order. f) 1\. Once you have begun to remember new ~* you will probably not need to refer to these ideas again but they can really help at first. h .5.5. 3. 5. Which number is it? a) J\ . 1L ~ I!!l -I:.. ~ + J\ 1. 6. :Jt" 1\. i) 3. 6. 2. -1:... . . The Roman numeral for 10 is X.. :Ji. Point at each of these ~* numbers in sequence then look back to the section above to check that you are correct: = . . I!!l. 9. = . / \ . ~ :Ji =. . I!!l. ~ .

+.!I. 23. +li. 90 follow in +I!!I.19 are made up of 10 plus the relevant unil: 20 is made up of a 2 in front of a 10: Remcmber the order like this: 2 x 10 (:::: 20). . '=:''''.= 2 x 10+1 =2 1 = + '=:'= 2 x 10+2=22 '=:' + == 2x 10 +3 = 23 ~ . b) g) =+= =+= c) h) =+1\ =+- d) i) =+-t c) =+I!!I =+li j) :::::+ Now check your answers at the back of the book.I!!I+.:::: Renshu 2 I) The numbers =+. +=. 60. but here are the numbers 11.-t3) How are you getting on so far? Remember you can always look back to earlier sections if you need to refresh your memory. WI . and so on : .. Look at them and make sure you can recognise them before moving on to the next activity. :::::+.1L+ 2) Now the same sequence has been jumbled up. 70. 22.1::+.I!!I+. 80. =+.=:.UNIT 3 _ * 31 build up (1).. 1L-t-. +=.21 (in sequence) to give you an idea of how it works. =++ . i-= = 10+2 = 12 +JI. Can you put them in the correct sequence? a) f) =+1L =+/1. +1::. 50. You then add the relevant unit to make 21 . Return the numbers to the original sequence by pointing at each in turn .30.1::+./I. Then check with the above sequence to see jf you are right. Next you are going to practise reading the sequence of numbers from 21 . =+. 1\+.. Numbe rs 11-99 These are easy to read because Ihey are logically made from combinations of the il* numbers 1. 40. 30. This lime they have already been jumbled up...1\+. =+. +1L . +1\.. Can you see the pattern? The numbers 11.10.= 10+1= 11. +. It is nOI neccessary to write them all oul for you.

000. To work out larger amounts of this unit. =+-1. there is an extra word to represent this amount.000 = 100.000) In the Western counting system we count in thousands until we reach one million .. For example: +n = 10 x an 10. (1000) T his looks like the ~~ for ten (+) but with an extra part on the top in the same way that 1000 looks like 10 but with 2 extra zeros! ( 10. Hence the ~~ symbol If you look carefully at this.000 ." It'? "C (ganbatte) Good Luck! += h ) n+ k ) = += I) I!!!+= m) n+1!!! p) J\. .000. Instead of saying ten thousand. Using a little ·tw isted logic (!) you can let the T represent ' te·n' and the Th represent 'thousand' . Ii It. you can see a leaning ' T' on the left and. B _* a T 100 build up (2). q) J\.000 = 100 x 10. ~ Yo u can trace the numerals 100 in this. multiply the number by 10.000 = 1.ten thousand! ( 100) il* n n. + J\. you can also make out the shape of an ' h'. How did you get on? You might fi nd that this is a good place to lake a break and digest what you have learnt so far before moving on to the next section. i --1. The Japanese system of counting is slightly different. in Ih is section you are going to pull together everything you have learnt so far about numbers and have a go at reading a random selection of numbers between 1 and 99! Try writing down your answers in arabic numbers and then checking them at the bac k of the book. ignoring the line at the top.32 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 4) Finally.) :IL +:lL a) 1L f) b) g) '* =+ c) 1.000 P1 yen (Japanese currency) _* ~ year Here are some visual cl ues and ideas to help you associate each ~~ with its meaning: Turned on its side the looks like this: lJIl -=. 0) j) 0) +-1. Five new =f 1000 n 10.+1.

he nce the visual clue leads you to the meaning 'year'. then try the next section . because it is a suffix to money amounts.900).000 (v) 10. L!J . All currencies can be written in words or numerals. bamboo decorations a re put o utside the fro nt of houses at New Year. Look back over this section and remind yourself of the visual clues to the meanings. represented by this ~~ and by the international symbol ¥ . JJ .000 4) Combinations o f a. ~ Here is a visual image fo r remembering this il~ : Can you make o ut the left half of the il~ for bamboo (ft) at the front and a ho use shape behind? In Japan.000 (ii) 1000.UNIT 3 33 fq The Japanese currency is the ~ a) Renshu 3 b) f) 1) Put these multiples of 100 into the correct o rde r ( 100 .v) 900.) 90.000 (.000 w ith their Arabic number equivalent below them: a) = JJ b) :lLJJ c) :IL+JJ d) aJJ e) 'f-JJ (.000.(0' ~'f-) d) 1\'f- 3) Match these multiples of 10. T. Which one is missing? :lL a e) a = 13 = 13 c) g) lia d) h) /\13 -ta Illia 2) How do you write these il~ number amounts in Arabic nUf!lbers? a) /\ 'fe) ='f- b) f) li 'fc) -t'f'f. For example: six pounds or £6. six dollars or $6. is easy to recognise and remember.000 (iii) 20. and in Japanese: Words: -}) P) Numerals: ¥ 6 The c haracter Pl.

34 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Put these amounts in order from the smallest to the largest: a) e) = 11 = 9'- b) f) = 9'-= 11 = 9'-71 c) g) = 1171 = 71 d) = + 71 Now write out these amounts (in the new order) in Arabic numbers. 5) Match the the right: a) b) 1M¥ money amounts on the left with their equivalent on i) i i) ii i) iv) v) vi) vii) c) d) e) f) g) = 1IPl Ji9'-Pl 1IJi+Pl 1L411Ji-t.1:f1L+jL~ This is 1999 written out in full using il¥ numbers 2) -:It. ~ .ty {:.Pl ¥7500 ¥300 ¥3000 ¥70.9-9 Theycar is written in arabic numbers.fll!!! Renshu 4 I) In this activity you are going to match the years written in ~* with those in Arabic numerals: a) 2000 4- b) 19634c) 1960 4d) 16164e) 1863 42) Now match the dates written in ~* with those written in Arabic: .:1L::JL~ 3) 1999 ~} 99 &F Here 1999 is written as it looks. norice that ~ is still used.9'-Ji1l Pl ="9'.71Pl {:. \. Notice that the iro* for year (~) is written after the numbers.OOO ¥5000 ¥450 ¥150 WlllIt= Kaisetsu 2 More about dates There arc a numberofways)n which the year can be written in Japanese. The first example is rarely used and the most commonly used is the third. I) 1-:11. Let us look at these usi ng the year 1999 as the model. Zero is usually written as O.9.

~ (nengO) or era names. add 25 years to the Shi)wa year to get the Western year. Hirohito who died in 1989!(.89.UNIT 3 3. now referred to as Emperor Showa.a 5) = fl = + .fl=+1!!l a 6fl24a 3fl31 a c) 6fllsa d) llfllla e)Sfl2 1a f) lofl2a a) b) Dates are most often written with Arabic numeral s but not always. therefore.a 2) t<. When the year is written according to the :f¥.3fJ& (Heisel) which means ' Attainment of Peace'.~. The present Emperor. he is referred to by the name of his era. for example.fn (ShOwa) which means 'Enlightened Peace'.6 (in (2» in English . An era is defined by the length o f rule of each Emperor.a 6) t<. Kaisetsu 3 The Japanese calendar Used alongside the Western calendar in Japan is the Japanese system of :f¥. A good way of calculating these is to have an ' anchor' year.fl+.+.)~ 1963 Alternatively. AkihilO. it follows this pattern: fJ&+~:f¥. or take 25 years away from the Western year to arrive at the Showa year: (ShOwa 1985 = 85 .25 = RB. 11 ~ (ShOwa) years are counted from and including 1926. your year of birth.4' ~ 1999 Arabic numbers can also be used: 3f.4' 1IlI'!II= +4' (Sh "wa38thy".(nengO) system.fU:A+~ 20th year) ~ 20 + 25 ~ (19)45 (Showa 60th year) . then count from here: IIBfU 1I!U1I= +J\. MliIt::::. I) + .fl + J\. There fore: -'i'JiI1. began his reign (the Emperor in modern Japan has a symbolic role with no political power) in 1989 and the new era is called. 3) Now write out the dates 1. Akihito's father. you count up from and includ ing 1989 which was Heisei 1st Year. The PBfU (ShOwa) era lasted for 63 years from 1926.fl = + . Heisei 11th year To match this to the Western calendar. a 3) +fl = a 4) J\. Once an Emperor has died. The previous era was called 1Il).

.fI ~ ¥omu renshu This section will pull together everything you have learnt in this unit and give you the opportunity to read numbers and dates in authentic contexts.36 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ~ . Japanese business cards are often produced with Ihe Japanese script written vertically on one side and the Romanised script (for the benefit of non-Japanese clients) written horizontally on the other. p. 37). Notice that the area code is in brackets and a horizontal line separates the two parts of the phone number. Can you convert them into Arabic numerals? . The following phone numbers are written horizontally.WA Renshii 6 I) iM* numbers are most often used when the text is written vertically (see question 3.flJi Renshii 5 I) Match the following equivalents: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) -'fJ& (Heisel) years with their Western calendar 1994 1990 1997 1992 1998 1995 The fi rst year of an era is written not with means ' beginning': (one) but with 7G which -'fJ&J'"G:tp = Heisei l Si year (1 989) 2) Match the followin g equivalents: 1IU:fu (Showa) years with their Western calendar i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 1939 1926 1973 1988 1950 1968 lbliu. Do not confuse this with the number ~ (one).

= -t: 0 I!lI (0 = -t::IL) ==. When will the conference be held (give the full date) m: a) London (tJ ~ r~ ~) b) Tokyo ( i\[)j() c) Dusseldorf (r~ . 'Y -Clv r~ Iv -:7) T.UNIT 3 .=-Iil!ll =JI. 37 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (0= ) ( 0 :IL-t:) = Ii}\ --=-t:-t: Ii:IL= -1!lI=-' - (0 1:.J. date and day of the performance in the Western calendar. '98~ 12F.1 68 (8) '!I-t!)11 t: )117 '98~ 12F. month..= 0 ) (0 = ) = Ii:IL= ....1128 (±) o /' t: /' ** 3) The advertisement reproduced here is for a Japanese theatre production...1 58 (±) '98~ 12F.: ** 2) The following is part of a newspaper advertisement for a series of three conferences. .:I. Give the year.

~ Ji - }\ ttf~ (eigo) English one two three four five if~c?I. Check your answers against the Un it 3 chart at the back of the book.(onyomi) SH1CH KYU NI SHI ICHI HACHI . turn to the ill~ chart fo r Unit 3 at the back of the book and learn to say the onyomi reading for the numbers 1. R enshu 7 Align the numbers that follow with their and onyomi reading. Turn back to this section in Unit 2 ( ~ Kaku re nshu 3 In Units I and 2 you learnt eight basie rules for writing and you practised writing all the !!¥ you had learnt in those units.~ (7)lb'Ch n . If you have worked through Teo'ch Yourself Beginner 's Japanese.iL so.38 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT . 20.10. Hinto Hints for remembering the numbers Try memorising how to say the numbers in Japanese by relating them to English-sounding words. ~ Readings (kanji no yomikata) In thi s section you are going to focu s on say ing the numbers 1. Otherwise. Ihis is on page 31.10 in Japanese.ID ROKU GO SAN i!I' <. For example. Next you are going to learn three simple rules for improving the shape of your strokes by looking at stroke endings. . The Japanese learn calligraphy in order to petfcet nYi*" . i«!*" tt* iJi.1) if you need to re· check the pronunciation rules.(ichi) and (ni) sound like ' itchy knee' ! = ~ • • -1:. seven eight mne ten .

Think about the stroke endings too from the previous examples. the left side o f eight is a different shape to the right side. --~tl 2) GRADUAL STOP. . you will be able to improve the way in which you write jf~ even with a pcn or penciL The three main types of stroke ending are as follows: I) STOP ending. d \ . You pull the pen gradually off the page with a sweeping motion.UNIT 3 39 the shape of ~~ using brushes but if you pay attention to these three rules.t J'\.10 fo llow. . and the same for four and six . written out for you.10 on squared paper (do not look at the stroke order that follows yet).... . The stroke flick s up at the end. . Now you are goi ng to try writing the numbers 1. 3) FLICK. Look at the stroke order· and the shapes and proportions of the strokes (for example. Employ the eight rules you have learnt. Your pen/pencil stops and lifts off the page. the strokes of two and three are not all the same length) then try 10 copy them as closely as possible. tL J '\ • • + How did you get on? The numbers 1.-~ . the only exception is the number nine where the vertical (iefthand) line is written first.

T 17 . •• • • • • . -t it• • t ... ~---- • . :0 ____ " J '\ .. - .".40 • • ... -.. .. • BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT • .•• • • • • -t-" • • -- \z:9 \Z9 • • • 3l :k • • • ....J \ J '\ J :'\ • ..- - " ->.

.q-). You have learnt to count in Japanese from 1. you have learnt 15 single ~~ (plus related compounds) and three new compound words (~$. ) \.. . You have also learnt the il~ for yen and for year.10 and have applied the writing ru les you learnt previously to writing .. J"-. You have also learnt about the Japanese calendar and have been introduced to two compound ~~ words for the present and previous eras. .000 through 13 ~* . dates and telephone numbers. You have put this learn ing into practice to read number and money amounts.~ numbers. )--~ J .UNIT 3 41 . . . + Owari ni In this unit you have been introduced to numbers up to 10.. . Altogether. 1t-t tL 1L - ++ . If. . . IIlIln.

il* I) Can you remember the meanings of the a) Q f) I'~ b) l'j: g) '" c) h) A a l!l' i* d) . you have nt*" . as well as havin~ meanings in il*" iI¥: that follow ? e) iM*. 13 14). Can you spot them'! (You do not need to know the meaning of the whole ll~ at thi s stage.I!!t. action or doing words). The you will be introduced to in this lesson are created from simpler some of which you have learnt already. So far.) a) Pft e)?F b) f) J!. t:l c) g) til Check the answers to these two activities in the back berore moving on to the next section. yonka UNIT 4 In this unit you will • learn to recognise 121i* used in action words (verbs) • be introduced to words made up of combi nations of these and other jl~ • learn more about pronounci ng and writing ~* Hajime ni In Unit 2 you learnt that some themselves.. il*". They each contain jl~ as part of their structure. MiIIt- Kaisetsu 1 The new introduced in the second activity you have just completed can all be used as verbs (that is.) =r d) ~ h) l'I tlJ 2) Now look at the new il~ in the fo llowi ng list. afC used as components of more complex ~~ (see pp. In the following activity you are going to review some key il* to refresh your memory before moving on to learning the new in thi s unit. Da.

Meaning: to go out. The story clues ( 1. 7) The mouth spoke words which rose up in lines. You t)S~ for person (A) takes this form more complex 1M*-. 4) A neighbour is pressing an ear between the gates of the house to hear the goss ip. Meaning: 10 resl. These can be a clue to their meanings and you are going to use these clues to work out the meanings for yourself. 2) T his shape } \. 6) At school the child is ex pected to wear a special hat when studying. Now can you work out which f!Xi=¥. Meaning: 10 look. Meaning: to hear or listen. Before you can do this. ~ n O. I) This shape JL ( i ) when used as a ~~ component has the meaning ' human legs'. Renshu 1 1 when used as pari of a The foll ow ing seven il~ (a. You can see it in 2 (b). 3) The (~) has the meaning ' animal legs'. Meaning : to buy. (The component meanings are in bold.UNIT 4 43 not learnt the meaning of any of them but you have identified simpler nY!~ within them. ~ W Story clues I) A penon resting by a tree duri ng their work break . S) An eye with animal legs is a shell fish. 2) An eye running around on human legs. You can see an example of this in activity 2 (g). watch or see.) This technique should help you to remember that meaning. 3) Mountains upon mountains but somewhere there is a way out. ~. can see it in 2 (f) . . words. Meaning: 10 study.7) link the different components of each iI~ into a story which indicates the il* meaning. holiday. here are three extra pieces of information.has which meaning? ~ ~ ~R ~. A sideways eye above it is a human inspecting it before buying. Meaning: to say.g) all represent verbs.

111:5 '&. walch.~ 11>0 ~ot.h .S . ll* I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1* n: 6) 7) ~ tfl PI! "t J!. ! 11ft to listen. Simply match the on the right...h it bl. to say ~ tosrudy I -II ". to hear . Lt.. look ~ V ® blo..S '0 J! ~ Stt.. e'r .t'.44 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT How did you get on? The same ~* this time with their m eanings and a picture representation as well can be seen in the fo llowing list.. to buy - ~ to rest ~~ tl1 to go out Now read through the stories again. Do you see how the components of these nl~ help to indicatc their meanings? This is a quick activity designed to help you review the ~* learnt so on the left with the meanings far in this lesson. ~ PI··S~ . a) b) c) d) e) f) g) to to to to to to to listcn look say study go out buy rest ..) to see.

rth (x 2) sun (x I) 1000 (x 1) How did you get on? You can find the answers in the explanations that follow. WIliIt= The have had their component parts numbered. 3) ' Human legs'._ I) This upper part looks like ± (earth) exc.f1 ~ Renshu 3 Here are seven more il* which you are goi ng to learn in this lesson: nilltillilll'ftllXA Some ofthe components which make up these ~* are contained in the following list. The number in brackets indicates the number of times the component appears.. like this: ± . Kaisetsu 2 handwritten iM* which follow t1f.UNIT 4 45 ~ . Can you locate and ring the appropriate part on the ~* you have just seen. A story is given to help you remember the meaning. 2) In between the legs and the earth is a table. th. . These numbers are referred to in the explanations.. In fact this ~~ means 'samurai' but when used as part of a more complex il¥ we are going 10 take its meaning as 'earth'. t) JL human legs (x 2) 2) ~ to say (x 2) 3) IJ mouth (x 3) 4) 5) 6) ± 'f a e.:pt that the top horizontal line is longer.

the left side is (0 say/words. Before pens were invented. i. Here is a picture to help you link the meaning to the character: . Buy a book and read the words'. Story: Notice outside a bookstore: ' Words fOI" sale. _* I) This comes from a Ii~ you have not learnt yet.€* I) Once again. speak~. 2) Can yOli see that this is the same as the you have just learnt? (10 se/l. 1) You should have identified 10 sayAmrds ( p) at the left of this ~¥. Meaning : to se/J n.46 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Story: People walked over to the tabletop sale to see a samurai selling clods of earth . Meaning : 1 0 talk. Story: Thousands of words were spoken by the tongue. writing was done with calligraphy brushes. 2) 1000 ( f) . 3) mouth ( IJ) . Meaning: 10 read ~ n). brush (m). Together 2) and 3) make up the for tongue ('IS).

Story: Written words are created by a calligraphy brush. It is slightly truncated but indicates the same meaning. Meaning: to eat. The right side is a person taking a drink. Meaning: to drink. *- 0'~''I) You have just been introduced to the left side of this ~¥. Story: White rice boiled over a fire in a Japanese home.UNIT A . 2) This means white and represents the sun with a ray coming off it. a drink tx. In ancient China the rays of the sun were seen as white. food. I) Think of this as a roof. You could think of this as a condensed version oeW (to say) with the words about to come out of the mouth. 47 2) You will have recognised this as sun. 2) A more detailed picture of the right side will help you with the meaning. Story: The left side gives the general meaning (food) ./ood tt. in this case. Meaning: to write t!t. An alternative meaning is mouth (1=1) with a line in it (1=1). . 3) This lower part is actually a truncated version of (fire) which you learnt in Unit I . the roof of a house.

) . Meaning : enter. Story: People going in walk to the left. 9) 14) ]I. let us summarise the you and see if you can remember have learnt in this unit. read through the stories and look at the composition of each ll¥ again. 3) 4) l!l' 5) ~ Renshii 4 a) b) c) d) drink eat read talk This is a review activity for you to test yourself on the second set ofil* you have just learnt. The printed version shows this person clearly indicating their direction (flick at the top points to the left) .48 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Notice the difference between the handwritten and printed versions CAl of this ~* . 3) 8) 13) ill' Ifl ft!: 4) . . ' In this new ia'!¥ the person appears to be walking back across the means read.of the instruction in this heading . Yomu renshu You now know the first ~*. Match the I!-¥ on the left with the meanings on the right. 5) 10) "'Fill 5) study 10) read I) listen 6) buy II ) speak 2) look 7) rest 12) eat 3) write 8) go out 13) drink 4) say 9) sell 14) enter . n llli e) enter f) sell g) write 6) 7) ~ How did you get on? If you arc still uncertain about some of these. handwritten = A. go in 7\. l!J .WI!!! I) '€I" 2) ]I. until you are sure. Before you try this next section. And do not confuse it with person (printed = A. First look at the the meaning before looking at the English beneath them.. tl*n m*- I) 6) II) IIIl llli Jl 2) 7) 12) «< '€I" J!.

(lit. By matching these with the full English sentences you will be able to get the meaning of the whole sentence. a) The woman (fe male person) ate some bamboo shoots (bamboo children). "" ~t ~ -C -t • 2 2 1 2 6)3r. this will appear in brackets (marked as lit. The woman some bamboo shoots ate. you will be able to understand the key words of the sentence from your knowledge of il~.) .Il)Ali 22 2) 3r.. ±1111 a I~ I I 4 1 27 2 3) 2 2 2 «-'" £ '-' t". 1\l i' 2 4 ill III 2 1 Iv Ii Match each one to its Japanese partner in Ihe previous list (not in order). c '".4 49 L!J .ll)rli a*iilti' "fa" £.. For example: JJ Q) A tt $: ~ Ii: l ' 2 2 2 4 '* l t:. In the sentences.UNIT.) b) The girl (female child) rested on Saturday. Did you notice that the verb comes at the end of the sentence? The order would sound like this: the man a car bought. These refer The to the lesson in which the il~ was first introduced so that you can check back if you need to. 4 !II Il) A Ii !'l i' . (lit. you have already learnt have numbers below them.Il)Ali ttll)ri' J:t"'£cto.'-' to. There is also one l4. 0 The man (male person) bought a car. il* 1) 3r.fBi Renshu 5 Here are some sentences in Japanese followed by some in English.. 4 t". Now have a go yourself. At this stage you will not be able to read the whole sentence because you have not learnt hiragana yet (Unit 5). n~A. ""?"(1 ganbatte! (Good luck).~lvli 2 5) !II Il) Ii r 2 2 7) 2 2 ~ ~1II~1v1~ ilH£ 1 2 4 )!f.lU '-' 4) tj. The girl on Saturday rested.~ (im) which you have not seen yet.).

(lit. The man at the moon looked. The woman Japanese studied. This is best explained with an example: it ('to buy ' ) + 4'tI (th ing) == J. (lit.) e) The woman (female person) studied Japanese.50 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT c) Mr Yamada (Mountain-rice field) sold his car. buy ing things) The ll!~ that foll ow have been made int~ nouns by adding :1m (thing) to them.) How did you gct on? Check your answers _* at the back of the hoolc build up yOll In this section ~ will be introduced to some new compound rJ!* words.) d) The boy (male c hild) likes horses.) f) Mr Hayashi (Wood) talked to Mrs Morita (Forest-rice field) . Mr Hayashi to Mrs Morita talked.) g) The man (male person) looked at the moon. (lit. I) f!I:'Im (a) wntmg 2) tt'lm (b) food (e) book 4) JI. See if you can work out their meanings by matching them with their English equivalents on the right. (lit.l~ = shopping (/it.!* words which you can refer to if you need to. (lit. The boy horses likes. Can you work out what their meanings would be in English? There is a list of English words in random order beneath the I. Mr Yamada his car w Id.'Im (d) sightseeing (c) items for sale (f) drinks l!J I!ItW-t Renshu 7 Here are some more compound words us ing ~* you have been introduced to in this unit. . First you need to learn a new l«!$: thing This ii4$ is used to make verbs inlo nouns.

*(})~OI:/.. The box of English words (in random order) will act as a check list once you think you have worked oul the meaning of a word. two feet = two pairs (offootwear) 2) 6) 3'CA buyer ex. 20. go oul eye gold = a pop·eyed goldfish lit.4 51 I ) 3'Crl 2) 1Il0 3) A.amples to get you started! 114* iI1J iI1J iI1J I) Rei 1 Rei 2 Rei 3 lit. Focus on the onyomi readings and try to memorise them. il*" . Here are some hints to help you.* 7) 1*'* a) b) c) d) e) a study visit start school eating and drinking absence from school (long teon) reading f) buying and selling g) going in and out Renshu 8 This activity introduces compound ~~ words which use from the first four units of this book.2 1). resting fire mountain = a dormant 1JQlcano lit. Think about the literal meaning and then see if you can work out what you would say in English.* 4) lil A 5) ~-tt 6) JI.UNIT .jj Kanji no yomikata You were first introduced to how are pronounced in Unit 2 and you can refer back to that unit for guidance on pronunciation (pp. Now turn to chart 4 at the back of the book which contains all the single ~~ introduced in this unit. Here are some amusing 5) .10.*1J AP Jl 'f 3) 7) 1* a entrance holiday Japanese person academic ability til P dealer (seller) drinking water . In this section in Unit 3 you used the unit chart at the back of the book to learn the onyomi (Chinese readings) of the numbers 1.

~ .52 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Hinto Hints for memorising 1I¥' readings 1) Look back at the simple pronunciation rules you were given in Unit 2 (pp. For example.~ (study visit) h) JtPfJ (knowledge. 7) tr 8) ~ " ~ r) SHUTSU g) WA h) BUN i) KEN 9) 10) II ) 12) 13) 14) fj!( j) IN k) GAKU I) SHO m} GEN il5 Jlf ~ 2) Now try saying these compound ~~ words in Japanese: a) (buying and selling) c) A?!f. 2) Say the readings out loud . looki ng at the lM~ and saying the reading out loud. Now try Activity 9. 2()"'21). experience) . ' Do you gct the idea? 4) Test yourself by covering up the reading. Link the il~ on the left with their correct reading: I) }1 2) f* 3) tfj 4) 11ft 5) "l- a) b) c) d) e) DOKU SHOKU NYU BAI (usc twice) KYO 6) JI. So how about: ' It was a SHOCK how much food he CQu id eat !' And the onyomi of J! (look) is KEN so: ' KEN looked out of the window.W:IL Renshu 9 1) This is a simple linking activity. 3) Sec if you can match each reading to an English word and make a little story to help you remember. the onyomi of ft (eal) is SHOKU. (start school) e) fiXit (eating and drinking) g) -f*~ (absence from school) nTI b) ~i!f (reading) d) iliA (going in and out) f) R.

in preparing yourself to write lIf:I (li sten) from memory. . say to yourself 'gate and ear'. right side . Look carefully at the proportions and overall balance of eaeh lM¥. \J' I tfD ~ ~-*' A* / 1 ~*' ~ ~ tt. the left side is narrower (the proportions are approximately left side .' I I ~ \ -. In th is section you are going to learn to write the 14 il¥ which have been introduced in this unit. for helping you to remember the il¥ and for counting the number of strokes.::.f . Kaku renshu 4 recognise the first il¥ in this Hinto One way to remember how to write more complex is to visual ise the components they are made up of. _¥ \. For example.::. And there are sometimes. 213).UNIT 4 53 3 <.~-- c'1' I \~ . --d j- • I y.W I!!l You should now heading ~ it means ·write'. 1/3. where a il!¥ has a distinct left and right side. For example.1"/ \1 J.sli$ht differences between handwritten and printed versions of the same nl¥. Remember: stroke order is important for writing accurately.

-. )).~ . ~ §l --~...' rr-i r~i fl\ r~9 .: 7 1 . -'-. .-. ) \+ ~ ~ . \ " ."J ~ \.54 8EGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT F/\ r~' rj r--i f.. " + . -to :>j ~ -.-a . ... -.I \-'"7 ". "' ." r '' - _r. -' -' .. C " ..L. -Q .- - .

