APA FORMATTING AND STYLE GUIDE

by University of Malaya Library (UML)

Malay Names (without family names) Author .Title General Rules Content Single Author Two Authors Three to Six Authors More Than Six Authors Author . No Author Edited Book with an Author or Authors A Translation Edition Other Than the First Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Multivolume Work Reference List : Articles in Periodicals Basic Form Article in Journal Paginated by Volume Article in Journal Paginated by Issue Article in a Magazine Article in a Newspaper Letter to the Editor Review Reference List : Other Print Sources An Entry in an Encyclopedia Work Discussed in a Secondary Source Dissertation Abstract Government Document Report from a Private Organization Conference Proceedings Published Conference Paper Unpublished Conference Paper Academic Exercise / Thesis (Unpublished) 3 4 5-6 i .Chinese Names with English Names Author .Indian & Sikh Names (without family names) Inherited Names Conferred titles Local Government Institution as Author Foreign Government Institution as Author Unique Corporate Body Names Organization as Author Conference Names with Numbers Unknown Author Page 1-2 Reference List : Book Basic Format for Books Edited Book.Chinese Names Author .

or Report Chapter or Section of a Web Document Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting Computer Software Reference List : Other Non-Print Sources Interview. Email. Web Page. and Other Personal Communications Motion Picture A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability Television Broadcast or Series Episode Single Episode of a Television Series Television Broadcast A Television Series Music Recording Suggested Reading Materials 9-10 Appendix ii .Title Content Page 7-8 Reference List : Electronic Sources Article From an Online Periodical Online Scholarly Journal Article Online Scholarly Journal Article with Printed Version Available Article From a Database Nonperiodical Web Document.

Sun. D. A. P. T. 1 . 65.Chinese Names First name first. 44(3). DeNiro. followed by author initials. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand (&). Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. M. Journal of Film and Writing. T. Author . R.. Petaling Jaya: Fajar Bakti. Berndt. (1994). T." Omit bin/binti Harris. Current Directions in Psychological Science. (1993).. D. P. Author . G. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem.General Rules Single Author Last name first. D.. Author . Karper." Remember not to place a period after "et" in "et al. Two Authors List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand (&) instead of "and.. Hoffman. 213-245. N. et al. Kemahiran berbahasa.. (2001). Chu Chin Ning Cite as Chu. (1995). A comparison of modeling strategies. (1991).. E. Chemical Engineering Journal.. Simulated counter-current adsorption processes. 11. H. E. Friendship quality and social development. Sarawak: Mini episodes of the past. 1190-1204. K.. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbitan Pustaka Antara." which stands for "and others. C.. V.. More Than Six Authors If there are more than six authors. Wegener. 7-10. (2002). 56. Cruz. H. Stacks. Kernis..Chinese Names with English Names Family names followed by the initials of the English name and the author initials Vincent Foo Hiap Khian Cite as Foo. Cornell. 66. J. M. list the first six as above and then "et al. followed by author initials. C.. R. Berry. & Petty. Writing labs and the Hollywood connection." Three to Six Authors List by last names and initials. R. (1983). commas separate author names.Malay Names (without family names) Asmah Binti Omar Cite as Asmah Omar. 59-65. 1034-1048. & Harlow. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

(2009). 2 . Conferred titles Omit title Tun Mahathir Mohamad Cite as Mahathir Mohamad Local Government Institution as Author Foreign Government Institution as Author Unique Corporate Body Names Organization as Author Conference Names with Numbers Cite under state and followed by the name of department in Malay Pahang. Board (Lembaga). (2009). Springfield. (2009). If the name starts with Foundation (Yayasan). cite as it is given Yayasan Sabah. Do not include the numbers Fifth Asia-Pacific Physics Conference Cite as Asia-Pacific Physics Conference Unknown Author Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.(1993). (2003). MA: Merriam-Webster. a/l. American Psychological Association.Author-Indian & Sikh Names (without family names) Omit d/o. (2009). Inherited Names Cite as it is Raja Ahmad Niza.). Department of External Affairs. Cite under state or country and followed by the name of department in English New Zealand. Cite as Narrayani Jeganathan. a/p Narrayani a/p Jeganathan. Cite as Raja Ahmad Niza. s/o. Jabatan Alam Sekitar. (2009).

