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LAST BASTION FALLS Deceinb 1961 The Army liberates Goa from Portugal, And India’s break from imperialist rate is corp OUIVE gor to shoot a bnil, otherwise ie will finish you.” Ancient wisdom trom Kenneth: Kaanda of Norsherm Rhodesia or just cimely advice? He speaks at the Scrninar on Portus Delhi from October 24 to 28, 1961, For Anica and Asia, che continued Porragese ocenpation ‘of Gis is slap in she face for ficedom. an untenable sustenance for ourdated forces of colonialism. Jawaharlal Nelirt, India’s prime miniscey, will declare af the sonntnar that India’s ateitude to ese Gos ticked not juse by ity theoretical attachments « non violence, bur by praetieal cor Bu the story of Gi oF late 1961 coslonised by the Portuguese after Vasco Da Ganu in 1498, The British, much as they suled India, hala treaty with Porengal thar went back to dhe Mth storie alles”. The British Empire allowed Portugal co hold Danuan and Din, and ge French t hold Chasdernagore and Pondicheny. But untike the French, who lett graciously when India gained Independence, Portugal hung on. Goa way nota colony: Tewas parr of meaopolitan Portugal and therefore Lishom's problem Notall Goans, however, aw ir quite thar way From 1634, Goans had tought for freedom, and the Hist attempt ves made bya Roman Catholic priest called Castro, Over a hundred years later. in 1787, dhe Portuguese crushed the Pinto rebellion, where a group of priests tried co overthrow the eofonial rulers. In 1852. Dapaii Rane le am uprising, whick lasted thie and a half years and ended only when the Portngnese loosened some of their Goa is begins sometime before the events The western state on the Indian subeontin ccnewry, anaking them Ty 1895 and 1912 again, Dads Rane rose against the: ese. Reptesive measures were used to quell these provests. But by the ewely 20th century as the Indian freedom movement was sweeping actoss the country Goa’s fheedom fighters were affocted by these winds too. In 1928, the Goan National Congress, under Dr Tnista0 Braganza Cuinin, adopted non-violence as the guiding principle Ports vivles Fhe mave way now to educate the people, instil die dos ics. Goans. responded srt in meetings and rallies, breakin that denied them these freedoms, They suffered for # In 1946 alone. some 1.500 Goans were arrested and eaten up or kepe in police custody. 1947. Freedoms vomes to India, The Poreuguese hy intention o leaving they say, vet chey confer with the Ni Hyderabad over become part of his state when he makes bid for independence. some of thes ts arrested and deported to Portugal in Februtary $954, the ery for ans are snade vague promises, hope of soliton. {ut when Dr Gate promincng Goans, addressed toathers is w “free themselves tanite with India” July 21, 1954. Members of the Avad Gomantak Dal tibet she small Portuguese stronghold of Dadra and Nagar Hace north along the western eoast from Goa. Saryagrahis within and stside Goa rejoice: their tim can only: come nest. August 19 and hundreds of Satyagrahis, Goan and Indian, are fired upon bs Portngtese troops, arrested, beaten up. The Indians are lett ut hue the Goans are semtenced to ap to even 28 years andreas of Geary wil rect 10 conviet imprisonmens, Bewween now and 1961, be similarly crested, many depo wens #2 Arica and Portugal. The pressure om Lada fo act iy tremienclants The Goan drama is also being played out om tional stage, Nebru’s principles of non-violence a peacettl com otiation betbre action, are noe associated with his name all over the world, The United Nation: is all far negodiation and talks berween Portugal and India. Bors and oF covert mil thn, te is practically in acters, as Asian and AtFice coun themselves with India, the West with Porta ‘The Furopean countries! contention thar Catholics. i Go; would sudler from nnion with India is countered by the c+ many more Christians enjoy scence, of ty provocation, Patience is tot itt FH religious freedom in Ind) Farewell cles onsing wef or the Tan tem a aon Fei An economic blackide af Gas is not suceessFil, The result tnd Goan nationalists, hampered by dhe 1 diet raffic, Fee loft out and weak, Worse, Portal mars akostun for help. The Azad Gomantak Dal ateacks Pakistan for siating the principles of the Bandung Conference. Nebru’y pofey of waiting and wacching is a faihure, from all appearances, ne Tostaguese show no sign of relenting. the jatemnational ommuanity is very slow in applying pressure. ‘The Anterican fudia, joist Kenneth Galbraith, advises caution, cep by step. we were draven inte this whielpool, st