Unit One Accounting Profession
第一单元 会计职业

INTRODUCTION OF ACCOUNTING. Accounting is a process of recorded, classifying, summarizing, and interpreting of those business activities that can be in expressed in monetary terms. A person who specializes in this field is known as an accountant.
会计简介 会计是一个以货币形式对经济活动进行记录、分类、汇总以及解释的过程。专门从事这方 面工作的人员叫做会计师。

Accounting frequently offers the qualified person an opportunity to move ahead quickly in today’s business world. Indeed, many of the heads of large corporations throughout the world have advanced to their position from the accounting department. Accounting is a basic and vital element in every modern business. It records the past growth or decline of the business. Careful analysis of these results and trends may suggest the ways in which the business may grow in future. Expansion or reorganization should not be planned without proper analysis of the accounting information; and new products and the campaign to advertise and sell them should not be launched without the help of accounting expertise.
会计这一职业在当今经济社会中给有能力的人提供了升迁的机会。事实上,世界上许多大公司的领导 者都是从会计部门升到现有位置上的。会计是现代各类公司基本和重要的组成部分,它记录公司以入的兴 衰,对这些记录结果和趋势进行认真的分析,有助于公司提出未来发展的方向。如果没有对会计资料的恰 当的分析,就无法计划公司的扩展和重组,没有会计专业人员的帮助,就无法组织生产新产品,开展促销 活动。

Accounting is one of the fastest growing professions in the modern business world. Every new store, school, restaurant, or filling station—indeed, any new enterprise of any kind—increases the demand for accountants. Consequently, the demand for competent accountants is generally much greater than the supply. Government officials often have a legal background; similarly, the men or women in management often have a background on accounting. They are usually familiar with the methodology of finance and the fundamentals of fiscal and business administration.
会计师是当今经济社会中发展最快的职业之一。每一个新商店、学校、饭店或加油站,事实上,任何 种类的新企业的建立都增加了对会计师的需求, 其结果是对有水平的会计师的需求通常要大大超过其供给。 政府官员通常要有做过法律工作的背景。同样,从事管理工作的男女工作人员通常有做过会计工作的经历, 他们对理财方法和财务管理的基本原则一般都十分熟悉。

DISTINCTION BETWEEN BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNTING Earlier accounting procedures were simple in comparison with modern methods. The simple bookkeeping procedures of a hundred years ago have placed in many cases by the data-processing computer. The control of the fiscal affairs of an organization must be as scientific as possible in order to be effective.
簿记和会计的区别 与现代的会计方法比较起来,早期的会计程序很简单。一百年前的简单簿记已经 在许多情况下由电子计算机的数据处理所取代。一个单位的财务控制必须做到尽可能科学,这样才会有效 果。

In the past, a bookkeeper kept the books of accounts for an organization; the present-day accountants’ job developed from the bookkeepers’ job. Today, a sharp distinction is made between the relatively unchanged works performed by a bookkeeper and the more sophisticated duties of

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the accountants. The bookkeeper simply enters data in financial records books; the accountant must understand entire system of records so that he or she can analyze and interpret business transaction. To explain the difference briefly, the accountant sets up a bookkeeping system and interprets the data in it, whereas the bookkeeper performs the routine work of recording figures in books. Because interpretation of the figures is such an important part of the accountant’s function, accounting has often been described as an art.
过去簿记员的工作是记录一个单位的往来账目, 而当今会计师的工作在簿记员的工作有所发展。 现在, 人们对簿记员从事的相当不变的工作与会计师所担任的较复杂的工作做了明显的区分。簿记员的工作只是 登记账簿,而会计师必须了解账目的全部体系,从而可以对业务交易进行分析和解释。这一区别简单说来 就是:会计师要设立簿记体系,并对其中的资料进行解释;而簿记员从事的是往账本里记账这样日常的工 作。由于解释账目中数字的工作是会计职能很重要的一部分,会计常常被描述为是一种艺术。

DIVISIONS OF ACCOUNTING The field of accounting is divided into three broad divisions: public, private, and governmental. A certified accountant or a CPA, as the term is usually abbreviated, must pass a series of examinations, after which he or she receives a certificate. In the United States, the certification examinations are prepared and administered by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The various states or other major governmental jurisdictions set additional qualifications for residence, experience, and so on. The British equivalent for a CPA is called a charted accountant.
会计种类 会计这一行一般分为三大类:公共会计、私人会计和政府部门会计。注册会计师(或 CPA, 注册会计师的缩写) ,必须通过一系列考试方可得到证书。在美国,这种资格考试由美国注册会计师协会负 责和实施。各个州或政府其他主要司法部门对申请人的居住地、经历等其他条件做出规定。在英国相当于 CPA 的人叫特许会计师。

CPAs can offer their services to the public on an individual consultant basis for which they receive a fee. In this respect or many others, they are similar to doctors or lawyers. Like them, CPAs may be self-employed or partners in a firm; or they may be employed by an accounting firm.
注册会计师可以就每笔咨询业务向公众提供收费服务。在这方面和许多其它方面,他们与医生和律师 很相似。与医生和律师一样,注册会计师可以是个体经营,也可以是在一个公司合伙经营,他们也可以由 会计公司雇佣。

Many accountants worked in government offices or for nonprofit organizations. These two areas are often joined under the term government and institutional accounting. The two are similar because of legal restrictions in the way in which they receive and spend funds. Therefore, a legal background is sometimes necessary for this type of accounting practice.
许多会计在政府部门或非盈利性组织工作,这两个领域通常被放在一起,称为政府和行政事业单位会 计。这两个领域有相似之处,因为在接受和使用资金方面,它们都受到法律的限制。因此,做这方面的会 计有时需要一些法律经验。

All branches of governments employ accountants. In addition, government-owned corporation have accountants on their staffs. All of these accountants, like those in private industry, work on a salary basis. They tend to become specialists in limited fields like transportation or public utilities.
政府的各部门都雇用会计师,而且,政府所拥有的公司也有它们自己的会计师。所有这些会计师和在 私营行业工作的会计师一样是挣工薪的。他们往往对某些行业或特别领域(如交通,或公共设施方面)的 会计很擅长。 第 2 页 共 122 页


Nonprofit organizations are, of course, in business for some purpose other than making money. They include cultural organizations like symphony orchestras or opera societies, charitable organizations, religious groups, or corporate-owned research organizations. Although they are limited in the manner in which they can raise and spend their funds, they usually benefit from special provisions in the tax laws.
当然,非盈利性组织经营的目的不是为了赚钱。这些非盈利性组织包括像交响乐团或歌剧协会这样的 文化组织、慈善组织、宗教团体或公司拥有的研究机构。虽然它们在筹措和使用资金的方式上受到限制, 它们常常可以受益于税法中的某些特别条款。

Private accountants, also called executive or administrative accountants, handle the financial records of a business. Like those who work for government or nonprofit organizations, they are salaried rather than paid a fee. Those who work for manufacturing concerns are sometimes called industrial accountants. Some large corporations employ hundreds of employees in their accounting offices.
私人会计师,也叫做主管或行政会计师,负责处理公司的财务账目。同在政府或非盈利性组织工作的 会计师一样,他们是挣工薪而不是按每笔业务收费。在制造公司工作的会计师有时叫做工业会计师。一些 大公司通常要雇用上百名雇员做会计工作。

The chief accounting officer of a company is the controller, or comptroller, as he or she is sometimes called. Controllers are responsible for maintaining the records of the company’s operations. On the basis of the data that have been recorded, they measure the company’s performance; they interpret the results of the operations; and they plan and recommend future actions. This position is very close to the top of management. Indeed, a controller is often just a step away from being the executive officer of a corporation.
一个公司最高的会计官员叫会计主任或主计长。会计主任负责保存反映公司经营活动的账目,根据所 记录的数据衡量公司的运作状况,对经营情况做出解释,然后对未来的行动提出计划和建议。这一位置与 最高管理人员非常接近,实际上,会计主任再长一步就可以当一个公司的最高行政长官。

Many people have chosen accounting as a professional because of its many advantages. Many jobs are available, primarily because the education and training for accounting careers have not kept pact with the demand for accounting services. Once on the job, private or governmental accountants have security, and they are usually given the chance to move upward in the company —sometimes, as we have noted, to the top. Salaries for people with accounting training are usually good, even on the lower levels, and for those who rise to the top of the profession, they are correspondingly high. Certified public accountants now enjoy professional status similar to that of doctors or lawyers.
许多人选择会计师作为自己的职业的是因为它有许多优势。会计行业的就业机会很多,这主要是由于 会计教育和培训工作远远跟不上对会计服务的需要。一旦有了工作,私人或政府部门会计师就有了保障, 而且,他们通常有机会在公司内部得到晋升,像我们提到的,有时可以升到公司的最高层。受过会计训练 的人既使在基层工作,薪水通常也是可观的。那些升到上层的会计师,薪水也相应提高。注册会计师现在 享有和医生、律师一样的职业地位。

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Unit Two The Conventions of Contemporary Accounting (1)
第二单元 现代会计惯例(1)

Accounting conventions are concepts and rules which have been accepted in performing bookkeeping and accounting. It came from a careful observation of accounting practice which revealed patterns of consistent behavior. The existence of conventions was not generally recognized by accountants until the 20th century. They were developed to aid accountants in exercising judgment and estimation in order to limit likely differences in recording similar events by different accountants. The principal convention of contemporary accounting will be discussed.
会计惯例是在簿记和会计工作中被广为接受的概念和规则,源于对反映了连续一致的会计实务模式的 认真研究。直到二十世纪,会计惯例的存在才被会计界广泛承认。会计惯例的产生有助于会计师进行判断 和估计,以限制不同的会计师对类似的项目采用不同的记账方法。以下将讨论当今主要的会计惯例。

THE ENTITY CONVENTION Contemporary accounting divides the community into separate units called “accounting entities”. For each accounting entity a self-contained, double-entry accounting system is employed. Transactions between accounting entities are recorded in the accounts of both entities. Each accounting entity interprets transactions from its own viewpoint. For example, the same transaction may be recorded as a sale by one accounting entity and as a purchase by another. Similarly, one accounting entity may record a transaction as an investment, while the other accounting entity may record it as a capital contribution.
会计主体惯例 现代会计把社会划分为一些独立的单位,叫做会计单位。每一个会计单位都运用独立 的、复式记账的会计体系。会计单位之间的交易在双方的账目上都要登记。每一会计单位都从自己的角度 对交易加以说明。例如:同一笔交易一个会计单位可以被登记为销售;在另一个会计单位则被登记为购买。 同样,一个会计单位可以把一笔交易记为投资,而另一个会计单位可以把它记为缴入资本。

In any particular case the identification of the accounting entity may be difficult. Consider, for example, the case of a large chain of retail stores. Is the accounting entity the whole business, a regional operation, a single store or a single department in that store? The answer can be found only by looking at the organization of the business. If a department has its own accounting system and records transactions with other departments, then it is an entity for accounting purpose. If it has no records, then it is not an accounting entity. The accounting entity is, therefore, identified as the smallest unit of activity with a self-contained accounting system.
在特殊的情况下,很难确定会计单位。例如:对一个零售连锁店来说,会计单位是整个连锁店,地区 经营部门,单独的一个商店还是那个商店的某一部门?只有认真考察了那个公司的组织机构后才能找出答 案。如果一个部门有自己的会计系统,并对其与其他部门的交易记账,那么这个部门就是一个会计单位。 如果它没有这样的账目,那么它就不是一个会计单位。因此,会计单位被定义为有独立会计体系的最小业 务单位。

THE “GOING CONCERN” CONVENTION Contemporary accounting assumes the entity will remain in operation for the foreseeable future. This assumption is known as the “going concern” or the “continuity” convention. This assumption does not refer simply to its continued existence. It also assumes that it will continue in the same line of business as those in which it is cur第 4 页 共 122 页


rently involved.
“持续经营”惯例 现代会计假定一个单位将在可预见的未来继续经营,这种假定被称为“持续经营 的企业”或“持续经营”惯例。这一假定并不仅仅指企业将继续存在下去,它还假定单位将继续在它目前 所从事的行业内经营。

The assumption of continuity is made in the absence of evidence to the contrary. In other words, when it is clear that an assumption of continued existence would result in misleading financial reports, then the assumption is not made. A major problem facing the accounting profession is in identifying the circumstances under which the continuity assumption should be abandoned. Sometimes company failures occur with the accounting reports continuing to be based upon the going concern convention. These accounting reports are subsequently as misleading. And premature abandonment of the continuity assumption by accountants may cause liquidation if it results in demands by creditors for repayment of accounts outstanding. Authoritative guidelines are needed in this area if continuity is to remain a basic assumption of contemporary accounting.
只有在不存在的相反的证据的情况下,才能做出“持续经营”的假定。换句话说,在继续存在的假设 显然会引起财务报告具有误导作用这种情况下,就不能做出这种假定。会计行业所面临的一个主要问题是 要识别出应该放弃持续经营假设的情况。有时,出现了会计报告仍然基于继续经营惯例而企业破产倒闭的 情况,这些报告后来被批评为是误导性报告。会计师没有足够的根据就放弃继续经营假设,那么,一旦引 起债权人对未偿债务要求还款,就会导致破产清理。如果持续经营将继续作为当代会计的一个基本假设的 话,在这方面需要一个有权威性的指导文件。