R. (Eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Rogoff. Edited Book with an Author or Authors A Translation Note: When you cite a republished work in your text." before the numbers: (pp. (2000). & Valencia.. (1996). Edition Other Than the First Helfer. 1-21). & Drugman. Location: Publisher. L.).. Truscott & F. Editor & B. Washington. Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. (1997). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Kukil.Brainerd (Eds. & Brooks-Gunn. R. No Author Duncan. however.. A. C. P. Laplace. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Note: For "Location. A. Editor (Eds. (1951). Title of book (pages of chapter)..V. Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title.). Calfee. Emory. 117-142). use "pp. Keme." you should always list the city. The unabridged journals (K.). (Year of publication). (F. (Original work published 1814).S. 5-13. In M. & Author. J.Reference List : Books Basic Format for Books Author. The battered child (5th ed. & Mistry. A. Edited Book. B. J. does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references. Cognitive learning and memory in children (pp. S. it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951). R. DC: American Psychological Association. G. J. In A. (1991). New York: Dover. New York: Anchor. except for newspapers. Trans.E.D. R.). .J.). (1997). (Year of publication). Multivolume Work Scruton. Ed. This abbreviation. M.). W. 15(30). 3 . A philosophical essay on probabilities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Author. B.. but you should also include the state if the city is unfamiliar or if the city could be confused with one in another state. (1985). Title of chapter. Location: Publisher. Pressley & C. R. The eclipse of listening. Memory development in cultural context. R.. A. Plath. S. Consequences of growing up poor. B. The New Criterion.

(2005. Baumeister. B. Title of Periodical. 2A. Therefore. August). and continue numbering in issue two where issue one ended. 1A. Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. e. pages. S.Reference List : Articles in Periodicals Basic Form The APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials. B. B2. The Country Today. (2002. H. is also italicized or underlined. December 28). meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized.g. and is followed by the volume number which. publication year goes between parentheses. R. & Author. A. Single pages take p. Time. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. C3-C4. 12. The eclipse of listening. volume number(issue number). April 9). C1. 287(2). The title of the article is in sentence-case. (1993). C. Harlow. G.. A. (1983). Making the grade in today's schools. Title of article.. F. 28-31. Schultz. pp. Scientific American. Article in Journal Paginated by Volume Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one. Article in a Magazine Article in a Newspaper Unlike other periodicals. (Year). e. Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control ]. Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor].. 38.. 5-13. Contemporary Psychology. Letter to the Editor Review Moller. C. Henry. (1990. 135. p. p. Scruton.g. R. The periodical title is run in title case. Author. Article in Journal Paginated by Issue Journals paginated by issue begin with page one in every issue. Author.. followed by a period. III. B2. with the title. W. 893-896.. F. 15(30). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. The New Criterion. 55. 466467.. multiple pages take pp. (1996). pp. A. the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. or pp. 4 . B4 or pp.

589-608. G. ADM 90-1679). (Eds.. Y. & Haller. (1990). Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Washington.: Author. and give a citation for the secondary source. name the original work. (1993). 1993).). P.. J. DC: U. Mahwah. Atkins. & Cunnius. Schnase.S. Work Discussed in a Secondary Source List the source the work was discussed in: Coltheart.. Government Document Report from a Private Organization Conference Proceedings 5 . Washington.C. In the text. Dissertation Abstracts International. and you did not read the original work. Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed. 2001). Curtis. E. Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list. Essays in urban transportation (Doctoral dissertation. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.. Government Printing Office.L. . In the text. 62.). if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. & Haller. Psychological Review. Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. 26. list the Coltheart et al. M. (2000).L. 501-508). 100. Dissertation Abstract Yoshida. Atkins.Reference List : Other Print Sources An Entry in an Encyclopedia Bergmann. National Institute of Mental Health.. 7741A. Relativity. pp.. (1993). For example. Curtis. reference in the References. (2001). NJ: Erlbaum. M. Boston College. American Psychiatric Association. (1995). use the following citation: In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart. P. D. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. B.