/ • ..~ f/~" p. A 14 I~ ~ ~ k--. ~ 1". kl -7 ~~~ .UNIT . ::r- 7L ix~k I lI' ~ Ii' r ~ ~ ~ J!..±\ A YL --±- -~-.1: -r-::t:' \. - -::t-. ~ f/ 11t A -:." ~ J /"-.:1 55 /..

.56 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT .::. ..... CI - "::--::r :::y--? 0 . Now try the test to see how well you have remembered the you have learnt in the first four units! il* .: '.. . .:. ~6 -aD \ \ -:...g - -. r . .JA:..3 a r:t:. ~-t0 ..-:i: p? ~-:t" _.0. -:Ii 0 \ -:s. > 1 ..~ ~-i- ph. / tl -I ....0 / .::3 ..gE --... ~ .:--z- 6£ Owari ni In this unit you have been introduced to 14 ~* which represent action words and have learnt to pronounce their onyomi (Chinese reading) and to write them. . .. You have also learnt the meanings of 26 compound ~~ words and have identified the key words in a set of Japanese sentences. .. .-.

: 'llr JII ~ d) i) 2) Elements of nature .) I) People and animals .fl c) .!iO e) r b) f) A J.) e) I1lI 'f Pl b) f) 'Ii = li 4) Dates .It i) 11 IT e) ~ j) lI< .) :h.) tli b) 1<tli c) g) h) 3) Numbers and money f) * "* 71< Ell e) 1<.) .q: 6) Parts of the body b) 0 c) IE d) 1'1 e) 'f .:IL.!tr &f' +.4 .:r c) g) J.a (±) g) 5) Verbs (action words) . Can you remember their English meanings? (Some il~ appear more than once if they cover more than one category. 57 TA" Tesuto The ifJ!~ ( including some compound words) you have learnt so far are grouped in themes. .UNIT.) IlIJ b) c) ill: f) i1t n: tt d) h) .) .

Ii .lift Dai goka UNIT 5 In this unit you will : • learn to read the 46 t. IJ T (katakana» is learnt firs t by Japanese children in primary schools? 3) What did V G IJ{ ~ develop from? 4) How many basic symbols make up the modem (J ~ IJ{ ~ syllabary? IJ.>j:" Hiragana Hajime ni Look back to page vi of the Introduction which deals with an overview of the differe nt types of Japanese script and in particular the section on {J ~ IJ~ l' (hiragana).J ~ h. There are six U t. () ~ tJ{ 1' .f ) in the left column which are repeated in a different order in .. Yonde mimasho You have not learnt to read any (J ~ IJ~ ~ yet (apart from these fo ur symbols) but try this simple matching activity.. I) What are the two main uses of (J ~ /J~ 1' ? 2) Which script (t4*. ~ (hiragana) symbols which make up the phonetic 'alphabet' • learn some rules fo r making exIra sounds from the 46 main symbol s • be introduced to picture-sound associations to make learning easier • learn how to write V ~ IJt ~ (hiragana) • have a go at reading some words and phrases Key word: V . IJ ~ ~ words (a. Then answer the following questions based on the information you have just read .

..: < 0:1> I) What is the first () ~ 11: 1j: symbol? 2) Which column do you read firs t and in what order? To save you looking in the back. chi I:> tsu "? te -C to I: sa ~ shi I. su se -It so 't Iw ~. (c) ~ I: ? (f) -It ( • I: -.- Kaisetsu 1 Let us begin by looking anhe first four lines of the {) ~/)t ~ syllabary ' with the romanised pronunciation and learn how to read it. the answers are 1) 1. (a). -:>( .:.. (a) 2) I. you read in columns rather than rows. consonants are attached to each of these vowels to create new sounds. from top to bottom and from right to left. (a) t ~ (b) I. The first one is done for you.<. And each of these sounds is represented by . In Unit 2 (pp. 20. The next point to notice is that the first five sounds are what we call vowel sounds. ( . -. e as in end 0 :I> as in hot And. Can you now answer these two questions: ta t.t (d) -:> ( . t ki ! ku ke It ko . it· u -. .. ( ) -It('1: ( ) (a) t~ ~. And you begin to read from the top righthand corner.UNIT 5 s. 01. . Notice that the chart is written in the traditional way.21) you were introduced to the pronunciation of Japanese sounds. (c). Therefore. ( ) I. :I> (0) . A quiek check list follows to help you remember the pronunciation. ! (c) .. I.. • e. the right column.<. Match up the same words and write the correct letter in the brackets on the right.! ( ) ~ I: ? ( ) MllI!. :> (u) . a as in u • mat as in hit as in blue . (i). .\.:. as you also learnt in Unit 2.

~ -.. Have a go at writing the (J ~ IJ~ ~ because this will help you to remember how to read them. Use the chart of the fi rst 20 symbols on p. ~ (autumn) (e) ~ C ? (sugar) (c) . ~ 0. This time you are going to try to read these words. To help you understand the layout of the chart. .. .. (The Roman alphabet consists of 26 letters which are used in various combinations to creale a range of sounds. say its sound to yourself. As you write each one (using graph paper if possible)... 59 and see if you can say the words.symbol . (yonde min/asM) activity earlier in this unit you matched six U ~ o{ 1" words. and vertical/diagonal strokes from top to bottom.Jj: symbol. ()( )- .60 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT a (J ~ n{.t (voice) (f) -It ~ • C (school pupil) MliIt::: Kaisetsu 2 You are now going to be introduced to the who le () t.:: .h - stroke order The printed version of each symbol is also included (top lefthand comer) because this sometimes differs slightly from the handwritten version ..t . an explanation is now g iven usiog the first symbol 1.. (a) I. Thei r English meanings are written in brackets.) ~ . printed _ versIon .t (desk) (b) . including the correct order to write each symbol. The basic rules you learnt for ~~ also apply here you write horizontal strokes fro m left to right.. This is why the Japanese syllabary is called 'a phonetic alphabet' .. j L. IJ~ ~ chart.nwt Renshu 1 In the ttlv L" Jj. (sus hi) (d) ') ( . _romaji f--..

.[. . t "m -\' . 7f 1 < ..If~l 61 kJ 7 '- '- fJ'\ I~ ... ~ ~ 0) IIllI 1 I~ t \ -.-" l f ' ". I . '( I . Continue like th is until you can read the sequence confidently. . row or diagonal of the chart .:. ~ ~ -t~ -" ( ~ ~ .II-> l!J flkf!1 Renshii 2 The activities in this lesson will keep referring you back to the different charts.>( - - '-- . - '" 11 ~ Ito h"O t .h ~ ~ .. Then try again to read the sequence from memory. \ . . then refer back to the relevant part of the chart to refresh your memory.. Each sequence of V ~ /J~ ~ symbols in the activity is taken from a column..UNIT 5 I ~I-r fE . - 1 - It r- 10 . l ":!i- t- I~ I~' . . IJ~ ~ symbols but first here is an activity to get you reading.~. Ii It _ ItC'So '. -~ -.. . J-.. Try 10 read (out loud) each of the (J t:> IJ~ ~ . u .I. 1 - -. In n "" ~ n = " .! "\ '- . t~ \. then move on to the next one.... so do not worry about learning all the symbo ls at once! There is also a section later 10 help you explore ways to remember the 46 basic V t. ! ...In-.h' L l -t ffil ~ It.Ii ] -e.

:c The third row (reading from right to left): -j. '-.. 61).. ) . ~ to BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ~ -> N I h 1 . 'it. 'u J.. -l:t • .62 to l h '" .. -. 1 J: {. tl f. ) . 1". -t . -C. <...I~ "" t2 . :B T he diagonal from top right to bottom left: J" 1!.. -t. 7-:. ~ v:b L' L 1..) .: m. . £1 ~ 1 11 11 1. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The third colwnn (always count from the right): ~. " J: 1 . (t . f" '\ t '" >:I> . L. ""? tJ..1 1J. The diagonal from top left to bottom right: ~. I m.: Have you noticed that the syllables in the row sequences always end with the same vowel sound? . L..:: The fourth row: it. . f/) The second column : /)'. ffi ~I ..Iitr mu . ~ .I n '5 IG A. <. f) 'I V 1+ ~ U vJ- " {> I - ~ ~ a 7. . ~ -J .> 'W I is ? t1. If) M ¥l n II> rna /"-." ~ '" I ". t I 11 ho ~J I' I' 11 L t t The fi rst part of this activity refers to the first page of the chart (p. \ l.. ~. (t. (t.

.9 are at the back of the book.. ~.appear? 16) How many symbols only appear once? 17) Which symbol appears the most times? (Answers to 15. Ii fourth column: ~. aim = 'e') rather than the letters or spellings.lj. A- "t Now look at the sequences 10. (" J. t).17 are at the back of the book. 1/). 0 fifth <ow.) l::~ J-.. Concentrate on the sounds (for example.. diagonal from top right to bottom left: Ii.6 again and answer these questions: 7) How many times do these symbols a) l" b) ~ c) -C appear? 8) Which symbol appears three times? 9) Which symbol appears the most times? (Answers to 7. ~.14 again and answer these questions: 15) How often does the symbol a) tt and b) A. tt. 62). - Hinto 1 Remembering '01. . -. 11. For example.). 9. tt. 1 (a) 2 (i) 3 (u) 4 (e) 5 (0) . '3. .) The second part of this activity refers to the second page of the chart (p.. t). 10) II) 12) 13) 14) The The The The The first column: Ii. The basic idea is that you find a way to make the shape of each symbol suggest a picture or story which connects it to its sound. here are some ideas for the first five () ~ tJ: 1" ... This section will introduce you to a way of remembering () ~ tJ: 'd: through visual and sound association (mnemonics). V . Adiagonal from top left to bottom right: h.UN1T 5 63 Now look at the sequences 1.'Ii\'/6.



I $, (a) is an opera si nger singing an lria (Japanese pronunciation has a short 'a' sound) 2 ~. (i) is an American Indian 4 i. (e) .lim for the target 3 '1 (u) !!<lb, my back hurts! 5 1:1 (0) is an .2stric h
Do you get the idea? Here are another 10 to get you started. then, if you find this method helps you, try to think of your own. You might not have inspiration fOT all of them at first , but try a few at a time and write down your ideas in a notebook.



3 .









() (hi) is someone laughing,

mhee 2 h (wa) is a baby crying, waaaa
3 ( (ku) for cuckoo 4 C (to) is the toe of a shoe 5 tl (De) is the Loch ~ss monster

6 t:, (chi) is a t.Il£erleader 7 tl (nu) looks like a bowl of JmDCIlcs 8 l, (shi) ill's got long hair 9 (t (ke) for KO (knocked out)

10 ..: ( ko) is a


l!J Ilk. =:

Renshu 3

Now that you have been introduced to the 46 0 t, IJ~ ~ symbols. it is time to put your learning into practice and try reading some words . .To make it easier for you, the words are in three sets. Set I cons ists of U t, IJ~ ~ from the first page of the chart and Set 2 consists of those from the second page. The fmal challenge is Set 3 which comprises words using 0 t, IJt ~ from the whole chart. Sec how many symbols/words you can read from



memory then use the chart to search for those you cannot remember. Keep coming back to this activity. Try keeping a score of how many words you can read each time and challenge yourself to improve it! Where you have already learnt the ~~ for a word this is also given in brackets. However, the purpose of this activity is to practise reading (J ~ /.1: 1" .

Set 1
a) ~ ~ (morning)
d) I: It ~. (clock) g) !#l 0) (cloth)

b) -C (hand 'f-) e) ~ t3 (salt)

c) f)

1""'? 1" I.::

(summer) (what)

Set 2
a) ,t G (evening) d) ¢. igJ (Winter) g) t ry (fo,est l!i;) e) tr ~ (village) h) b", (bowl)
b) "'''' (ea,l'j:)


Ii.., (Spring)

f) ~.t (mountain


Set 3
a) 15 tt J: '1 (Good morning) c) t.I ~ (cat) e) I·t.l(dog) g) ~ t (navel) i) IU'(exampleillJ) b) ~ J: ? l' " (Goodbye) d) it /v-tt l' (teacher) f) /1) ( eye §) h) () I: (petSon A) j) Ie (1 '" (lopan

a *)

1:: /' J-


Hinto 2

Similar D f, iJ~t~

You have probably confused some of the simiiar· \ooking (J G Il ~ already. Thi s section will line these up and point out the differences to help you keep them separate in your mind. Notice the punctuation, by the way - a comma, and a full stop 0 - not all that different from English.

~ ,

. to.

~ (Id) has two horizontal lines, ~ (sa) has one. ~ (sa) leans to the left, ~ (chi) looks like the number 5

I •, I • , ry •


(the top has slipped!) l' (i) is more or less vertical, .: (ko) is horizontal. l' (i) - the left stroke is slightly longer than the right, I) (ri) - the right stroke is longer than the left.



It, U:, It.. It (Ire) has no loop at the end, {;l: (ha) has on ly one
horizontal line, (,1 (ho) has two horizontal li nes. It, .t 0 Th e top horizontal line in (,1 (ho) si ts on top of the vertical line whereas in .t (ma) both horizontal lines cut through the vertical. -t, tr.. -t (su) curves to the lcft, tr (mu) curves to the right and has an extra strokc. tJ.. Ii). t.l o tJ. (nu) has two stroke ends at the top and a loop at the bottom whereas I/) (me) has the same stroke ends but no loop, and t.l. (ne) has only one vertical stroke. Q. -00 7.;, (ru) has a loop, .is (ro) looks a bit like a number 3.


Kaisetsu 3

~-ti' (Yoon)

Contracted sounds

You have now been introduced to the 46 basic (J ~ Il.Jj;- symbols. As well as these 46, there are other sounds which are made by combining some ofthe basic symbols. This is done by combining the symbols which end in the 'i ' sound (~. L-. ~, (.:, V, Jj.., ~) with a small version of ~, Ig). or J:" Each sound is pronounced as a single syllable or ' beat'. Look at the following chart:
~ (k.)


{.:. V

<' (kya) (sht) ---t L- ~ (sha) (chI) ---t ~~ (cha) (ni) ---t t.:~ (nya) (hi) -> V'<' (hya) (mi) ---t Jj..'<;> (mya)



(kyu) l ~ (shu) .,~ (chu) ,O~ (nyu)
V~ (hyu)

~ ~




., ~


-> 9'<' (rya)

"'~ (myu)


V ~ "'~



(kyo) (sho) (cho) (nyo) (hyo) (myo)


.!'o!'ll!!! Renshu 4
This activity is going to utilise some of the wide range of ' onomatopoeic' words which the Japanese have in their language. These are words which sound like the action or sound word they name. In Japanese, such words usually repeat a sound twice. The nearest English equivalents are phrases such as 'woof woof' for a dog's bark; ' plip plop ' for the sound of rain; and 'gobble gobble' for the sound of a turkey but words like this in Japanese are not limited to children's words.


. 67

One point to note before you start thi s activity - many of the words that follow are lengthened by the addi tion of a vowel sound, normally ? (u), at the end (but J5 (a) is also used in these examples). For instance, t:>~? t:> +1> '7 (a mouse's squeak) is pronounced 'chuu chuu ' (usually written 'chu chu'). Let one sound run into the other smoothly - do not separate t:> tfI (chu) and '7 (u). Now practise reading and saying the fo llowing onomatopoeic words. Refer back to the earlier chart to help you as necessary. TWo symbols you have learnt previously, Iv (n) and ~ (ro) are also used here. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

! ~ iJ ! ~ iJ (scream with laughter)
(fizzing sound) ~ '7 L. ~ '7 (fizzing sound) t:> ~ '7 t:> ~ '7 (mouse ' s squeak) ~"';' (~ ." ;, (m;aow) V ~ .; V tfI .; (whistling sound) () J: '5 () J: '5 (sway;ng; lanky) ~ J: ~ 1! J: -? (looking around)
+1> +1>

L. L.

Iv L.


Mll!I.l!!I Kaisetsu 4

D G tJ~fd. that change their sound

You have learnt nearly all the extra rules for V t:J tJt.>j: so you can relax, they are not endless! And also, if you think you have taken in enough at any stage, leave this unit, carry on with the ll~ units and come back to this later. You are not expected to remember everything in this unit in one go and no one is setting the pace except you! Some of the V t; tJ~ ~ symbols change their sound with the addition of two small strokes" at the top right of the symbol. Let us look al these: I) ' k' sounds become ' g' sounds (hard ' g' as in ' get'):
~'. ~.

<. (t. .::
leu ,


j)<. ~'.
ga gl

elf. ::::
ge go

(ka, ki,

Ire, ko)

2) ' 5' sounds --+ 'z' sounds: (sa, shi, se, so)








• L: is pronounced 'ji' .

~' "'. hi. t-' . . byo pya . hi. do you remember the contractcd sounds you Icarnt in kaiselSu 37 Well.. added: ~. Refer to the rules given earlier for the answers. U. U. bi bu be 5) In addition. .: ~ Il'.. 10) da (ji ZIt)· de do • the sounds t. 4) ' h ' sounds become 'b' sounds: I~..U.(" "-'. U' . C 1'. .)o bya. ju. ~'. (ZII) are not normally used because they create the same sound as t: (ji) a nd 1" (zu) . The romaji is also given on the right but cover this up and see if you can work out how 10 read the () ~ IJ: ~ before you refer to the romaji. U tJ:.:. . .. (ji) and ""). ~ . If 'I:'. Look over these rules. he.U. c'.. b) d) if.68 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 3) 't' sounds become ' d' sounds: (ta. 1:. tsu.:. (ha. gya..flJi Renshu 5 Say the sounds out loud or write them down. . then try the simple activity that follows. he.. the rules just given also apply to these.f. U'. cover up the romaji a nd try readi ng them.. pyo . . . If.:..~ (ha. I.~.. a) ~'. bYII .. ~..". Ie. 'h' sounds become ' p' sounds when a small circle · is .gyo . ho) pa pi pll pe po These five sets of rules cover all the sound changes for single lJ ~ tJ: ~ symbols. .ju. chi. pyu."" ~ Il --> I~'.gyu. fu. Ij' Finally in this section. The chart that follows groups these sounds on the left. . -If. See (2). c) e) :::. U --> ~. ja. ho) ba U'.

lk) e) t: ~ t. you do not pronounce it but pause slightly (a glottal stop) before saying the next sound.. This is shown in riimaji by doubling the next consonant.. 66. These initial activities will keep referring you back to the different sections and remember .) U"" 1 (.tal) 19> 1 (0 <(customer) 1 < (today) d) ~ " ~ It. (hosp. and 'bookcase' (pause after ' boo ').UNIT 5 69 IfIf&Ji Kaisetsu 5 The small J (tsu) The final rule you need to know in order to read V' f. You do not need to be perfect fi rst time round! Most of these words are usually written with ~~ but the purpose of the activities that follow is to practise reading U' '' . 68).you can keep revisiting these activities to see if you can improve your score. The length of this pause is the same as in these English examples: ' headdress' (pause after ' hea'. Here are some Japanese examples with the riimaji and pronunciation guide beneath: a a) £: "? '"C (wait!) matte rna (pause) te b) ~ -? "C (stamp) kitle ki (pause) te c) ! "? J: (ticket) kippu ki (pause) pu l!)'Cu. When you see this.f1- Yomu renshii 1 Reading words Take a deep breath ! You are now goi ng to put into prac tice everything you have learnt in this unit..eakfast) h) U''' ( 100) j) 9"': 1 (travel) b) ~ " 1 < . (photogmph) f) to " ? ~ " < (b. not ' head dress').Q'~. This acti vity will use (j ~ tJ{ 1J:" fro m the initial chart (p. It.:J IJ~ 1J:" properly is the usc of the small "'J in a word. See how many of these words you can read. a) c) 1! !' ~ 19> (m. 6 1) and contracted sounds (pp.l (See you!) g) to 19> 1 ~ " (lunch) .

The '{) ~ /): ~ symbols aft er each ~* serve to . 69). (water) b) -/)~~.!lJt J. Although it may seem to be a simpler task 1 0 read using U.t ""? C (a little) IJ (as expected) c) -'?>""? e) ii' h. I!*. Once again. C (siraight ahead) This activity gives you practice at reading words with the small "? ( p. 6 1) plus {) ~ -/): ~ which change Iheir sound (p .f:J -b: ~ with i#!*. 11* l!J . a) I?. The '{) ~ -# ~ parts of the words have a grammatical funcli on. Japanese children first learn to read and write using only '{) ~ /){ ~ .'l'l:h.t ""? "'C (wait) d) -b: ""? ':: -.. As mentioned in the Introduction."'C A. (dictionary) f) ! (sound of heart beating fast) e) t.70 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT l!J en? 1.-h (telephone) c) L-. As Ihey learn ~* they make their writing more sophisti cated by replacing words and parts of words written in U. Jj<.. (keys) a) d) ""C" A.~ /): ~ (rather than having 10 learn 2000 il*!) in fact. A. (school) f) ! ""? .. introduced in Unit 9).when dri nking) c· ! c· l!J en? A tr Renshu 8 b) . Renshu 9 Y ou have learnt that U ~ /): ~ has a grammatical function.! (gulping sound . Now you are going to put this to practice. 67).tftf (dandelion) g) IJ~ J.. Below are five of the verbs (action words) you learnt in Unit 4 . once you know texts become easier to read and scan because offer visual clues to the' '? -C (Good luok!) Yomu renshu 2 and ~* DG'IIV~ You will already have noticed from the instruction words used throughoul this book (and in the lasl activity) that Japanese is wrilten as a mixlure of () ~ -/): ~ and ~* (and :IJ 7 :IJ T . see how many of these words you can read.-r Renshu 7 This activity will use () ~ IJ: ~ from the initial chart ( p.kalakana .

.. "£T '11' (I look) 'JI. (I talked) L!J _Wi" Renshu 10 In Unit 4 ( p....: '1.: ~ f. unfamiliar readings are indicated in J.n Japanese texts. When {i has thi s fun ction it is pronounced 'wa ' (and when it is used as part ofa word it is pronounced in the usual way as ' ha t).ammar note : t t . ~ A .\ a f* '" £ ~ Vt (1) A -?l! Ii fl . (I ate) 111:".UNIT 5 71 show the tense of the verb. below or beside ~* to show the pronunciation .. 49) you worked out the meanings of a set of Japancse sentences by identifying the key words. ~ V (1) I) 3J: n A.: and tJ: 1..t T . £ T ( I drink) 111:". indicates the pas t ( I ate). e) illi ~ .) The kunyomi (Japancse reading) is used for single il* verbs with V ~ lit 1" endings.::' 2) 3) 3J: t' . v' (1)'1' Ii ± 1IlII IZ.t T (I write) I'} ~ Ii(.t " 'II' ~ tc ~ (I looked) d) I'} ~ Ii". a *ilIl i' "'I"(:> "t I)' £ ~ tc. The same sentences now follow again. Read out aloud ! G .: (I eat) 1:t -< £ Q) t. but this time you are goi ng to practise reading the whole sentence in Japanese. (. £ ~ tc (I drank) 'JI. nA. ~ tJ: 1" (furigana) which is V ~ tJ: 'j: written above.. 1 cat /wi ll cat) and J: L.. (I talk) illi ~ . verbs are introduced in Unit 8. The readings for the ~* words or parts of words are given in J. You can do this now because you have learnt to read CJ ~ tJ{ 'j: . J: t endings indicate the present or fut ure (for instance. (For those of you who have Teach Y our:"elf Beginner s Japanese. Check the English meanings of the sentences by referring back to Unit 4. nt.: t !i t: (j A-.z . t:. ~ tJ{ 1" (furigana). _* have grammar functions which you will learn more about in Unit 10. tc.~ .t £ tc (I wrote) ~ f. I.t . Now sec if you can read these verbs: a) b) c) 1:t -< £ T Q) t.

72 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 4) 5) 6) '* !J! (i ~ L. ~ ~ "('To t * C: t..: It iT) A I~ it ~J. You will come across () ?y tJ{ Jj:' again in Unit 10 and you can refer back to this unit whenever you need to. Vou have had the chance to write them and to read words and phrases in 0 G tJ{ ~ . You have learnt the two main uses of ()t.: 1:Uv~ '(J ~.~. ~ (i ~ Iv I: 1lIi .Be.t! 7) tlJ IB Owari ni In this unit you have learnt the 46 basic 0 ~ tJ{ Ij: symbols plus related sounds and rules.~ • to write words not normally written in Ii* • to indicate grammar functions and word endings. so do not worry if you have not taken everything in with the first attempt! .

j ' I 6) rice . see if you can match the following pictures with the correct ~* (a.lI Dai rokka UNIT 6 In this unit you will • learn to decode the meanings of 39 new ~* • learn to read morc compound words • try some activities to review all the you have learnt so far • learn to read and write II adjectives (describing words) 1Jt*" tl* Hajime ni In Units I and 2 you looked at ~ ~ which derive from pictures of nature. Can you remember their meanings? a) ± e) Q c) ~ g) a d) h) 11 :u Yonde mimasho As you did in Units I and 2. I) tall / high 4) small • •• 2) old 5) bird 3) big II B. . Here is a selection of them.6 Jb'.j).

Il!..~ • ~ 6) flee * )K' -7 *~ ~ . I) iWi tall/ high 2) '" old 3) big * 'J' So -.j.'I' " I 4) small . e) * development sequence from picture to modern kanji that follows. f) JT h) ' " How did you get on? Check your answers at the back and then look at the b) /IIi g) lj= c) ~ j) Ij. bird ~ ~/5 ~ . 5) . • ~ . " ~ .74 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 7) thread 9) axe 8) cow 10) stand I \ a) :Sf.

wa) b) c) d) Renshu 1 Match the 1l~ in the left column with the English meanings in the right column. big old tall/ high (also means 'expensive') bird cow rice thread axe stand (up) Kaisetsu 1 About 2.. Look back at the jl~ pictures if you need to remind yourse lf of the meanings.UNIT 6 75 7) thread '* fT ~ \ ~ ~-+~ 8) 'F cow EPJ~i--+4 f~if I \ 9) axe 10) 1L stand ~ . You will be looking at this in more detail in Unit 7 but one of the purposes of Ihis unit is to introduce you to .f~ '* Q . g) IJ ' h) .3% of f«!~ derive from simple pictorial representations.Ie j) * I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) small .. many of these simple pictorial ~~ are also used as components in more complex il~. As you have already learnt. 'F fT i\'! 1L c) f) .

Which is which? Look at the il*. Lei us start with four new t!I!~ and look al how their components can be brought together into a story to give the meaning. The remaining (tree). The left side of Ibis tl~ should remind you of a cliff or cave. (new). white. 3) Father.looks like a woman wearing a cheap hat! (wide. Its components are 'earth ' with an extra horizontal fi* . a nd later. hence 2) ~ (cheap. rice field. aJ ~ bJ S cJ l'f d) 5i: eJ jIj i) Rain . You have learnt two of these components in this unit. He has a long moustache and dimples in his cheeks! 4) Biack. to decode the meaning and make-up of other more complex ~~. black) and the other two mean 'fathe r' and 'min'. component (bottom left) is The story: c ut down a standing tree and get new wood.76 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT some more s imple il~ which will help you in this unit. The components. Again. * l!J .W =: Renshu 2 Now you are going to try to link new ~* with stories to establish their meanings. you can see the ~* for woman . The 3) 1Z. the colour of traffic lights and apples). 2) White. So the 1l$. 5) Blue. 'sun' (S) and 'my' (short stroke) depict the white rays of the sun. The top left is :iL (stand (up)). spacious). Within it is a triangular shape with a wide base <it also looks like a wide nose!). Three of the fo llowing ~* represent colours (blue. the rightside is fi (axe) . I) iJJ: (mother). This looks like drops of rain against a window. The components. 4) tT component above is like a hat or covering. read the stories and link them up. safe). T~is il'¥ also means 'green ' (for example. 4 ~ m* indicate breasts. earth and fire (four short ' flamelike' strokes) depict the deep black colour which the earth turns when the rice stubble is burnt after the harvest. You can see the outline oCtt: (woman) in this ~* ~ The two short strokes within the mother.