THE MONETARY CONVENTION In contemporary accounting, an entity’s transactions are recorded in the accounts in the monetary unit of the country in which it is operating. However, in general, financial statements are presented in the currency of the country where the reports are published.
货币惯例 现代会计中,一个单位的交易要以其经营所在国的货币单位记账。但是,一般来说,财务 报表是用发布报表所在国的货币表示的。

The use of money as the unit of account is accepted today without question, but that has not always been the case. For example, such commodities as cattle, salt, shells, and tobacco are said to be employed as a unit of account.
使用货币作记账单位在当今无疑已被接受,但并非一直是这样。例如,有些商品如牛、盐、贝壳和烟 草据说曾用来做记账单位。

The use of money as a unit of account does create some difficulties. In the first place, transactions must be expressed in money before they can be recorded in the accounts. In some cases transactions or events may not have an obvious money amount. Transactions and events of this type are either ignored or assigned a subjective or arbitrary money amount.
使用货币做记账单位的确也带来了一些困难。首先,交易在记入账目之前,必须要用货币来表示。有 些情况下,交易或项目可能没有明显的货币价值。因此对这类交易和项目不是加以忽略,就是主观或武断 地确定一个货币价值。

The second difficulty associated with the monetary convention is that the value of money is not constant over time. Its purchasing power changes as a result of either inflation or deflation. Accountants conventionally choose to ignore the changes in the purchasing power of money in the accounts. And this will cause some deficiencies in accounting reports.
与货币惯例有关的第二个困难是货币的价值并不总是稳定不变的,货币的购买力会随着通货膨胀或通 货紧缩而产生变化。会计师习惯上对账面上货币购买力的变化不予理睬,但这样会造成会计报告的某些缺

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会计英语 陷。

THE CONSISTENCY CONVENTION Contemporary accounting assumes that accountants consistently apply accounting procedures from one period to the next. As a corollary, if accounting procedures are changed, the fact of the change and its effect on reported results are supposed to be disclosed in the financial statements. The purpose of this convention is to allow meaningful inter-period comparisons of results of an entity. Without consistency in accounting procedures, management could manipulate a firm’s reported results merely by changes in accounting procedures. Under these circumstances inter-period comparisons would have to be treated with skepticism.
一贯性惯例 现代会计假设会计师从一个阶段到下个阶段所使用的会计程序是一致的。作为推理,如 果会计程序改变了,其变化及其对财务报告的影响应该在财务报表中公布。这一惯例的目的是允许对一个 单位不同期间的财务结果进行有意义比较。如果会计程序没有一致性,管理人员可以用仅仅改变会计程序 的方法来篡改公司的财务报告。在这种情况下,只能以怀疑的态度看待不同期间的比较结果。

This convention differs from the others in an important respect. The others describe conventional practices actually used by accountants. The consistency convention, however, involves prescription. This convention is one that accountants ought to follow rather than that is necessary followed.
这一惯例与其它惯例在一个重要的方面有所不同。其它惯例描述了会计师实际已经采用的习惯做法, 这个惯例是会计师必须遵循而不只是有必要遵循的惯例。

The consistency convention does not mean that accounting methods cannot be changed. A change should be made if a new procedure would result in financial statements with improved “truth and fairness”. If a justifiable change is made, the fact and the effect of the changes should be disclosed. The convention only requires that capricious changes in procedure which can be justified by reference to a “true and fair” view should not be made.
一贯性惯例并不意味会计方法是不能改变的。如果新的程序可以使财务报表的真实性和公允性有改 进,那么会计方法应该改变。如果证明是合理的改变,对改变的情况及其影响应当公布。一贯性惯例只对 那些没有证据证明能帮助真实公正地反映情况的程序的变动加以制止。

The convention does not require an inter-firm consistency in accounting procedures. Two similar firms in the same industry may record a similar transaction in different ways and still comply with the consistency convention. The convention applies only to the accounting practices of a particular entity from period to period. The lack of inter-firm consistency means that analyst needs to exercise a great deal of care in making inter-firm comparisons.
一贯性惯例对公司间的会计处理并未做出要求。同一行业的两个类似的公司可以用不同方法对类似交 易记账,但仍然是遵守了一贯性惯例。一贯性惯例只适用于某一单位一个期间到另一个期间的会计处理。 如果公司间的会计处理缺乏一致性,分析家在进行公司间对比时要格外注意。

Even, the convention does not mean that there must be an internal consistency in the use of accounting procedures. For example, the convention does not imply that a business depreciates all its assets on same basis or that all discounts allowed are treated as expense. Consistency would allow, for example, that plant and equipment be depreciated on a straight-line basis and that motor vehicles be depreciated on an accelerated basis. All that consistency implies is that the accounting procedures for a particular type of transactions are the same from period to the next.
进一步说,一贯性惯例并不意味在会计程序使用上一定要有一个内部一致性。例如:一贯性惯例并不 是指公司对所有资产的折旧依据同一基础或所有可允许的折扣都作为费用处理。例如,一贯性惯例可以允 第 6 页 共 122 页


许厂房和设备按直线折旧方法计算,汽车按加速折旧法计算。一贯性惯例所指的是从一个期间到另一个期 间,同样的经济业务要使用相同的会计处理程序。

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Unit Three The Conventions of Contemporary Accounting (2)
第三单元 现代会计惯例(2)

THE CONVENTION OF CONSERVATISM It is a characteristic of contemporary accounting that accountants act conservatism or prudently in the measurement of profit. In general, this means that accountants use “reasonable pessimism” in measuring revenues and expenses. Revenues are not recorded until they are reasonably certain, but expenses are recorded as soon as they are become probable. Similarly, when accountants have a choice of measurements of cost for assets and liabilities, they will, other things being equal, choose the lowest for assets and the highest for liabilities. The effect of this convention is that reported profits and net assets will be lower than under most alternative assumptions.
稳健性惯例 在现代会计中,会计人员在计量利润时表现得稳健谨慎,这是很典型的。一般来说,这 意味着会计人员在计量收入和支出时持有“合理的悲观主义” 。除非他们相当肯定,他们才会把收入入账, 但是只要支出是有可能的,他们就把它记入账目。同样,当会计人员在考虑如何计量资产和负债的成本时, 在其它因素一致的情况下,他们将选择最低的资产成本,最高的负债成本。这种稳健性惯例的作用是所报 告的利润和净资产要低于其它可供选择的假定下的结果。

There are several possible explanations for the convention of conservatism. One is that it is the traditional role of accountants to curb the optimism of management. Accountants are seen as a sobering influence, forcing management to assess proposals and expectations in a realistic way to minimize errors arising from over-optimism.
对稳健性惯例有几种可能的解释。一种是抑制管理部门的乐观态度,这是会计人员的传统作用,会计 人员被看成是一种起清醒作用的人,迫使管理人员以现实的态度评估计划和期望值,以期最大限度地降低 由于过分乐观而产生的错误。

A second explanation is that all conservatism is a natural reaction to uncertainly. As students will behave conservatively and publicly choose a modest expectation of an exam result even through they may think that they have a good chance for a high grade, accountants faced with uncertainty about futures events also behave conservatively.
关于稳健性惯例的第二种解释是对不肯定性的自然反映。就像一个学生,即使他认为自己得高分的机 会很大,但一般是表现得很谨慎,对考试结果公开选择一种比较保守的预测。

A third explanation is that statements users may prefer conservatism to any alternative policy. Given that profit measurement depends upon estimates, conservatism ensures that the actual profit must be at least as high as the reported profit. Conservatism allows confidence in published reports. Whatever profits and net assets may be, they will not be less than those disclosed in the published accounts.
第三种解释是同其它可供选择的政策相比报表的用户可能更喜欢稳健的政策。在根据估计的情况来计 量利润的时候,稳健政策可以确保利润至少同所报告的利润一样。稳健政策使得人们对公共发表的报告有 信心,不管利润和净资产的数额到底是多少,它们至少不小于在公开的账目所公布的数字。

THE OBJECTIVITY CONVENTION Where an accountant has a choice of measurements the most objective will be preferred, other things equal. As far as possible, an accountant will avoid incorporating guesses or estimates in the accounting records and reports. In practical terms, objectivity means that an accountant requires evidence of the existence and the amount of a trans第 8 页 共 122 页


action before recording in the books. For many transactions the evidence is documentary, for example, invoices, receipts, cash register type and credit notes. The documentary evidence is the stimulus for recording transactions.
客观性惯例 在会计人员对计量方法有选择的情况下,如果其它项目相同,最好选择最具有客观性的 方法。会计人员要尽可能地避免在会计记录和报告中加入猜测和估计。在实际中客观性指的是在交易入账 之前会计人员要掌握交易存在的凭证和交易的数额。许多交易的凭证是文件形式的,如发票、收据、现金 出纳机磁带和贷项通知单。文件形式的凭证有利于记录经济业务。

Accountants prefer objectivity for two reasons. First, it makes the accountant’s job easier. Routine rule-following is easier than a careful examination of each transaction to determine a reasonable amount for recording purpose. Second, reliance upon documentary evidence and generally accepted accounting procedures provides accountants with some support if their professional competence is questioned. It is a more convincing defense to produce evidence to support accounting records or to argue that generally accepted procedures were used than to assert that the entries seemed reasonable at the time.
会计人员喜欢客观性有两个原因。第一,它减轻了会计人员的工作强度。按常规记账比对每一笔交易 都要进行认真复核以确定应入账的合理数额要容易。第二点,文件形式的凭证和普遍接受的程序可以为会 计人员在他们的专业能力受到怀疑时提供一些证明。出示证明会计记录的凭证,或申辩使用的是普遍接受 的程序比宣称会计处理在当时看起来是合理的,是更具有说服力的防卫手段。

THE MATERIALITY CONVENTION It is contemporary accounting practice to record and report separately only those transactions which are material. An item is judged to be material if it is important enough to influence the decisions of statement users. Some items are material because they are large. For example, a large bad-debt write-off would usually be regarded as a material event. Some items are material because they are small. For example, a very low inventory figure may be judged to be material if it reflects unfavorably on a firm’s liquidity. Some items may be material if they differ significantly in amount from the same item in earlier periods. For example, a small bad-debt write-off may be judged material if it is twice as large as normal. Some items may be judged to be material solely because of their nature and regardless of their relative size. For example, the sales figure would probably be material no matter how large, how small or how variable it was.
重要性惯例 只对那些重要的交易单独记录和报告。当一个项目重要到可以影响报表用户的决定时, 它就被判断为重要的项目。有些项目重要是因为它数额大。例如,冲销一笔大的坏账通常被认为是重要事 项。有些项目重要是因为它们数额小。例如,假如小的存货余额反映了一个公司清偿能力的不足,那它就 可能被判定为重要项目。有些项目如果比前期同类项目在数额上存在巨大差距,也可能就是重要的项目。 例如,一笔数额不大的坏账冲销如果比正常情况要大一倍的话,它可以被判断为重要。有些项目被判断为 重要仅仅是因为它们的性质,而与它们的金额无关。例如,销售额可能是重要的,而不论其规模是大还是 小,变化多大。

Materiality has two principal applications. One is in the processing and the other is in disclosure.