The economic depression of the 1930s : Its impact on race relations in the Federated Malay State. Research methods for business: A skill building approach. Nadaraja Kannan.). 121-138). International trade agreement of intellectualproperty rights (TRIPS). Nov). 6 . Unpublished master’s thesis.& Azizah Hamzah. Y. (Ed. Manila. (2007). N. Paper presented at the International Association of Historians of Asia Conference. Unpublished Conference Paper Academic Exercise / Thesis (Unpublished) Santini. S. KualaLumpur: University of Malaya. (2006. (2008). copyright issues & burden to enforce in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur (pp. Korean studies in Southeast Asia: Strategic cooperation and development in research and education: nd Proceedings of the 2 International Conference of the Korean studies Association of Southeast Asia held on 29 January – 1 February 2007 at the University of Malaya. In Choi K. University of Malaya.Published Conference Paper Hasmah Zanuddin. Kuala Lumpur. Philippines.

149. 7 . provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). from http://www. Use "Electronic version" in brackets after the article's title. Author. A study of enjoyment of peas. Social Science Research. A. Smyth. Journal of Abnormal Eating.someaddress. B. volume number(issue number if available). Journal of Buddhist Ethics. & Pease.M. A. (2002). including an issue number in parentheses. (2000). the URL is not required. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights.alistapart.someaddress. Kenneth..com/articles/cite living Online Scholarly Journal Article with Printed Version Available Whitmeyer. L. A. 8.com/full /url/ If the article appears as a printed version as well. B. B.cac. 10 tips on writing the living Web. & Author. A.edu/jbe/twocont. from http://www. M. year. from http://www. Article From a Database When referencing material obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library). (Date of publication). J. Retrieved 2 May 2006. Retrieved 20 February 2003. from PsycARTICLES database. year. 8(3).. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. Title of Journal. Include all information the online host makes available. Title of article.. from http://www. A. Then add information that gives the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. Power through appointment [Electronic version]. L. & Author.Reference List : Electronic Sources Article From an Online Periodical / Databases Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. (2002). volume number. Retrieved month day. M. Retrieved day. B. Parker. month.psu. This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. I. (Date of publication). Title of article. A. 29..Retrieved 20 February 2001. D.html Bernstein. (2000). A. Title of Online Periodical. 535-555.com/full /url/ Online Scholarly Journal Article Author.

month. NOTE: If only the screen name is available for the author.htm. or discussion group. from http://Web address NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page. B. R. D. if the author provides a real name. year. (Date of publication). Module mod_rewrite : URL Rewriting Engine. html Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting For a message posted to an online newsgroup. Engelshcall.com/full /url/. and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. A. Frook.com/forum/messages/00025. month.) Retrieved March 10.3/mod/mod_rewrite. as in other types of references. move up the URL to http://www.someaddress. include the title of the message. forum. New York: Worth.. Title of document (Date of publication). PsychInquiry [computer software].3 Documentation (Apache modules.ht ml Computer Software Ludwig. B. not the home page of the Web site. Web Page. T. Title of article. If the date is unavailable for the document use (n. provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. from http://www. Retrieved day. B. A. the thread of the message (not in italics).Nonperiodical Web Document. Provide any identifiers in brackets after the title. year. from http://Web address. New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25].d. A.somesite.) for no date. use their real name instead.htm does not carry the information you are looking for. A. Message posted to http://groups.somesite. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1. B. year.earthlink.apache. Be sure to provide the exact date of the posting. or Report List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information. B. S. July 23).. If there is a page such as http://www. Retrieved day. & Author. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). and somepage. & Author. from http://httpd. Chapter or Section of a Web Document Author.com/somepage.org/docs/1. (1999. (2002). 2006. month. 8 . Follow the date with the subject line. then use the screen name. Retrieved day. Title of document.com/) Author. (Date of publication). NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section. However. (1997).

9 . instead. personal communication. West Lafayette. (Director). Title of broadcast [ Television broadcast or Television series ]. J. add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name. Country of origin: Studio or distributor. City of origin: Studio or distributor. P. S. W. Email. A. (Writer). January 4. and Other Personal Communications No personal communication is included in your reference list. (Date of broadcast or copyright). November 3. & Director. P. (Writer). Writer.R. I. IN 47907) Producer. November 1). Series title. The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. (2001). (Date of publication).D. D. A. (Date of publication).Reference List : Other Non-Print Sources Interview. & Turley. W. (Producer). J. Creatures and monsters. (1990. M. Dude (Producer). Basic reference list format: Producer. & Martian. (Producer). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. New York: Central Broadcasting Service. (Available from Purdue University Pictures. Television Broadcast or Series Episode Single Episode of a Television Series Television Broadcast Important. (Director). & Director. D. M. The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. 500 Oval Drive. (Director). Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication. P. Wendy. M. (Producer). P. City of origin: Studio or distributor. (2002). full address and zip code). In P. (Producer). Robbins. Producer (Producer). (Director). Really big disaster movie [ Motion picture]. (Producer). Motion Picture A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National availability A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability Smith.D. I. parenthetically cite the communicators name and the date of the communication in your main text only. & Smithee. Note: If a movie or video tape is unavailable in wide distribution. (Director). (E. 2001). Los Angeles: Belarus Studios.D. Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Title of episode [Television series episode]. W. 2002). United States: Paramount Pictures Harris.F. In D. (1986). P.