These are from a small group of tl~ which depict abstract ideas using shapes and lines. green 6) cheap.UNIT 6 . below and inside are formed in a similar way. Look at these nl. (i nside..~ : I) 2) 3) =.. grouping them together by theme.!Ii J4 Jlt g) h) i) Ilh :l<: E 3) white 4) black 5) bluc. You have now learn t 22 new ~¥ in thi s unit.. under) has a baseline with a ' t ' shape below it. You can also imagine . Y oung plants are green and we speak of a blue moon .t r if! (above. • ~ IlkW ~ Renshii 3 As in Renshii I you are going to see how we ll you can remember the ~~ you have been introduced to in thi s section (nine in total). middle) is a box with a Hnc through the middle. . . Link the ~* to the English meaning. etc. Let us review them . a) ~ b) ]iIj c) l'i d) e) f) I) father 2) mother .t and r to look like the top and roots of a plant. The ~~ fo r the words above. _. (below. safe 7) wide. spacious 8) new 9) cam MJlIt= Kaisetsu 2 In Unit 3 you learnt the 1*:~ for numbers (. 77 line which means plants growing out of the ground and 'moon'.). on top) has a baseline with a 'I' shape above it.

Here are the ~* : il* ..J (mountain) on its side.and lightning creates electricity! a Renshii 4 You are going to try identifying more complex by looking at· the components and linking them into a meaning. Nij Rain is used as a component of more complex to indicate types of weather (with rain as their basis).78 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Colours l'f (blue) i3 (white) JA\ (black) Adjectives (describing words) (big) Ij . (moth.) :li: (father) Nature. animals Jg. Think of snow-covered mountains! Thunder. basic items iifii (min) (rice) Position J: (above) * 4 (cow) J\lo (bird) * IT (axe) ~ (thread) In Units 2 and 4 you learnt that more complex 11* are made from combinations of simpler il~. T his time you can see a fl ash of lightning through the rice field . safe) 14 (wide) People. such as: _* ""f (below) '1' (inside) rr (stand up) build up 1 _* _¥ W Cloud .(like) and fJtJ (li sten). *1. These simpler _~ become components o f the more complex ones. T he lower component is rice field. The lower part is doud and the upper component is (sun). (small) . Electric is an interesting progression from thunder.'. expensive) :1< (cheap. Now let us look at you have learnt in this unit which are also used as components in more complex 11*. Cloudy weather blocks out the sun ! S now ('frozen rain ' ). a place where farmers would be very aware of thunderstorms. The lower components are two and triangle shape :II: think of 'Jf ill m them as ' two cloud shapes'! Cloudy weather. (old) >lIT (now) jtfj (tall. The lower component (E) looks like ll. Examples you have learnt include :9} (man).

UNIT 6 79 . ~~ words Remember that ~m (jukugo) are words created from two or more il!f:. Can you remember their meanings? Check back through the section if there are any you are unsure about. often just rocky hills in the sea with only birds living on them . the power o f 10! 4) Meaning: dog .$.oI>. Put simply. 8) Meaning: frost.~. 3) Meaning: hot/biller (taste).. is a depiction of a bird sitting (you can't see its tail feathers) on a mountain . Finally. Words such as A Q (P. The components stand up and ten combine to give an image of strong flavours which make the taste buds stand up to . tapered.€~ for fat is :. m . noise.4. Components: small and a diagonal stroke. Stand in the sun and listen to the sounds.rt of the iliI'1'. You have come across examples of these in Units 1. pigeon. a lillie. Frost (made from rain) on trees looks like millions of sparkling eyes. tree and eye.•. Components: stand up and sun . The components big + short stroke depict a large dog with its tongue hanging out! 5) Meaning: sound.*. This looks very similar to 7t (dog) . the i1. Components big and small. therefore.te. ~.) :Jt e) b) f) 01> Ii1J MI c) g) if if d) $ h) ' " Story meanings I) Meaning: island. Japan is made up of many.~ • • ~ build uJ? 2 ~lIf (jukugo) Compound. The components bird and nine represent a dove. 2) Meaning: dove.m . 7) Meaning:few. many small islands. You can distinguish them by thinking of the short stroke in dog as the tongue and of the short stroke infat as a marker indicating the widest or fattest p.Opulation). tapering to a point involves something becoming smaller.if. Components: rain. 6) Meaning: pointed. :Jt.~.~. They are listed here. III (Sunday) and it~ (food) are some of the J~9 or ~~ compounds you have learnt so far. This il*. In this section of il¥ Build up you have been introduced to 14 new ~!f: . a a .

im (talk). 11a (listen).fl1\ Renshu 6 This activity combines il* from this un it with some you have learnt from previous units. 0 (mouth). :9: (woman). small dog 5) poli shed (white) rice 6) pare nts 7) pale. c) &4' h) AHl m) ~1lI d) &:9: i) 4'L n) ~1IIl e) :k?'l j) 1'1 L 0) . choose the appropri ate ~ * word from the box to match its English meaning. ~ (eye). c) g) 1Z. 'f (hand). 1lI (vehicle) . . Match the two ~* words in the box with the Engli sh meanings from the list beneath it. ~ .10 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT The next two activities are designed to get you thinking about the meanings of some new il* words using the il* you have been introduced to in this unit plus others you have learnt in earlier units. Those from previous units arc: <r (year). The bracketed infonnation gives the literal meaning in cases where the meaning may not be immediately obvious. A ~ (st udy).flJi Renshu 5 This activity uses combinations of il¥ you have learnt in this unit only. ~ .1lI I) university (big study) 3) good at (upper hand) 5) youth (blue years = innocence) 2) trai n (electric vehicle) 4) bad al (lower hand ) 6) your superiors (their eye level is above you) . blue-white 8) heavy rain. 1 (middle) (person).:k :li:J!F Meanings I) vast 2) swan 3) calf 4) puppy. '1: Again.

Renshu 7 In this section you have been introduced to 36 new il* compounds. 3) . study school means school . (The rice grown in America is short-grained like Japanese rice and often packaged and sold as Japanese rice.Ii ~~. You can see them all in the fo llowing list and your task is to test your memory . 1 3 new il* and looking at how these are used in combination with ~* you have learnt in this unit to make new words. Finally in this section. Think of this as a teacher. Mother country means exactly that. Examples of its usage are: m *00 tp * 4 00 1 ffl:OO !bOO 2) f4 If: f4 ~ f4 rice country is the Japanese WQrd for America. bird meat means chicken. You can see two people (A ) hanging from a frame! cow meat means beef. middle country means C hina (the central country of Asia). The left side. Island country (such as Japan.UNIT 6 81 7) 9) II) 13) 15) 17) child (small person) clue (the thread mouth!) new year boy (few years) new car newspaper (newly heard) 8) 10) 12) 14) 16) adult (big person) telephone (electric talk) older {than you} (years above) girl (aJewla little bit a woman) second-hand car (in the middle of being old ) Check your answers before moving on to the next activity. Britain and Australia). means middle school or junior high school . small school m~ans elementary or primary school.jewel) within I) the boundaries (D) of his kingdom. the country you originate from.. means high school (abbreviated version of 1. you are going to extend your knowledge of il* compounds a little further by learni!l . lit.Ii).) middle rice is the Japanese word for Central America. tree (*) indicates a wooden building (Japanese schools were traditionally made of wood) and the right side is father (:1<:) weari ng a hat.Ii means school. means meat orflesh. means country and is the depiction ofa king (3i.

. a) c) i) f. And the answers are given at the back of the book. :.\' .1.'F ( W"I'-( Ij'A ( >Iii!lll ( llJOO ( "1<. 1>\' :. s.!c\..2 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT by writing the meanings in the brackets after each word.1:( >liiJ!i( '1'00 ( X.1:'f- ::kA *00 &.lQ)~~jj (Kanji no yomikata) • Readings In this section you are going 1 0 learn to say 11 adjectives (describing words).( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 1>:k h\1::t r'f- 'i'ls 1"1* ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) '1'* 'Fill 'I' ' l' . f. ~". 1"1 • P. Notice that part o f the reading is written in brackets.j) IL.« '1'~J!i ) ( ) .::k x:llJ 1>"1'. >Iii. Jj' .has two kunyomi - sukuna(i) means few. meaning: tall .1:( Ij"" ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ::klfi( Ij. in IL. expensive. '$<.fl. l!.!C. Memorise the whole reading including the part in brackets then try the activity that fo\.\00 iffi ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Ij'''1<.H\I( illi. b) ~~> f) 1> I.I MlW A Renshu 8 You are now going to practise reading the II adjectives as complete words including the () ~ /)t ~ endings. This is the part which is written in (J G tJ~ Ij:. suko(shi) means a littfe. you can still do this because the whole word is given in the unit chart. Then check your answers by looking back through the previous sections. ::k. Even if you have not yet worked through Unit 5.I. For example: taka(i) is written ?Ji ~. ~.l.( >Iii"l'-( ::k"l" ( "1'-. Look up the ku nyomi (Japanese reading) for the following ~* in the unit chart at the back of the book. learnt in this unit.« ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 1L.« 'iliJ!i( 1'1.

) I . .I. . I}. J}.-:.e squared paper and focus on the proportions and overall balance of each . see if you can write them from memory. . / k t Jz.. US.~ numbers and in Unit 4 to write ~~ verbs.' d d.- . \- .J.. il* ) Q II:» c::> -~ ) y .J-. Keep saying the meaning (and the readings) to yourself as you write them to help fix all the different elements into your memory. A \.. Once you feci confident.-"? ~ . .." III l..UNIT 6 83 • <. ) ·0 b 1 '" 10) "" (J --'- ...+" • . !~2. You put these into practice in Unit 3 to write jf. T . . Now you are going to learn to write the ten from Activity 8 in this unit..~. 1 d J\ J .UBi Kaku renshii 5 In Units 1 and 2 you learnt some general rules for writing ll~. • J j.

-j .. > -?- 1- 6 :it . /t. • " } • )1- ~ . " . ~ .K is-• • - tf... .0.t ...84 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 06 Yr ~ ./ • ~ . ffi8 I \ I I " A 8 . / j ~ ~~ ..

But remember . tJ~ -'j:" syllabary! can keep com ing back to this activity! I) J: 7) '" 13) . you can review these by turning to Activity 7 of Unit 2. Even Japanese people forget il* from time to time. The answers are at the back but do not worry if you can not do them all on the first attempt .. tr Y Jlt 'k * it 9) IT IS) IZ. What do they mean in English? .. The surnames are not included.. 19) 2S) 00 31) £~ 37) JI(j *' 2) 8) 14) 20) 26) 32) 38) r 3) Ij . 100 ~~ compounds (including 13 surnames) and the whole V &. Can you identify them all? They are in ascending order of stroke number. you might not remember all or even most of these but the purpose of this book is to help you understand more about Japanese script. it takes time and practice to build up your knowledge of them .Japanese script can be fun to learn tool il* il*" Tesuto A) The test at the end of Unit 4 contained a summary of all the single nl* you had learnt up to that point. 21) iIiJ 27) Iili 33) ~ 39) m 4) 10) Jt 16) S 22) 'i" 28) &. lIJ""L C -1 (omedetiJ) Congratulations! Of course. This activity pulls together all the single ifl~ you have learnt in this unit. 34) !'Ii *- S) <P Il) ' t 17) 23) 29) 3S) * III :fi< W 6) 12) 3r 18) 'ti: 24) ft 30) ~ 36) lit *- B) This actIvIty is des igned to test how well you remember the compound words you have learnt so far. You have also learnt 36 new ~~ compounds and have practised reading and writing the words for II adjectives. The words below are grouped by theme (loosely in some cases!).UNIT 6 85 Owari ni In this unit you have been introduced to a total of39 single through picture association and through analysing their component parts. Units 1 ~6 have altogether introduced you to 97 single il¥:. about how it is made up and to find ways for you to break the 11* code and to build on your learning...

86 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Days of the week I) 4) 1'11111'1 1<.'IIiJ 4 1) #: (:I 40) til P "p . III S* 1ii$ A :IJ$ I 9) 22) tI" 'IIiJ tiI:* Transport 23) lllllr 26) ~$ Animals 25) <I'!!ill! 28) Ij.t:l.l1li a 2) ± IIII (:I 3) *l1li (:I School and study 5) "'* 8) loOt!< Countries II ) 6) Ij''*t!< 9) #:"l' 12) 15) I 8) 2 1) 24) 27) 7) <I' '*t!< 10) JI. &:9: :kA :9:r Shopping and travel 37) fl'IIiJ 38) JI.'f 32) Ij'A 35) 30) 33) 36) 39) s£l.* People 3 1) :ltJlt 34) &"1'- 29) Ij.* 13) 16) 14) <1'* 'fill tiI:'IIiJ 13 '" Jltoo <1'00 *00 Qoo Food and drink 17) 20) ..

k) ~ p) "l! f) I) 1m Jill 2) What arc the meanings of the left sides of the in this list? (You wilt not know the whole meaning at this stage. There are a number of ways in which ~* have been developed. In this unit you arc goi ng to look in morc depth at ways you can crack the code for more complex ~*.) ~ I ~ 0) :lJ i?l¥ that follow? d) !if 0) IJIJ j) 7f. You are already familiar with the first three of these categories: .-t. First of all you are going to lest your memory of some of the complex ~* you have learnt so far.l* meanings from their radical learn to write ~* in the correct proportions Ii t. a) h) il* # f* b) P/l i) jill c) l!l d) ill[ k) D~ !I* f) m) it * MliIt- Kaisetsu 1 Types of tl*. 3<'>1: Hajime ni In Units 2.) Refe r to Unit 4 if you need more infonnation about (a). 4 and 6 you looked at how simpler are used as components of more complex ones. Dai nanaka In this unit you will learn about the different types of ~* learn mo rc about ~* radicals and components identify i. I) What are the meanings of the a) g) Jt m) ~1 im* *" b) h) n) lil: I'f f* c) Jg . Look back over these units if you find now or later that you need to refresh your memory.7 • • • • UNIT 7 .

You will learn more about this later in the unit. They make up about 2. You were. J1 (man) and f!ij (bright) but Activity 2 in the introduction to this unit has more examples which you will be learning. il* 3) Complex pictorial ll'i' aull'1'. (time) and :fi. Again. By identifying the component parts you have a clue to the meaning and how to say it. This unit is going to focus on categories 3) and 4) and you are going to learn ways of cracking the il~ code! Mit:: Kaisetsu 2 _* components As you have already learnt. About 90% of il~ belong to this group. Examples are (wood).the most common location of a radical is on the left side of a il~. known as the radical.conveys the general meaning and pronunciation (onyomi or Chinese reading). Th. Examples (from Activity 2) incl ude 1ft. In Activity 2 in the introduction to this unit. Examples are L1J (mountain).3% of '** 4) Sound and meaning Part of the ll'i' part conveys the at*. In dictionaries. nl~ are grouped by their radica l (same radical. this type of Ii¥: makes up about 2. )II (river) and A ( person). usually of the simple pictorial kind. Many radicals are themselves are . identifying the radical in this activity .3% of all 1l'1'. often gives a clue to the general meaning of the whole 3i~. same group). more complex jl~ are made up of simpler ones which we have called components. These are made up of two or more basic pictorial ~* which together convey a new meaning. One of these components. in fact . (turn). for example.88 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 1) Pictorial ll'i' These fairly simple il~ derive from pictures of nature. 2) Simple abstract ll'i' These convey abstract ideas through symbols. There are only a very few oflhis kind. you identified the left part of each iI:~ . the numbers (Unit 3).

10) ' Speaking five mouths '. 8) They dug up the rice field and buried the treasure in the euth beneath. five languages.w- Renshu 1 In this activity you will have a go at idenli fyi~~ new ~* which are formed by combin ing two or morc pi ctorial (c~te~o ry 3 from earlier).. Meani ng: cry. Meaning: dawn . m* a) g) m 'im b) h) i1i. 12) The child is attached to its ancestors by a genetic thread (there is a sho .. IlOl c) iIII i) ~ d) j) It!I1 Jm e) k) l'l\ g f) ij() I) ~ Stories and meanings Th . Meaning: grandchild. 5) The mouth of the bird creates birdsong. Meani ng : cullivaled field.UNIT 7 89 in total 214 radicals according to the tradi tional Chinese classifica tion. Meaning: believe. Beneath these are a number of stories and meanings. Meani ng: burn. 9) The visual image is ' speaking fie ry words' . t line above the thread which is attached to the chi ld). . 6) A penon's words are to be believed. conversation.. Meaning: blaze. A field burnt by fire is ready for culti vation. Heaping fire upon fi .. I) 2) 3) 4) . A fire burning wood (two trees). kindle.c creates a bl aze. 7) The three mouths (the lines in two look like tongues) chanted in unison. I I) The sun ri sing'above the hol"izon . See if you can match each ~~ with a story and meaning ' by looking at the components that make up the 1l~. The purpose of this unit is 1 0 introduce you to a few of the more common radicals and to make you fa miliar wi lh the idea of radicals so that you have a solid foundation to build on. Mean ing: be buried. You have already come across some ofthesc new ~~ in Activity 2 in the introduction to this unit. ~ . animal s). recite. Meaning: chant. Meaning : discussion. women together are very wicked! Meaning: wickedness. Meaning: langllage(s)... In other words. chirp (of birds.

as a radical it nonnally means ' meta l' ) 1fI (car.+. Here are some examples (the radical is on the left): I) Radicals may appear ' squashed' :.t (radical = earth) 2) Radica ls may have some shorter strokes ~ (radical = tree) -f* (radical = person) 3) Radicals may change their shape .on) r:t (mouth) ± (earth) -j. You have already learnt in this un it that the radi ca l o f a usually conveys its general meaning.. Y ou learnt the meanings in earlier units.90 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT MilIt:: Kaisetsu 3 More about radicals and components In the last activity you got to the meaning of the il ~ by linking the components into a story. vehic le also wheel) A a You have already learnt that a ~* may change shape slightly when used as a radical. Some il* follow which contain this radical (on the left side): r!4* ia iU£ (narrative.: (tree) !k (fire) fl1 (rice fie ld) ~ (eye) ~ (say.tune).f (poem) II (lesson) These examp les show that the radica l indicates a general link with the meaning of speech or words (including musical 'words' or notes in the case o f ~ . this method can be a very useful code-breaker and memory 'jog' when learning new rl~. (tune) lI. Remember there are 2 14 altogether but the aim of this unit is to introduce you to the idea of radicals and to s how you ways in wh ich they can be helpful in learni ng ~* . You can do this with many jJ!~ and even though sometimes the story or link may seem far-fetched. metal . words) ~ (gold.:: (woman) (sun. (pcn. day) T (chi ld) jJ (moon) . certificate) mt ~ (conversation) (language) ~ (translation) . if the meanings of the components are kepi consistent . Let us look at "this in more detail using the radical tl (say). Here arc the lefthand radi cals which ·you ident ifie d in Activity 2 (introduction). Now let us look at some of the more common radicals.. history) (proof.l.

*' . Story : fire on a post makes a lamp to mark your way. Meaning: younger sisler.Ii: Component : dog. JT Component: axe.fle sh/meat) (sun) but can also take the meaning 'speak' (from S ' to speak' . snap. The meaning of the full ~* is given (plus a story where appropriate) and you have to decide which radical (from the list given in Explanation 3) will complete the ~~ .although thi s is rare!) . T Component : a marker or post. Meaning: village. Story: you must drink water to live. Story: the villagers measured and cut wood to make their homes. Co mponent: measurement. Components : tree and short top branches = not yet (that is. M. They are: 11 a ~ (moon) but this has the second meaning ' fl esh' (from a 'squashed' . Meaning: sleep.=f (hand) as a lefthand radical ----7 :fJi (looks like three sp lashes of water) (squashed and the top line has gone) One more point to notc before you begin the next activity is that two of the radicals already mentioned have two meanings.Co mponents : tongue and mouth.UNIT 7 91 Here are two more useful radicals whose shape ditTers from the ~* you have met already: 71< (water) as a lefthand radical ----7 jEJ . fold. A tongue in a mouth . version of ~ . Sto ry : with his hand he wie lded the axe to break the object. Story: rice field s mark a town's boundaries. * >t d) e) f) g) h) Components: root (of tree). Meaning: break. Story: dogs bark with their mouths. . Meaning: body. Story: the root/origin of a person is their body. Meaning: bark. nation. T Component: a marker or post. Meaning : town.W = Renshu 2 In this activity you will look at a number of ~* with the radical missing. not yet a fu lly grown tree) Stor y: someone who is n ot yet a woman. til Component: people. Here is an example to help you: l§. Meaning: lamp .eaning: to live. Story: the people closed their eyes and slept. Answer: a) b) c) m(radical = water).

m) ~ Compone nts: earth and measurement:: temple (think of the Buddhist priests plotting out the area of land before building the temple). Components: two (+ a shape which looks like a nose! In the iM~ the two is above the nose). Thi s is the most common position of a radical but not the only one. complete with thei r radical and meaning. The answers are in Renshii I and 2.92 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Co m po ne nt : measurement.. ) f* (body) d) (younger siste r) g) U~ (sleep) j) lI'l ("'y al) m) P# (nme) . (!urn) ~ .p) i) !It (. sn. Meaning: elbow. Meaning: slaya l . Story : part of the body (flesh) used as an old measureme nt.) I) f. I) + b. You have now come across all these meanings so turn back to Activity 2 on page 87. Story : needles a re made of metal. turn . Think about how the radical gives a cl ue to the general meaning and how you can fit the components together into a story.: but not the fu ll meaning. Meaning: 10 rotale.W ~ Renshii 3 In Act ivity 2 in the introduction to this unit you identified the lefthand radicals of iOO. . Stor y: the hotel wc stayed at had water and clean white towels. but imagine it to be a needle w ith thread coming out of it (horizontal line).!::f. Kaisetsu 4 Locating the radical So fa r you have ide ntified radicals on the left side of ~* . k) Compone nt ten. from elbow to finge rtip.. Here are the other locations with examples (the radical is in brackets). Meaning: needle. j) B Compone nt : white. Story: the car's two wheels rotatc. . Mea ning: lime. St o r y: the temple bell struck each hour all through the day.. and see if you can identify all the nx!¥:. i) -t + = How did you get on'! He re a re the il~ you have identified.u: b) e) h) k) Ilk (b.11>0.k) it (needle) n (lamp) lIlT (Iown) c) # (village) f ) tIT (fo ld. hOllr.

L (lid) '-'\.- (vegetation) (village) 'J:.. (yawn) .a-m and decide I) which is its radical (from the box) and 2) its location. Their names/meanings are given in brackets... For example. (vapour) n (hat !) F . ~) Right side Above Below Surround Surround - * 4Rl ill' m m Some radicals are located in more than one pos ition.. below or surround.UNIT 7 .eo.. .. Here is an example to help you... or above. 2) below 1t (boil) Here it looks like four small flames 2) below ~ (emergency) 111 (feeling) Renshii 4 The box contains some common radicals found in the righthand position..te) ~ emergency (. (cover) NT (bambao) iiF. way (L) ~ listen ( r~) ~ w shape ( /. (tree) is found: * I) left side (*f\ woods) 3) below (~ enjoy) 2) above (~ investigate) And in different positions..) complete 00 country (D) partial shop (I) mad.. Think as well how the radical may indicate the general meaning. (fire) r77 1\' (hole) or J\.3 capila/ ( It I" ) tea C. or ~ . For example. 1< (ft"' ): I) left side t:Pl (field) And 'L' (heart): I) left side .. (rain) o 'J.... 9f Rei: ~ (potato) I) vegetation radical 2) above (link: a potato is a vegetable) .:: (heart) (enclosure) Look at the ll*.. some radicals change their shape.") 11: cheap (~) ~ enjoyable (.

We have discussed some already. J. invite ii} inherit iii) imperial edict. for example. summon () ( ) ( ) ( ) () Radicals (lJ. The firs t one has been done fo r you.¥ (lime) JI f. bright v) swamp. (a i. (capital city) e) ~ (picture.*) a) =f (UI) b) (1I!1) c) 71< (m) (J!!) d) (iRI) e) 1=1 *' a Meanings i) beckon. soar) JI Notice how the left side (the radical) g ives a clue to the meaning. diagram) g) (writing brush) i) !l. 90-1 . marsh . 93 if you can not remember the meaning of a radical.=f (hand-remember it changes its shape slight ly). Refer to pp.. (The radical fo r temple is ' earth'). send dlY) f) 111: (song) h) (black) j) '" (army) I) 'i!! (think) a) :Ii (cheap) c) )1. words).'j (hold) Jl 'JIi (poem) SHI l!J _flJi Renshu 5 Th is act ivity gets you to look at ~* whose right sides and onyomi reading are the same. Below are s ix ~* whose right sides (or in the case of lemple tile whole ll*) are all the same and are read either JI or SHI. decree iv) elm.94 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT b) 16 (floW. You wi ll first be given the right side (this can stand alone as a ~* too) and then will choose from a selection of radicals (the fu ll is also given in brackets) which radical gives the fu ll ~*' its particular meaning. sky) k) it (spirit) m) ~ (snow) ~ m m M\lIUi Kaisetsu 5 _* readings It has already been mentioned earlier on in this un it that as well as the radical often giving the general meaning of the other component(s) sometimes indicate the reading (anyomi). m* Right side: -B (SHO) Meaning: call. ~ (hold) has the radical . * ~ (Io\o\-'er. Look at the radicals of the others and think about how these give a po inter to their meaning.) d) j\JI (/o. ~ (temple) JI (samurai) JI B.j (poem) has the radical if (say. il*.

t / i' =: Hinto 2 The radicals are given in their full ~* form but they may change shape when used as part of a I!* as you have already learnt (as in i and v). previous ii) make. mischief liver perspire snore pole. .iii) and sometimes it is not quite so clear (as in iv and v). ask iii) spirit /white rice/purity iv) fine weather.d. dry weather ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) b) (lif) c) 71< (if) d) }j (fl esh) (Iff) e) 9J. cleanse ii) request. rod restrain drought. parch Meanings i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) wickedness. 1) Right side: Radicals a) IL' (heart) b) S c) d) ~ (rice) e) 'R' (SEI) Meaning: blue () ( ) ( ) ( ) () (~*) (M) (uri) * a *" (Wi) (im) (rt) Meanings i) purify. (nose) (M) f) tt (¥) g) l''''-) 'f 1r: (~"') elf) a . create ii i) vinegar iv) explosion ( ) () ( ) ( ) a) (lit) b) A c) 9< (:1$) d) ]!!j (liqu. emotion 2) Right side: Radicals 'I' (SAKU) (~"') No meaning Meanings i) yesterday. clear up v) feeling. 'coho') (i!I') (m 3) Right side: Radicals a) 'f (KAN) Meaning: get dry.UNIT 7 95 Answers i) ii) iii) iv) v) == = = = a == d = Mf e = 1m b = Iffl =c = m(link: beckon with your hand) m (l ink: (link: (link: (link: inheritance 'thread ' to relatives) spoken 'summons' = decree) sun and bright) swamps are watery) t / i' - Hinto 1 (~s Sometimes the right side meaning can be clearly included in the link in i.

they do not all fall into these categories. (Compare this situation with the many more words in an English dictionary dictionary. However. on the side of every page. In Nelson each radical is numbered (from 1. ~* are traditionally looked up in a dictionary by first identifying the radical and then locating the section where all $l~ with this radical are grouped. il. the Japanese Ministry of Education made a list of 1942 ~* which are essential to know in everyday communication. All il~ with the same radical are grouped according to the number of remaining strokes. therefore. Knowing about radicals does become essential when you start to use a dictionary.* * The most commonly used ~* dictionary for non-Japanese people is the Japanese-English Character Dictionary by Andrew Nelson (but often referred to si mply as 'Nelson'). from I through to the highest number (this can be up to 24 or more in the case of very complicated il~).96 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT fllI!t:t\ Kaisetsu 6 Using ijt* dictionaries How did you get on in the last activity? It is important to restate at this stage that although many ~~ have a part which g ives a clue to the reading (of the onyomi) and that the radical oft en g ives a clue to the general meaning. There is a list of all the radicals with their number in the inside front cover. academic and pre-war writings and documents. Radicals are ordered by their number of strokes fro m those of one stroke through to those of 16/ 17 (i n Nelson) . excluding the radical stroke number. Once you have identified the radical and turned to the relevant section. to help you.) A . you next count the number of remaining strokes in the il~ you are looking up. The number and type of radi cal does vary slightly from dictionary to dictionary. However. may have 5000 or more entries but many of these are not in common usage. than most people know or use in everyday life. the radical on that page is given in square brackets with the number . As you learnt in the introduction. . As an extra guide. you can really begin to make inroads into your learning of ~* when you have some ru les and clues like this. .2 14) and its number is clearly printed al the top of every page so that it is easy to turn to the section you are looking for. remember. there are many more il~ than this which are used in specialist.