In recording process, accountant must decide how much detail is necessary. Are separate ledger accounts needed for every asset or could some assets be grouped under a general heading, for example, “plant and equipment”? In general, ledger accounts would be maintained only if they contained material data. All not-material items would be aggregated in “sundry accounts”. In other

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words, the decision of accounting system should be strongly influenced by considerations of materiality.
在记账过程中,会计人员必须决定要记到何种详细程度。是不是每项资产都要单设分类账,有一些资 产可不可以集中在一个总的科目,如“固定资产”之下?一般来说,分类账上只记录重要数据,那些非重 要项目都综合记入杂项账户。换言之,会计体系的确定受到重要性因素的强烈影响。

The second aspect of materiality relates to disclosure. Accountants use the notion of materiality as a criterion to decide how much detail to include in financial reports. If a piece of information is not material, then it should not be disclosed separately. For example, nowadays nearly all published financial statements omit cents and most show dollar amounts rounded to the nearest thousand. Any greater detail is judged to be not material.
重要性的第二个方面与公开财务状况有关。会计人员把重要性的概念作为决定在财务报告里所包括的 内容的详细程度的标准。如果一份资料不重要的话,那么就不应该单独公布。例如:如今几乎所有公布的 财务报表都省去了美分,一般都把美元四舍五入到千位,比这更为详细的情况被判断为不重要。

THE ACCOUNTING PERIOD CONVENTION It is contemporary accounting practice to measure the result of an entity’s operation over a relatively short period and to present a balance sheet at frequent intervals.
会计期间惯例 现代会计实务是对一个单位在较短期间内的经营成本进行计量,并定期编报资产负债 表。

The economic activity of a business is continuous. All transaction are recorded in the accounts and change the picture of the firm, as revealed in financial statements. The firm changes continuously as it carries out its operations. Changes cease only when the firm cease operations. In this world of continuity of operations and change, accountants are required by law to report on financial position and results at least annually. This requirement for annual reporting is a relatively modern development. Even as late as the 19th century major businesses presented financial statements at irregular and lengthy intervals. Annual reporting probably arose from the demands of investors, owners, creditors and taxation authorities who were not prepared to wait until the end of a firm’s life before the success of its operation was measured.
一个公司的经济活动是具有连续性的,所有的交易都记在账目上,不断地改变着公司的形象,正如在 财务报表中所反映的那样。公司在经营的过程不断地发生着变化,只有当公司停止经营时,这种变化才会 停止。在这个持续经营和变化的世界里,法律要求会计人员对财务状况和财务成果至少每年要报告一次。 要求企业编报年度报表的做法出现的时间并不长,甚至至十九世纪,主要大公司提出财务报表的时间还是 不定期的,比现在的时间间隔要长。年度报表主要是应那些不想等到公司终止经营,在其经营是否成功的 结果出来之前就想了解一些情况的投资者、业主、贷款人和税收当局的要求而产生的。

The accounting period convention does, however, lead to difficulties. First, it should be realized that the shorter the reporting period the greater the need for estimates and judgment. Over a short period, few transactions will be completed and there will be more accruals and deferrals than for longer period. Incorporating accruals and deferrals into the accounts increase the subjectivity of financial statements. In addition, financial reports for short periods may provide misleading impressions of the long-run prospects for the firm. A balance sheet represents a “snapshot” of the entity’s financial position at an instant of time. Immediately before and after the date of the balance sheet, the financial position is different. Bye the time the balance sheet is published the financial position of the firm may have changed dramatically. As a result, the balance sheet is out of date the day after the end of the accounting period, and by the time it is published; it is of histori第 10 页 共 122 页


cal interest only.
但是,会计期间惯例也确实引起了一些麻烦。首先,应该认识到,报告的期间越短,越需要估计和判 断。在短的期间内,完成的交易会很少,应计和递延项目比较多,在账目中考试应计和递延项目因素增加 了财务报表的主观性。此外,短期财务报表会对公司长远的前景产生误导性的印象。资产负债表是表示一 个公司一时的财务状况的“快照” ,在资产负债表公布前或公布后,公司的财务状况会有巨大的变化。其结 果是资产负债表在会计年度停止的那天就过时了,在它发表的时候,它只具有历史意义了。

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Unit Four Accounting Equation and Double Entry
第四单元 会计等式与复式记账法

The financial condition or position of a business enterprise is represented by the relationship of assets to liabilities and capital.

Assets are properties that are owned and have monetary value; for instance, cash, inventory, buildings, equipments.

Liabilities are amounts owned to outsiders, such as notes payable, accounts payable, bonds payable. Liabilities may also include certain deferred items, such as income taxes to be allocated.
负债是欠外部的数额,如应付票据、应付账款、应付债券。负债还可以包括某些递延的项目,如待分 配的所得税。

Capital is the interest of the owner in an enterprise. Also known as owner’s equity.

These three basic elements are connected by fundamental relationship called balance-sheet equation, sometimes called simply the accounting equation. This equation expresses the equality of the assets on one side with the claims of the creditors and owners on the other side: Assets = Liability + Capital.
这三个基本的要素由一个叫做资产负债表等式、有时称之为会计等式的关系式联系起来。这个等式表 示的是:一边的资产与另一边的负责和所有者权益的平衡关系,即: 资产=负债+资本

According to the accounting equation, a firm is assumed to possess its assets subject to the rights of the creditors and owners.

The equilibrium which the bookkeeping record achieves through the accounting equation is an essential feature of double entry. The creation of assets within an enterprise is always accompanied by the incurring of identical financial obligations, either to the properties of the enterprise (owner’s equity) or to outside creditors (liabilities). The derivation of profit is always accompanied by an identical increase in the net assets (i.e. assets minus liabilities) of the enterprise. It is now possible to see how double-entry bookkeeping produces this equilibrium of results by ensuring that the equation holds well at all times.
簿记记录通过运用会计等式所达到的平衡关系是复式记账的一个重要特点。一个公司资产的形成总伴 随着同样数额的财务责任的出现,不是以企业业主(业主权益) ,就是以外部债权人(负债)的形式出现。 利润的获得也总是伴随着企业净资产,也就是资产减去负债,出现等额的增加。现在可以看一下复式记账 法通过保证会计等式在任何时候都有效来获得这种会计等式的平衡关系。

Examplev1: Assume that a business owned assets $100 000, owed the creditors $80 000, and owed the owner $20 000. The accounting equation would be: Assets = Liabilities + Capital $100 000 $80 000 $20 000
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例1 假设某公司拥有资产 10 万美元,欠债权人 8 万美元,欠业主 2 万美元。会计等式应该是: 资产 100 000 = = 负债 + 80 000 + 资本 20 000

If over a certain period of time, the firm had a net income of $10 000, representing an increase of net assets; the change may be reflected as increased cash, increased inventory or other assets, or decreased liabilities. Suppose that $6 000 was used to reduce liabilities and the balance remained in assets. The equation would then be: Assets = Liabilities + Capital $104 000 $74 000 $30 000
如果过了一段时间,公司有一万美元净收入,表示净资产增加,这种变化可能反映在现金、存货或其 他资产的增加或者表现为负债的减少。假设其中 6 000 美元用来偿还负债,其余部分保持为资产,这个方 程式应该是: 资产 104 000 = = 负债 + 74 000 + 资本 30 000

Example 2: The selected events of January of Water Dentists’ are as following: (1) Invest $4 000 to practice. (2) Bought supplies for cash $300. (3) Bought office furniture from Brown Furniture company on account $2 000. The accounting equation after each transaction will appear as follows: (1) Assets = Liabilities + Capital Cash Water Capital + $4 000 +$4 000 (2) Assets = Liabilities + Capital Cash Supplies Water Capital $4 000 $4 000 - $300 + $300 $3 700 $300 $4 000 (3) Assets = Liabilities + Capital Cash Supplies Furniture Accounts Payable Water Capital $3 700 $300 $4 000 +$2 000 +$2 000 $3 700 $300 $2000 $2000 $4000
例2 沃特牙科诊所一月份的有关经济业务如下: 1. 投资 4 000 美元开业。 2. 支付 3 00 美元现金买办公用品。 3. 从布朗家具公司赊账购买家具价值 2 000 美元。 每笔交易后的会计等式应出现下列情况: 1. 资产 现金 +4 000 = 负债 + 资本 沃特资本 +4 000

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会计英语 资产 现金 4 000 - 300 3 700 3. 资产 现金 3700 办公用品 家具 300 +2 000 3 700 300 2 000 +2 000 2 000 4 000 + 300 300 = 4 000 负债 + 应付账款 资本 沃特资本 4 000 办公用品 负债 + 资本 沃特资本 4 000



We shall call any business event which alters the amount of assets, liabilities, or capital a transaction. In example 1, the net changes in asset groups were discussed; in example 2, we show how the accountant makes a meaningful record of a series of transactions, reconciling them step by step with the accounting equation.
我们可以把任何改变资产、负债或资本数额的业务项目都叫做经济业务。在例 1 中所讨论的是资产的 净变化。在例 2 中,我们看到会计师是如何对一系列交易给予正确的记录,一步一步地将它们调整新的会 计等式。

However, preparing a new equation A=L+C after each transaction would be cumbersome and costly; especially there are a great many transactions in an accounting period. Also, information for a specific item such as cash would be lost as successive transactions were recorded. This information could be obtained by going back and summarizing the transactions, but that would be very time-consuming.
但是,每笔交易后都编制一个新的会计等式 A=L+C 将十分麻烦,成本也很高,特别是在一个会计期 间有许多经济业务的情况下。而且,当一连串的交易都入账以后关于某一具体项目,如现金的情况就看不 出来了。要得到这一情况必须再回头重看一下,对所有交易进行汇总,但那样做又太费时间。

A much more efficient way is to classify the transaction according to items on the balances sheet and income statement. The increases and decreases are then recorded according to type of item by means of a summary called account.
比较有效的办法是根据资产负债表和收益表上的项目对经济业务进行分类,然后,利用账户,对种类 项目的增减变动进行登记。

An account may be defined as a record of the increases, decreases, and balances in an individual item of asset, liability, capital, revenue, or expense.

The simplest form of the account is known as the “T” account because it resembles the letter “T”. The account has three parts: (1) the name of the account and the account number, (2) the debit side (left side), and (3) the credit side (right side). The increases are entered on one side, and the decreases on the other. The balance (the excess of the total of one side over the total of the other) is inserted near the last figure on the side with the larger amount. Account Title Left side or debit side Right side or credit side

最简单的账户形式被称为 T 形账,因为它的形状好像字母 T。这种账由三部分组成: (1)账户名称和 账号, (2)借方(左边) , (3)贷方(右边) 。增加记入一边,减少记入另一边。结余(一边总额超过另一 边总额的数)被插记在数额大的那一边的最后一个数字下面。 第 14 页 共 122 页


账户名称 左边或借方 右边或贷方

When an amount is entered on the left side of an account, it is a debit, and the account is said to be debited. When an amount is entered on the right side, it is a credit, and the account is said to be credited. The abbreviations for debit and credit are Dr. and Cr., respectively.
当一个数额记在账户的左边,它就是借方记录,这个账户就是被借记。当一个数额记在右边,它就是 贷方记录,可以说这个账户被贷记。借贷两个字的缩写分别为 Dr.和 Cr.。

Whether an increase in a given item is credited or debited depends on the category of the item. By convention, asset and expense increases are recorded as debits while liability, capital and income increases are recorded as credits. Assets and expense decreases are recorded as credits, while liability, capital, income decreases are recorded as debits. The following tables summarize the rule. Liabilities, Capital and Income Assets and Expenses Dr. + (Increases) Cr. (Decreases) Dr. (Decreases) Cr. + (Increases)

某一项目的增加是贷记还是借记取决于该项目的种类。根据惯例,资产和费用的增加被记为借项,而 负债,资本和收入增加被记为贷项。资产和费用的减少被记为贷项;而负债,资本和收入减少被记为借项。 下表汇总了上述记账规则。 资产与费用 Dr + (增加) Cr. (减少) Dr. (减少) 负债,资本与收入 Cr. + (增加)

Example 3: T&T Co. LTD bought furniture from ABC Co. on account, $2 000. In this event, the company is receiving an asset (furniture) and therefore, debits Furniture to show the increases. They are not paying cash but creating a new liability, thereby increasing the liability account (Accounts Payable). Furniture Dr. $2 000
例3 特第有限公司从 ABC 公司赊购家具,价值二千美元。在这个交易中,公司收到资产(家具) ,因此, 借记家具账户表示资产增加。由于他们不付现金,因此产生了新的负债,因此增加负债账户(应付账款) 。 家具 Dr 2,000 Cr. Dr. 应付账款 Cr. 2,000

Accounts Payable Cr. Dr. Cr. $2 000

An account has a debit balance when the sum of its debits exceeds the sum of its credits; it
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has a credit balance when the sum of creditors is the greater. In double-entry accounting, which is in almost universal use, there are equal debit and credit entries for every transaction. Where there are only two accounts affected, the debit and credit amounts are equal. If more than two accounts are affected, the total of the debit entries must equal the total of the credit entries.
当一个账户上借项数超过贷项数时,这个账户就出现了借方余额。但当它的贷项数大于借项数时,就 出现了贷方余额。在复式记账法下,每笔交易的借项和贷项记入的数字相等。现在复式记账法在全世界得 到了普遍的使用。在只有两个受影响的账户时,借贷双方的数额是相等的。但如果汲及到两个以上的账户 时,记入借项的总数必须与记入贷项的总数相等。

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Unit Five Ledgers
第五单元 分类账

As was mentioned earlier, an account is a record of the changes and balances in the value of an individual item of an organization. It is understandable that an enterprise may use a member of accounts. The complete set of accounts for a business entity is called a ledger. It is the “reference book” of the accounting system and is used to classify and summarize transactions and to prepare data for financial statements. It is also a valuable source of information for managerial purposes, giving, for example, amount of sales for the period or the cash balance at the end of the period.
如前面所提到的,账户记载着某一组织某个具体项目价值的变化和结余情况。一个经济实体可能使用 许多账户,它所使用的全套账户叫分类账。分类账是会计制度的“参考书” ,用来对交易进行分类和汇总, 为财务报表准备数据。同时,它也是供管理部门使用的宝贵资料来源,例如:它可以提供一个时期的销售 额或期末的现金余额。