out will.” Evidently, the wind has changed direction Buc in Gos itsel, aw and order is breaking down, Goan ssc Hein into Tndia. Portuguese trowps infiltrate Indian territory und pick sets against their regime, The rime to set seems ro have come, Deferice Minister Rrishna Menon tells Nebr Dacenber 17, 1961. Indian troops move into Goa. under charge of Livutenant-Generai J N Chaudbuari, GOC Souther Cosnuand, Air Force planes drop pamph mg, the people that their hour of freedom is ac hand. Indian warships move into the sea around Goa. In 24 ours. Goa is asualties are few, The only untoward tncidh after flying the white taken is when Portuguese guns fire on Indian rat, ug of stntender The ukeover is practi Governor-gencral of Go The lly paititess and peaceful, surrenders. in detiance of 0 Lisbon, Contrary to Rortual’s assertions, Goans do not fight (6 che last breath ew defend their colonial masters, December 19, 11 pin, Troops at Mariage lav how their hi The last Portuguese resistance is over. Daman and Ditt have already susrendered earlier in the day, ‘The international community 4s appalled. India has gone back ou her owa principles. In Goa itself; there is widespread rubilation. The Indian flag is flven from roofiops. The Portuguese National Assembly aumoances ia February 1962 char it does no accept the ladian invasion and tohewver af Gus. ‘Tomas Prisonre Furtado, a member of the National Asserably, and a lawyer in Margao, says ‘04 has joined the motherland, it is the duty of every Goan to work for the progress of the the other Goan members of the assembly send in their signations co Dr Salazar, Prime Minister of Pornugal The bull has bor a0uuis when the Tadian Navy sails into Portugaes rhat since a shor. . us on Tervitones pas 5 Pasian ad Di Size 1.004 hn Popuistion: 102.008 f+ Pondicterey Sine: SR gba Population: S080 7 Chandi Size, 0 hae options 642.000 Size: 15,000 sq bra apoio: 21 000 > Andhuman & Nicobar Klas Size: 00 9 Pypulacion: 281.000, Lakdiadep, vata and Nagar Hae se 0 4 ry IN COLONIALISM IN The etfects of Portugnese rule on the population By Dr. Teotonio R de Souza ONTRAFACTUAL method, joay could provide us with differens images of Goa thar could be, and one such virtual reality could be similar to several other districts in the Konkan neighbourhood of Goa, withont any special aturction thar distinguishes the 25th save of the Indian ation, What made Goa different is certainly the long-term. almost 4591 years of ereatment co whieh it was subjected by the Portuguese colonial regime. Whatever the nationalist reactions of some their latter-day political symipathisers with an anti-colonial bond of mitd, it should noe be forgotten that individual oF class interests have ofte gallaborstion shat could be ical betrayal. Timmayya or Timaji had not offered his advice and collaboration to the Portuguese empire builder, Afonso de Albuquerque.-Goa would perhaps have had a different past, than ie has hud Also, between the first and the seca conquest of Go without active assistance of the Goans from cither side of the Mandovi nver During and soon af nguest, Goan nayaks were competing with each other to deeapitate their former Muslim chiefs and band over their heads Albuguerque’s officials in exchange for menctary rewards or defied wider interests and sought xd (etinitive) che Portuguese conid not have sarvived. other forms of patronage, W'the Goan Saraswat Brabniins hal not continued to ran the fiscal machinery of Goa as an collectors for dhe Port f ad ax find suppliers, the Portuguese rule aver Gor could have been shore-circnited. Many Goan men and women of humble castes soonied to have found 2 once-in-a-life-tiie opportunity € opt fer social mobility by throwing their loe with dhe mew Porugucse mesticos were many bom from this native option, and there resulted also a ne Chards, with many of the Maratha collaborators in the early war of conguest and control acquiring, the Kshatriya status foilowing, their conversion to Christianity. 1 has a parallel in Sri Lanka, where lower castes entered the s. with the Portuguese Tn reuarn for the newly acquired soctab rise. the Charde of Goa were the steadfast supporters of the unlike their rival Brahmins who discontent against the colonial rulers on Bishop Matheus de Castro Mahale nspitacy parmers. and agreat number 1 liberal potiticians countering the native caste of caste of the cin smon gatherers that cooperated Portuguese regime. sted th different occasio: most ofthe Pinto of 19th century G white Portuguese interests were Brain: Another interesting case of Goans who aeted as close