*- - -t- J -t- J. 6) Find the sub-section containing all ~* with four remai ning strokes (quick reference at the side of each page) . 5) Count the number of remaining strokes in tt (four). Meaning: branch. Find this number by looking at the bottom edge of each page. If you know the pronunciation of the i!.t!¥ you can look it up in the index at the back.and Here are the steps for looking up a ~* (using Nelson). ii€* These steps are to help you get started if you want to use a ~ * dictionary. 4) Turn to section 75 (radical numbers are labelled at the top of each page). *.t!¥ of the same reading until you see the one you want. For example: St-4 \ I tells you that on this page are ~* with the radical four remaining strokes.-. Look through all i!. Identifying the radical is not always easy (Nelson lists a series of steps at the beginning of the dictionary to assist you) and at the begjnning you are bound 10 make mistakes in counting the number of strokes. 7) Run your eye down the ~* listed until you fin d {t. find in the 4-stroke group and make a note of its number (75). There is a number next to it (every is given its own number). You want to find the meaning of tt: I) You identify the radical 2) Count the number of its strokes (four).UNIT 7 97 of remain ing strokes grouped on the same page printed n ext to it. 3) Turn to the radical list in the inside cover. But practice makes perfect (!) and with time and experience you will be able to master . (*-).

# (village).11 :• I n A 8 8 8-t 8. t:lII (cultivated field) . Copy the models carefully and notice changes in s ize.!¥. This writing section is going to focus on the balance between the components of (this has already been mentioned in Units 4 and 6).so that you can COllnt how many strokes there are! If you have access to a Ii¥ dictionary. the left side takes up one-third and the right side two-thirds. You can now see onc reason why writing iM. proportion a nd orientation of the radical.::1:- e:t- 84 aft . As a rule of thumb. 5. 84j. Look carefully at the way the whole ~* is written and do not let the different components divide and look like separate iJ!*. (spirit) . This is the last formal teaching section tor writing in this book (although in Unit 10 you will be taught techniques for letter writing). aft. l!I! (bury) and".. U (younger sister). The that follow have left sides which you are already familiar with as separate but which change their shape slightly when used as radicals. tt (needle).¥ correctly is so important . where there is a left and right side.tart by looking up the ~*" you have been introduced to in this unit because the radical has already been identified for you.9' BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT look ing up even very complicated r. lEI (stay). _* _* il* The ~~ you are going to learn to write are: ~ (time). ~ (turn).

y' 'f 11 ~11 ~m ~Ifl )ffi . 1£8 \ ~~ \ . I 'L .UNIT 7 99 .' / I I j\ ~h jA ~8 . . . 1.t1 .t j/ti . . .~ 1/ If *- ~8 "'. ./.8 . .f1 rth .

I . 1.l . tfF~ I.- n e A E3 .:. : - 'i t~ -- ( -It:::- ti/J # . ~t ~t / 0 » e 4' ~.~ .. . t 4.l~ +.- . 'I -- ~.~t i>. I~~~ ~.100 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPl ..

. the purpose of this unit was to introduce you to a technique of breaking down 1I~ into their component parts in order to extract meaning. 9 and 10 wi ll build on the knowledge and techniques that you have acquired from the first seven units of this book. You il*- r .:: Owari ni In this unit you have covered more than 70 and 38 of the 214 radicals.. t j 1 l' . will not include all the iI*. you are not expected to remember all the il~ which you have analysed during this unit. Un it 8 covers general signs and infonna tion notices that you would see if you went to Japan.UNIT 7 101 . therefore.from this unit.:A J8 . However. . and Unit 10 offers you the chance to read a variety of Japanese texts..:.t-t ~. )tc A )::. Unit 9 teaches :IJ 7 :IJ (katakana) the script for non-Japanese words. Units 8. but those learnt in Renshu I and 2 will be included for reference purposes. I::::: ) . .t' .tlt' )-:: A - J:3: .( )- - }-::: \. The unit chart at the back. More important is the method you have been introduced to for de-coding iI~. Therefore.

.102 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT could take these units in any order .Unit 8. then move on to another unit. take control of your learning and if you find that something is difficult. for example.hes a large number of signs and so you might wi sh to 'dip into' that unit and then move on and return to it at a later date. or you j ust want a change. It is up 1 0 you .

even withjn our own local area. the il* Build up sections conlain additional words which you can leave out or come back to later if you find there is already enough new information to take in. parti cularly in larger cities such as Tokyo. m* Hajime ni When we travel around places. A Il Dai hachika UMT8 In this unit you will learn to read everyday signs and written infonnalion fi nd clues and stories to help you remember new ~~ words learn to recognise different writing styles look at authentic everyday street signs and information About this unit You will be introduced to a large number of ~~ signs in this unit with lots of clues to help you remember them. In the same way. but your experience of Japan can be so much richer if you can understand some of the information that is written in Japanese. we arc constantly being informed by written signs and notices all around us. We pick out the infonnation of use or interest ('sale'. your eyes will feast on . once you can recognise some oflhe common signs in Japanese.8 • • • • . ' closed'. You are certainly not expected to remember them all but to help you prog ress through thi s unit. There is some in fonnal ion in English. ' danger') and scan over the information we do not require. ' no entry'. When children firs t learn to read they will obsessively read out all the shop names and road signs they see. Visitors to Japan with no knowledge of written Japanese arc struck almost immediately by the lack of information they arc able to get from the s igns and notices around them.

I:'::H\'"( (Nihon ni tsuite) About Japan A quick note about L ~ (up) and IJ (down): these signs are used specifically on trains. And in Japanese department stores. r . advertisements. tourist places. The words that follow have a box of English meanings beneath them (with clues and stories in brackets where necessary). shop notices.units. Neon signs. once you have completed this book. 'Up' trains are travelling to Tokyo (from any direction) and ' down' trains are travell ing away from Tokyo. And not on ly in Japan .104 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT the new source of information open to you. So there are plenty of opportunities to practise what you are going to learn in thi s unit. This and the next unit will introduce you to some of the more common signs you may sec around you in Japan . restaurants and other speciality shops in large cities outside Japan you see many signs and information written in Japanese. Can you match them up? fl*" b) g) I) l\1l!I m.television programmes and films often show neon lights and other signs written in Japanese which. til 0 c) h) m) *A tIlll!l 9) 10) 11 ) 12) Y: e) J: 9 j) to~ 0) i3 «- I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) immigration (enter a country) train (electric vehicle) chi ld (small person) entrance up 1000 yen men holiday emigration (exit a country) adult (big person) school exit 13) down 14) women 15) temple The answers in the back also have in brackets the number of the unit where the word was first introduced so that you can look it up again if you need to. yOll can have a go at reading. I) First of all you are going to try reading some com mon signs which you have already learnt in previous . signs al stations . find yoursel r able to operate much morc cfficiendy and with more confidence because you can pick out the infonnation you need and get to the places you want to go to.

Put together.l} (bureau. The radical for jiJf is P (flag with ' one' above it) and this by itself means ' door'.which means ' dolted cliff' 3) f. large halls (such as concert halls. It is the radical version of 1t (food) .UNIT 8 105 iWliIt- Kaisetsu 1 iI* for places There are a number of tl~ which are used to indicate different types of places such as shops.. T hey are: I) 4) 7) P!i (place) IllI (garden) m(. office) 6) If (hall. To run a shop you have to be good at divining the customer's needs! 2) it (store. The front wall is.} has the general meaning 'grounds' (hence ± . jiJf is generally used to indicate an office or 'over-the-counter' type of place (tourist information office. waiting for the customers to arrive! r. rooms. office). The radical for this is r.· This 1I~ is used in words such as 'post office ' so think of it as the glass counter behind which the office clerk sits. together meaning &" (fortune telling). art galleries) are often funded by local government and you can usually buy refreshments too! .earth . I) (r means 'clitr). Thi s . a window and so is open. The flag is a banner advertising a newly built store (earth connection! ). foreign exchange bureau) whereas :Ji.~ is often used in public or government buildings. Both these radicals indicate some type of enclosure. The ' flag ' is the board calling the next customer! 4 and 5) pfr and :1M (place).as the radical). Within it is 3i (meaning ' arrive') which has within it ± (earth). of course. Think of it in this case as the roof and back wall of the shop. Let us look at seven key ones. roof). public institutions and offices.(fortune) and t=J (mouth). (Use the axe on the door to mark the spot or place!) 6) I1'i1r (hall. You should recognise the left side. ff meaning 'axe'.. The radical is F meaning ' flag'. large building) Now let us look at each one in more detail .hop) 2) ("0. roof) 5) J&} (place) m 3) ~ (bureau.s (shop). You came across the right side in the previous unit. Inside the shop is t'. The right side -g has the general meaning of ' government'. large building). The radical again is F (flag) and within it is a mouth or opening enclosed on two sides.

eight + 1:.te) (book) III (vehicle) =f (hand) '* J\. Some which you have already learnt follow. rice wine. wash (water radical on left). IJ (mouth but think of this as a pond!) and off the 'pond ' are a number of garden paths. fire. There are also some new with some tips on how to remember them. Now you are going to match some common signs and shop names wi th their English equivalents. The fish is hooked. construction (looks like scaffolding or tower!). This ~* is very easy to remember! First. if you want to review a ~~ at any time. looks like a nose! Eight nosey people = the public!).D which means 'enclosure ' or. Right side looks like a decanter). cooked on fire .fl- Renshu 1 Now let us put what you have learnt so far into practice. B (800) iii (meat) ~ (dr. Can you see it now? l!J .think of flower beds !). the walls around a garden. .l~: iI:* _* 3\j (sell) !'f (wr. rice field. map (D is the picture frame.nk) art (the first if* looks like an artist's easel!). the inside is modern art). alcohol (water radical indicates liquid. public (J\. Here are the l.. B white + four short strokes = aspi rin dissolving!). there is the rad ical which you have already come across in the previous unit . The En~li s h meaning is in brackets and. fi sh (components: hook. medicine (vegetation and tree indicate herbal medicine. market (woman in hat holding shopping bags). remember. eaten with rice). lea (vegetation radical indicates tea leaves + umbrella shape fo r drinking tea under). city.106 SEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 7) iii (garden). Within the walls there is ± (earth . look up the English word in the index and it will refer you back to the page where you first learnt it. in thi s case. drawing.

} (market) are both places which have grounds and so use ~ for · place'.UNIT 8 107 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) I) m) n) 0) bookshop (two answers) a newsstand. IJj} (factory) and Iti:ij.J£ ( ) () 16) f. am About Japan :t:ifiitl> (toilet) has hiragana 10' (0) at the beginning which is used in fTont of some words to make them sound more (X)lite and genteel. smoke' and its radical tl (moulh) indicates this genera l meaning. J\.!i ( ) (focu s on 2nd + 3rd 7) 8) lliJ£ () 'if./lq. liquor store drinking place.lj.j 14) IS) JUfJ£ Jt.l' ( ) fWlllt= Kaisetsu 2 More about places How did you get on with th is activity? Some of the words need further (greengrocer's) literally means '800 shop' so think explananlion.r. drink. It is not widely used and focusing on the second two ~* gives you the meaning.j () 4) ~I!fll'! ( ) 5) iiUI () 6) IIJ! . bar factory I) 0m1 () 2) lliJiU () 3) iIl. The first one ~ has a general meaning of 'cat.::J n -C (Nihon ni tsuite) . of 800 types of fruit and vegetables! You should have worked ou t the meaning of lIj!~m (coffee/tea shop) from the second and third ~*. a . a kiosk • pharmacy (two answers) butcher's toilet (hand washing) art gallery greengrocer's (800 varieties! ) park fishmonger's market (place) library tea/coffee shop wine shop..llIi! () 17) 1o''frA. This is sometimes translated as ' honourable'.*) 9) >'1m 10) iJlJ£ II ) f!l:iI'im 12) ~lIill'! () () ( ) ( ) 13) I. so in this case ' the honourable hand washing (place)' although its real meaning is toilet! The end hiragllna l> is somet imes left off (see this book cover for an example of this sign).m () () nxa.Ij.\\.

stop-over places or inns were a place to rest horses on a long journey. (convenience. the right side R is the measurement ' foot' . Meaning: Railway station (before trains. 3) fI. 1) ±. transport was by horse!). stop-over) tl: (reside. In old times.:1:. dwell) It The radical is ~ (horse). The following further on : nl* are key to the additional place names introduced 2) ~ (station ) 4) fr (go) 1) ±. looks like a candlestick with a Harne on lOp so you can remember it as 'candle' (its real meaning is ' master' ). it The radical is A their own residence. mail) The left side is person. the right is . Here are two words it is used in . It is a compone nt of the fo llowing two il*: Sf (reside.) in Car park (stop-over place for vehicles) Address (place of residence) 2) ~ The radical is 'horse'.108 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT il* build up 1 More place names As explained in the introduction. urinal (A place for your convenience. (master) 3) ~ (convenience: mail) Now let's look at them in detail. A person is master (real meaning of . A welcoming candle in the window would light your way. .(one) and ~ (tug). perhaps? The first il¥ might conjure up a strong image here!) Post office (fi rst two ~*" both mean 'mail' plus NU 'bureau') .you supply the story! Places fJ!P!T Toilet. Think of it in this case as being R for railway. these sections will leach additional ~* words which you can leave out or come back to later if you feel you have taken in enough at this stage . (person) .

::':)~n: (Nihon ni tsuite) About Japan If you travel by underground in Japan and do not know the fare to your destination.!'t side comes from. meaning 'clothes' . at the fare adjustment office. Story: go to the bank to get silver (money) i6ili!iUi (shopping area) You should recognise (shop). {!j cons ists of double earth (±) between fi and means 'street ' or 'quarters' (earth piled up to make a road) MtfT~tJ. T he radical means ' rice' . You learnt the first ~* in Unit 7: it means ' purity ' or ' white rice' .q is introduced laler in this unit) (bank) • m '* 5) More places containing jiJT (place) : N"M'pJi (Mon ey exchange place) .JjiJT means ' information (place)'. ~ means 'both'. Focus on this meaning to give you a story for the whole word .fni&} (Ticket office).UNIT 8 109 (to go) The radical 4) fi 1 means ' going person'. buy the cheapest ticket and pay the difference when you arrive. You can see ilJ (mountain) within this with a small mountain on both sides of the large one ! The upper part of 1f: (exchange) looks like two people who are exchanging.JjiJi (travel information). In ancient times. Quick story for ~ : tourists would certain ly want more information about a woman wearing a large hat in a tree! (r.} (place) : m:f. has the left side radical 7i which means ' direction' . Places ilHj means ' silver' (radical ~ is metal). -m means 'cut' (7J means 'sword'). tt.t{. iRi means ' trade' . Story: go (ft) in the direction of a holiday with a suitcaSe of clothes! ~tJ. 7C~ literally means 'sclling placc'. riee rather than money was used as payment including fares! 1'I*1.nm - 6) More places containing Jj. Both gain from the exchange! MffjiJi (Fa re adjustment office). the ri~. ~ means ' token ' and has 17 (bamboo) at the .&afT means 'travel'.

Mi means ' travel' . If you look hard enough you can make out the outline of the arch and curtains around a stage with a kabuki actor standing in the middle! 7) More places containing filii" (theatre) .&am (Japanese inn). The following activity gives you the chance to see how many you can now recognise. fII til (hall): (cinema). Also. You learnt ~ in Unit 4 . tt~m (museum). think of the left side of 1t: as an ancient Japanese sword! ~ MlW-= Renshu 2 In the previous __ Build up section you were introduced to 15 more place names. Esteemed items afC kept in museums.planations .it means ' things'.then try again! Match the Engli sh words (there are clues in brackets) to the in the box . If you do not get them al l on the first try.110 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT top and M (attach) below. simply go back over the ex. A place to stay when travelling. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) I) m) n) 0) Travel information (woman in tree) Japanese inn (travel place) Museum (Japanese sword) Theatre (proscenium arch) Car park (stop-overs/or horses! ) Address (mOSIer o/residence) Fare adjustment office (pay wilh rice) Money exchange (rwo people exchange) Shopping area (double earth/or road) Railway station (horse + R for railway) Ticket office (CUI bamboo selling place!) Bank (go 10 bank for silver money) Cinema (four squares = four screens) Post office (mail bureau) Toilet (conveniencelyour own SIOry) * il!f: words . Focus on 'It: meaning PhD or esteem. Maybe in ancient limes a ticket was a token cut from bamboo! means drama. Focus on which means ' picture ' but you can also see within it four squares representing the screens of a multi-screen cinema! i!:*:iiIDi'il m .

Here are fi ve il* words containing Jti: : JlJ1fi long-distance train ~1II unoccupied taxi ~1II occupied taxi ~ttllr sleeper train ~~. ~tG.You have already learnt m. in thi s case ' roof'. . FIi (both). means 'full ' or 'enough '.::: Kaisetsu Y ou have so far been exposed to a total of 47 place names (or 32 if you Build up section). whereas 7l $ denotes long-distance trains. Next you are going to learn to missed out the recognise more common signs and written information containing if* or components that you are already familiar with. 1) nr (vehicle). Think of this as a .the type you pu ll down from the wall on a train. looks like an aeroplane taking off into the air from a runway! It is also used in ~ ~ (airport). The radica l is water and it contains a component you have already learnt in this unit.. (fte ) Now let us look at these in detail. On the left is a component which looks like a bed standing upright . These are: 1) 4) _* 3 _ * Signs !lI (vehicle) Jf/i (seat) 2) 1il: (room) 5) ~ (tMng) 3) Jl!I (country) 6) . lying on a bed! ~ means '10 sleep ' and has the radical ""'" (l id). bicycle ~Itr and displayed on the windscreens of tax i cabs and at car parks. You met:fi. ~ means 'sky' or 'empty' and. This is used generically but also for local lrajns. (turn. tt 'sclf'. Story: water and vegetation together are enough to live on! n.q Jll1lr. rotate) in Unit 7. ~ means ' automati c' or 4l tt Itt. Above this is the component 'vegetation '.sllI ( fIljJpJi ( i!I! ii!ii tI'! ( ) ) ) ) 2) 5) 8) 11) 14) itpJi ( ) ill fJI[ Ilil ( ) lKfill'iPlPJi ( ) tlm3'f41 ( ) lKtI'! ( ) 3) ~ ( ) 6) ilifi ( ) 9) jijtl'PJi ( 12) /IlJ. You can see ~ (eye) with an extra short stroke.j ( ) 15) j1IJ'~ tI'! ( ) ) MliIt.I1I .UNIT 8 11\ 1) 4) 7) 10) 13) St!lI41 ( fJl[p Ji ( ) illir. if you look carefully. The righthand component ~ looks like a long rail track! means 'J(Cdestal' but can you see a person with a large nose b. (electric train).qIfi .Ij. These signs are n.

9H~A means 'foreigner' (outsider).) AOOifll. .'-H~24 t1= fo reign e~change IEFlm~ international phone AOOiiJm passport control P:] means inside (inside the country). ~ is used to indicate ' international' and consists of the radical ' vi lIage' (think of the global vi llage) and ~ meani ng ' fes ti val' . foreign . The radical !Y means 'evening' (imagine it as a crescent moon shape) and imagine a person f' standing outside looki ng at the moon . .fu ~ Japanese-style room m jf~ and :fiI ~ arc words used in hotels and estate age nts.'-I-OOZ1 tf contains 1} meaning 'c~cha nge ' (p.' rooms have roofs'. First you have enter the country (to enter a country you have to show your passport). T he Japanese poi nt to thei r nose (rather than the ir chest) when they refer to ' mc'.'-1- means outside (outsidc the country). Here it is r4 (li d.fO is the old Chinese word for Japan. You can sce a person A inside a fra me. a bicycle! 2) 3! (room). 109). (Think of the upper part being a marquee and the lower part a trestle table. 3) ~ (country).fn1i! (Japanese-style rooms) have tatam i mats on the floor.two persons in a fram e). IE llf k'iUim. . T his is simi lar to (shop) which you learnt earlie r in this unit (Kaisetsu I ).112 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT s ma ll nose (between the eyes!). set up fo r a retc or restival. The radical is different. The ri ght side $: means 'sheep' (can you see Ihe horns of the ram?). an animal associated with the West. i$ means ' ocean ' (the West is across the ocean!) and the rad ical is · water'. roof). T he lower part is ~ (arrive) but focus on its difference 'from 'shop' because it has a roof . Focus then on if. You learnt in Kaisetsu I that the component 1r means ' government' and passport control is a government or civil service organ isation. Altogether we have ·sclf·rotating vehicle '. Here are fi ve words containing this ~* : ~ p:] domestic 9HE abroad. I . The left side ~ represents the ears of rice as it grows in the fie lds. Here are two ~* words conta inin g~: j$~ Western-style room . (Do nol confuse with ~ fl csh . You learnt mim (telephone) in Unit 6. You learnt it as ' peace' in Unit 3 (as part of the Showa era). and rice is Japan 's staple food. . in other words. futon mattresses to sleep on and Japanese baths whereas W* (Western-style rooms) have carpets on the floor and in hotels have Western beds and bathrooms.

Note: ~tt means 'set meal' <in other words. IE means ' fixed '. 6) ~ (fee). (a crown or in this case a lid). ) ( ) JlHEA ( ~IIl ( ) ~llO ) }lJIIl ( ) iii! 1'1 III ( ) ) fU llO ( ) OOJll ( ) ) JlHE 1.:Jft luggage. The ~enera l ft (thing). meaning is indicated by the lefthand radical ' hand ' (from ~) . means' forgotten '. :r. 11 means ' nothing ' a nd looks like a prison window with no prisoner inside! I!I!W '::::' Renshu 3 In the last section you were introduced to 22 new information words and three new general il* (~. The radical is (dotted cliff) but fo r this ~* imagine it is the roof and s ide of a train carriage (with electric cable on the roof). You first learnt thi s in Unit 4 ( p. Thc component within looks like a computer game character! He has a square head.j 'If ( ) 00 lliHllllli ( ) . "C means ' deceased ' or ' lost'. With $ it means ' free! unrescrved seat'. the menu is fixed ). M. unreserved seat m~ff& reserved seat You have already learnt that ~ means 'self' .UNIT 8 113 4) ffC (seal)..II.->-.)*'I 1I!1*'I ~ means fee (lit ' fee money') mcans entrance fee (lit 'cnter place fee ') means admission free (lit ' no fee '). 50). parcel :@ttft left behind by mistakel10st luggage 5) Look at ~ as a picture of a suitcase ( []) coming through the conveyor belt at the airport! . You cannot see his legs because he is sitting down! Here are two signs containing $ : ~ r- mlrf. Therefore the seats indicated are limited/reserved. The general meaning ( putting a li mit on something) is indicated by the radical . ~ means ' freedom ' the freedom to make your own (self) decisions. Focus on the radical payment: * (rice) which you know can represent *'I~ A. m mmeans ' finger/ indicate'. If you cannot remember all of them at first. Remember that the radical ~. stick body and arms. (heart) is used for emotions and thoughts. check your answers by looking back through the section.€. *4). Test yoursel f by seeing how many you can recognise (write the English meanings in the brackets).

you sit in the bath with back straight. and you sil with your knees bent and on ly your head above water. you can leave this one out and come back to it laler if you wi sh to.II ( ( . Focus on #i which means wait.'t~.m~ powder room.m means cosmetics (think of the rice radical as a powder pum). . means bathe and has the water radical on the left. t#f. Thi s type of bath is deeper and shorter than Western ball1s. 2) In the previous section (Kaiselsu 3) you learnt ~I (Japanese) and if (Western). {l:.c) bath g) waiting room h) powder room (ladies' toilet) . The lefthand radical is 'going person' and the righthand radical is ~ (temple). toilet t. I) Here are three compound words containing ~ (room): m~ bathroom m~.J3!. g means backbone (can you see the vertebrae?) . 1l:. Powder room is a euphemism for ladies' toilet or bathroom."4 ) '" tL 1IiJ ) BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT ) 13 illJ.~ build up 2 ) llilEJI/i ( ) f'I~ ( ) ) As with the last build up ~* section. Here are four more words containing these: * :fntt Japanese cuisine ~I~ Japanese-style ittt Western cuisine tf~ Western-style Renshii 4 In the last section you were introduced 10 eight new compound words. Can you match them up with their English mean ings? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) ~Itt *-ft"~ m~ lti:Jt B!l S a) b) c) d) e) f~1!tliO tf tt tf:Jt Western-style Japanese-style Western cuisine Japanese cuisine bathroom f) (Japanc. The righthand component looks like a house.\iit3?: waiting room Note: The word for a Japanese-style bath is !ia g . as in 'bath house'! m ~l:.

You have not learnt any of the ~!:f: for 3. Jl! II" Nagasaki ' SHIK:DKU I!!IIII .UNIT 8 115 IWliI!.*. 6 and 12.11 S'*' HONSHO . YOikoh. you are going to leam the four compass directions: A map of Japan ~t And here are quick clues to help you remember them: ~I:: North (looks like two people sitting back to back to keep warm (cold * R!i m in the North» South (yen symbol ¥ (more money in the South of Japan! » Ea!J't (components: sun and tree. HOKKAIOO _* jt:¥il! Sapporo 0 NIHON (Japan) 1\.l!!I Kaisetsu 4 In thi s secti on you will learn to recogn ise the main islands and cities of not confuse them . Sun rising in the East from behind the tree) West (looks like (!!I four .and it is the fourth compass direction) Now look at the map of Japan with the main islands and cities labelled in ~* and lUi . First. How many do you recognise? There is a list of clues on the next page to help you learn the names. They are included for interest only..ffl {TOk'yO.

seacoast big. hood root/main. . not aJ/owed (ll: means 'stop' ) Jit~ strictly forbidden f:I to smoke (fire radical) [Jl middle. A friend of mine drove up a closed road and got stuck in a snow drift because she could not read the sign at the head of the road. root North. CQutJIry mne. Describes Nagasaki harbour Kaisetsu 5 Warning signs It is very useful and often essential to be able to read this type of sign.!@ four. city wide. promontory . sea. province East. island 8(!¥ Story clue ' Land of the ris ing sun' ' North island across the sea' Winter O lympics held here . J]('M\ 10) P . province long. After that she learnt to recognise ~ (forbidden) as ' two Harry Worths (the e nte rta iner who used to stand hal f behind mirrors li fting his leg and arm up and down) dancing on a picnic table'! That ll!¥ a lone would have prevented her going up that road. iM¥ then look at how they ~ forbidden Uust mentioned) ~Jl: no.116 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Place I) 2) ~tilil11 3) lUI! 4) 5) :110]( 6) ~~ 1'1* Meanings sun. slope capital. In signs means during or under L!J IIkW Ji Renshu 5 Here are some common warning signs using the plus o nes you know already. We start by learni ng some general warning are used. capilal side. Osaka is built on a hillside Kyoto used to be the capital of Japan Hiroshima stands in a wide bay dotted with small islands Shikoku is the fourth of the main islands of Japan KYlIshu is divided into nine provinces (administrative) II) 1L#I 12)1>l:.brought *#1 in money! Main (biggest) island of Japan (Which it is!) ' C ity on the seacoast to the side o f Tokyo' 7) 8) 9) *11& 1M:. way paper mOlley. 11* we have just met .

left right Use of I for I (am/am not left handed) ('Tick the right box') o jtp 1" p ush 51< pull M open Hand radical is pushing the doorbell ~I look s like an archery bow which you pull M close JlJt( arrival Gates (elevator doors). three more useful warning signs with clues to remember: ~~1lt 0 Emergency exit (# looks like a path cleared of clutter fo r easy access) ttt! Caution ('i± story: 'pour water on a candle to caution against firc'!) fit~ Danger (iB looks like a snake in a box .UNIT 8 117 Match each word to its English meaning. ti 6 Signs of opposition This is the final kaisetsu section! Ten ~~ follow which can be paired as opposites in meaning. Two p eople holding one door each open One person cannot hold the doors and they close Remember that 3§: means arrive or 'the nose of the plane touching ground ' ili means go out ili.dangerous if it escapes!) fllIIt* Kaisetsu ti.g departure 11t~tp open/or business .a shop assistant! ~ means holiday ..*~!:f:1 closed 11t is a backbone with a hat o n . a) b) c) d) e) Outdoor shoes strictly forbidden ( No smoking ( ) No parking ( ) Under construction ( ) No admittance ( ) ) Finally in this sect ion.



a¥ build

up 3

And finally, some miscellaneous signs. Once more, you can miss thi s section out if you need to consolidate what you have learnt so far.