GENERAL LEDGER The general ledger is the book used to list all the accounts established by an organization. It is desirable to establish a systematic method of identifying and locating each account in the ledger. The chart of accounts, sometimes called the code of accounts, is a listing of the accounts by title and numerical designation. In some companies, the chart of accounts may run to hundreds of items. It serves both as an index to the ledger and a description of the accounting system and also a link between financial statements and the ledger.
总分类账 总分类账是一本列出一个单位所设立的所有账户的账本。一个单位最好是能建立对分类账中 每个账户的认定和定位的系统方法,会计科目表,有时也称之为会计代码表,是列示所有账户的名称、数 字代码的一览表。在有些公司,会计科目表可能要包括几百个项目,它不但可以作为分类账的索引和会计 制度说明,而且是联系财务报表和分类账的纽带。

Generally, blocks of numbers are assigned to various groups of accounts. A simple chart structure is to have the first digit represent the major group in which the account is located. Thus, account which have numbers beginning with 1 are assets; 2, liabilities; 3, capital; 4, income; and 5, expenses. The second or the third digit designates the position of the account in the group.
一般来说,是用数字区间表示各种不同类的账户。在最简单的会计科目表中,第一位代表账户所在的 主要项目类别,因此,以数码 1 开头的账户是资产,2 开头的是负债,3 开头的是资本,4 是收入,5 是支 出。第二位或第三位数表示账户主要类别中位置。

In the two-digit system, assets are assigned the block of numbers 10-19, and the liabilities 20-29. In larger firms, a three digit (or higher) system may be used, with assets assigned 100-199, and liabilities 200-299. Example 1: Numerical designations for the account groups under two-digit and three-digit methods: Account Group Two-digit Three-digit 1. Assets 10-19 100-199 2. Liabilities 20-29 200-299 3. Capital 30-39 300-399 4. Income 40-49 400-499 5. Expenses 50-59 500-599

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对账户按 2 位数或 3 位数的方法进行编码: 账户类别 1. 资产 2. 负债 3. 资本 4. 收入 5. 支出 2 位数 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 3 位数 100-199 200-299 300-399 400-499 500-599

Thus, cash may be account 11 under the first system and 101 under the second system. The cash may be further broken down as 101, Cash-First National Bank; 102, Cash-Second National Bank; and so on.
因此,根据第一种方法,现金为 11 号账户,在第二种方法下,现金为 101 账户。现金账户可以进一 步分为 101,现金—第一国家银行;102,现金—第二国家银行,等等。

In designing a numbering structure for the accounts, it is important to provide adequate flexibility to permit expansion without having to revise the basic system. There are various systems of coding, depending on the needs and desires of the company.
在设计账户数字编码体系时, 要留有足够的余地, 以便日后不用修改基本的结构, 就能扩大账户数量, 这一点很重要。数字编码的体系很多,采取何种编码体系,主要取决于公司的需要和愿望。

SUBSIDARY LEDGER Further simplification of the general ledger is brought about by the use of subsidiary ledger. In particular, for those businesses which sell goods on credit and which find it necessary to maintain a separate account with each customer and eliminates the need to make multiple entries in the general ledger.
明细分类账 使用明细分类账使得总分类账更加简化明了,特别是那些对售货进行赊账的公司,他们 认为有必要对每位顾客、每位债权人保留单独的账户。使用应收账款明细账可以避免在总分类账中进行多 项记录。

The advantages of subsidiary ledgers are as following:

(1) Reduces ledger detail. Most of information will be in the subsidiary ledger, and the general ledger will be reserved chiefly for summary or total figures. Therefore, it will be easier to prepare the financial statements.
1. 减少了分类的细节。多数资料都将记在明细分类账上,总分类账只是用来汇总或计算总数,因此, 可以减小编制财务报表工作的难度。

(2) Permits better division of labor. Here, each special or subsidiary will be handed by a different person. Therefore, one person may work on the general ledger accounts while another person may work simultaneously on the subsidiary ledger.
2. 使劳动分工更为合理。每个具体的明细分类账可以由不同的人来处理。因此,一个人可以负责登记 总分类账,与此同时,另一个人可以负责登记明细分类账。

(3) Permits a different sequence of accounts. In the general ledger, it is desirable to have the accounts in the same sequence as in the balance sheet and income statement. As a further said, it is desirable to use numbers to locate and refer to the accounts. However, in connection with accounts receivable, which involves names of customers or companies, it is preferable to have the accounts alphabetical sequence.
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3. 可以允许不同的账户排序。在总分类账中,账户的排序最好与资产负债表和收益表的排序一样。为 了进一步方便起见,最好使用数字对账户进行定位和查寻。但是,对应收账款账户,由于它含有顾客或公 司的名称,用字母排列则更好。

(4) Permits better internal control. Better control is maintained if a person other than the person responsible for the general ledger is responsible for the subsidiary ledger. For example, the subsidiary accounts receivable ledger trial balance should agree with the balance of the accounts receivable accounts in the general ledger. The general ledger account acts as a controlling account, and the subsidiary ledger must agree with the control.
4. 便于更好地进行内部控制。 如果让不负责登记总分类账户的人管明细分类账, 可以更好地进行内部 控制。例如:明细账余额试算表应收账款余额应该与总分类账应收账款的余额一致。总分类账起统制账户 的作用,明细分类账必须与其保持一致。

The idea of control accounts introduced above is an important one in accounting. Any group of similar accounts may be removed from the general ledger and a controlling account substituted for it. Not only is another level of error-protection thereby provided, but the time needed to prepare the general ledger trial balance and the financial statements becomes further reduced.
上述提到的统制账户的概念是会计中的一个很重要的概念。任何类似的账户都可以从总分类账中剔 出,以统制账户取而代之。这样不仅提供了保证不出错的另一层办法,而且,可以进一步减少编制总分类 账余额试算表和编制财务报表的时间。

In order to be capable of supplying information concerning the businesses’ accounts receivable, a firm needs a separate account for each customer. These customer’s accounts are grouped together in a subsidiary ledger known as the accounts receivable ledger. Each time the accounts receivable (control account) is increased or decreased, a customer’s account in the accounts receivable ledger must also be increased or decreased by the same amount.
为了能够提供有关公司应收账款的资料,公司需要为每位客户单设账户。这些客户账户都放在名为应 收账款分类账上的明细账上。每次应收账款(编制账户)增加或减少,客户在应收账款分类账上的账户也 必须相应地增加或减少。

The subsidiary ledger and control account technique may be applied similarly to transactions with creditors and other groups of related accounts, detailed information which in not required in the general ledger. It is particularly useful, for example, in accounting for inventories, fixed assets or expenses and it has general application to the accounts of manufacturing enterprises and organizations consisting of a head office and one or more branches. It enables the general ledger to be confined to the basic information necessary for a broad understanding of operating results and financial position of a business.
明细分类账和统制账户的做法。同样也可以用在应付账款和其它有关账户以及不必保留在总分类账上 的那些详细资料。这种做法对存货,固定资产或费用的核算特别有用,而且对有总公司和一、两个分支机 构的制造类企业和单位都有普遍的适用性,它可以使总分类账限于记载使人们对公司经营结果和财务状况 有个大致的了解所必需的基本材料。

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Unit Six Journals
第六单元 日记账

In a western accounting system, the information about each business transaction is initially recorded in an accounting recorded called a Journal. Afterward, the data is transferred or posted to the ledger, the book of subsequent or secondary entry. The various transactions are evidenced by sales tickets, purchase invoices, check stubs, and so on. Since the journal is the accounting recorded which transactions are first recorded, it is sometimes called the book of original entry. It is also called the day book because the journal is a chronological (day-by-day) record of all business transactions.
在西方会计体系当中,关于每笔经济业务的资料最初是记在一本叫做日记账(亦叫分录账)的会计账 上,然后再把这些数据转记或过记到分类账上,即第二本账簿上。销货票、购货发票,支票存根等可以作 为不同的交易的凭证。由于日记账是对交易的首次记载的会计账,有时它被称为原始记录账。它还被称为 日记账簿,因为它是所有经济业务按时间顺序(一天一天地)记账的。

The information about each transaction that should be recorded includes the date of transaction, the debit and credit figures in specific ledger accounts, and a brief explanation of the transaction. At convenient intervals, the debit and credit amounts recorded in the journals are transferred to the accounts in the ledger. The process of recording a transaction in a journal is called journalizing the transaction and the one of transferring information from the journal to the ledger is called posting and usually done monthly. The updated ledger accounts, in turn, serve as the basis for preparing the balance sheet and other financial statements.
每笔交易必须记录的资料包括交易的日期,在特定的分类账户里借方与贷方的数字,对交易的简要说 明。在适当的时间间隔内,日记账上所记载的借贷数额要转到分类账上去。把交易记在日记账的过程叫做 登记日记账;把资料从日记账转到分类账的过程叫做过账,通常是一个月过一次账。过账后的分类账为编 制资产负债表和其他财务报表奠定了基础。

ADVANTAGES OF USING JOURNALS. Technically speaking, it is possible to record transactions indirectly in the ledgers, then why bother to maintain a journal? The answer is that the unit of organization for the journal is the transaction, whereas the unit of organization for ledger is the account. By having both a journal and a ledger, we achieve several advantages which would not be possible if transactions were recorded indirectly in ledger accounts.
使用日记账的优点 从技术讲,把所有的交易都直接记到分类账上是可能的。那么,为什么还要不嫌 麻烦设日记账呢?答案是日记账的组织单位是每笔交易,而分类账的组织单位是账户。既设置日记账又设 置分类账,我们就可以获得把交易直接记在分类账上所不能取得的几个优势:

(1) The journal shows all information about a transaction in one place and also provides an explanation of the transaction. In a journal entry, the debits and credits for a given transaction are recorded together, but when the transaction is recorded in the ledger, the debits and credits are entered in different accounts. Since a ledger may contain hundreds of accounts, it would be very difficult to locate all the facts about a particular transaction by looking in the ledger. The journal is the record which shows the complete story of a transaction in one entry.
1. 日记账把一笔交易的所有资料都集中一个地方,而且提供了对交易的解释。在日记账上账时,某笔 交易的借方和贷方同时出现,但在分类账记录中,一笔交易的借方和贷方出现在不同的账户上。由于一本 第 20 页 共 122 页


分类账可能要包括几百个账户,仅靠查看分类账很难查出一笔交易的全部情况。日记账的一笔分录就可以 展示一笔经济业务的全部情况。

(2) The journal provides a chronological record of all the events in the life of a business. If we want to look up the facts about a transaction of some months or years back, all we need is in the date of the transaction in order to locate it in the journal.
2. 日记账对一个公司有效期内所有的事项提供序时记录。 如果我们想查找几个月或几年前的一笔交易 的情况,我们只需要交易的日期就可以在日记账中查到它。

(3) The use of a journal helps to prevent errors. If the transactions were recorded directly in the ledger, it would be very easy to make errors such as omitting the debit or the credit, or entering the debit twice or the credit twice. Such errors are not likely to be made in the journal, since the offsetting debits and credits appear together for each transaction.
3. 使用日记账可以防止差错。如果将交易直接记到分类账上,很容易出现诸如把借或贷遗漏了、或把 借方记两次、或把贷方记两次这类的差错。在日记账中不太可能出现这种错误,因为彼此相抵的借方和贷 方在账上同时出现。

TYPES OF JOURNALS. Many businesses maintain several types of journal. The nature of operation and the volume of transactions in the particular business determine the number and types of journals needed. Journals are designed to recorded information about different transactions, including sales, purchases, cash receipts and cash disbursements, and many others. Journal have two or more columns to record increases or decreases in the accounts affected by the transaction, and they often have space for the a date and an explanation of the transaction. They may be grouped into (1) general journals and (2) specialized journals.
日记账的种类 许多公司设立好几种日记账。公司经营的特定性质和交易额决定了所需要的日记账的 数量和种类。日记账的设计是为了记录不同交易的情况,包括销售、购货、现金收入和现金支出以及许多 其它项目。日记账有两个或两个以上的栏目记录由于交易影响不同账户的增减额,而且通常还留有空白处 记录交易的日期和备注。日记账可以划分为(1)普通日记账和(2)特别日记账。

The simplest type of journal is called a general journal. It has only two money columns, one for debits and the other for credits; it may be used for all the types of transaction. To illustrate journalizing, we present the standard form of general journal as below:

General Journal
Date (1) 19×× Sept. 1 Account Titles and Description (2) Cash Accounts Receivable Collected receivable from ABC CO. Land Cash Purchased land for office site P.R (3) 11 13 Debit (4) 5 500 5 500 Credit (5)


17 11

150 000 150 000

最简单的日记账叫做普通日记账。它有两个金额栏目,一个是借方栏目,另一个是贷方栏目。为了说 明如何登记日记账,我们提供如下面所示的普通日记账的标准格式:

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会计英语 普通日记账 日期 (1) 19×× 9 月. 1 现金 应收账款 从 ABC 公司收到应收账款. 土地 现金 购进土地作为办公场所 账户名称和摘要 (2) 过账参考 (3) 11 13 借 (4) 5 500 5 500 贷 (5)


17 11

150 000 150 000

We describe the entries in the general journal according to the numbering in the table above.