D. W. Exciting action show [Television series]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. Location: Label.A Television Series Bellisario. W. (Producer). Hollywood: American Broadcasting Company. Music Recording Songwriter. (Date of copyright). London: Big Pig Music Limited. (Recording date if different from copyright date). On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. Taupin. Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. University of Malaya Library (UML) Updated 25 June 2009/SB 10 . (1992). B. (1975).L.

(2003). The student’s guide to preparing dissertations and theses (2 ed. Scientific authorship: Credit and intellectual property in science (2 ed. (1996). nd Azirah Hashim. New: Routledge. Gibaldi. New York: Modern Language Association of America. (2005). (2008). Jariah Mohd Jan.. D. Punctuation matters: Advice on punctuation for scientific and technical writing th (4 ed. J. J. Technical writing basics: A guide to style and form (4 ed. Panduan penulisan saintifik: Manual untuk pelajar dan penyelidik. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Kuala Lumpur: IPS.). Routledge Falmer. Medford. th Holloway.). Westminster. N. (1999). N. nd Biagioli.Appendix Suggested Reading Materials Allison. . (1998). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis. Amato. Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall.). R. Guide to the preparation of research reports: Dissertations and theses. How to write a thesis: The thesis writing journey from start to finish. Enjoy writing your science thesis or dissertation: A step-by-step guide to planning and writing dissertations and theses for undergraduate and graduate science students. D. London. B. New York: McGraw-Hill.). Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. B. (2004). (1993). (1991). The world’s easiest guide to using the APA: A user-friendly manual for formatting research papers according to the American Psychological Association style guide nd (2 ed. N. Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information. & Crane. (2003). Buckingham: Open University Press. Lindsay. Huckin. (2006). P. J. M. Kirkman. A.).). CA: Stargazer Pub. (2003). London: Imperial College Press. Li. Creme. Holtom. C. X. T. B. (2008). Technical writing and professional communication: For nonnative speakers of English.J: Information Today. Writing at university: A guide for students. MLA handbook for writers of research papers (6th ed.

Maidenhead. New York: Routledge. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. Russey. (2004). W. (2001). (1998). Proposals that work: A guide for planning dissertations and grant proposal (5 ed. Effective writing: Improving scientific. Yang. L. London: E & FN Spon. Spon. Singapore: World Scientific. M. Turabian. C. London: E. Boston. O’Connor. (1996). E. An outline of scientific writing: For researchers with English as a foreign language.N. (1991). Writing successfully in science. Yusof Hj. C. A manual for writers of research papers. (1999). technical and business communication (2 ed. Panduan penyelidikan sains dan penulisan saintifik . (1989). F. J. R. th Locke. Successful scientific writing: A step-by-step guide for the biological and nd medical sciences ( 2 ed. The essentials of MLA style: A guide to documentation for writers of research papers.: Houghton Mifflin. theses. TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.).). Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Winkler. J. (2007). Othman. Trimmer. L. Thousand Oaks: Sage Pub. (2008). The unwritten rules of PhD research.). . (2006). Science and technical writing: A manual of style (2 ed. P. and dissertations: Chicago th style for students and researchers (7 ed. England: Open University Press.). A. with an Appendix on APA style.). C.). Writing the research paper: A handbook with both the MLA and APA th documentation styles (5 ed. Matthews. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. G. Writing a successful theses or dissertation: Tips and strategies for students in the social and behavioral sciences.Lunenberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1995). nd Turk. Rugg. (2007). (2000). & F. T. Mohd. J. K. F. Forth Worth. How to write a successful science thesis: The concise guide for students. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. nd Rubens. Mass.

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