Mi means grilled (fire radical plus component looking like a barbcque).
Look at these words:


yakiniku - grilled meat YU~ r,,~ yakitori - barbequed chicken on bamlxto skewers tI~fo/l-m ~ okollQmiyaki - a type of thick pancake cooked on an iron griddle at your table. sukiyaki - beef gri lled then cooked with vegetables in a t~m~ cast iron pot. shinlwnsen or bullet train. $i (new) helps you to remember this. undergrollfld(train). Lit: 'ground under iron'. Iron indicates the rail track. express (train). Lit 'hurry go'. special express. Lit: ' special hurry'

Renshu 6
Look at t he pictures of various Japanese signs. T here is a range of written styles, both vertical and horizontal left to right. How many can you ~ognisc? You may need to come back to this activity aftcr you have worked through the conclusion (which includes a rev iew of all the signs learnt in th is unit) but keep a score and see if you can improve on it !





The name of a temple entrance








II )

r-.,..-- " . - - - - - - ~

What is Shimokitazawa the name of? (Focus on the last kanji)

The fi rst two kanji mean 'Fuji ', What is this building called?












tJD §it

1 9) ~~

Owari ni
t:J li)"('" C '7 (omedeto) Congratu lations! Y ou have worked through a mini mum of 76 n'.Ii~ signs in thi s unit. This does not include the \ 2 island and city names, and the 3 1 signs in the ~~ Bui ld up sections. Thi s makes an overall total of 119 signs, which is a huge amount and obviously you are not going to remember them all in one go. To help you review and consolidate your learning. all the signs are g ro uped below by theme. How many do you remember? The English is also given at the end of the unit so test yourself, then check and then use these pages as a check list. (Signs taught in the ~ ~ Bui ld up sections are marked with an asterisk.)

Hinto Remembering.¥ words
Try writing out the words on small squares of card. Put the il* on one side and the English on the other. Use these mini flashcards to test yourself by looking at the ~* side, giving your answer then turn ing the card over to see if you are right. Try doing 10 in the morning, 10 in the evening and gradually build up the number you can remember.

- Shopping and places in town 1) rn 5) if<\m 9) 13) 111lj! 17) oo~mil! 21) j\jtl'jl)f25) IlIJ 29) Xl&! 2) II.Ij~ 21) Wf.22 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT General 9) {~1lf~ 13) if.H'tljj24) . 8) il:ilfrn < Sightseeing and entertainment 6) "~iIlTravel and transport 1) ~jfjill 2) t.mIl! 2) JIij 5) 9H~A 8) AOOWllI! 11) \IlJ!! 14) ?lJl\! 17) lli)i!m..:ff27) ~l\! 30) I\fit~- .try 15) li!itl\! 18) :(.j'll' 24) ~ I 28) l*l'I<<P *lOl.- 1) 5) *A til ~ 4) 8) 12) !ll ili')f- flJ>I:.@It~ j{>ff~PJii)f- <litilli 41\'*'1.(.! 101 6) ilfm 10) rtrn 14) i}im 18) iliff22) Itl\!l&!26) M 30) "l":Il< 3) 7) 11 ) 15) 19) 23) 27) lIfrn Ai'fm I!li!*rn ll!fiii OlIl1fill lI1ilfiiiJIll t 1!tl'l< <P 4) 12) ll!m 16) iIIlrnm20) 9~001..<C/j 7) Jllll&!3) l* 8) M~ a 4) 9) !R A. 20) fIIJJi')f23) ~¥'f".>I:.lIM 5) 10) 1II\M J!/!I!ii ill- 1) ~t 4) l!!i 7) 10) 13) 16) 19) 22) 25) 28) tII-g ~- r ry .26) it!!rllJ<29) <I fi<J!! 3) JI! 6) ilJ:II' 9) 00 P3 12) .

:~1I: 5) I$ '/' Food and drink I) fu11t' 4) Ii>~. 6) tti'Ji3) ~~ 7) ttX! 4) ±JEjj.q.~ 8) fe.UNIT 8 123 Accommodation I) 4) 1If". !i!.- M<ftI'!- 2) 5) 1$"./S- 3) 1'11".~ Warnings I) ~:q.- 2) Jl:A~lI: 6) ill'lit r:1 2) 1$11t5) MifJJ-Ii>~' 3) li>iIl6) T~m~- English meanings General I) 4) 7) I 0) 13) exit man toilet left Western-sty le 2) 5) 8) I I) entrance adult toilet right 3) 6) 9) 12) woman ehild toilct/powder room Japancse-style Shopping and places in town I) shop 3) greengrocer 5) fish shop 7) coffee shop 9) bookstore I I and 12) pharmacy/chemist 14) park 16) shopping area 18) bank 20) foreign exchange 22) car park 24) pull 26) close 28) closed 30) school 2) butcher 4) book shop 6) liquor store 8) bar 10) kiosk 13) market 15) library 17) international tele phone 19) post office 2 1) exchange bureau 23) push 25) open 27) open (for business) 29) factory .

grilled meat 5) okonomiyaki .124 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Sightseeing and entertainment I ) art gallery 5) cinema 9) entrance fce 2) temple 6) museum 10) admission free 3) holiday 7) theatre 4) festival 8) fee Travel and transport 1) North 3) East 5) foreigner 7) 9) 11) 13) 15) 17) 19) 21) 23) 25) 27) departure domestic train down sleeper reserved scat lost property ticket office bullet train special express unoccupied 29) bicycle 2) 4) 6) 8) 10) 12) 14) 16) 18) 20) 22) 24) 26) 28) 30) South West arrival passport control station up long-distance train unreserved seat luggage fare adjustment office travel infannation express underground/subway occupied waiting room Accommodation 1) Japanese inn 3) Japanese-style room 5) (Japanese) bath Warnings 2) Western-style room 4) bathroom 6) address I) 3) 5) 7) no parking no smoking under construction caution 2) 4) 6) 8) no admittance outdoor shoes strictly forbidden emergency exit danger Food and drink 1) Japanese cuisine 3) yakiniku .grilled pancake 2) Western cuisine 4) yakitori .beef ' hot pot ' .grilled chicken 6) sukiyaki .

And you could work through this unit without learning V t. nt Begin by looking back to the section of the introduction which deals with an overview of the different types of Japanese script (pp.9 fflLiI Da. 3D I: Hajime ni 11 11 iJ r is the script used to represent fore ign words which have heen adopted into the Japanese language (loanwords) and foreign names (personal names.:cidcd to work through the il¥ units first and then to work on Units 5 and 9.viii) and the section on h !J 1J . You may have dt. This makes h 7 h T a fun script to learn and working out the meanings can be an enjoyable challenge! In Un it 5 you learnt to read the 0 t. ~ first but as most of the rules are the same for both scripts you will be referred back to the appropriate page in Unit 5 to read through the explanations there. countries etc. vi. IJ T (lwtakana) • have a go at reading some words and phrases Key words: fJ !J fJ T (kalakaaa) Ii t. tJ~ ~.sound associations to make learning easier • learn how to write tJ f. Can you answer these questions based on the information you have j ust read? . Most of the loanwords a re de rived from English words and this means that once you can read the script you can norma lly work out what a word means. kyuka UNIT 9 In this unit you will • learn to read the 46 11 f..... script .). IJ r (katalcana) symbols which make up the phonetic 'alphabet' • learn some rules for making extra sounds from the 46 main symbols • be introduced to picture.

Use ·the chart of the first 20 symbols and say the words out loud then see if you can match them 10 . The first one is done for you.t ~ (see p. (a) (d):1..J 7 .~() MiiIt- Kaisetsu 1 Let us begin by looking al the first four lines of the 11 7 11 syllabary with the romanised pronunciation and learn how to read them. ta :9 chi 1tsu'Y sa -+f shi ~ sU A ko 11 ki ~ r 07 . se -t:. 7'. -1 ku .7'-"'< ( ) :1.11..f) in the left column which are repeated in a different order in the right column.words. There are six words (a. The order and pronunciation is exactly the same as U ~ .-'/ 7-1:1. Match up the same words and write the correct letter in the brackets on the left. ~ ( ) :1. ke ko u7 te 7' to .~ (f) :1.12. Remember that you read in co lumns not rows and begin to read from the top right symbol.~ 7-'< :1.2 l!J .. so . (a) 7-"'< r (b) 7 -1 :1.'/ () () ~-:1. BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT I) What is 11 7 11 used for? (name four uses) 2) What do iJ !I tJ symbols originate from? 3) How many basic symbols make up the" 7 IJ -r r t syllabary? Yonde mimasho You have not learnt to read any /J !I IJ yet (apart from these three symbols) but as you did in Unit 5 you arc going to pair up !J !J JJ T words which are the same. 59 to refresh your memory)."'< (e) :1. This is to give you practice at reading vertically. Now you are going to try to read those words. (e) ~ -:1. 11 . . On ly the symbols are different.W- Renshu 1 In the ronde mimashii activity you matched six fJ :9 fJ t. The chart is writtcn in the traditional way from top to bottom right to left.

1. (e i looks like elevator doors '< (ki l looks like a dooc key ~ MlIIt= Kaisetsu 2 You arc now goi ng to be introduced to the who le j J ' fJ j. ..'/ steak ( ) toast ( ) skirt ( cake ( suit ( ) ice ( ) 1:: /' J. 60).1. a) 7-'< d) 7 -( ..- Hinto 1 Remembering jJ 9 jJ T In Unit 5 you were introduced to the idea of remembering U ~ Ii ~ through visual and sound association (p.t ~ in Unit 5 (p. See p. 67). Here are a few ideas fo r fJ . This follow s exactly the same format as for U ~ I. [u] performs this function in U ~ tJ~ ~."}--'< f).< ) ) b) r-.symbols to get you started. A dash . The pronunciation is adapted to suit Japanese' pronunciation rules (every consonant is followed by a vowel) but you can usually recogn ise the word once you have read it correctly. Try to think of your own and write them down.UNIT 9 127 their English meanings in the box that follows.<r e).chart.r c) . . Some symbols are easier than others but just do a few at a time.1. Remember that fJ . 63). h .. including the correct order in which to write each symbol. Look carefully at the stroke order and remember that in general you write horizontal strokes from left to right and vertical /diagonal strokes from top to bottom (variations to the direction are marked with an arrow on the individual symbol). fJ jis used to wri te fore ign (mainly English) words. tJt ~ try to learn to write IJ 7 jJ t because this will help you to remember how to read them too. T (a ) looks like an antelope ~ I + \@l -1 (i) is a leaning T which rhymes with i ? (u ) looks like a uisukii (w hisky) fla sk 0 :r. fJ j.after a symbol means that you lengthen the sound of that symbol (. As with () t.

.) or alphabetically using the 46 basic symbols (onc per page) and cnter all words beginning with a particular symbol on the same page. ? j. . vocabulary book for this unit.t 1" 0 J I I- . BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT - -t 9 rl 3' 1 ~ -lt l t I -- - n' 1• '7 '7 <.t l T I J I- r :J \ ) . You can then test yourself by covering up the Engljsh and seeing if you can read the IJ ? IJ word.-If "'.t '0 7 A 'f t? ~ }T J- .f..t l- =- Hinto 2 Organise your learning Don' t worry ahout learning all the symbols in one go .'I J -/ ~ +) .1 ..I ~ ~ m I} '7 ? . :J :J . T -T 7 . You could either organise the words by theme (food. electrical gadgets etc. nl f . drink.r .t 1:: .-. clothes. Whichever way you choose. . You might find it useful to make a j. :z.. . ~ -1~ ) 7 . :IJ word with its romaji pronunciation (optional) and its English meaning next to it.I " -. ~ -1 / 7. * . I) \ " '7 . . • t ~ I 'J '0 .. 7 1 • 7 ~ ? 1 .. ..keep referring back to the charts.12..h.z ~ '7 + -+ ..// :\ . - . write out each 11 .. " "/ " "). fJ " " '" -..~ . And it wi ll form a useful dictionary too! r r -r . "J 7 :..

1 ) " . .. Set I refers to the first part of the chart. -V -\' ~ --:. -Z 129 " I } '" \ ~ .t. t 7 - t .symbols. l!'J ..J. '7 - :iT -.> ..1 ' " ... . set 2 refers to the second and set 3 to the whole chart.:'T .A ~ 7 ~ lt. .. :3 'I 3 . See how many symbols/words you can read from memory before using the chart to search for those you cannot remember. ... As in Unit 5. 1 ~ ~T ....:<-1 Iv .W = Renshu 2 Now that you have been introduced to the 46 :IJ :7 :IJ t.-l . You also have to se lect the correct English meanings so say the words out aloud.UNIT 9 '7T ) .T -7 I ... -..t . ) / f "~. L. You may be 'able to do this even if you cannot read all the Ir Jj: (kana) symbols. -E . it is time to put your learning into practice and have a go at reading some words. ..f: - t . . . the words are in three sets. . Keep coming back to this activity and try to improve your score each time! . -.. ~ -.[:.t .It.. "" ----. ... .~ .. ~ ~ " .. /'-. / " 0 " 3T -c - . V )~ .//' I 0 n 0 .- .

Ju . nu) '!t .. r. )t (ku..~ b):z:z-r f) . (so. Set 1 a) e) -c .. '". .me) )it. '7 (u. 'Y (shi.. la .~- I) skating ( ) 5) cake ( ) d) ./ Set 3 a) T~ / e) ~ . -7 . n) * '.(na.J" 3) rice ( 6) f)L--A~7O' d) 71" h) !J -" 7 ) I) restaurant ( 4) chicken ( ) 7) camera ( ) 2) tennis ( ) 5) curry ( ) 8) tomato ( ) ice cream ( ) Hinto 4 Similar:JJ 51:JJ-r You have probab ly already confused some of the s imilar-looking IJ !J " Th is section will line these up so that you can look at the differences and keep them separate in your mind.-. rna) :.130 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT l:: / l. The short strokes stand side by side. tsu) * The long stroke in ~ is written upwards and the short strokes are almost at right angles to the long stroke. l .I has the same feat ures as '/ (but only one short stroke).7 . wa) .J.. "7 . v (ru. ~ b) 7 1 A ) 'J ~ . Y has the same features as ~ (but only one short stroke). / 1) memo ( ) 4) ham ( ) b) "J" c) -" -lO d) -"" / 2) lemon ( ) 3) melon ( ) 5) ramen (Chinese noodles) ( ) e) L.... For example '7 .~ c) 3' 'J ..3' - 7.~ Hinto 3 Pronunciation Japanese pronunciation does not distinguish between ' r' and 'I' sounds.- -c .g) "7-~ 4) taxi ( 2) ski ing ( ) 3) cqcoa ( ) 6) sweater ( ) 7) coat ( ) ) Set 2 a) 7 .:f (ranchi) means lunch . t (sa . The long stroke in '/ is written downwards and is at a steeper angle. (a.. T. 7. 7.. se) ?. Try replacing ' r' sounds with'!' sounds if you cannot work out the meaning.

t ' .. o nly the script is different.=:. . .I. ~ . (ni) '(>. And remember. the rules are exactly the same as for (J ~ IJt ~ . They are listed here. 7..... '<..2 -It. (J >? IJt ~ first then 11 1111 T : r 1. .. .... X. This can make them easier to remember.7 ' ..2' (ka) (Id) (ku) (ke) (ko) ()()()()() 2) ' s' sounds ' z' sounds: "\1"..Ji Hinto 5 Similar D. ... -C. '<. ( "'. :-. 7 (ke) I. ~ --. '1. Read over the () ~ IJ{ ~ section again (p....that Again. 67) then fill in the gaps in the following activity. t. -:/ ) (sa) (shi) (Sll) (se) (so) ()().7'. . • 9. (ka) . -e ~ '< (k. (u) II' • :IJ (ka) ~.2 --. :If. you set the pace! ~ . and The good news is that some 11 1111 symbols are very similar to their (J ~ IJ~ ~ equivalents (in many cases they originated from the same i. ~' )( )( ) 4) 'h' sounds become ' b' sounds: r. 'lJV._ / . . just as with all the units in this book. I) ' k' sounds become 'g' sounds (hard 'g' as in 'get'): :IJ... '7". .:.l*). 7. 'l. Kaisetsu 3 n7n'J..()()( 3) 't' sounds become ' d' sounds: (ta) (te) (to) ".. ~ It. • ~ ". Y -? ~'.: . '7"'. '" (ya) - ~ .y.UNIT 9 131 n~jI'jrT l::. (ha) (h. ::<. (he) ~ (ri) . .W'=:' Renshu 3 When you add ' to certai n symbols you get a change in sound.::.) (se) (rna) change their sound MliIt.j (fu) (he) (ho) ---r . t . -C.' ()()()()() .j..J.

Y (so). 'j"" (de). V (do). '/ (ISU) • a) "'/d) . IJ symbols then match up the words and mean ings beneath the m.I{ (pa) c) /~/''/ -c -:. 67. / (n) r '1- (chi).1./. A (su).8).1. (ba) • .( i) jeans ( r- A r b) 'j""fe) ~-/ r c) '1--'" iii) toast ( ) iv) (movie) scene ( ) ii) cheese ( ) v) dessert ( ) ) 2) . This activity is designed to he lp you bu ild up your confidence in readi ng tJ and to ease you away from referring back to the c harts (bul lhey arc always there if you need them!). For each section look over the tJ . W hen a symbol has linked sounds (for example. :iJ (ka). r.I{ A .. :.I'" (ha). IJ (ka). r t- I) <t (sa) .). <to(za). a) d) ~-/. :: (j0. ' h ' sounds become ' p ' sounds when a small circle ' is added: (ha)(hi) (fu) (he) (ha) ()()()()() Check whether you have filled in the bmckcts correctly by referring back to th is section in Unit 5 (pp..----------------------------------. tl (ga» they are given together but not all are necessarily used in that section. 'j" (<e). -t: (ze). (w). This will be done by fe-introducing a few IJ !J jJ t symbol s at a time and getting you to read words which contain them. trousers ( ) iv) bus or bath ( ) ii) skirt ( ) v) hamburger ( ) iii) sausage ( ) . :If (ga). -c (.. Section by section you will build up the number of symbols unt il you a re reading words contai ning the m all..132 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 5) In addition.(sh').. :/ (za). '" (zu).tl e) A:iJ-r i) pants." b) . IJ.I'" / ' .

At..Ig) '" / 1ii) suitcase ( ) iii) chicken ( ) vi) guitar ( ) v) bench ( ) b) "<7f) ..7 / r---------------------------------~ (ra).-." j) 1:" i) table ( ) iv) front (reception) ( vii) sale ( ) x) baseball ( ) -I" b) tJ ve) 7" / ~ h) '/ 'J" k) -t . . 7 (Ju). 11. '" (bi). 7' (ge) . for example.. 7 (k e). It (ki)..-.~.. 7" (bu). 7 (pu ) t (hi)." (go). ~ (he)..'/7-70 i) passport ( ) iv) pen ( ) vii) button ( ) 5) d) . . .. a (ro) (' }' or 'r' sound * Iv is often used as the fina l '\...: y c) . g) 7 '/ d)vA~'1/ r-7". (bo). can be used for these) '7 v (re)... -I" *' 7" 1(. Y (n).."7 I) .-7 "-7tobacco healer ( scarf ( dance ( b) i) iii) v) vii) f) (cigarettes) ( ) ) ) r-7 7'<" ) c) ...(." (pi).-------..1' / (..t. sound.j.//70 ii) (cassette) tape ( iv) pub ( ) vi) pizza ( ) ) 4) . (hotel)... '/ (do).f." j!' g) .. (ho). ~ ~. a) e) 7 (to).. 7 (pool).. "< (gi ).(..1". '" (pe). (po) a) 1.-------------. a) .It / e) 70 .. . '" (be).-IV ) ii) v) vii i) xi) curry ( ) beer ( ) double ( ) rental car ( ) iii) vi) ix) xii) golf ( ) salad ( ) ice rink ( ) restaurant ( ) .-* (rn).:.I" c) "/7tJ- I" f)7 1A~Y7 i) .. .UNIT 9 133 3) "(ko). .

. ) ) 1. 'J (wa) b) 7'7 c) 'J 1 71 7 ~ . (me). =- i (ne). ~ .I..1.1. These are used as normal symbol s but also are used to form contracted sounds../ (no) Ir (no). ) iii) gram ( ) vi) milk ( ) .. (mi). The rules arc the same for 11 !J IJ Read back over this section (p. a) " j. yu.l... "" (mo) b) 'J~ 7 e) 'T 71. .. ii) ham v) mocha (coffee) ( (ni). The first line has been done for you: !I 11. . A "J (u). ::1-.t (0). 'T (gu). (e). J..- c) -f77 1 ii i) banana ( ) ) ) ) iv) necktie ( 8) a) ii) canoe ( ) v) notc(book) ( I 7 (a). (mu). (ma).rL-.134 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 6) 7 (ku) . 3 (ya.( (nil).Wli Renshu 5 Write the pronunc iation of the contracted 11 brackets. 7 i) tomato ( IV) camera ( 7) c} " . f) "" 'I. .. ~ d) '1.~ i) tennis ( b) 7=-A c) 'I.t i) ice cream ( "J / A iii) wine ( ) iv) stereo ( ) ii) escalator ( ) v) blouse ( ) ) Contracted sounds MliItl1!l Kaisetsu 4 .jd) J . yo)... :z. d)A.~ (Yoon) The only three sy mbols you did not use in the last activi ty were ~. You learnt about these for () ~ Jj: in Unit 5. sounds in the . 66) to remind or fam iliarise yourself with the rules before trying the t. n: next activity. a) ~.. 1 (i).. .

.~ . . ( t • ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) :1.(chi) -> 1..J.: .:L . '" .( t."'.t. r a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i} j) -\ ~ )/ -f ~ ~ ? - I ) computer ( ) 2) communication ( ) :. 66). ( 1.:L .• ( :.:1..:1. 69).(kyu) ) . Match the jJ ? jJ words in the left column to their English meanings on the right. ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Now check your answers wi th the equivalent chart in Unit 5 (p.. (ni) .:1. .f. ~ '( :.( 1-"-( "=:'. " • (kyo) ) ~:3 ( ) Y '( ( ( ( ( ~ ~ ( ) ) ) ) ) to. . ~ (ri) .:J)/ t ' . t " '< (ml) . .'< . :..=:.:1..( .-. :. '( 1. ( ~ . .:::....:J V . ~ >< " (k. ( t" • ( ( " ~ ( t.' . 'Y I- I-~ 'Y -7~ (hotdog) is pronounced hot(to)dog(gu) The pronunciation of ' to' and 'gu ' is ' held back' (and written here in bmckets). An example will make this clearer: r .UNIT 9 13.:L ( ~ "..:L"=:' 7 -~:3 Y camp(ing) ( ) jam ( ) musical ( ) menu·( ) shower ( ) jogging ( ) chocolate ( ) juice ( ) Mll!tli Kaisetsu 5 The small 'Y (tsu) T his was introduced for (I ~ IJ~ ~ in Uni t 5 ( p. When you see a small 'Y (tsu) in a word.:J t? 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) ~.) -> " '< (kya) (gO -> '< ( ) >< ><"-( " "..:1. In 11 ? 11 the effect of ' ho lding back' the next sound so that it becomes closer in pronunciation to the original word or at least easier for the Japanese to pronounce. '( t (hi) -> t '< t " (hi) -> "" '< t. (skI). Now let us put into practice what you have learnt above.. .:3 -\~ y 'J' 1-:3 .' (pi) .( t ".=:. ( ) ) ) ) . (ji) .A :.:1. jJ Jv ~ . you do not pronounce it but pause slightly (a words this has glottal stop) before saying the next sound.:1..( ><. ~ .

(hamburger) to _. { 7.. /' 11 ':2 - r" te re ho n kii do (telephone card) t - kO hi (coffee) .. ' /' . ~ 9) match ( ) j) :. hi j i ne Sll (business) pi tii (Peter) 2) er sounds." .136 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT t!J . r words with their English meanings: I) toilet paper ( 3) jacket ( ) 4) cup ( ) 7" 'J 7- b) -'t '" '" -1 " r ) 2) eo.I Renshii 7 jJ Match the jJ ." 7 " r i O ) basketball ( r ) v ) MiiIt* Kaisetsu 6 Extra tJ!if'J:rr sounds You learnt in the introduction that there are a number of uses of jJ !J 1. designer and brand names). su mi su (Smith) ....J /' rna ra so n (marathon) -!t '7 1-« :.. this leads to changes in pronunciation when the word is adapted to Japanese.fl-t. - 3) Some f sounds arc replaced with h sounds: 7' v .'7 'Y to .f. r: r 1) th sounds.:t . {. Some of these changes have already been pointed out.t. as you will have noticed already.. However.r°'=' - shi do nl (Sydney) t. This is replaced by a lengthened a sound (using -): . .. countries..t.11~ - ha n bii gii.. not every sound in a foreign language has an equivalent sound in Japanese and. . This sound does not exist in Japanese and so is replaced by 5 sounds: -? '7 .....:-./]- e) >1> " 7 f) . 8) mix ( ) i) r -1 'Y r . This section deals with the rest.~ .- ~ - 7.f. . a) jJ 'Y c) ~ d) -'t -.(shi) or :: (ji) : :. " g) ':2 -1 /' r:r '7 jJ h) .. personal names.. ... but this unit focuses on the two main uses of 11'11 I) to represent forei gn words adopted into the Japanese language (loanwords) and 2) to represent foreign names (cities...n locke' ( ) 5) hockey ( ) 6) soce" (football) ( 7) sandwich ( ) . -)1..1- sa r chd (Thatcher) ma shu (Matthew) si also does not exist and is replaced with :...

(ue). They are also used to make a number of other sounds which do not eKist in Japanese but are needed for foreign words. in practice this is not a ' hard and fast' ru le. . a ~ /' ha i 0 r.. n 5) w sounds..t (uo) ?:r.\ v . (i) ? -1 .t t' ~ 7 hi 1m to r..t (wo) (the second symbol is small) Traditionally. T his sound does not eKist naturally in Japanese.UNIT 9 '37 4) v sounds.'J (walkman) u e tii (waiter) '7 Y wo ku ma n 3- 6) Combination sounds using small ...%.L. They are easy to read if you remember that the vowel part of the first symbol is replaced with the vowel sound of the small symbol. These are fonned in two ways: (ui). -1 (wI).I J(. the nearest equivalent being a b sound: ere bi tii (eleva/or) . v"""': . (we).!J ?.~ -1 .t . u i su kl (whisky) no ru wi (Norway) ? .t (0): In (4) and (5) these arc used in formin g v and w sounds. other loanwords are sometimes written using the v sounds: "f -1 'J t"f 7 -1 . (a). ( ) "/3-( ) ) . ." :r.t bi de 0 (video) 7 -:/.f.) ? 1 ii) ? ~ 7 vi ku (0 ri a (Victoria) or ~ /' va i 0 ri n (viol in) or 'J t. 1" (i).. ?.. ? (u)..!J - There also exists a group of sounds which have been designed to represent v sounds: "f 7 (va) "f 1 (vi) "f (vu) "f 3- (. ra bu ho te ru (Love HOle/) . (i) arc used for loanwords and (ii) are used for foreign names and countries.( "/7( Now you work out these sounds: ) 7 .. ?.f. ba ri bO ru (voJJeybaJl) t '7' . ?. For eKampie: "7 l' (fa) ) ) the u sound of "7 (fu) is replaced with l' (a) 7 3. (c).../1.. T JI.. It has become very fashionable to use the small symbol s and young people in particular are tending to use them. :\ (i i) ..%..t .r...) "f" (vo) The rule is that these are used in foreign names and countries but rules are often broken! Foreign names and countries are also written using the b sounds. However.. as with (4)..