(1) Date. The year, month, and day of the first entry are written in the date column. The year and month do not have to be repeated for the additional entries until a new month occurs or a new page is needed.
1. 日期。第一笔经济业务的年、月、日要写在日期这一栏上,接下来的记录无需重复书写年月日,直 到新的月份开始或新的账页开始启用。

(2) Description. The account title to be debited is entered on the first line, next to the date column. The name of the account to be credited is entered on the line below and indented. A brief explanation of the transaction is usually made on the ling below the credit. Generally, a blank line is left between the explanation and the next entry.
2. 摘要说明。 记入借方的账户名称要在紧挨着日期栏目的第一行书写, 贷方账户的名称要写在借方账 户的下边,采用缩进写法。在贷方账户下面,要简要说明该项经济业务,业务摘要和下一笔记录之间要空 一行。

(3) P.R. (Posting Reference). Nothing is entered in the column until the particular entry is posted; that is, until the amounts are transferred to the related ledger accounts.
3. 过账参考。直到某笔过账时才填写,否则这一栏目是空白。也就是说,直到数额已转账到有关的分 类账上,这栏才填写(分类账账号) 。

(4) Debit. The debit amount for each account is entered in this column. Generally, there is only one item, but there could be two or more separate item.
4. 借方。每笔账的借方数额记在这一栏里。一般来说,只有一项,但也可能有两个或更多的账户。

(5) Credit. The amount of each account is entered in this column. Here again, there is generally only one account, but there could be two or more accounts involved with different amounts.
5. 贷方。每笔账的贷方数额记在这一栏里。同样,通常这栏只有一个账户,但也可以有两个或两个以 上的不同数额的账户。

SPECIAL JOURNALS. In the modern world, a business of any size enters into so many transactions that the use of a single journal would impose intolerable restrictions on its ability to maintain adequate records. It is, therefore, usual to break down or subdivide the journal into a number of specialized journals, each being used to record transactions of certain kind. It is much simpler and more efficient to group together those transactions which are repetitive such as sales, purchases, cash receipts and cash payments and place each of them in a special journal. In par第 22 页 共 122 页


ticular, it is likely that all the transactions involving credit sales will be recorded in a separate journal known as the sales journal; all transactions involving credit purchases of goods in a purchase journal; receipts of cash in a cash receipts journal; and cash payments in a cash payments journal. Special journal may also be maintained for other groups of transactions which occur frequently, such as returns or allowances in respect of goods bought or sold, bills of exchange receivable or payable journal, leaving the general journal to record only those transactions not included elsewhere.
特别日记账 在现代社会中,任何规模的公司进行的交易都是如此之多,如限制公司仅使用一本日记 账来保持足够的记录能力,那实在是无法令人无法接受的。因此,把日记账再分成,或进一步分成一些特 别日记账是很实用的。每个特别日记账用来记录某类经济业务,把重复出现的交易,如销售、购货、现金 收入和现金支出分别登记在不同的特别日记账上,这样既简单,又快捷。具体说,可以把涉及到赊销的交 易单独记在销售日记账的账簿上,把牵涉到赊购的交易都记在购货日记账上,现金收入都记在现金收入日 记账上,现金支出都记在现金支出日记账上。还可以为经常出现的其他类交易设置特别日记账,如销售或 购货退回与折让日记账,应收与应付汇票日记账,而使普通日记账只记录那些特别日记账中没有包括的经 济业务。

Example 1: Sales on account are made during the months as follows: On February 1 to A. Anderson for $200, on February 2 to B. Butler for $350, on February 12 to C. Chase for $125. These can be journalized in the sales journal.

Date 19×× Feb. 1 2 12 A. Anderson B. Butler C. Chase

P.R Amount $ 200 350 125

Account Debited

例1 本月的赊账销售情况如下: 2 月 1 日给 A. 安德森赊账 200 美元,2 月 2 日给 B. 巴特勒赊账 350 美元,2 月 12 日给 C. 车斯赊账 125 美元。这些账可以在销售日记账上登记如下: 销售日记账 日期 19×× 2 月. 1 2 12 A. 安德森 B. 巴特勒 C. 车斯 借方科目 过账 数额 $ 200 350 125

Special journal have several advantages:

(1) Reduce detail recording. Each sales transaction is recorded on a single line with all details included on that line: date, customer’s name, and amount.
1. 减少了详细记录。每笔销售交易都在一行里记录,所有的细节都在这一行:日期、顾客的名字以及

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会计英语 数额。

(2) Reduce posting. There is only one posting made to Accounts Receivable and one posting to Sales, regardless of the number of transactions.
2. 减少了账户。不管有多少笔交易,只向应收账款账户过账一次,向销售账户过账一次。

(3) Permit better division of labor. If there are several journals, it makes it possible for more than one bookkeeper to work on the books at the same time.
3. 可以更有效地进行劳动分工。如果有好几本日记账,可以让更多的簿记员同时负责这些账簿。

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Unit Seven The Trial Balance
第七单元 试算表

Since equal dollar amounts of debits and credits are entered in the accounts for every transaction recorded, the sum of all the debits in the ledger must be equal to the sum of all the credits. If the computation of account balances has been accurate, it follows that the total of the accounts with debit balances must be equal to the total of the accounts with credit balances.
由于入账的每笔交易借或贷是以相同的数额记入账上,那么分类账上借方总数必然与贷方的总数相 等。如果账户余额计算得准确的话,那么应该是借方账户的余额总数必定与贷方账户余额总数相等。

PREPAIRING A TRIAL BALANCE. Before using the account balances to prepare financial statements, it is desirable to prove that the total of accounts with debit balances is in fact equal to the total of accounts with credit balances. This proof of equality of debit and credit balances is called a trial balance. A trial balance is a two-column schedule listing the name and balances of all the accounts in the order in which they appear in the ledger. The debit balances are listed in the left-hand column and the credit balances in the right-hand column. The totals of the columns should agree. The procedure is as follows:
试算表的编制 在使用账户余额编制财务报表之前,最好能证明借方余额确实等于贷方余额。对借方 余额和贷方余额是否相等的验证就叫做试算表。试算表由两个栏目组成,按账户在分类账中出现的次序列 出所有账户的名称和余额。借方余额列在左边那栏上,贷方余额记在右边栏目上。两个栏目的总数应该一 致。具体步骤如下: (1) List account titles in numerical order. (2) Record balances of each account, entering the debit balances in the left column and the

credit balances in the right column. (3) Add the columns and record the totals. (4) Compare the totals.
1. 按编码顺序列出账户名称。 2. 记入每笔账的余额,把借方余额写在左边那栏,贷方余额写在右边那栏。 3. 把每个栏目中的数字相加,然后记上总数。 4. 对总数进行比较。

Asset and expenses accounts are debited for increases and would normally have debit balances. Liabilities, capital, and income accounts are credited for increases and would normally have credit balances.
资产和费用的增加记入借方, 所以正常情况下出现借方余额。 负债、 资本和收入账的增加是贷方记录, 因此通常出现贷方余额。

If the totals of debits and credits agree, the trial balance is in balance, indicating that debits and credits are equal for the hundreds or thousands of transactions entered in the ledger.
如果借方和贷方总数一致,试算表就是平衡的,表明记入分类账中上百或上千笔交易的借方和贷方相 等。

Example 1: The summary of the transactions for ABC Co. LTD and their effect on the accounts is shown

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below. The trial balance is then taken. (Omitted)

ABC Co. LTD. Trial Balance September 30, 19—
Dr. Cash Furniture Accounts Payable Capital Income Rent Expense Salaries Expense
例 1: 下面展示的是 ABC 有限公司的经济业务的汇总情况及其对账户的影响。然后进行计算。 (略) ABC 有限公司. 试算表 19—年 9 月 30 日 借方 现金 家具 应付账款 资本 收入 租金费用 工资费用 500 200 $ 8500 $ 8 500 $ 5 800 2 000 $ 2 000 4 000 2 500 贷方


$ 5 800 2 000 $ 2 000 4 000 2 500 500 200 $ 8500 $ 8 500

USES AND LITMITATIONS OF THE TRIAL BALANCE. The trial balance provide proof that the ledger is in balance. The agreement of the debit and credit totals of the trial balance gives assurance that:
试算表的使用及其局限性 试算表提供了证明分类账是否平衡的证据。试算表中的借方与贷方的一致 性提供了下列保证:

(1) Equal debits and credits have been recorded for all transaction. (2) The debit and credit of each account has been correctly computed. (3) The additional of the account balances in the trial balance has been correctly performed.
1. 所有交易的借方和贷方都上了账。 2. 每笔账的借贷余额计算正确。 3. 试算表中余额相加的结果正确。

Suppose that the debit and credit totals of the trial balance do not agree. This situation indi第 26 页 共 122 页


cates that one or more errors have been made. Typical of such errors are:
假设试算表上的借方和贷方总数不符,这种情况表明有一处或更多的地方有错。这方面比较典型的错 误有:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

The entering of a debit as a credit or vice versa; Arithmetical mistakes in balancing account; Clerical errors in copying account balances into the trial balance; Listing a debit balance in the credit column of the trial balance, or vice versa; and Errors in addition of the trial balance.

1. 把借方记入贷方,或倒过来,把贷方记入了借方。 2. 在结账时数字计算上出现了错误。 3. 把账户余额抄往试算表时有笔误。 4. 在试算表中,把借方余额列到贷方栏上,或倒过来把贷方余额列到了借方栏上。 5. 试算表相加时有错误。

The preparation of a trial balance does not prove that transactions have been correctly analyzed and recorded in the proper accounts. If, for example, the purchase of a machine was incorrectly charged to expense, the trial balance would still balance, but theoretically the accounts would be wrong, as Expense would overstated and Machinery understated. Also, if a transaction were complete omitted from the ledger, the error would not be disclosed by the trial balance. In brief, the trial balance proves only one aspect of the ledger, and that is the equality of debits and credits.
编制试算表并不能证明交易得到了正确的分析和记到了合适的账户上。例如,如果一笔购买一台机器 的交易被错误地借记到费用账户上,试算表仍然是平衡的,但从理论上讲,这个处理是错的,因为这样费 用将被虚增,而机械设备将被低估。而且,如果一笔交易被彻底漏记在分类账上,这种错误从试算表上也 看不出来。简言之,试算表只证明分类账的一个方面,即借方和贷方相等。

Despite the limitations, the trial balance is a useful device. It not only provides assurance that the ledger is in balance, but it also serves as a convenient stepping-stone for the preparation of financial statements showing the financial position of the business, intended for distribution to managers, owners, banker, and various outsiders. The trial balance, on the other hand, is merely a working paper, useful to the accountant but not intended for distribution to others. The balance sheet and other financial statements can be prepared more conveniently from the trial balance than directly from the ledger, especially if there are a great many ledger accounts.
尽管试算表有这些局限性,它仍然是一个有用的手段。它不仅保证了分类账的平衡,而且为编制财务 报表提供了方便的基础。资产负债表是表明公司财务状况的正式的文件,其目的是发放给经理、所有者、 银行家和不同的局外人。但是,试算表只是一种工作底稿,对会计人员有用,但并不是为了分发给他人的。 根据试算表比直接从分类账编制资产负债表和其他财务报表要更为方便,特别是在分类账很多的情况下更 是如此。

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Unit Eight Cash Basis and Accrual Basis of Accounting
第八单元 会计的现金收付实现制和权责发生制

Because an income statement pertains to a definite period of time, it becomes necessary to determine just when an item of revenue or expenses is to be accounted for. Two systems can be used in dealing with this problem: cash basis and accrual basis.
由于收入表必须与某一特定的阶段相联系,因此有必要确定一笔收益或支出项目应计算在数的合适时 机。在处理这个问题中,可以采用两种方法:会计的现金收付实现制和权责发生制。

DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN CASH BASIS AND ACCRUAL BASIS. Under the cash basis, revenue is recorded when received in cash and expenses are recorded in the period in which cash payment is made. The cash basis of accounting does not give a good picture of profitability because it fails to match revenue and related expenses and therefore does not lead to a logical measurement of income. For example, it ignores uncollected revenue which has been earned and expenses which have been incurred but not paid. The use of it is limited mostly to individual income tax returns and to accounting records of physicians and other professional people.
现金收付实现制和权责发生制的区别 根据现金收付实现制,当收益以现金的形式收到时,才能上账, 费用在现金支付发生的期间上账。现金收付会计并不能很好地反映获利情况,因为它不能把收益与有关的 费用相配合,因此也就不能正确地计算收入。例如,它忽略了已经赚到的未收收益和已经发生但未支付的 费用。它的使用仅限于个人所得税申报表和对医生以及其它专业人员的会计记录。

Most business firms use the accrual basis of accounting and it will be discussed in more details. The accrual basis differs significantly from cash basis of accounting. Under the accrual basis it needs to record revenue in the period in which it is earned and to record expenses in the period in which they are incurred. The effect of events on the business is recognized as service are rendered or consumed rather than when cash is received or paid.
多数公司使用权责发生制(又称应计制)会计。我们将较为详细地探讨这种方法。应计制会计与现金 收付实现制会计有着巨大的差别。在应计制会计制度下,需要在收益赚得期间记录收益,在费用发生的期 间记录支出。在应计制下,在服务已提供或消费了的时候就承认经济业务对公司的影响,而不是等到收到 或支付了现金之后才承认它们对公司的影响。

Essential to the accrual basis is the matching of expenses with the revenue that they helped produce. Most revenue is earned when goods or services are delivered. At this time, title to goods or services is transferred, and there is legal obligation created to pay for such goods and services. Some revenue is recognized on a time basis, such as rental income, and is earned when the specified period of time has passed. The accrual concept demands that expenses be kept in step with revenue, so that each month sees only that month’s expense applied against the revenue for that month. Therefore, under the accrual system, the accounts are adjusted at the end of the accounting period to properly reflect the revenue earned and the cost and expenses applicable to period. The entries to be made on the balance day are called adjusting entries.
权责发生制会计很重要的一点是使帮助产生收益的费用与收益相配比。大多数收入都是在提供了货物 或服务时就获得,这时,货物或服务的所有权已经转让,为这些货物或服务付款的法律责任已经确立。有 些收益是按时间计算的,如租金收入,当某一段时间过去了,就确认一部分收入。应计的概念要求费用应 与收益同步,因此每个月只能看到用当月的费用所赚得的当月的收益。因此,在应计会计体制下,要在会 第 28 页 共 122 页


计期末调整账目,以恰当地反映所赚收益和属于那一期间的成本和费用。在结账日所作的会计分录称为调 整分录。

ADJUSTMENTS UNDER ACCRUAL BASIS. Balance-day adjustments are of four main kinds:
权责发生制下的会计调整 结账日调整主要有四类:

(1) Transactions which have been recorded in the books of account during the current period, but which relate wholly or partly to subsequent accounting periods; (2) Transactions which have occurred during the current period, but which for some reason have not been recorded in the books of account prior to balance day; (3) Allocations to the current period of its share of the original cost of fixed capital assets—depreciation; (4) Provision for anticipated revenue, costs or losses arising out of the current period’s operations, the exact amounts of which can not be determined at balance-day.
1. 在当期已入账,但应全部或部分地归属于以后的会计期间的交易; 2. 在当期发生,但由于某种原因,在结账日之前没有入账的交易; 3. 固定资产原始成本分配到本期的份额—折旧费; 4. 本期经营产生的预期收益、成本或亏损准备,其确切数额在结账日不能确定的。

The following examples will show how the adjusting entries are made for the four types of adjustments.

Example 1: Prepaid Expenses Assume that a business paid a $1 200 premium on April 1 for one year’s assurance in advance. This represents an increase in one asset (prepaid expense) and a decrease in another asset (cash). Thus, the entry would be: Dr. Prepaid Insurance Cr. Cash
例 1:预付费用 假设,一个公司 4 月 1 日支付了 1 200 美元的保险金预付一年的保险费。这意味着一种资产(预付费 用)的增加,另一种资产(现金)的减少。因此,会计分录应为: 借:预付保险费 贷:现金 1 200 1 200

$ 1 200 $ 1 200

At the end of April, 1/12 of the $1 200 or $100 had expired or been used up. Therefore, an adjustment has to be made, decreasing or crediting Prepaid Insurance and Increasing or debiting Insurance Expense. The entry would be: Dr. Insurance Expense Cr. Prepaid Insurance $ 100 $100

在 4 月末,1 200 美元的 1/12 或 100 美元到期,因此要进行调整,减少或贷记预付的保险费,增加或

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会计英语 借记保险费用。其分录为: 借:保险费用 贷:预付保险费 100 100

Example 2: Accrued Salaries Assume that April 30 falls on the Tuesday for the last weekly payroll period. Then, two days of that week will apply to April, three days to May. The payroll for the week amounted to $2 500, of which $1 000 applied to April and $1 500 to May. The entries would be as follows: April 30 Dr. Salaries Expense Cr. Salaries Payable $ 1 000 $ 1 000

例 2:应计工资 假设 4 月 30 日是 4 月份最后一周的星期二。这样,那周有两天在 4 月份,3 天在 5 月份。这周的工资 额是 2 500 美元,其中 1 000 美元是 4 月的工资,1 500 美元是 5 月的工资。分录如下: 4 月 30 日 借:工资费用 贷:应付工资 1 000 1 000

When the payment of the payroll is made, say, on May 3, the entry would be as follows: May 3. Dr. Salaries Expense Salaries Payable Cr. Cash $ 1 500 $ 1 000 $ 2 500

假如工资是在 5 月 3 日支付的,其账目应如下: 5月3日 借:应付工资 工资费用 贷:现金 1 000 1 500 2 500

As can be seen above, $1 000 was charged to expense in April and $1 500 in May. The debit to Salaries Payable of $1 000 in May is merely canceled the credit entry made in April, when the liability was set up for the April salaries expense.
从以上可以看出,1 000 美元计为 4 月份的费用,1 500 美元计为 5 月份的费用。5 月份 1 000 美元的 应付工资借方正好与 4 月份所记的贷方相抵,即与当时建立 4 月份应付工资时所记的数相抵。

Example 3: Accumulated Depreciation This is a valuation of offset account, which means that the balance is offset against the related asset account. In the case of property, plant and equipment, it is desirable to know the original cost as well as the value after depreciation. Assume the machinery costing $15 000 was purchased on February 1 of the current year and was expected to 10 years. With the straight-line method of accounting, the depreciation would be $1 500 a year, or $125 a month. The adjusting entry would be as follows:

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Dr. Depreciation Expense Cr. Accumulated Depreciation
例 3:累计折旧

$ 125 $ 125

这是估价或备抵账户,它意味着其余额应与有关的资产账户相抵消。对于财产和固定资产,不但要知 道其原始成本,而且应了解折旧后的成本。假设成本为 15 000 美元的机械在当年 2 月 1 日买入,并预计将 使用 10 年。用直线法计算折旧,折旧费是每年 1 500 美元,或每月 125 美元。调整分录如下: 借:折旧费用 贷:累计折旧 1 200 1 200

At the end of April, Accumulated Depreciation would have a balance of $375, representing three months’ accumulated depreciation. The account would be shown in the balance sheet as follows: Machinery Less: Accumulated Depreciation $ 15 000 375

$ 14 625

到四月末,累计折旧将会有 375 美元余额,代表 3 个月的累计折旧数额。这笔账反映在资产负债表上 的情况应该是: 机械 减: 累计折旧 15 000 375 14 625

Example 4: Allowance for Uncollected Accounts A business with many accounts receivables will reasonably expect to have losses from uncollectible accounts. It will be not known which specific accounts will not be collect, but past experience furnishes an estimate of the total uncollectible amount.
例 4:坏账准备 一个有很多应收账款的公司要遭受收不回账款的损失,这是在意料之中的事。具体哪笔账收不回来事 先无法知晓,但过去的经验可以提供不能收回的账款总量的估计数。

Assume that a business estimates that 1 percent of sales on account will be uncollectible. Then, if such sales $10 000 for April, it is estimated that $100 will be uncollectible. The actual loss may not definitely be determined for a year or more, but the loss attributed to April sales would call for an adjusting entry. Dr. Uncollectible Accounts expense Cr. Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts $ 100 $ 100

假设,一个公司估计有 1%的赊账销货款将收不回来。如果赊销收入 4 月份是 10 000 美元,那么估计 将有 100 美元收不回来。一年或更长的时间里实际的损失无法肯定,但分摊到 4 月份的损失需要调整: 借:坏账损失费用 贷:账坏准备 1 200 1 200

If the balance in Accounts Receivable at April 30 was $9 500 and the previous month’s balance in Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts was $300, the balance sheet at April 30 would show

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the following: Accounts Receivable Less: Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts $ 9 500 400

$ 9 100

如果 4 月 30 日的应收账款余额是 9 500 美元,坏账准备余额为 300 美元,4 月 30 日的资产负债表该 项目应列示如下: 应收账款 减: 坏账准备 9 500 400 9 100

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Unit Nine Balance Sheet
第九单元 资产负债表

NATURE AND PURPOSE OF BALANCE SHEET. The balance sheet is one of the basic financial statements. Financial statements are the main source of financial information for persons outside the business organization and also useful to management. These statements are very concise, summarizing in three or four pages the activities of a business for a specified period of time, such as a month or a year. They show the financial position of the business at the end of the time period and also the operating result by which the business arrived at this financial position.
资产负债表的意义 资产负债表是基本的财务报表之一。财务报表不但是企业外部人员获得财务信息 的主要来源,而且对管理部门也十分有用。这些报表十分简洁,用三、四页纸就把一个公司某一特别期间 内如一个月或一年的活动概括出来,它们展示了公司在会计期间末的财务状况,以及公司在这种财务状况 下取得的经营成果。

The basic purpose of financial statements is to assist decision maker in evaluating the financial strength, profitability, and future prospects of a business. Thus, managers, investors, major customers, and labor all have a direct interest in these reports. Every large corporation prepares annual financial statements which are distributed to all owners of the business. In addition, these statements are filed with various government agencies and become a matter public record.
财务报表的基本目的是帮助决策者估价公司的财务实力, 营利能力以及未来发展的远景。 因而, 经理、 投资者、主要的客户以及雇员都将对这些报告产生直接的兴趣。每个大公司都编制年度财务报表,分发给 所有公司股东。此外,这些报表还要呈报给不同的政府部门,成为政府档案的一部分。

The balance sheet is a financial statement which shows the financial position of a business entity by summarizing the assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity at a specific date. This statement is also called a Statement of Financial Position or Statement of Financial Condition.
资产负债表是用来汇总某一特定日期里资产、负债和业主权益,反映一个单位财务状况的财务报表。 这种报表也叫做财务状况报表或财务地位报表。

Every business prepares a balance sheet at the end of year, and most companies prepare one at the end of each month. A balance sheet consists of a listing of the assets and liabilities of a business and of the owners’ equity. In preparing the balance sheet, it is not necessary to make any further analyze of the data. The needed data—that is, the balances of the assets, liabilities, and capital accounts—are already available.
所有的公司在年末都要编制资产负债表,多数公司每月底都编制一份资产负债表。资产负债表列示公 司的资产、负债以及业主权益。在编制资产负债表的过程中,不必对数据进行进一步的分析,所需的数据, 即资产、负债以及资本账户的余额都是现成的。

FORMAT OF BALANCE SHEET. The balance sheet may be arranged in either account form or report form. In the account form, the assets are listed on the left side of the page and liabilities and owners’ equity on the right side. And in the report form, the liabilities and owners’ equity sections are listed below rather than to the right of the assets section. Both the account form and the report form are widely used. The following balance sheets illustrate the difference.