Take the word ' Japan' .in (counter) ( fax ( ) spaghetti ( ) disco ( ) ) ) f) 7 -1 /~. You have already seen the ways that loanwords are adapted to fit Japanese pronunciation rules./~. for example. l!J IllW A a) .y -y Renshu 8 This activity is designed so that you can practise reading words which contain the extra sounds you have just learnt (rules 1.-1 7 d) "~7T-1e) ?. (lsa) 7 ot (fo) '/ ~ v~ T -1 (she) (/se) (ti) will then be ready to put your learning into real practice! Loanwords adopted into any language often change pronunciation either to fit that language or because that is the way the word is 'heard '.L- ~ v.t. (ji) '7 .. j' fork ( ) waitress ( ) milk shake ( ) milk tea ( ) (camem) film ( ) silver seat (seats for elderly/disabled) MlR--t Kaisetsu 7 Contracted words Thi s the final explanation section .r .. . .:t (kwo) but these are not used very often.x.".:t (radio). You have already met some examples of shortened words: ).138 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT There are a few other sounds such as 'J -..v"" . ~ -.6).< i) j) k) I) 7 ot-7 :.1. (kwa) .-:Y'y 7' l' ... Here are the sounds you should have written/worked out in the previous paragraph: 7 -1 (ft) 1.A :. which actually is sounded ' Nihon ' or ' Nippon' in Japanese but was heard as ' Japan' by early European travellers."- (che) 7 ". 6) Sweden ( g)-1~*-Y h) 7" ~ 7 .r (noto) notebook (the book part is no longer part of the word) ..~ 7 -1 y c) (/~ 7 '" ".< I) 2) 3) 4) S) 7) 8) 9) 10) II ) 12) earphone(s) ( ) check. . (gwa) and 'J .. (je) 7' -1 (dJ)* raji 0 • Sometimes this sound is represented by :. One final way in which loanwords are adapted is by shortening or contracting them.r 7-?. .(fe) 'Y -.x. Match the words: 7"-1 b) 1. .

/ ( ) toire waishatsu wanp'isu hiimu ii/ohai siipii g) wiipuro h) /amikon i) pasokon j ) depato.~ () 9) 7.UNIT 9 139 Other examples of shortened words are: -r v t' (terebi) television (sian is missing.2 0' () 6)77i . vi is pronounced bi) They can sometimes take on new or specific meanings: ~ /' ~. l' "7 r· (sandoitchi) meaning sandwich) • ~ /' ~.<( ) 10) '7 -1 :.e "'7 .. ::1 ~ (rajikase) means radi(o)casse(tte) (missing parts in brackets) (masukomi) means mass comm(unicatiQn) or' mass media These types of words can cause (he most confusion when you are trying to work out meanings but practice makes perfect! So try the match ing activity that follows . (sando) toasted sandwich (from ~ /' ~.< -1 ( ) ~ -1 " () 3) '7O'tO -7.2 O'() 7) . a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) supermarket word processor personal computer department store one piece (= dress) white shirt ( plat)form aulobike (= motor bike) toi let fa mily computer Yomu renshu Congratulations! You have worked through the whole of IJ 7 IJ rand you ean now put your learning into practice.-t. There foHow s a series of activites which use tJ 7 tJ T words in a range of contexts which you . ~ Ilkfl:h.:r Examples of contracted words are: :.t. (hamu sando) toasted ham sandwich "7. 1 (small 1) is used increasingly (see Kaisetsu 6:5) /' h 4f /' ~.-.t 2) ~ r . Renshu 9 Match the IJ 7 IJ words in the left column 10 their riimaji and English equivalents and write thc appropriate letters in the brackets. <. :J 1J. () 8) 7"0.( ) 4) '7-7 0 () 5) '<:/ . I ) .j. " '.

800 Pl <.?' ..-fit- Renshii 10 We will begin with a coffee shop menu ./ ~ 7~')I7 -f . 500 600 400 500 600 400 350 Pl Pl Pl Pl Pl Pl Pl r 600 Pl 700 Pl 700Pl 700 Pl 800 Pl 600 500 700 700 500 Pl Pl Pl Pl .7. I.1-/ -1/>' 1--.:tV Y V'$!.hf. 11 Once you can read the menu.-r':l-A ~' jI'~-.. .1.1-A •"" • •7 •• ••• •••••• • • • -1/>' ~'1 .. you can order your food! r.".140 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT might encounter if you visit Japan or if you watch TV programmes or videos about Japan..< .<~ -If'.71.71'-:1-1:.( .7. ~7Y . These popular places sell an assortment of drinks and light Western-style meals which means the menus are written in tJ .<"-~­ <'''771L--l:Yj" 1'- ::1 -» ::1 -7 .!J .

Toyota. Suzuki. . Mitsubishi. on neon signs. These styles are used frequently. A check list of Japanese companies written in riimaji is also given . In this activity you should recognise all the words because they are the names of we11~known Japanese companies.=~ =. Honda. Casio. Seiko.UNIT 9 141 What is the name of this coffee shop? (clue: there is a link with the moon!) What two types of coffee can you buy? What two types of tea can you buy? How much (PJ 0:::: yen) is Coca~cola? How much does an orange juice cost? What types of sandwich filling can you order? How much would you pay for a meat sauce spaghetti dish? How much would a drink of milk. Subaru. Nikon. pizza toast and apple pie cost in total? You have a maximum of 1000 yen to spend. Sanyo. Native Japanese words written in IJ 7 tJ require a knowledge of Japanese vocabulary to work out their meanings. t- r 2) Y .but not all appear in the activity! So now work out wh ich companies are advertising in the signs. Kawasaki. "" Checklist Sony. What drink and main meal would you choose? 10) Which two desserts cost 700 yen? I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) ~ IlIlfl-t- Renshu 11 Y ou learnt in the introduction to this book and to this unit that tJ 7 IJ is used a lot nowadays in advertising. Matsui. Thi s is because it has the effect of making words stand out (as we use capital letters or italics). Different fonts have been chosen for this activity so that you can get used to reading different styles. Yamaha. for example. National.

Basement I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) '7:. 2) .142 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT t!J j!l(w-t= Renshu 12 Electrical stores housing the latest gadgets can be found all over Japan. 11 -C .- r v" .. .(. and answer the questions../7 ~ ~ 1 v Floor 3 Floor 2 t ° :J--!l.... Iv 7 Renshu 13 a) ( b) 7 ~ ~ :fJ ( c) 1 '" ~ A ( f) 1'~7 ( ~" Match the currencies in the left col umn with the countries on the right (some may require a little guesswork! ): 1 :Y ) ) ) ) ) ) 3) ~ 7 4) ~"Iv 5) 7'7 / 6) I V t " - d)77/A( e) 1 / ~" ( .. Floor 6 Floor 5 Floor 4 77/ . Most electrical gadgets are given foreign names and so are written in 11 !I :IJ t .7" I.. '7:J * On which floors are the toilets? Which floor do you think specialises in computer ware? Besides computers.. v /..t. 7 :2 / .I'-r" 1 ~ A 7 7A. ?-7' o.. Look at the floor plan.f. ~ -{I. t"r".- ::r - !f -. 7 1 I V. 7" . 7"1} / !I-. what else is sold on this floor? Which fl oor sells air conditioners? What is being sold on the fifth floor? Where could you buy a camera lens? Where could you buy a stereo? How many floors sell audio equipment? As well as word processors. 11 ~ 7. v :L. what else can you buy on the fourth floor? Which fl oor would you go to for a tape recorder? t!J j!l(W-t ~ I ) . 7'" 9 :2 / --I. / . t -!l-. 1v -.t.

~ . tJ r signs from photographs taken in Tokyo.25 ~ I!IPHt+1!!I Renshii 14 Finally. the currency should tell you which for England.t -::<: r"7 'J Y I')v 74. ~ / 1'202.32 ::<:""-1" / 1 0 0 ""t5' 86.t "7 / 57" ~ )v 57" 64.53 .20 I' -1" ". there is a sel of tJ .22 "./ <' )v 7 72 ./ t:I ~ ./ *' :tJ tJ.90 :.)v I' )v 73. Can you read them and work out the English meaning? lJe fl.25 T 57" I' )v 78. these are (you learnt this in Unit 6.(kanada doru) = Canada dollar...> 143.11 .UNIT 9 143 Here is an extract from a real Japanese financial listing..23 ::<: -1" ::<: 7 "7 / 88.. The European Union is country) and ~ which is the in brackets but 'ECU' makes this easy to identify (Many written in countries can be written in or 1J r). r . * _* _* il* I' )v 119 .90 =:..m. 3.t-::<:r'JY:'-'J/Y 10. Can you identify wh ich countries and currencies from Renshu 13 are included here? Have a go at identifying the rest! For example.. .80 7 7 / ::<: 7 "7 / 21. the second one down is: 11 t-' II.02 -1" 5' 'J Y 1 0 0 'J 7 7.29 E C U (~iiiiili1ll:JiIl.73 . Two countries have ~~..7 / I' I')v 63. "( (ganbatte) good luck! I) tr Which famous restaurant is this? .60 <'v-~7~/-¥/ r 5' -1" J~ ". "'.

144 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 2) 3) What act ivity can you do here? What is happening at this shop? 4) .... What are people being asked to do? .. t:T " 5) The two kanji mean environment.

.UNIT 9 145 What is CoCo? 7) 8) 9) 10) ~ E . 1 12) I ..

Try saying your name oul loud and matching the appropriate tJ !J h r symbol to each syllable. For example.146 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 13) 14) 7 ~ 15) ~ 7 1) 1) JA A What type of tree is this? What type of whisky is this? 16) What is the title of the film? (bouom line) What are the actors' names? (above picture) Kaku renshu Th is short activity is designed to help you write your name in IJ!J IJ T. The nearest to these sounds are: . the name Laura has the sounds 10 ra. A short list of popular first names follows. You wi ll need to refer back to the various rules given in this unit.

Hopefully you have discovered that because :IJ !J :IJ is used to write non-Japanese (and often English words) it can be fun and very accessible.-7 '. -1 Y (jein) j.UNIT 9 147 1:1-:7 (rura) And CHRISTOPHER sounds out as k ri s to phaa.:r3Y ~- (andoryu) (biru) (buraddo) (gureggu) " -- ~ "7" "-17 .t:-/v "'7"1-7 ~J. You have had opportunities to read a wide range of words and to identify typical street signs.- 71.(do'ona) (hirari-) ..L. In Japanese this becomes: . ~ . There is a lot to take in so treat this unit as one you can keep re-visiting and that you can enjoy! And look for opportunities to around you (TV programmes.:urisutojii) If you know a Japanese person. newspapers.. :L}I. . .:t.(misheru) -t.) l: (ana) (kashi-) (kurea) :7 ~ - "'- ANDREW BILL BRAD GREGG JOHN MIKE PAUL ROBERT STEVE 7 Y t' /1.- -1''7 '' 7"1.. ~ "7 7 - (J. read 11 !J 11 visits to Japan) so that you can impress your friends and family! r r r ..(meari-) . Here is a list of 20 names to help you. magazines.r.- ~~ ~ .-'7 (se-ra) (su. 7 ~ .~ TOM (jon) (maiku) (po-ru) (mba-to) (suti-bu) (tomu) Owari ni You have covered the whole of the 11!J:IJ syllabary in this unit including the various rules and adaptations of non-Japanese words. 1:1 .. .f 1 7 t. work out your name and get them to check it.. ' . ANNA CATHY CLARE DIANA HILARY JANE MARY MICHELLE SARA SUE 7t"IJ.

Where appear in a text which have been introduced in earlier units. there is a short pre-activity for you to see how many you can remember. the activity is simply a device to get you thinking about what you have learnt and making connections. However. There are many types o f text which use different styles of writing and have different levels of difficulty.) Kanji review Hajime ni The aim of this unit is to pull together everything you have learnt throughout this book and apply it to reading Japanese texts. Check the answers 10 these pre-activities in the back before proceeding and if you want to look back to where the ll* was first instruc tions . do not worry if you cannot remember them foreca st .song lyrics .cartoons . jukka • learn to read different types of text including: .10 UNIT 10 In this unit you will fJ+a Da. remember that you can look up the English meaning in the index and this wiU refer you back to that unit. Some tips on grammar functions and particles are given first and you can refer back to these as necessary.haiku (short poems) • learn the basics for reading and writing Ictters Key phrase ~*mfl (kanjifukushi. This unit will gct you started on reading and w ill introduce you to some techniques for accessing text which you can then build on. _* .

the sentence order tells you the function of the main sentence parts: I ate Japanese food ' I' is the subject of the sentence (who ate) and comes at the beginning of the sentence 'ate' is the verb 'Japanese food ' is the object of the sentence (what I ate) and comes after the verb This order is called SVO (subject. Let us look at some examples to help you understand this. overline). You could use different coloured highlighter pens or use different types of markings (circle. 1 Japanese cuisine ate fl. Or you could copy the relevant parts of the text onto paper and mark them . They are placed before ( pre-position) the noun they mark. a- a-. 2) This is what happens in Japanese: fl.. We also use particle-type words (called prepositions) such as 'with'...fait tt. . In English. It marks the subject of the sentence ~-tt (Japanese food) is followed by the particle It marks the object of the sentence. object).UNIT 10 149 You will be asked to mark parts of the texts as a way of identifying and separating different words and features .: i L. (i .. k. A particle is a grammar marker which tells you the function of the noun it marks. (I) is followed by the particle lot. verb. Particles and sentence order 1) Every noun in a Japanese sentence is usually followed by a particle. ' by' and 'at' : I ate Japanese food at home with chopsticks at marks 'home ' and with marks 'chopsticks'. This is especially helpful because Japanese writing does not nonnally have gaps between words (as you will notice in the texts that follow). lWilIt Kaisetsu Grammar functions Read through the information that follows but do not worry if you are not clear about all of it because the texts will have practical examples and you can then refer back tothe summaries beneath the text to consolidate your learning.. underline..

150 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT The order in Japanese is SOY (subject. t (to) 2. by : '1 t. tell you the functions of the different parts. the order of the Japanese sentence is morc fl exible than the English order because the particles. in. 2. to (direction): JJDj( {. verb). with. (ga) subject marker of verb ~ (0) object marker ofscntcnce -c" (tie) I.t l' (I live in 0) (no) I.: (to Tokyo) (also can use" pronounced •e') 2. ~l!1fI'"L (by train) 2.:L" l' .I~ :fUit-1' I~l--(" it"'*l-t" IJapanese food chopsticks with ate But the verb always comes al the end of the sentence. .f. 's: (Japan's rice or Japanese rice) links a noun with its positio" n : LI..I t7) J: (mountain 's top or on top of the mountain) and (between nouns): t (Japan and America) with (accompanied by): t (with a Japanesc person) a*0)* a:. 3) Particles arc always placed a fter the noun or ti me ex pression they mark. at. Tokyo) of. There arc other particles with different functions such as f/. on (place/position): a {. I.$: *m a *A .: (on Monday).: {£ A. -c" (with chopsticks). on (afte r time): rJ PIlI. object. at. So you could say : f/.A r"7 /-c" (at / in the restaurant) t: (ni) I.r I. place where action happens: V.: (at one J. Look at the diagram showing the key particles: Gh O ttf~ ~hat V ~ere eatoy ~en V eats they cat they EAT they cat With what they eat -r: 4) Particle descriptions (. o'clock) 3.t" I chopsticks with Japanese food ate However. not the order.1 (pronounced 'wa' as a particle not ' ha') topic or subj ect marker of sentence IJI{.I~ I~V(" -r: (with): lItit -1' it '" * l.

. I ) Find the topic/subject of the sentence by looking for Ii: (I book . both literal (lit.) and natural English are given to help you understand the phrases and structuring. 5) Where relevant or helpful the meaning of the ~*" radical is given in brackets.. Assume it is a lefthand radical unless stated otherwise. lI\t"" £ -t (fLli) *-. t~ (I old book read) 4) In the texts that follow..t":. llit"" £ L. cad) subje" is fL (I) 2) Then translate ' backwards' from the end of the sentence : fLli *-. ~"" £ read -t book 3) Describing words arc generally placed in the same order as Engl ish: fLu o'i ~ •*-.. l!J j!l(fI- R enshu 1 H® Ma ngo Cartoon r t=ltJ'l= Q)1c*-i-MC.:'PJ c(i= 1 t=ljc ··· . ..UNIT 10 151 Quick translation tips You will be given lots of pointers throughout this unit so this is a summary list for you to refer back to as necessary..

... J means quote within a quote. The one· frame cartoon here is taken from the Kyoto News. a Japanese newspaper. (.. words: a) ~ L.. ).. " Read more books!" but .: . Now work through the series of activities starting with a review.152 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT itii and 7::. It is from the education section and is a joke about ttlf '"7 ""7 (kyijjku mama) or 'education mothers' who go to great lengths to ensure their ch ildren study hard and get into the best schools. 'bitt. ) d} indicates open quote mark (close quote mark is J). (anime) or animation are very popular in Japan and are known around the world.. c r r 4) r {...: (indeed) is achieved by placing it at the beginning. . l' ~ l' (nasai) verb ending indicating a command. This would be the order in which we would say it in English whereas in Japanese the ' I said' part comes at the end. rI::G~·1. Cartoon books fill bookshops and kiosk shelves and Japanese people of all ages can be seen reading them on trains. ~ ~... clHhtc The ' but' trails off...1{ Honyaku Translation ' lndeed I did say .1 adds emphasis (l did say . -:> C '" ·Hlt<l> . indeed b) t"'J C (motto) more c) It C· (kedo) but 3) Mark these particles and grammar functions: a) ~ (0) object marker b) . .* in the cartoon and remember them? They are: .."'1!!f'I b) yOll have learnt them all! Do you a) * m c) ~ 2) Find and mark these '0 a. in bookshops and at home.tJ' (. tt (to wa) used in reported speech (I said that . the reader fills in the rest from the picture ('but this is ridiculous!'). 1) Kanji lukushu There are three iI.... Emphasis on t::. in this case ' read! ' c} . Notice the technique of translating the information outside the double quotes first then adding the part in double quotes.. l..J. Ir (..:: (tashikrJ ni) certainly.. J It C· .. .

..\·~~)~OI: "e.. edge (oya yubi) thumb (lit: parent finger) . . There arc two sets of si mple cooking instructions.. 2) Title: Jlf:O. '£a7rt1: . The sequence is from the children 's educational section of a newspaper.. @. • . 1:'1 +Sl .: "..:n'~'t p~I.t..UNIT 10 153 Henshu 2 Cookery instructions ". t:: t ::.J.k t.t 1". -..• j ( • { .r'tt +-i"·tr :::.!JIJ ~ 77'. "- GJ 0 7?. c) !k (h') d) g) 7=] /' m(yubi) Now mark them in the text. t:.. Kanjifukushii Write down the English meanings of these 1) a) e) _*Utff * r (mizu) A ~ I!* and -1 ~~ :IJ !I 1) r words: b) 3i (tama) f) 7' -1 ~ .flt.30.J.g (top three pictures) a) Find and mark these il*: ~ -C (ate) hit mta Jtt (tamago) egg iII (kado) comer.a:'ill:: .?L. Remember to eheck your answers in the back before proceeding.f..



b) Find and mark these (j ~ IJ{ ~ words:

h G (waru) break Ir t;; l' (kataj) hard httll) (wareme) a crack I> "C "'C (ate/e) put i.t (= ftr mae) front ? L- -? (= tl;:, ushiro) back tl t: ¢ (n ejiru) twist
c) Find and mark these tJ




~ ~ Y (polon) w ith a plop (sound)

Y ::t Y (konkon) tap tap (sound)

d) Mark these particles. Remember that particles are positioned after the word they mark:
(0) positioned after the object of the sentence - the object marker (appears two times) (.: {nil to, in, on (appears three times) , C. (to) with (placed after the word); and (placed between two nouns)





Breaking an egg on a hard edge hit with a tap tap in the crack put (your) thumb twist to the front and back (forwards and backwards)



fII ~ h




LU: ? ~ '3CI:lt: '"
3) Title::deli. 'T A

t- (lower three pictures-exduding thought bubble)
(jiibun) enough

a) Find and mark these

*3i (mizutama) water ball /drop 1ti;t (yubisakt) fingertip ft i!: (okt) place
jJij (abura) oil

1& C 1"

(otosu) drop

b) Find and mark these () ~ /JI{ ~ and j; , 11



t::. t::. A... t:! t
"'? It

. $, t::. t::. d) ~ (lid) Q = alatameru) warm up (also appears as $, t:.

-r (tsukete) switch on, apply (appears twice)

t7) (tatanda mono) folded (thing)

0) tr1' (nobasu) spread


.: .75 /J t t: $ "?


~ (korogauara) if (it) rolls

L. Q L. (shirushi) sign

(ju) ping



a (konro) hob



c) Mark these particles and grammar fun ctions:
(0) object marker (appears five times) -(' (de) with, by means of t.: (ni) on, into (three times)


'"C (te) verb ending meaning and IJt (ga) subject marker


~ (fara) verb ending meaning





*3i 7*


Translation Water drop test


*;tin' .: n' .,

w ith a folded tissue spread the oil ill!?? '" 1.1' 1" 7 7 1 ;7 Y 0 C l'l ~ place the frying pan on the hob switch on the heat (fire) and warm up 9<.., -:> It -c l, to to ~ 7, apply water to the fingertip and lll%I:*.,-:>lt-c drop into the frying pan 771 "Yc1Ii1: 1" if (when) the water drop rolls '5 to " -Hi l, to to j. ., -c ~. 7, ~ 7, ~ (it's) a sign that it is warmed up enough.
7" 1 " "- .,

to to ,,-t! t ",-c"

,'Y .,

I.!:II!I!W=: Renshu


How to make green tea

The sequence of fou r instructions on the tea packet s how you how to make perfec t Japanese green tea. Once you can read them, you can try making green tea for yourself!

Kllnjifukushii Write down the English mean ings of thesc words. Then mark them in the tcxt and write down how many times each appears.

il¥Utff 1lX








cJ 1'1


d) J\ i) IIIj



2) General points
Here are some general words used throughout the text which are useful to look at first. They will be referred to again in the translations so use this list as a reference list.



A I\: ~ (J) il!{f"" :>.rill" 8~ I'IIl!' A/1. -r~oI~a. MI (J) i'J80"C iII{f"''' ill!'01 ~ (J) /I: ~<: ~r~::;:!: fi 1Il-t6HJ! flJ -r-t.



-* (bun) means share, part, per. Three A* means three people 's 'worth or three helpings (food)
- ~ (- me) means -th, -rd, -nd as in 4 "J ~ (fourth). 1 first infusion

rut ~


• #'

(fun) also means minute.


means two minutes.

The vocabulary and translation is now introduced section by section. Once introduced, vocabulary is not repeated in later sections so you will need to refer back as nccessary.

Picture 1
3a) Find and mark these if* :


fiX~:II (llomikata) how to drink Ali (nillzii) number of people (bun) part, per (yu) hot water tlWJJ. (alternative: 1:QfiXJJ. = y u noml) teacup - # ~ (bunme) parts lfAJJt (ondo) temperature j{J (yaku) approximately m~' ! L. (yuzamashi) hot water cooler it ~ I,: (kawan) in place of, instead of ftJfl t- 9 (shiyo suru) use f51!fJJ (benrr) convenient, handy


b) Find and mark these {) t; tJt Jj:' words:

t:>' ~. L. t· (ohhii) delicious ttl::: (hOOo) about Atl. L ~ ! L. ! l' (irele samashimasu) put in and cool
c) Mark these particles and grammar functions:
U) (no)

between two nouns indicates that the second noun belongs to the fi .., (x 3) t.: (m) into, in (x 2) .t-3 (0) before a noun makes the word sound more honorific . .t-31M (x 2) (0) object marker (x 2)


(to) ir(x I)





Match the Japanese on the left with the translation on the right. The first is done for you:

.8 I ) !H' l.> J= m mt b) Mark these particles and grammar fun ctions: :8 (honorific) x 4. Q) x 3.('/il:o/I>:IJ (I.lle) 2) AII'I5t (1) UHf 0/1> 10 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 3) tllIH> 8 5t i'I I1/:' l\ tt -c i) If you use teacups . (. Translation t7) x 1..l:jjjlol\tt 1 T .(jilbyo) to seconds lWH' (atsUI) hot lim t tt *d.J (see a» ~ft (haibun) cupful/spoonful b) Circle the particle c) IJJ~ -r: (de) meaning ' for'. penneate ~ l t (machimasu) wait ifili (shinshuIsu) brewing Iffrdl (jikan) time 1 7t (ippun) I minute ~ > (koO strong..j~ 0/1> ~ . (: x 3. Ii x 2 . 3 A5t"C' 6-8g CX~ Put the tea leaves in the teapot for three hclpings(people) (it is) 6-8 grams t:I'J 1 · 5 U5t) (in tablespoons (it's) approximately 1.... iv) the temperature of the hoi water " is about 80 C ( ) 6) /j.• 7) ~Jl.l (1) i!lllU~ 80 C 5) /j...-JT. dark M-! 1j: A (sukina hito) people who like I: (nagame) lengthen 1 ~ (ichimaeme) the first infusion lOt.~ t: ~ (ha) leaves ~.. ~ x 1..5 spoonfu ls) Picture 3 5a) Find and mark these . ( ) ii) it is handy ( ) iii) instead of a water cooler ( ) 4) t111.(1) fI: ry 10 f1! III T '" I: iUJ"C'T v) a delicious drinking method ( I ) vi) put in ahout e ig ht paris hot water and cool ( ) vii) into drinking c ups per number of people ( ) Picture 2 4a) Fi nd and m ark these ~* : *.Q (shinto suru) brew.x 3.a (kyUsu ) tcapot 3 Aft (sanninbun) 3 helpings (osa)1) tablespoon f. ~ (yori) than (placed after) a.j~' J l.: x 1 Honyaku tI*(1)~~:f.~ : . t} x 2.