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ABC Co. LTD. Balance Sheet December 31, 19—
Assets Cash······················································································································$20 500 Accounts Receivable·······························································································65 000 Supplies ····················································································································1 500 Land ·······················································································································68 000 Buildings ··············································································································133 500 Cleaning Equipment ·······························································································39 000 Delivery Equipment································································································22 500 Total assets $350 000 Liabilities $ Owners’ Equity Liabilities: Notes Payable ············································· $26 000 Accounts Payable·········································· 36 000 Income Taxes Payable··································· 18 000 Owners’ Equity: Capital Stock············································· $225 000 Retained Earnings ········································· 45 000 Total Liabilities & Owners’ Equity

$80 000

270 000 $350 000

ABC Co. LTD. Balance Sheet December 31, 19—
Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Supplies Land Buildings Cleaning Equipment Delivery Equipment Total $20 500 65 000 1 500 68 000 133 500 39 000 22 500 $350 000 Liabilities & Owners’ Equity Liabilities: Notes Payable $26 000 Accounts Payable 36 000 Income Taxes Payable 18 000 Owners’ Equity Capital Stock $225 000 Retained Earnings 45 000 Total

$80 000

270 000 $350 000

资产负债表的格式 资产负债表可以按账户格式,也可以按报告格式编制。按账户格式编制的时候, 资产列在左边,负债和业主权益列在右边。按报告格式编制的时候,负债和业主权益部分列在资产部分下 面而不是右边。两种格式都得到广泛使用。下面的财务报表将展示两种格式的不同之处。 第 34 页 共 122 页


ABC 有限公司 资产负债表 19_ _年 12 月 31 日 资产 现金 ········································································································································ $20 500 应收账款 ····································································································································65 000 存货 ············································································································································· 1 500 土地 ···········································································································································68 000 建筑 ········································································································································ 133 500 清洁设备 ····································································································································39 000 运输设备 ····································································································································22 500 资产总计 负债与业主权益 负债: 应付票据 ·······························································$26 000 应付账款 ································································· 36 000 应付所得税 ······························································ 18 000 业主权益: 股本 ···································································· $225 000 保留盈余 ································································· 45 000 负债与业主权益总计 270 000 $350 000 $80 000 $350 000

ABC 有限公司 资产负债表 19_ _年 12 月 31 日 资产 现金 应收账款 存货 土地 建筑物 清洁设备 运输设备 总计 $20 500 65 000 1 500 68 000 133 500 39 000 22 500 $350 000 总计 负债: 应付票据 应付账款 应付所得税 业主权益 资本股本 保留盈余 $225 000 45 000 270 000 $350 000 $26 000 36 000 18 000 $80 000 负债与业主权益

Note that the balance sheet sets forth in its heading three items: (1) the name of the business, (2) the name of the financial statement “Balance Sheet”, and (3) the date of the balance sheet. Below the heading is the body of the balance sheet, which consists of three distinct sections: assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity.
请注意,资产负债表在标题处要列出三项内容:1. 公司的名称,2. 财务报表的名称“资产负债表” ,

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会计英语 3. 资产负债表的日期。资产负债表的主体由三个独立的部分组成:资产、负债和业主权益。

Another point to note about the form of a balance sheet is that cash is always the first asset listed; it is followed by receivables, supplies and any other assets that will soon be converted into cash or consumed in operations. Following these items are the more permanent assets, such as land, buildings, and equipment. The liabilities of a business are always listed before the owners’ equity.
关于资产负债格式需要注意的另一个问题是,现金总是资产中第一个列出的项目,然后是应收账款、 存货以及其它可以在经营中很快变为现金或消耗掉的资产。相对长久固定的资产如土地、建筑物和设备列 在这些项目之后。负债总是列在业主权益之前。

CLASSIFIED BALANCE SHEET. The balance sheet becomes a more useful statement for comparison and financial analysis if the assets and liabilities groups are classified. For example, an important index of the financial state of business, derivable from the classified balance sheet, is the ratio of current assets to current liabilities. This current ratio ought, generally, to be at least 2 to 1; that is, current assets should be twice current liabilities. For our purpose, we will designate the following classifications: ASSETS LIABILITIES Current Current Fixed Long-term Other
分类的资产负债表 如果把资产和负债进行分类,那么资产负债表就会更加有助于进行比较和经济分 析。例如:可以从分类资产负债表得出反映一个公司经济状况的重要指数—流动资产与流动负债的比率。 一般来说,这种比率应该是 2:1,也就是说,流动资产应该是流动负债的两倍。为了方便起见,我们将设 定下列的分类: 资产 流动资产 固定资产 其它资产 负债 流动负债 长期负债

Current Assets. Assets reasonably expected to be converted into cash or used in the current operation of the business. (The current period is generally as one year.) Example are cash, notes receivable, accounts receivable, inventory, and prepaid expenses (prepaid insurance, prepaid rent, and so on).
流动资产。流动资产指的是有充分理由认为可以在当期经营活动中转换成现金或使用的资产(一般是 一年期) 。现金、应收票据、应收账款、存货以及其它预付的费用(预付的保险金和租金等)都属于流动资 产。

Fixed Assets. Long-lived assets used in the production of goods or services. These assets, sometimes called non-current assets or plant assets, are used in the operation of the business rather than being held for sale.
固定资产。在产品和服务的生产过程中使用的寿命较长的资产。这些资产有时称为非流动资产或厂房 设备固定资产,是公司经营中为了使用而不是供销售而置存的资产。

Other Assets. Various assets other than current assets, fixed assets, or assets to which specific captions are given. For instance, the caption “Investments” would be used if significant sums were invested. Often, companies show a caption for intangible assets such as patents or goodwill. In other cases, there may be a caption for deferred charges. If, however, the amounts are not large in
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relation to total assets, the various items may be grouped under one caption, “Other Assets”.
其他资产。除了流动资产、固定资产或那些有特殊名目的资产以外的其它各种资产。例如:如果投资 数额很大的话,就要用投资这个名目。通常,公司对象专利和商誉这样的无形资产设立名目。在其它情况 下,也可能为递延性费用单独设立名目。但是,如果与总资产相比,数额不够大的话,也可以把这些不同 的项目放在一起,都列在一个名目“其它资产”下。

Current Liabilities. Debts which must be satisfied from current assets within next operation period, usually one year. Examples are accounts payable, notes payable, the current portion of long-term debt, and various accrued items as salaries payable and taxes payable.
流动负债。在下一个经营期间,通常是一年内必须用流动资产偿还的债务。应付账款、应付票据、长 期债务的当期分摊额,以及像应付工资和应付税款这些不同的应计项目都是流动负债。

Long-term Liabilities. Liabilities which are payable beyond the next year. The most common examples are bonds payable and mortgages payable. The example on next page shows a classified balance sheet of typical form.

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ABC Co. LTD. Classified Balance Sheet December 31, 19—
Assets Current Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Supplies Total Current Assets Fixed Assets Land Buildings Cleaning Equipment Delivery Equipment Total Fixed Assets Total assets Liabilities $ Owners’ Equity Current Liabilities Notes Payable Accounts Payable Income Taxes Payable Total Current Liabilities Long-term Liabilities Total Liabilities Owner’s Equity Capital Stock Retained Earnings Total Owners’ Equity Total Liabilities & Owners’ Equity

$20 500 65 000 1 500 $87 000 $68 000 133 500 39 000 22 500 263 000 $350 000

$26 000 36 000 18 000 $80 000 0 $80 000 $225 000 45 000 270 000 $350 000


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ABC 有限公司 资产负债表 19_ _年 12 月 31 日 资产 流动资产 现金 应收账款 存货 流动资产总计 固定资产 土地 房屋 清洁设备 运输设备 固定资产总计 资产总计 负债与业主权益 流动负债 应付票据 应付账款 应付所得税 流动负债总计 长期负债 负债总计 业主权益 股本 保留盈余 业主权益总计 负债与业主权益总计 $225 000 45 000 270 000 $350 000 $26 000 36 000 18 000 $80 000 0 $80 000 $68 000 133 500 39 000 22 500 263 000 $350 000 $20 500 65 000 1 500 $87 000

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Unit Ten Income Statement
第十单元 收入表

NATURE AND PURPOSE OF INCOME STATEMENT. An income statement is a financial statement showing the results of operations for a business by matching revenue and related expenses for a particular accounting period. It shows the net income or net loss.
收入表的意义 收入表(也称损益表)是财务报表的一种,它用收益和有关的费用相对照的方法反映 一个公司在某一会计期间的经营成果,它表示的是净收益或净亏损。

When we measure the net income earned by a business we are measuring its economic performance—its success or failure as a business enterprise. Stockholders, prospective investors, managers, bankers, and other creditors are anxious to see the latest available income statement and thereby to judge how well the company is doing.
我们衡量一个公司所赚得的净收入就是衡量其经营成果,即用它作为衡量一个企业组织的成功或失败 的标准。股东、可能的投资者、经理、银行以及其他债权人都急于看到公司所能提供的最近期间的收益情 况,以此来判断公司的经营状况。

Alternative titles for the Income Statement include Earnings Statement, Statement of Operations, and Profit and Loss Statement. However, income statement is by far the most popular term for this important financial statement. In brief, we can say that an income statement is used to summarize the operating results of a business by matching the revenue earned during a given time period with the expenses incurred in obtaining that revenue.
收入表的其他名称有收益计算书、经营表、损益表。但是,收入表是这种重要的财务报表最常用的术 语。简言之,我们可以说收入表是某一期间所挣的收入与为获得此笔收入而发生的费用进行对照来汇总一 个公司的经营成果的报表。

Every business prepares an annual income statement, and most businesses prepare quarterly and monthly income statements as well. The period of time covered by an income statement is termed the company’s accounting period. This period may be a month, a quarter of a year, a year, or any other specified period of time. A 12-month accounting period used by an entity is called its fiscal year. The fiscal year used by most companies coincides with the calendar year and ends on December 31. However, some businesses select to use a fiscal year which ends on some other date. It may be convenient for the business to end its fiscal year during a slack season rather than during a time of peak business activity. The fiscal year of some governments, for example, begins on October 1 and ends 12 months later on September 30.
每个公司都编制年度收入表,多数公司还编制季度或月份的收入表。收入表所包括的期间叫做公司的 会计期间。这个期间可以是一个月,一个季度,一年或任何其它具体规定的时间。为时 12 个月的会计期间 叫做一个会计年度。多数公司使用的会计年度与日历年度吻合,12 月 31 日结束。但是,有些公司选择使 用其它日期结束的会计年度。对于一公司来说,在业务淡季结束会计年度比在业务活动的高峰期结束会计 年度更方便。例如,美国联邦政府的会计年度是从 10 月 1 日开始,至 12 个月后的 9 月 30 日结束。

There are town common forms of income statement: the multiple-step income statement and the single-step income statement.

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MULTIPLE-STEP INCOME STATEMENT. The multiple-step income statement is so named because of the series of steps in which costs and expenses are deducted from revenue. As a first step, the cost of goods sold is subtracted from net sales to produce an amount for gross profit on sales. As a second step, operating expenses are deducted to obtain a subtotal term income from operations (or operating income). As a final step, income tax expenses are subtracted to determine net income. The multiple-step income statement is noted for its numerous sections and significant subtotals. It is widely used by small businesses, and the official format of income statement in china is a multiple-step one. The following is a multiple-step income statement. It is also a classified income statement because the various items of expense are classified into significant groups.

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XYZ TRADERS Income Statement For the year ended December 31, 19—
Revenue: Sales ··················································································································· $ 506 000 Less: Sales returns and allowances ······················································· $ 4 000 Sales discounts·················································································· 2 000 6 000 Net sales ············································································································· $ 500 000 Cost of goods sold: Inventory, Jan. 1·················································································· $ 60 000 Purchases············································································$ 300 000 Less: Purchases returns & allowances·················· $2 000 Purchases discounts ······································· 1 000 3 000 Net purchases······································································$ 297 000 Add: Transportation-in····························································13 000 Cost of goods purchased ····································································· 310 000 Cost of goods available for sale ························································ $370 000 Less: Inventory, Dec. 31 ······································································· 70 000 Cost of goods sold·························································································300 000 Gross profit on sales: ··································································································$200 000 Operating expenses: Selling expense: Sales salaries·······························································$76 000 Delivery service ······························································4 000 Adverting······································································16 000 Depreciation····································································9 000 Total selling expense································································· $105 000 General & administrative expenses: Office salaries ·····························································$60 000 Telephone········································································2 000 Depreciation····································································8 000 Total general & administrative expenses ······································· 70 000 Total operating expenses·······························································································175 000 Income from operations································································································$25 000 Income tax expenses·········································································································5 000 Net income ···················································································································$20 000
分步式收入表 分步式收入表之所以这样叫是因为从收益中减去成本和费用有一系列的步骤。第一步, 销售成本从净销售中减去,得出销售毛利的数额。第二步,减去营业费用得出经营收入的小计数。最后一 步,减去所得税费用,确定净收入。分步式收入表以它诸多的部分和大量的小计而著称,小公司广泛地使 用分步式收益表,中国官方的收入表格式就是分步式的。前页上所展示的就是一个分步的收入表,它同时 还是一个分类收入表,因为不同的费用项目被划分为组。

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XYZ 贸易公司 收 入 表 19_ _年,截止期为 12 月 31 日 收入: 销售收入 ······························································································································· $ 506 000 减: 销售退回及折让 ·························································································· $ 4 000 销售折扣 ········································································································· 2 000 销售成本: 存货,1 月 1 日 ·································································································· $ 60 000 购货 ································································································ $ 300 000 减: 购货退回及折让 ···················································· $2 000 购货折扣 ···································································1 000 加: 3 000 6 000

销售净收入 ··························································································································· $ 500 000