\\:1."C' L!J antI!!! *1&7* ~ Renshii 4 Tenki yoho The weather forecast The weather forecast shown here is taken from the Kyoto newspaper.. extract b) Grammar points: it <.).¥=Utf...\\: HI: <. I 15): 0) b) lID¥- *l. ) to brew ( ) v) people who like strong tea ( ) vi) the hot water in the teacups ( ) vii) brewing ti me (is) about I minute ( ) C) . Its title (top lefthand corner) is: . C1) 1:J & -t 2) . .illiJ. L. 1.1 ~ !il' 10 1.UNIT 10 159 Honyaku Translation Match the Japanese on the left with the correct translation on the right: i) the hot water on the tea leaves ( ) I) lQ-lf JJ. -r: (made) up 10 c) ~ IJ 1.: 1:J1£l nt iii) put in the teapot ( ) 4) ~m 1" Q Q) -t ~ t. p. l J. j)-lI! 1.t oj C1)~"jl\ (kyo no tenia) Today's weather I) .nlj (irtekl) one drop ~ t) (shibort) squeeze..It"C ii) lengthen (thctime) ( ) 3) . ..(.iJic i :.'l ::kJl!i Kanjifukushu c) Decode the place names that follow (refer to map of Japan in Unit 8.~ the brewing time for the second infusion (refill) is about 10 seconds 2nd Bracketed part: use hot water that is hotter than for the first infusion Asterisked part: Picture 4 6a) Find and mark these il~ : (sosogu) pour into #"A: (bumy5) quantity ~~.\t~ L. /fl:iJ!Q) .: (kinto ni) uniform ly fi::ff. 1" iv) wait for it (the hot water . (saigo) final . pour the quantity of tea uniformly (let's) squeeze out the tea to the final drop lfiUR Honyaku Translation 1. . 1.. Il( 9 ! 9 d) )l\tiI ..1 . .t oj (kirimashii) let's fin ish .

i . .t\.EEO)t):O)tt::: ~" . ~o):315.t z ~ ~ ~ ).!!.0)::R !<\tctJ:'-'>w'h. ~ IT:r.rn: - b I) 5 ~ * !II It : .• '" * .f1..!<\EEtC. . -C. -C Jot. . I).~~ _ i'IIi$3~~II~) Q :!i .. " ~I ' " ~I t * ~.t ltc.).. Il.:e 3 0 * '" ~ 21 U B : 1l*I* - * . . lItrBciolL:<:0l 'O)B!! t.t~t lro.!O 1'3ptl"'Ci:. t..:(1B . )i Iii i<l tJ. B<I'O)!<\ i!! t~24!!l: <: 0l .tJ~g.....l'~ I.t It:= • 28 IS - • 0? o ~O)&t~... * ..:t~ IJ .. t \~.29 8 . .

For example: a time cloudy'. b) You should have identified JX ~ (Kyoto) four times in these col umns. ii) Osaka iii) Fukui IV) Kagoshima? c) Name two other cities where it w ill be: i) cloudy then sunny ii) sunny then cloudy 4) Middle and lower picture-symbol columns a) il~m'aW (Kanjifukushii). Write down the meanings o f these ii) ~ _*: iii) ~ iv) ± v) fJ vi) 1<. p. 5). Kagoshima Now answer these questions from the information given in the lefthand column. vii) * iii. After (nanbll).~: ~t$ (hokubu) and $ means part. a . J) Look al the lefthand column (~ . The middle column m$ .vii also represent the days of the week.UNIT 10 161 Now find them on the weather report (look at the left side of the text) and mark them (Ji( :tJS appears four limes). "3 0)~1K) ~Ht Nara a) Find these place names: tlH f Fukui m~ Fukuoka JIIIp Kobe ~ 0'1 I<! Nagoya 1II\%&t. therefore 'North part ' and 'South part'. both these place names are these .) The box with the slanti ng line indicates Ifi¥ ~ /~ Ifi¥ (tokodoki iehiji) 'sometimes sunny.. For example: ' means 'sunny later cloudy'. Check your answers in the back then find them in the text. 2) Key there is a key consisti ng Below the written text (begi nning 29 of two boxes. for mean ing sometimes/for a lime. Which days do they represent? (see Unit I. b) What is the weather going to be like in: i) Tokyo ..l. The other place name (also mentioned four times) is 1I ~ (Shiga). Can you see them? The box with the straight line in the middle indicates (/) I? (nochi) which means later.

4 thai follow the n try your own tra ns lation before looking at step 5 (the translation). Whe n was it ta ken? (tim e a nd date) b) The lower picture has a number of circular symbols to the right followed by iM¥. sleet :lI mist. then cheek your answers in the back a nd mark the terms in the text (some are quite small). 31J. You learnt most of these in Un its 6 and 7. i) Find and highlight the following they mean? a) 29 i1ti:* words and phrases. Look at the top satellite picture. Now answer these questions. 3 a means 3rt! (day). a preceded by a number indicates a dale.--j means 3 o'clock. Go through steps 1. fog liI. Can you ide ntify the m now? They are quite small. the lower column is the forecast for the 30th-4th. Find and mark them: tkPi' good weather lj.. the size of a real newspaper: i) RU i i) (also look up ~) iii) ilJij iv) HI v) ~ Look back to the previous units if you need to. t· tl. What do d) a b) W c) Iili Iii'i tL e) "'~ f) 1: . c) There are four other circular symbols with weather te rms.162 BEGINNER'S WANESE SCRIPT is today's weather.1J w ind direction/strength 6) The text A short text is located above the symbol columns. (IiJ . e) What is loday's weather like in: i) the North part of Kyoto iii) the South part of Kyoto? ii) the South part of Sh iga d) What is the weather forecast for: i) South Kyoto on Friday iii) North Kyoto on Sunday v) South Shiga on Wednesday Ii) South Kyoto on Tuesday IV) North Sh iga on Saturday vi) North Kyoto on Monday? e) On which day and where might you need an umbrella? (Two answers) 5) rughtside pictures (top and bottom) a) ~preceded by a number indicates ·o'clock' .

~ ? (daro) wi ll probably .: 1::1 1::1 h tt -C (n.. 's (x 7) ? - iv) Find and mark these particles and grammar functions: t1 (wa) topic marker (x 3) -c" (de) through.. h t ~ words: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h} (uchi) during f!. t:." (mikomi) expectation 1t\ifi (hon) temperature J:h~ ry (agari) to rise FnJ t: (ona)i) same b) d) f) h) j) 3i:\EE (kia~u)atmosphericpressure ~. Jl. (. it is expected (that) 29 13 Ii ilil L' 1<\ EE "l ~ "l Jilj\.UNlT 10 163 ii) Find and highlight the following il¥ words and phrases: a) c) e) g) i) k) m) 0) jj9~' (yoww) weak 1¥ (lam) valley (trough) WI (asa) morning t q:)1t (sono go) after that J!~'. (.. nariso) it looks like it will be (come) .. I.: -rt ry t ? (n ./ Hinto : Try to translate the text yourself before working through step 5. '" . . mil'$L 't':. look like) (J) (no) of. Remember: find the topic or subject then work through the sentence/ phrase from the end . (' t. (ooi) many if{~EE (kokiatsu) high pressure I3I:J:t (nitchu) all day I) nl (do) degrees n) nO a (zen)itsu) previous day p) IIlh' ~ (atatakasa) warmth iii) Find and mark these V t. effect ~ ~....? 1 t "l fi! Ii .. (eikyiJ) influence. L' (gumi) about (x 2) 1..-e Wl"l 1t. ...: Q (ni naru) become .. l' L' (daitai) generally . oowarete) be covered by (literal translation) t. r v) IJHlR Honyaku Translation The 29th (start from the end of this senlence and work backwards): through the influence (because of the effect) of a trough of low (weak) pressure during the morning the clouds will probably be many (there will be a lot of cloud) after that . -c" (made) up to ? t.. -rt .. (t seem. by means of (x I) C (to) as (x 1) ht (ga) subject marker (x I) t .jz.



i\1j 11.\E£ (~ 10 10 to It L t! ( • t~ ( . aI/it Q) ;JC 11.\ (0 ~ Q) 11.\ iliW: 24 Ill:<· t, ( • .t -C J:i>' ?

a '"


lli! a I: foil L: (' t, ( • Q) 1IIli>' ~


high pressure will spread a nd generally it will be (come) fine weather the daytime temperature wi ll rise up to about 24 degrees it looks like it wil l be about the same warmth as the previous day (yesterday)


Renshu 5


This section will get you fi rst to read a letter which is handwritten, and then will giye you some tips fo r w riting a letter yourself! This letter is written downwards and you start reading at the top right, down the column. This is the traditional way of writing letters but many Japanese people nowadays write in Western style, horizontally from left to right. Writing downwards can give a lettcr a morc fonnal or traditional tonc. This is a New Year' s greetings card and as this is a traditional custom, such cards are often (but not always) writte n in the traditional downwards style.
New Year cards, like Christmas cards in the West, are sent by al I Japanese people to a wide range of friends, acquaintances, colleagues and clients. They normally have a short greeting but this card has been sent by a Japanese frie nd to a friend in England and is a combined New Year's greeting card and letter.
t) Start by identifying and marking you have already been introduced to. As before, see how many you can remember then check the answers in the back before proceeding further.


a) itIi&f g) 13 m) 11.\

b) IJIj h) ffil' n) &f:


'f ;) IT


d) 1m j) ,1M, p) lip i"

e) 111' k) ~ q) 'f

f) I) ~


2) Find and mark these set phrases and read the explanations:

a) 1'3 ~ (,=. tr Ir tt "C (o- me ni kakarete) li t. I was able to set eycs on you. This is a respectfu l way of saying ' I was able to see/\TIeel you'. b) ... !$ t., lj. (,=. (tanoshimi ni) I am looking forward to ... This phrase e nds with (,=.. The full sentence would end w ith t., "C l ' ;t. -t (shiteimasu) but this is often omitted. c) 1'37G~-C (o-genki de) Take care !





r -'t


1;: '






l '




K ...

3) Now mark these


il* words and phrases.

a) lI)J't.t L- '"C (akemashite) 10 dawn ( from I!IJ (t .9 (akeru» b) .tI.f-JIl; (o-legami) letter c) 7X. (otto) husband d) 1tF~ (sakunen) last year e) :EJ1J;. (shashin) photograph f) ~ t) .1 "t (okurimasu) send g) *~ (rainen) next year h) H (natsu) summer i) .J( (mata ) again j) 7Gil (ganlan) New Year's Day k) :ffiT Hanako (girl 's name. 1~ means ' flower')

4) Next mark these ()

a) b)

0 tJ{ ~ words and phrases: 1:) ~ -r: C 1 .:::~. t· i 1'" (omedet6 gozaimasu) congratulations $, IJ 1J~ C ., ;:..~. t, .i l., t.::.. (arigatii gQzaimashita) Tha nk you (for

d) e)

what you have done) '7 tt L, ( (ureshiku) happily ., tL l., Ir ..., t.; (ureshikatta) was/were happy l ' t.::.. t! ~ ,; L. t.::.. (itadakimashita) received (see 6c this section) -L ~ Q (dekiru) be able to "t tt -C (,1 (sore dewa) and so, we ll, finally (used at end of lette r)

5) Mark these two

iJ!I tJ


words: b) -1

a) ~


(heren) Helen


~ 7- (lgirisu) Engla nd

6) Find and mark these particles and grammar functions:

a) t:; (0) adds tone of respect L o nouns (put before the word) (x 2; also see 2a and c above). b) C (to) and, with (see also (k». c) ~ 11:t"( (yomasete) (you) let me read + ~. t::. t.! ! 1 t... t.:. (I received). lit. " received you letting me read'. It is a po lite way of acknowledging something whic h someone has done for you. Another example is: 1* it -t! -C t > t.:. t! ! 1 t... t.:. (yal'umasete itadakimashita) '(You) let me take a break', d) tt (wa) topic ma rke r (x 2), e) '"C" (de) in , at (particle used 10 mark the place (whe re something happens), f ) (:. (ni) with, to (x 2; also see 2a this section), g) try (sono) that. h) try (no) see notes at beginning of unit (x 2), i) ~ (0) object marker (x 2). j) fi 1! t.:. t > (ikitai) I want to go (t;; t, = want to).




k) C "'C l' .t l' ( .. . to omotleimasu) I think that . _ . (l: here m'eans ' that'). I) .:: l: (koto) placed after a verb this can be translated as •... ing' . Therefore: -(' ! 9 .:: t. J dekiru /coto) being able to. 7)


Honyaku Translation This time you are going to do some of the work! The translation fo llows, phrase by phrase. It is not in order, however, and your task is to work out the correct order. Some of it may be obvious from the English (!) but keep referring back to the text and points (1 - 6) of this section so that you get a good understanding of how the letter is structured .
a) IiI. Next year's summer I think that 1 would like to go to England = Next summer 1 hope to .. J would like to ... b) With my husband (my husband and I) read your Ictter happily (with pleasure). c) I look forward to being able to meet again. d) Thank you for your letter e) 1 am sending (you) the photographs of (lfrom) that timc. f) Well, take care. g) lit. the new year has dawned, congl"'dtulations = Happy New Year! h) New Year's Day, 1999. (From) Hanako Yamamoto (in Japanese, surname precedes first name) i) I was happy that last year 1 was able to meet with Helen in Japan. (The Japanese often use your name instead of saying ·you').


1!f <MI.

Kaku renshjj

Writing letters

I) Let's start by looking at some of the features of the letter you have just

read. a) Did you notice that the date is written at the end of the letter, and is followed by the name of the writer? This is standard practice. b) Hanako (the writer) begins with a greeting, in this case ' Happy New Year'. You will learn some more seasonal greetings in the next section . c) Hanako then says thank you for the letter she received. You can use this structure to thank someone for something they have sent you such as:

-:I v -t! y t- present; t1 /J~ ~ postcard; h - ,.~ (kiidQ) card Just add I> IJ /J~ t. ., ::: ~·l' .t l, ~ (thank you) after the item.

. . a) Begin with their name followed by ~ ft. (sayOnara) Goodbye.f. a-Ioshi 0) Have a good year (normally used before New Year's day)..( l' . 1-3J6. 2) Now let us look at useful phrases and techniques you can use to write a letter to a Japanese friend .0' (o-genki desu ka) How are you? (informal) . t..t 1" (mada mado samusa ga tsuzuileimasu) The cold weather continues .168 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT d) Hanaka brings the lctter to a close with ~ it.t (sarna) fo r a very forma l letter. L" tL ! : d *t: X\ i> ·':Ht '"'( (dewa.p$:.t 1" (kibishii atsusa ga tsuzuiteimasu) The unrelenting heal continues.o~ {> . Ir l. (Hanako san) Honako-sama) Ll.0' (: :f.@! ~ liJ)tl' "'( l' .t (Yamamoto-sarna) (or Jffir ~ i b) Rather than beginning with an enquiry about a person's health ('How arc you?' ) the Japanese lend to comment on the weather first and then maybe a comment about the person 's health. ~.t -1 {> :tf . formal) . L. I! U· L.t.o:~l'".. "'( ! "'( l' . "('" tt. 1-3:7GX(L" (see I d this section) Well. 1f'!t .. y . J: -1 /J' (o-genki de o-sugoshi desha ka) How are you? (formal) d) Closing phrases: Either: Or: -t tt.. < c) Enquiries about health: i:nG ~L" 1" . . Here are some useful phrases fo r different times of the year: (yo. td~ -to .o~ ! .. Ltd IJ)"C (: .t l.t... For example: . (merl kurisumasu) Merry Christmas . L" L. l ' . shiteimasu) I wait for your reply ~ J: -1 ~ t.""? ... ..t 1" (shizuka ni aki ga yalte kileimasu) Autumn has crept up on us quietly.. (yayaku haru ga kimashita) At last Spring has come.t t!!..rET ~ It.. "'( l' ..t 1" (o-henj i o-mach.$7G ~ "'("1-3~ L.'J y . (san) if you know the person well or :! .: (kashiko) sincerely (used by women.t t! .t. Happy New Year (used during New Year) .lJ1-3M'= i. lake care).. take care. L" {.t17G3{\ '"C" (Well.t L.. o-karada ni ki 0 tsukete) Well.. In th is case you might use the surname.. . ~ . take care ofyourself(a ltemative to (a» .1c. &.. IYJlt . ~ .

as far as f) W (kasumi) mist (notice the rain radical) . look out over e) tI 'J (kagiri) endless. You could write the romaji below the () G b{ ~ on the music but try instead to read the () G Ii 1" because this will be very good reading practice! Here is the text: Jf LlJ t • t Jt~ ttl 'J lalr~lJ' ~. Sakum hanazakari i) What are the meanings of the following aj d) _*: tlJ \'OJ (Unit 10.t (see 2a thi s section) and you own name at the end (after the date) is enough. everywhere. a cH!€ f) lE (Unit 10. ~ (s5 so) Excuse Ihe rosh (used at the end) "trill l!J jjfHW:t\ ~ Renshu 6 (Sakura) <. Renshii 4) J!.. . this time with ~* as weil. Renshii 5) 2) Find and mark these 11* words: a) ~ (sakura) cherry blossom (x 4) b) JfLlJ (noyama) fields and hills c) • (salo) home 'town d) J!Mt t (miwatasu) survey the scene. so that you can try singing it once you have studied its meaning! Notice that the lyrics are written in () ~ b{ ~ so that it is clear which sound fits which note. The person' s name plus ~ A. Ri :m. you can miss out the seasonal greetings and closing phrases and use this pair of phrases instead: (zen ryaku) Greetings! (used at the beginning).!f!.I ~ . If you are writing a brief note or postcard. The cherry blossom song This is perhaps the most well-known Japanese song: The music is reproduced as well. Sakura noyarna rno salo mo miwatasu kag iri kasumi ka kuma ka asahi ni niou Sakum. Here are the words o f the song.~ a I: -tJ "1 'J bj e) Sakura.UNIT 10 169 e) You don't need to use an equivalent of ' Dear' or 'from ' when writing a letter. The romaji is written to the side. ~ :@J Ri .


I)' (ka .. They are a style of poetic writing using a small number of words to convey a much deeper feeling or emotion .UNIT 10 171 g) ~ (axahl) morning sun h) ~.: (ni) in ...lIR Honyaku Translation This lime you are going to try the translation complete ly by yourself! Song lyrics and poems often use very minimal language. other versions are equally acceptable. L!l . and b) I)' ... ka) either . IV} AI this stage.. t (rna . rhythm or rhyme. and use words to evoke a sense of what is being described rather than spelling it all out.. however. translators need to decide whether it is more important to keep closely to the original Japanese or to ' interpret ' the text and put their: own individual mark on it.. you will be singing it in Japanese so focus on convey ing the sense of the Japanese words in more natural Engl ish (but why not have a go at getting the English to fit the tune too!). Traditionally the poems were observations of nature which would evoke a strong sense of . This may depend on the text or on the purpose of the translation.§ IJ (hanazakan) (Bowers) in full bloom a 3) Find and mark these particles and grammar functions: a) t . (niou) be fragrant i) :fE. ii) Put together in ' literal ' English.. There is a sample translation at the back so that you can check for meaning but as long as the meaning is correct. mol both ... Whcn translating into English. or c) t. Certainly with poems and songs it may be necessary to change words in order to make the song fit the tune or for the poem to retain its structure.fu Haiku Haiku were developed in Japan but nowadays are known and written all over the world. there are a number of stages to follow: i) Translate individual words and phrases (here done for you). Renshu 7 fW.. In the case of this song.f!l-l:. iii) Consider what meanings are being conveyed and change into a more natural English structure.

: (ni) in d) -") (hitotsu) one (item). Buson (1 7 16. Most translators try to capture the sense of the poem in English without retaining the 5. The four great masters of Japanese haiku were BasM (1644... What do they mean? c) 'i\' .~ in thi s book. for emphasis translated as ' the' or ' a' (l ike I:t wa) Some translators use .~ (suzushisa) coolness (water radical) b) ~ (matsu) pine tree (tree radical) 3) Particles and grammar functions a) "'(:l (ya) A poetic convention. What do they mean? a) 'j!f b) Ell c) '1' 2) The new nl~ words are: a) Th< L..1902). b) Il) (no) of e) (. Issa (1762. Modern haiku explore many themes and continue to be popular both in Japan and internationally.84). 5 syllables) .~ furuike ya kawaz" tobikomu mhu no 0(0 BashO iUWIH1 *Q)'i\' a) 1. hi/olsu matsu i'f III Q) '1' I:: . A few haiku by these great masters follow .you are going to have a go at translating them 1 A choice of English translations of a word wi ll often be given so that you can ' experiment ' with your translation.7.94). A haiku traditionally is a l7 ~sy l1able poem of three lines: 5-7-5 (5 syllables.~ "'(:l The coolness . For example: Th< L. I) You have met these.1826) and Shiki ( 1867. after the word to set the scene..172 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT the scene described or of the emotions underlying it.5 form but once you have the meaning you could try to reduce it to 17 syllables! I Il!t"a~ suzushisa ya aola no naka n.. There arc sample translations at the back so that you can check on meanings.~ in this book. a single (thing) II 1.:JtI. Shiki I) You have met these . 7 syllables.

shin (flesh radical) n "") (utsu) hit. 0 ulSU b) 0) (110) of III !if" ~ . Renshii 4) *' c) W words arc: a) b) c) d) fY (yu) evening II (sagi) heron (bird radical .UNIT 10 173 2) The new ~* words a re: a) b) c) ~O~~tr (tobikomu) leap/plunge/diveljump into 1& (ike) pond (water radical) !t (kawazu)/rog (insect radical) 3) Particles and grammar function s: . .) '(> (ya) see 3. What do they mean? .~n? *WBO) lilHt Buson 1) You have met these a) if* in this book.1m (hag/) leg.e yo mhu aosagi no hag.) M( 9J c) itb) ~ (yo) night c) 2) The new ~* words are: a) '* (aki) autumn i±$ (shigolo) work 3) The particles and grammar functions arc: a) ~ (ya) see 3a b) (J) (no) of. shigoto 1) You have met these ~* in this book. knock llap against (hand radical) ~ 3) The particles and grammar function s arc: a) IV (ya) see 3a b) (J) (no) of -~ c) t Issa (0) object marker . (p. below) . O)~ ~ iiO)JjO) Itf:l::$ b) lIki no yo yo tabi no otoko no har. 172) yiikot. What do they mean? b) 8\ (Unit 2) The new _* 10. connects linked words .

::~. I hope that you now feel you have a good grounding in Japanese reading and writing and are ready to take your study further and tackle new challenges! Look for every opportunity to use your learning so that you can consolidate it. t· 11" 'tln:"I: . If you have not yet tackled the spoken language or only have the basics. then how about trying Teach Y ourself Beginner 's Japanese next! And please write to me (c/o Hodder and Stoughton) to let me know how you got on with this book. and re-visit the units in this book to refresh your learning. . ~ ~-r: c. ~ J: -) "' ''! .. .174 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT Owari ni (omedet6 gozaimasu) Congratulations ! You have completed Teach Y ourself Beginner 's Japanese Script.

Feb. f. 2: (3) h. (3) a) ii b) vi c) vii d) v e) i f) ii i g) iv. Renshii 2: a5. d. e8.ii 2) a. 600 (2) a) 8000 b) 5000 c) 7000 d) 6000 e) 2000 f) 1000. d8 . c3 . 14. b4. jl . g2 . lOi. 2200. (3) Sun. Rens hii 3: I) Wed 2) Tues 3) Sun 4) Fri 5) Sat 6) 2 7) I 8) 2 9) Mon. 12d. 7c. il3 . c5. 05. j . i7. b.Sun e) Mon. d. i.ii 5) b.iii 3) c. g.i 8) c.iii 7) b. 8j. c. h. f. b14. Dec (3) a) Sun b) Sat c) Tues d) Wed e) Wed (4) a) Mon b) Wed c) Sun d) Mon. e. 10k. c. ge. 3: I) e.i 4) b. 2e. (2) 4 (4th. d. March c) Sept. Ilj . 61. m8. f9. e ll . . 2g. 200. 3g. (4) a) Yamada b) Takeyama c) Morita d) Mori e) Ishida. Renshu I: a6. (3) a6 . Renshii 7: a) Hayashi b) Morita c) Moriyama d) Yamakawa e) Takeyama f) Mori g) Kita h) Ishikawa i) Kaneda j) Takeda k) Ishida I) Yamada m) Kawada. f3. 4e. 25th). h i . 4i . (3) a) iii b) i c) iv d) ii e) v (4) a.n.000. g. 2. 3b. 200. g. 20. UNIT 3 Hajime ni: a) iii b) iv c) ii. 18th.000. 3h.KEV TO THE EXERCISES UNIT 1 Yonde mimasho: Ie. glO. 5<1. clO. 4a.ii. 12f. e. b. (2) a) population b) Japan c) girl d) gateway e) volcano f) men and women. Ren. 3b. c4. Renshii 4: a) Sat 14th Feb b) Thl:lrs 20th Nov c) Mon 5th May d) Sun 10th Sept e) Wed 25th Dec f) Fri 1st ApriL Renshii 6: (i) Ib. 4a . R. Renshu I: a6. h2 . c. d7. Test: ( I) a) man b) wood c) power d)gold. 2000.h.000 .000. b.i 6) a. (5) check writing sections/charts. lib.) 99. Sc . Rcnshii 3: ( I ) April. d4. a. bl . 9h. i 9) a. f . Renshii 2: ( 1) a) Sun b) Wed c) Mon d) Sat. g3. h2.iii 10) a. 5c (ii) la. e6. 6a. 2e. (iii) I ) c. k7. d9. UNIT 2 Yonde mimashO: II . 8b. 11th. (4) a) 9 b) 6 c) 7 d) 19 e) 17 f) 13 g) 20 h) 50 i) 70j) 21 k) 32 I) 43 m) 54 n) 65 0) 76 p) 87 q) 88 . a. Renshu I: ( 1) a) iv b) vi c) v d) i e) ii f) iii. 7f. 2k. fl2 . Sa. j5. March (2) a) April.h. July b) June.

4211 c) (0720) 2 1. h2. (5) a) ii b) v c) vii d) vi e) iv f) i g) iii. TEST ( I) a) horse b) person c) woman d) man e) child f) girl g) boy h} Japanese person . Renshii 5: \) e 2) b 3) g 4) r 5) d 6) a 7} c. 4g. Renshu 2: If.3154. 3c. 3f. c. (3) a) 1 b) 5 c) 60 yen d) 100 e) 4000 yen f) 20. Renshii 8: I) dealer 2) entrance 3) exit 4) drinking water 5) academic abi li ty 6) buyer 7) holiday 8) Japanese person. Rens hii 2: (7) a) I b) 2 c) 2. t UNIT 4 Hajime ni: ( I) a) mouth b) car c) person d) eye e) mountain f} gate g) tree h) SUIl i) c hild. Re ns hii 6: I f. 2e 3a. n. 8b. 7d . (2) a) gate and car b) eye c) sun d) mouth c) child f) eye g) tree h) mountain. 3r. 5a. 4a. (2) Jd.3866 d) (03) 3593 .2704 c) (0279) 22 1. 6i. 6a. Sa. 7e. (2) a) mountain b) volcano c) river d) water e} f ire f) tree g) wood h) forest i) rice fie ld. 3b. Sd. 5b.000. Renshii 4 : 1b. e5. 3e. Renshii I: a) sushi b) aki c) koe d) tsukue e) sato f) seito . $et 2 a) yoru b) mimi c) haru d) fuyu e) mura f) yama g) mori b) wan. 2e. Renshii 7: 1f. (8) (t (9) . money h) 3700. (5) a) li sten b) cat c) drink d) say e) talk f) read g) sell h) look i) buy j) rest (6) a) car b) mouth c) foot d) eye e) hand.. 2e. 14a. Renshii I: a4. c7. d6. UNIT 5 Hajime ni: I) to write grammar and non-~~ Japanese words 2) '() t. 4g. 2e. 11 j . 4c.000.1377 b) (097) 592. (3) I) 11th Nov 2) 18th June 3) 2nd Oct 4) 21s1 Aug 5) 3 1s1 Mar 6) 24th June. 4d.000 g) gold. 5k. 2e 3f. 13 I . Vonde mimasho: (Reading down): d. b. (2) a) Sat 5th Dec 1998 b) Sun 6th Dec 1998 c) Sat 12th Dec 1998 (3) Sal2 ls! Oct 1995. 6d. 9c. 7m. 5c. (2) a) iii b) v c) iv d) i e) vi f) ii Re nshii 6: ( I) a) (03) 358. e. Renshii 4: . 7e. 2g.176 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT t 20. 10<1. 6b. 6a. 12g. f . 6c. g3 . 4d. 4h. (2) a) baibai b) dokusho c) nyiigaku d) s hutsunyu e) inshoku f) kengaku g) kyugaku h} kenbun. Set 3 a) ohayo b) sayonara c) neko d) sensei e) inu f) me g) hew h) hito i) rei j) nihon. (4) a) Sat 11th Sept b) 20th August c) 1991 (yea r) d) Heisei 12th year = Year 2000. ( 15) a) 2 b) 2 ( 16) 10 (1 7) 11 Renshii 3. Renshu 5: ( I ) a) iv b) v c) vi d) i e) iii f) ii . 2b. a. Se. Sella) asa b) Ie c) natsu d) toke i e) shio f) nani g) nuno. Renshii 9: (I) Id. IJt'j: 3) s implified il~ with the same pronunc iation 4) 46. Renshu 4: ( I) lb.

g3. Renshli 8: a) takai b) yasui c) chiisai d) okii e) sukunai f) sukosh i g) fu rui h) atarashii i) fu toi j) hiroi k) shiroi. b8. f2 . cS. e7. Renshii 5: a2.cS. g8. c) j iten d) denwa e) tanpopo f) doki doki g) gabu gabu Renshu 8: a) cholto b) mane c) yappari d) gakko e) ganbatte f) massugu. n. 12. c6. d3. g8 . cS. j4. hanashimashita. no mi mashita c) mimasu. b l. h6. j 7. b9. g l . c4. b9. bl . hS. TEST (A) I) above 2) below 3) small 4) big S) middle (also inside) 6) dog 7) fat 8) a li ttl e 9) axe 10) father I I) cow 12) stand 13) old 14) mother IS) wide 16) white 17) ri ce 18) cheap. hS . b2. f2. h2. Renshii 2: a4. e4. UNIT 6 "sjime ni: a) earth b) tree c) woman d) stone e) mouth f) horse g) sun h) moon Yonde mimasho: a l0. Renshii 6: a) kyaku b) kyo c) gyunyii d) shashin e) ja ne f) choshoku g) chushoku h) hyaku i) byoin j ) ryoko. Renshii I: a6. Renshli 6: a) II b) 5 c) 13 d) 14 e) I f )7 g) g h) 9 .) 12 j) 6 k)3 I) 4 m) 15 n) 17 0) 2 p) 10 q) 16. f3. e8.KEY TO THE EXER CISES 177 a) kyaa kyaa b) shun shun c) shu shu d) chu chii e) nyaa nyaa f) hyii hyii g) hyoro hyoro h) kyoro kyoro. Renshii 9: a) tabcmasu . el. d3. d7. d8. Renshu 7: a) mizu b) kagi. Renshli 3: a6. mim ashita d) kakim asu. d I 0. expensive 28) island 29) school 30) black 31) bird 32) snow 33) cloud 34) new 3S) thunder 36) electric 37) dove 38) clo udy 39) fro st. kakimashita e) hanashimasu. Renshli 4: a4. i7. UNIT 7 Hajime ni: ( I) a) wood b) forest c) man d) like e) bright f) listen g) see h) write i) say/words j) sell k) read I) speak m) buy n) rest 0) go out . tabernash ita b) nomimasu. f9. e7. d6. g I. safe 19) thread 20) pointed 21) meat 22) hotlbitter 23) rain 24) blue 2S) country 26) sound 27) tall. e3. ( B) 1) Sunday 2) Saturday 3) Wednesday 4) Tuesday 5) start school 6) primary school 7) middle school 8) high school 9) absent from school 10) study visit 11) Japan 12) China 13) America 14) Central America I S) mother country 16) island country 17) beef 18) chicken 19) food 20) drink 21) white rice ~2) drinking water 23) train 24 ) new car 2S) secondhand car 26) carriage 27) rickshaw 28) puppy 29) cal f 30) swan 3 1) parents 32) child 33) adult 34) boy 35) g irl 36) girl 37) shopping 38) sightseeing 39) entrance 40) exit 41 ) ho liday. i l. h4. cS.

6h. iced 3) milk. vegetation 2. f. (8) i) a ii) c iii) e iv) d v) b. 5i. 5a.hii 4: Id. UNIT 9 Hajime oi: I) loanwords. b. mi xed 7) 800 yen 8) 350 + 600 + 700 = 1650 yen 9) your choice 10) parfait . R. Ilf. 5e. right side e) 1. lemon 4) 600 yen 5) 400 yen 6) cheese. Renshii 5: (I) i) c ii) d iii) e iv) b v) a (2) i) a ii) b i ii) d iv) c (3) i) b ii) d iii) c iv) e v) f vi) a vii) g. partial surround \) I. Yonde mimasho: ( in order fro m top) e.hii l :a)6b)7c)4d)ge) 12 f) Sg) IOh)2 . foreign names. above b) 1. Renshii 4: (I ) i) d ii) c iii) a iv) e v) h. above. 2e. Renshii 10: I) Luna 2) hot. (2) i) c Ii) e iii) a iv) d v) b. 3a. 9c. 5c. Renshii 5: Ie. 51. UNIT 8 Hajim. cover 2. 7h. 10d.hii I : I) h 2) c 3) j 4) k S) m 6) I 7) b 8) c 9) a 10) d II) n 12) f 13) 0 14) g IS) a 16) i 17) c. Sd. (7) i) b ii ) e iii) a IV) c v) d. 5a. 8e. 7b. 4a. R. Renshii 7: Ii. c. 4a. 2) part of ~~ 3) 46. fire 2. apple pie. (5) i) g ii) b iii) i IV) e v) j vi) a vii) k viii) h IX) f x) I xi) c xii) d 6) i) a ii) c iii) e IV) d v) f vi) b. right side g) 1. (3) i) f i i) b iii) c iv) d v) a vi) c vi i) g. 8a. Osaka 10) gri lled (food) II ) railway station 12) Fuji Bank 13) opening times 14) inte rnational phone 15) unreserved 16) unoccupied taxi 17) Japanese-sty le room 18) no admittance 19) no smoking. 6d. 3d.) 3(6)j) IS(7) k) 11 (6) I) 1(4/6) m) 9(4/6) n) 6(3) 0) 8(4). a.178 BEG INNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT p) study. 3j . 4b. 3d. IOh. 7c. hat radical 2. 3b. below i) I . above c) I. 7d. heart 2. above j) I. ni: a) 4(4) b) 12(4) c) 14(2) d) 7(2) e) S(6) Q 13(6) g) 2(6) h) 10(6) . (2) a) person b) mouth c) earth d) woman e) chi ld f) sun g) moon h) tree i) fire j) rice fi eld k) eye I) say/words m) gold n) car. above k) 1.) 3j)8 k) III) I. 9f. Set (3) I f. 7i. 2f. 4a. rain 2. village 2. Renshii 11: I) Toyota 2) Sony . Renshii 2: SCI (I) Ig. R. Sf.n. vapour 2. 3b. Renshii 6: I h. 8c. below m) 1. 12j.n. bamboo 2 . 3h. 2b. 6e. 4a. 2g. IOd. 6b. hole 2. 4c. 6g. 8e. Renshii 2: I) c 2) f 3)j 4) 0 5) n 6) I 7) i 8) a 9) h 10) gil) k 12) d 13) m 14) b IS) c. enclosure 2. to make words stand out. Rens hii 9: I) eh 2) ai 3) ce 4) gb 5) ic 6) hj 7) dg 8)jd 9) fa 10) bf.n. 2b. 2g. 6k. above h) I . 8e. 2e. Renshii 8: Ig. 4e. surround f) 1. ham. 7b. d. (4) i) c ii ) e iii) a iv) d v) g vi) b vii) r. Renshii 6: \) toilet 2) entrance 3) toi let 4) 'Thundcrgatc' 5) push 6) pull 7) south gate 8) north gate 9) Hiroshima. above d) I. 4c. Set (2) Ie. plant! animal classification. Renshii 4: a) I. yawn 2. 9f. 2j . lid 2. Renshii 1: skirt(e) suit(f) steak(c) cake(a) ice(d) toasl(b). 3g.

Translation: An old pond. 2liii. laserdiscs (6) 2 (7) I (8) 2: basement. cherry blossom.KEY TO THE EXERCISES 179 3) Casio 4) National 5) Sanyo 6) Mitsubishi . Renshii 6: (I) a) mountain b) look c) cloud d) morning e) sun f ) fl ower. e6. i. Renshii 4: (I) a) Osaka b) Tokyo c) Sapporo d) Kyoto. . a. software (4) 6 (5) TV. 61v. A travelling man 's.. 3/vi. f. The sound of water. Renshii 13: a2. (IV) la) travel b) man c) needle. Renshii 14: I) McDonald's 2) karaoke 3) opening sale 4) videos and books 5) recycle 6) a curry house 7) Valentine's Day 8) beer 9) dessert 10) E-mail I I) piano 12) Toyota 13) single malt 14) wine 15) Christmas tree 16) City of Angels. Sapporo ii) Kobe. (like) mist or cloud. Translation: An autumn night . (111) I a) wind b) water c) blue. (3b) i) cloudy later sunny ii) sunny later cloudy iii) sunny sometimes cloudy iv) rainy later cloudy. water laps against the legs o f a blue heron. 7/ ii . d5 . (4d) i) cloudy sometimes sunny ii) sunny sometimes cloudy iii) cloudy sometimes rainy iv) cloudy sometimes sunny v) sunny sometimes cloudy vi) cloudy. or: an endless scene). fJ . fragranrin the morning sun. Renshii 3: (I) a) drink ll b) person/3 c) eye/3 d) enterl2 e) tealS f) convenience/mailll g) big/ I h) go out12 i) timel2. d. Sample translation: The coolness. cherry blossom. 61iii. (4e) Sunday: North Kyoto and North Shiga. Meg Ryan. 31i. Renshii 2: (I) a) water b) jewel (ball) c) fire d) finger e) test f) tissue g) frying pan. one pine tree. Needlework. I survey the endless scene (or: as far as the eye can see. Translation: The even ing breeze .. (Sc) IIvi. 21vii. (6i) a) 29th b) cloud c) tall (high) d) fine e) weather f) above. Renshii 7: (I) la) blue/green b) rice field c) middle d) one. UNIT 10 Renshii 1: ( I) a) book b) read c) say. 4/iv. (4c) All are cloudy later sunny. in full bloom. . In the middle of a green rice field. (3c) i) two of: Nagoya. (II) 1a) old b) water c) sound. 4/iv. Fukuoka.. fl oor I (9) fax machines (10) basement. 2 1:00 or 9 o'clock. e. cl . Sample translation: Cherry blossom. Renshii 12: (1) 2.. cherry blossom. .. (5b) i) sunnylfine ii) cloudy (cloud) iii) rain iv) thunder v) snow. over fields and hills. 7/ii. 6 (2) 3 (3) printers. video. (4a) i) north ii) south ii i) gold/ Friday iv) earth/Saturday v) moon/ Monday vi) firelTuesday vii) water/ Wednesday. Slvii. (3d) I l v. 4. (Sa) 28th. b4. Renshii S: a) New Year b) bright c) hand d) read e) previous f) Japan g) eye h) time i) go j) think k) meet I) enjoy m) spirit n) year 0) dawn p) Yamamoto q) child. b. 51. Nicholas Cage. h. (7) order = g. A frog dives in. Nara. c.

The bracketed parI of a kun rcading indicates the part written in hiragana (dictionary form is given for verbs). tsuki. TO. JITSU. month. sun GETSU. •• On read ings are given in capital s. kun readings in lower casc.n SEN. tree. ki. GATSU. il* UNIT 1 LlJ (3) }II (3) SAN. ka. take. tsuchi. mori. • For stroke order of main refer to the writing sections of each unit. hi. wood a (4) fJ (4) ± [pic In.. earth.2] '#* (4) (8) . bamboo MOKU. river NIC HI . on and kun readings. Eng lish meani ngs and jukugo (compound word) examples . bayashi . ( 12) RIN. hayashi. ground C I-IIKU. kawa.INDEX (1) JAPANESEENGUSH: UNIT CHARTS A unit-by-unit summary of main iiX!* includi ng: number of strokes (in brackets). I] (3) 11 (6) [pic In. yama. day. gawa. forest . The stroke order for those ~* in units 1 and 2 which don' t appear in the writing sections is given in these charts . moon DO. BOKU. mounla. bi. woods SHIN.

guchi. ricejieJd KIN.7} .2 In . hi. NYO. ishi. gold. SEKI. [pic In . foo t (leg) MOKU.5] [pic In. 3shi. SHAKU. stone 1i (5) In.4] ji. mizu j water DEN. koku . kane. ta (riru). bi . kuchi.3] [pic In .1i (4) IU (5) (8) 9< (4) SU I. eye JO. KON. child [pic In. ta /da.INDEX II) 181 '* . money KA .3 In. mouth SOKU (ZOKU). (7) (5) 'Y:: " 'f (3) KO. me.Ii'. SU. onn3j woman SHI .. ko.4 UNIT 2 J:l (3) .6] [pic In. 1 In. KU.

1 (7) jJ (6) IJl (8) '* (5) MON. car BA.5 10. MYO. person 11. 15] In .6 1 +1'f1 ~1 31+1 I! IiI . 11] r'J (8) '1.\ll ( 10) NIN.13] [pic 10. moto. mimi. te. kUl'"uma. horse [pic In. bright. NAN. a ki(ra ka). a ka(rui). RIKI . root. kado. strength SHA.I' If If In. . HN. chikara .I~ I • .14] [pic In. book [pic In.f-. gate DAN. light HON.8 I. like. otoko.7 In. origin.h ~ (4) (2) $ (1) . hito. love MEl. vehicle. man KO.182 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT A (2) lj: (6) .12] [pic In. urn. main.9] [pic 1 0 . 10) [Pic In. POYl-'€r. hand RYOKU. ear SHU.81 [pic 10. kono(mu).

futa(tsu). 1m (5) three SHI. yot(tsu).K1i1 In. 11 [n.1 t 1.. four .13 In. yon.INDEX III 183 Ih!iDIJI1J1 In. two SAN.IO In.15 UNIT 3 ( I) (2) (3) ICH I.9 In. hito(tsu). yo. one NI.14 1¥J¥j . 12 In.1 1. mit(tsu).

age UNIT 4 PIl ( 14) ~ BUN. all T (3) li W (4) 4' (6) EN. mut(Lsu}. write GEN. to. yen. toshi. look. • (7) (1 0) tf (7) say GA KU. ka(u). J\ (2) :II. (2) a (2) (6) + ten HYAKU. rest (6) . kokono (Lsu). eight KYO. ka(ku}.n HACHI. hear. Id(ku).'14 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT "Ii (4) " (4) 1:. s. ten thousand. nana(tsu}. listen KEN. (8) n ( 12) «- buy KYO. itsu(tsu}. KU. five ROKU. six SHICHI. mi(ru}. koto. 'If. BAN. nine JO. i(u). yasu(mu). hundred SEN. ma na(bu}.. circle NEN. year. yat(tsu}. (2) ~ GO.. (GON). learn BAI. thousand MAN. watch SHO. chi . study. see.

ko. ta(heru). eat IN. old * (6) (3) (4) * fitf -. kome. talle SHO KU. callie KO. hai(ru). d e(ru). u( ru). OJ small . read WA. hanashi. da (s u)~ go/come 0 111 BAI . enter. expensive CHO. cow. furu(i). sell DOKU. MOTSU. ( 10) . mono.~ ( II ) RITSU. bird BEl . big. thread SHOo chii(sai). high. tachi.r. great KIN. 'aka(I).INDEX [11 185 III (5) 'lC (7) III ( 14) lt8 (13) 1l" W ( 12) A (2) til (8) SHUTSU. yo(mu). thing UNIT 6 :Jr. ito.!i (5) ~ (6) (4) IJ ' (3) SHI . ORO. TAl .a(lsu). i(ru). t. axe GVU. no(mu). hana(su). ushi . stand (up) KO. put in BUTSU. drink NYU. MAl. (5) 0:. rice DAI. o(kii). tori.

black HAKU. haha. electric KEN. BYAKU. island ON. atara(shii). hiro(i). safe KO. SHO. spacious SHIN. go down CHU. above. nobo (ru). yuki. yasu(i). shima. dog 1!t (II) lit (13) :k (4) &l. jiro. oaka. inside. shita. middle. (o)ka(san). oto. top KA. shi. S cheap. under. sound 'Ii (9) . green. ne. to. cloud. 30(1). snow DEN-. kumo(ri). cloudy weather RAI. GE. arne. (0)tO(580). father (5) kif (13) J!\ (11) (5) 1f (8) :l<: (4) jij (8) V. IN.186 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT 80. inu. a(garu). (10) TO. on. chichi.-o(i). kuro(i). wide.. below. kuda(ru). i!t (5) (6) * JZ. inexperienced FU. kaminari. new KOKU. DON. ue. blue. mother AN. moto. rom 1: (3) l' (3) <P (4) • 1If ~ ( 12) (16) (13) JO. white SEI. kumo. thunder SETSU. jima. within UN.

shimo. blaze. bitter. kara(i).Ie (4) 00 (8) rJj (6) :tlt ( 10) KO' . chirp EN. na(ku). discussion SON. hata. a (jtlle TAl. cultivated field DAN . ya( ku). hot.INDEX III SHIN. s~ko(shi). school UNIT 7 (fl (9) P/1 ~') (9) III< (l 5) l'i ( 10) P. country NIKU.f. hono. believe.l (14) ~ (8) jt (12) iIIi ( 14) l1I! (10) SHlN. ta( ku). language. SHO. word. trust. few. meal. tell MAl . frost SHOo suku(nai). chant. flame FUN. mago. hatake. SO. kindle GO. s hin(jiru). cry. fat. kuni. bury/be buried J! (5) TAN. TA. tona(eru). burn. kata(ru). guni. recite. flesh 187 'it' (7) ill ( 17) ~' (4) :. deep (voice) KOKU. dawn . u(meru). ' talk. ruto(i). grandchild MEl. spicy.

hiji elbow HAKU. bureau. hi . lurn. toki. to(maru)j stay at. TEl .188 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT . dokij lime Ilt (7) Ia (8) tI' (10) fi( ( 11 ) ~ ( 10) UNIT 8 m (8) TEN. muraj village MAJ . energy TAl . needle TEN. mise. light SETSU. body C HOt machij lown ff (7) ~ (8) SON. shop. ho(eru). younger sister T6. karada . noisy KATSU . o(ru)j f old. store OKU.{f. yaj S (9) JGl (7) shop KYOKU. imoto. nemu(i)j !:T W (7) iii'. (9) !Ii KAN • ' wicked. W (7) NT (7) live. lamp. bend MIN. hari. office . bark CHO. change )1 . koro(garu). snap. put up SHIN. (10) ~ (7) sleep(y) HAl.

kusuri j medicine SEN. ichi . public Ill! (1) f. master. alcohol CHA . wosh SHU. 00. nushi. live EKI . stO{H:Jl'er JO. i(ku).11. l eu if! ( 16) ~ (9) :E (5) II' ( 15) YAKU. ! u(mu). oyake. ZU. ba t place 111 (16) Ill! ( 13) KAN. station BEN. rice wine. OYO. market Tti (5) I (3) KQ. BIN. room fl (9) ff (6) ~ (9) . hold SHITSU. KU. drawing. sake. owner CHU. large building EN. hall. sono. go. convenience. reside. mail KO. yu(ku).INDEX II) 189 PIi (8) . city.(l ( 11 ) ill ( 10) 'lit (9) TO. map OVO. okona(u).1 (12) SHOt JO. !a kana. saka. AN. cons truction 1} (4) KD. fish SHU. tokoro j place JO. ara(u). garden SH I. haka(ru). {£ (1) ~ ( 14) reside.

east SEI. open JI[ (8) 1l!i (6) ~ (13) .j (4) NAI. (ku). fo rbidden U. kita. seat. materials HOKU. hoka. yO. hidarij left KAI. outside. higashi. a (keru).190 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT p. hira. minami. uchi. close . south TO. shi (meru). SAl. charge. place RYO' . (5) ti (5) IlIl ( 12) !ill (II ) HEI . migi j right SA.t. GE. BOKU. west KIN'. nishi. foreign SEKI . north NAN. solo. inside. home jlf (5) If/i (10) *'I (10) ~t (5) Jl! (9) GAl. OAI . to (jiru).

INDEX (2) ENGUSHJAPANESE: WORD INDEX The number in brackets indicates the page where the wordfirst appears.81) branch (97) break (91) bright (14.89) cultivated field (89) . 94) brush (46) bullellrain ( 11 8) bureau (105) bum (89) bury (89) be buried (89) buy (43) buyer (5 1) buying and selling (51) c calf (80) car (13) car park (108) carriage (15) cart (13) Central America (8\) certificate (90) chant (89) cheap (76) chicken (8 1) child (12. A above (77) abroad (112) absence from school (51) academic ability (51) address (108) admission free (113) adult (81) alcohol ( 106) a IiUie (79) America (81) arrival (117) art (106) art gallery (\07) ask (95) axe (75) B bad al (80) bamboo (3) bamboo shoots (49) bank ( 109) bar (107) bark (9 1) bathroom (114) beckon (94) beef (8 1) believe (89) below (77) bicycle (111) big (74) bird (74) bitler (79) black (76) blaze (89) blue (76) blue-white (80) body (91) book (50) bookshop (107) boy (15. 81) China (81) chirp (89) cinema (1 10) city (l06) cleanse (95) clear (94) clear up (95) close (117) closed (117) cloud (78) c loudy weather (78) clue (81) coffee shop (107) construction ( 106) convenience (108) conversation (89) cosmetics (114) country (8 1) cow (75) create (95) cry (animal .

50) foot (13) forbidde n ( 11 6) fore ign (1 12) exchange ( 11 2) fo rest (3) four (29) Friday (5) frost (79) foreign G garden ( 105) gate (13) gateway ( 15) girl ( 14.192 BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT o dawn (89) day (I) dealer (51) decree (94) departure discussion (89) dog (79) domestic ( 11 2) donnant volcano (5 1) (79) down ( 104) drawing (\06) drink (47) drinking place drinking water (51) drinks (50) drought (95) dry weather (95) ( 108) (1 17) dove (107) dwell E car (13) earth (3) east (1 15) cat (47) eating and drinking (5 1) eight (29) elbow (92) electric (78) elementary school (8 1) emolion (95) enler (48) entrance (5 1) entrance fee ( 11 3) exit (51) explosion (95) express (118) eye ( 13) F fac tory (107) fare adjustment office ( 109) fat (79) father (76) fee (III. Japanese ( 110) island (79) island . \13) feeling (95) few (79) fine weather (95) fire (3) fish (106) fi shmonger ( 107) five (29) fl ame (89) flesh (81) fold (9 1) food (47. 8 1) go ( 108) go in (48) going in and out (5 1) gold (3) good at (80) go out (43) grandchild (89) greengrocer (107) grilled (1 18) ground (3) H hall (105) hand ( 13) hear (43) heavy rain (80) ~igh (74) high school (8 1) hi story (90) hold (94) holiday (43. 5 1) horse (13) horse power (14) hot (79) hour (92) hundred (32) I imperial edict (94) information (109) inherit (94) inside (77) international phone (112) invite (94) country (8 1) items for sale (50) inn.

inn ( 11 0).INDEX (2) .3 J Japan ( 14) Japanese: bath ( 114).. room ( 11 2). style (114) j unior high school (8 1) K kindle (89) kiosk (107) L lamp (9 1) language (89) large bui lding (105) left ( 11 7) left luggage (113) lesson (90) library ( 107) like ( 14) listen (43) liquor store (107) live (91) liver (95) long-distance train ( II I) look (43) love (14) luggage ( 113) M make (95) mail (108) man ( 14) manpower (IS) map (106) market (106. cuisine (1 14). 107) marsh (94) master (108) meat (8 1) medic ine (106) middle (77) middle school (8 1) mischief (95) Monday (5) money (3) money exchange (109) month (2) mother (76) mother country (8 1) mountain (3) moon (I) mouth (13) museum ( 110) N narrative (90) new year (8 1) needle (92) new (76) new car (81) newspaper (8 1) nine (29) noise (79) north (1 15) not allowed ( 11 6) o occupied taxi ( III ) office ( 105) old (74) older (8 1) one (29) top (77) open (1 17) open for business (117) origin ( 14) on p paddy fie ld (15) pair (5 1) pale (80) parcel (Ill) parents (80) pari< (107) passport control ( 11 2) person (12) perspire (95) pharmacy ( 107) pigeon (79) place (105) poem (90) pointed (79) pole (95) . person ( 15).

... 108. 114) town (9 1) train (80) transl ation (90) travel (109) Tuesday (5) tune (90) tum (92) two (29) telephone [0) thing Thursday tower (94) tree (3) u under (77) underground (1 18) university (80) unreserved seat (113) up ( 104) unoccupied taxi (I II ) . in the (15) pull ( 11 7) puppy (80) purify (96) purity (95) push ( 11 7) rain (76) read (46) reading (51) recite (89) request (95) reserved seat ( 113) reside (108) rest (43) restrain (95) rice (74. 106) rice field (3) rickshaw ( 15) right( I 17) rive< (3) rod (95) roof (105) room ( 11 1) root ( 14) rotate (92) s safe (76) samwai (94) Saturday (5) say (43) school (8 1) sea'(III) secondhand car (8 1) sell (46) seller (5 1) set meal ( 113) seven (29) shop (105) shopping (50) shopping area ( 109) sightseeing (50) six (29) sleep (91) sleeper train (111) small (74) small dog (SO) smoke ( 11 6) snap (91) snore (95) snow (78) soar (94) sound (79) soulh ( 11 5) spacious (76) speak (46) special express ( li S) spirit (95) Siand ( news) ( 107) stand (up) (75) start school (5 1) station (108) stay at (92) stone (4) store ( 105) strength ( 13) strictly forbidden ( 116) study (43) study visit (5 1) Sunday (5) superiors (80) swamp (94) swan (80) T talk (46) tall (74) tapered (79) tea (106) tcashop (107) (8 1) temple (92) tcn (29) ten thousand (32) theatre (I (50) thousand (32) thread (75) three (29) thunder (78) (5) ticket office (109) time (92) to ilet (107. R BEGINNER'S JAPANESE SCRIPT polished rice (80) population ( 14) post office (I 08) powder room ( 114) power (13) previous (95) primary school (8 1) proof (90) public (106) public eye.

room (1 12) white (76) white rice (80.INDEX (2) 195 v vast (80) vehicle ( 13) village (9 1) vinegar (95) volcano (1 5) w wait ( 114) waiting room ( 114) wash (106) watch (43) water (3) water power (15) Wednesday (5) west ( 11 5) western-style (114) + cuisine ( 114). 95) wide (76) wine ( 106) wine shop ( 107) woman (12) woodIs (3) words (43) write (47) writing (50) y yen (32) year (32) yesterday (95) younger sister (91 ) youth (80) . 95) wickedness (89 .

Other related titles l5lJTEACII YOURSELF BEGINNER'S JAPANESE Helen Gilhooly Do you really want to learn Japanese? Do classes terrify you and other coursebooks overwhelm you? The n Teach Yourself Beginner's Japanese is for you! Helen Gilhooly has writte n a friend ly introductio n to Japanese that is easy right the way through . It is in two parts. so you will be able to relax and enjoy your first taste of Japanese. The first teaches you the basic language you will need. . with lively dialogues. explanation s and vocabulary_ In the second you move on to practising what you have just learnt in a range of real-life situations. Beginner's Japanese is idea1 for you because: • Everything is explained in simple English • There are hints throughout to make learning Japanese easy • • • • What you learn is useful rig ht from the start There's a special section on Kanji characters A quick pronunciation section starts you speaking There are plenty of varied and entertaining exercises and activities • Each of the 20 units includes some cultura1 notes to make your learning interesting • There are lots of illustrations to help your learning It is never difficult or boring.

Their course structure means that you can work at your own pace. grammar and exercises • An extensive Japanese-English vocabulary list • A unique cross-referencing system to help you look up unfamiliar language When you have finished Teach Yourself Japanese you'll be able to hold your own anywhere. from a karaoke bar to a business lunch. arranging your learning to suit your own needs.Other related titles [51JTEACII YOURSELF JAPANESE Helen Ba1lhatchet and Stefan Kaiser This is a complete course in spoken Japanese. culture notes. This course contains: • Graded units of dialogues. Teach Yourself Japanese is for you. They explain everything clearly along the way and give you plenty of opportunities to practise what you have learnt. If you have never learnt Japanese before. Helen Ballatchet and Stefan Kaiser have created a practica1 course that is both fun and easy to work through. or if your Japanese needs brushing up. .

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