购货净值 ·························································································· $ 297 000 运入成本 ······················································································13 000 购货成本 ············································································································· 310 000 可供销售货物成本 ··························································································· $370 000 减: 存货,12 月 31 日 ······················································································· 70 000 销售成本 ························································································································ 300 000 销售毛利: ····································································································································· $200 000 营业费用: 销售费用: 工资 ························································································ $76 000 发货服务 ······················································································4 000 广告 ···························································································16 000 折旧 ·····························································································9 000 合计 ········································································································· $105 000 一般管理费用: 工资 ························································································ $60 000 电话费··························································································2 000 折旧 ·····························································································8 000 合计 ············································································································· 70 000 营业费用合计 ·································································································································· 175 000 营业收益 ······································································································································· $25 000 所得税 净收入 ············································································································································ 5 000 ······································································································································· $20 000

The classified income statement enables management, stockholders, analysts, ant others to study the changes in the expenses over successive periods. The items of an income statement may be classified as the following four groups.
这种分类收入表可以使管理部门、股东、分析家以及其他人对连续的会计期间费用的变化进行研究。 收入表的项目可以分成以下四组:

(1) Revenue. This includes gross income from the sales of products or services. It may be

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designated a Sales, Incomes from Fees, and so on, to indicate gross income. The gross amount is reduced by sales returns and allowances and sales discounts to arrive at net sales. (2) Cost of goods sold. This includes the costs related to the products or services sold. It would be relatively simple to compute for a firm that retails goods; it would be more complex for a manufacturing firm that changes raw materials into finished products. (3) Operating expenses. This includes all expenses or resources consumed in obtaining revenue. Operating expenses are further divided into two groups. Selling expenses are those related to the promotion and sales of the company’s product or service. General and administrative expenses are those related to overall activities of the business, such as the salaries of the president and other officers. (4) Other expenses. This includes non-operating and incidental expenses. Income taxes is shown an non-operating expense because they don’t help to produce operating revenue (sales). Those expenses appear in the final section of the income statement after the figure of showing income from operations.
1. 收益。它包括产品或服务销售的总收入。可以用“销售收入” , “服务费收入”等名称来表示总收入。 从总收入中减去销售退回和折让以及销售折扣得出销售净收入。 2. 销售成本。它包括与销售的产品和服务有关的成本。对于经营零售业务的公司,这种计算相对来说 比较简单;对于把原材料制成产成品的公司来说,这种计算相对困难一些。 3. 营业费用。它包括在获得收入中消耗的所有费用或资源。经营费用可进一步分成两类。销售费用是 与对公司的产品进行促销和销售有关的费用。行政管理费是与公司的总体活动有关的费用,如总经理和其 它管理人员的工资。 4. 其它费用。它包括非营业性杂费。所得税被列为非经营性支出,因为它并不能帮助产生经营收入。 这一支出在收入表的最后一部分出现,放在营业收入数字的后边。

SINGLE-STEP INCOME STATEMENT. The income statements prepared by large corporations for distribution to thousands of stockholders often are greatly condensed because public presumably is more interested in a concise report than in the details of operations. The single-step form of income statement takes its name from the fact that the total of all expenses (including the cost of goods sold) is deducted from total revenue in a single step. All types of revenue, such as sales, interest earned, and rent revenue, are added together to show the total revenue. Then all expenses are grouped together and deducted in one step without the use of subtotals. A condensed income statement in single-step from is shown below.

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B&B CORPORATION Income Statement For the year ended December 31, 19—
Revenue: Net sales ············································································································· $90 000 000 Interest earned ········································································································1 800 000 Total revenue ······························································································$91 800 000 Expenses: Cost of goods sold ······································································ $60 000 000 Selling expenses ··········································································· 14 400 000 General administrative expenses····················································· 9 750 000 Income taxes expense ····································································· 3 150 000 Total expenses·······························································································87 300 000 Net income ···················································································································$4 500 000
单步式收入表 由大公司编制的向几千个股东分发的收入表特别简明,因为公众可能感兴趣的是经营 方面的简要的报告而不是细节问题。单步式收入表是加总费用,包括销售成本,从总收入中一步减掉而得 名。所有种类的收入,如销售收入、利息收入、租金收入相加得出总收入。然后,把所有费用放在一起, 不用小计,一步从总收入中减去。下面是一份简明的单步式收入表。 B&B 公司 收 销售收入: 净销售额 ······························································································································· $90 000 000 利息收入 ····································································································································1 800 000 总收入·························································································································· $91 800 000 支出: 销售成本 ···································································································· $60 000 000 销售费用 ······································································································ 14 400 000 行政管理费用 ·································································································9 750 000 所得税费用 ·····································································································3 150 000 总支出···························································································································· 87 300 000 净收入 ············································································································································· $4 500 000 入 表 19_ _年,截止期为 12 月 31 日

Use of the single-step income statement has increased in recent years, perhaps because it is relatively simple and easy to read. A disadvantage of this format is that useful concepts such as the gross profit on sales are not readily apparent.
近年来,单步式收入表的使用已经增加,也许这是因为它相对简单、易读。这种格式的不利之处是有 些有用的概念如销售毛利不是一目了然。

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Unit Eleven Statement of Changes in Financial Position and Cash Flow Statement
第十一单元 财务状况变动表和现金流量表

STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN FINANCIAL POSITION. Statement of changes in financial position is a financial statement showing the sources and uses of working capital during the accounting period. In addition, this statement shows financing and investing activities, such as exchange transactions, which do not directly affect working capital.
财务状况变动表 财务状况变动表是表示在会计期间营运资本的来源以及使用情况的财务报表。此外, 这种报表还展示筹资和投资活动,如交换性经济业务,这些交易对营运资本并不生产直接影响。

A statement of changes in financial position helps us to understand how and why the financial position of a business has changed during the period. This statement summarizes the long-term financing and investing activities of the business; it shows where the financial resources (funds) have come from and where they have gone. With the understanding of how the funds have flowed into the business and how these funds have been used, we can begin to answer such important questions as: Do the normal operations of the business generate sufficient funds to enable the company to pay regular dividends? Has the company been forced to borrow to pay for new plant assets, or has it been able to generate the funds from the current operation? Is the business becoming more solvent or less solvent? Perhaps the most puzzling question is: How can a profitable business be running low on cash and working capital? Even though a business operates profitably, its working capital may be decline and the business may even become insolvent.
财务状况变动表有助于我们了解在会计期间一个公司的财务状况的变化以及产生这种变化的原因。该 报表汇总了公司长期筹资和投资活动;它告诉我们财产资源(资金)从何处来,到何处支。有了对资产是 如何流入公司,又是如何地被使用的了解,我们就可以回答一些重要的问题,如:公司的正常经常是否能 生产出足够的资金使其按期支付红利?公司是否被迫借债支付新的厂房设备?公司是否能从当期经营中生 成足够的资金?公司的偿债能力是强了还是弱了?也许,最令人迷惑的问题是一个盈利的公司如何会出现 现金和运营资本短缺的情况?即使一个公司是盈利经营,它的运营资本可能下降,公司甚至能变得没有偿 付能力。

The statement of changes in financial position gives us answer to these questions, because it shows in detail the amount of funds received from each source and the amount of funds used for each purpose throughout the year. In fact, this financial statement used to be called a statement of sources and applications of funds. Many people still call it simply a funds statement.
财务状况变动表可以为我们提供这些问题的答案,因为它详细地展示了全年所收到的每笔资金数额和 使用的每笔资金的数额。实际上,这笔财务报表过去曾被称为资产来源来使用报表。许多人现在仍然管它 叫资金报表。

“Funds” here are defined as working capital—the excess of current assets over current liabilities. If the amount of working capital increased during a given fiscal period, this means that more working capital was generated than was used for various business purposes; if a decrease in working capital occurred, the reverse is true. One of the key purposes of the statement of changes in financial position is to explain fully the increase or decrease in working capital during a fiscal period. This is done by showing where working capital originated and how it is used.
“现金”这个定义在这里的含义是“营运资本” ,即流动资产比流动负债的超出部分。如果在某一个 会计期间,营运资本增加了,这意味着生成的营运资本多于各种业务需要使用的营运资本;如果营运资本 第 46 页 共 122 页


出现下降的情况,就出现相反的情况。财务状况变动表的主要目的之一是对一个会计期间营运资本的增减 做出充分的解释,这一目的是通过列示营运资本的来源和使用来实现的。

Any transaction that increases the amount of working capital is a source of working capital. The principal sources of working capital include:

(1) Net sources of funds provided by current operations—the inflow of funds from sales exceeds the outflow of funds to cover the cost of merchandise purchases and expenses of doing business. (2) Sales of noncurrent assets. A business may obtain working capital by selling noncurrent assets, such as plant and equipment or long-term investments, in exchange for current assets. (3) Long-term borrowing. Long-term borrowing such as issuing bonds payable, results in an increase in current assets, thereby increasing working capital. (4) Sales of additional shares of stock. The sale of capital stock results in an inflow of current assets, thereby increasing working capital.
1. 当期经营所提供的净资金来源—销售所得流入资金超出购买商品的成本和经营费用流出的资金。 2. 非流动资产的销售。公司也可以通过出售非流动资产,如厂房、设备或长期投资来换取流动资产的 方法获得营运资本。 3. 长期借款。长期借款,如发行的应付债券可以导致流动资产增加,因而增加了营运资本。 4. 出售股票追加股。销售股本可以导致流动资产的流入,从而增加了营运资本。

The uses of working capital mainly include:

(1) Declaration of cash dividends. The declaration of a cash dividend results in a current liability (dividend payable) and is therefore a use of funds. (2) Purchase of noncurrent assets. Purchases of noncurrent assets, such as plant and equipment, reduce the current assets or increase current liabilities, in either case, working capital is reduced. (3) Repayment of long-term debt. Working capital is decreased when current assets are used to repay long-term debts. (4) Repurchase of outstanding stock. When cash is paid out to repurchase outstanding shares of stock, working capital is reduced.
1. 宣布现金红利。宣布现金红利可以引起流动负债(应付股利) ,因此,宣布红利是资本运用。 2. 购买非流动资产。 购买非流动资产如厂房设备减少了流动资产, 或增加了流动负债。 不论哪种情况, 都减少了营运资本。 3. 偿还长期借款。用流动资金偿还长期借款,减少了营运资本。 4. 买回流通在外的股票。支付现金买回流通在外的股票使营运资本减少。

The example below shows a simple statement of changes in financial position, saving the process of preparation.

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AAA COMPANY Statement of Changes in Financial Position For Month of May
Sources of working capital: Operations (net income)······························································································$7 500 Additional investment by owner ·················································································20 000 Total sources of working capital ···············································································$27 500 Uses of working capital: Purchase of land·············································································· $47 000 Withdrawal by owner·········································································· 2 000 Total uses of working capital ······················································································49 000 Decrease in working capital······························································································$21 500
下面是一份简单的财务状况变动表的例子,在此略去了编制的过程。 AAA 公司 5 月份财务状况变动表 营运资本来源: 经营 (净收入) ······························································································································· $7 500 业主追加投资 ································································································································ 20 000 营运资本来源合计 ······················································································································ $27 500 营运资本的使用: 购买土地 ·········································································································$47 000 业主提取款 ········································································································· 2 000 营运资本运用总计 ························································································································ 49 000 营运资本减少额 ··································································································································· $21 500

CASH FLOW STATEMENT. A statement of changes in financial position is designed to provide stockholders and other outsiders with an overview of the company’s liquid resources. Managers, however, are often more concerned with have enough cash available to meet the company’s maturing liabilities. To help managers plan and control cash balances, most companies prepare cash flow statements. These statements explain the changes in the company’s cash balance by summarizing the cash receipts and cash disbursements occurring over the accounting period.
现金流量表 财务状况变动表的目的是为股东以及其它外界人士提供有关公司资源流动的概况,而经 理们通常则对是否拥有足够可用的现金偿还即将到期的负债十分关心。为了帮助管理人员计划和控制现金 余额,多数公司都编制现金流量表。这些报表通过对会计期间内发生的现金收入和现金支出加以汇总的办 法来揭示公司现金结余的变动情况。

Cash flow statements often are prepared monthly as well as annually. In addition, many companies prepare projected cash flow statements (called cash budgets or cash forecasts) which forecast the cash receipts and cash disbursements of future accounting periods. These forecasts enable managers to plan the company’s borrowing and investment activities so as to avoid cash shortages or excessively high cash balances.
现金流量表通常是按年或按月编制。此外,许多公司还编制现金流量预计表(亦叫现金预算或现金预 报) ,它对将来会计期间的现金收入和现金支出进行预测。这些预报使得管理人员能够计划公司的借款和投 第 48 页 共 122 页



Cash flow statements did not appear in the annual report to stockholders and other outsiders until recently; they are prepared only for internal use by management. However, banks often insist that a company applying for a loan include both a cash flow statement and a cash forecast with the loan application.
现金流量表一般不出现在给股东和其它外界人士的年度报告里,编制现金流量表仅是为管理部门内部 使用。但是,银行通常坚持要求公司在申请贷款时一定要报现金流量表和现金预报表同贷款申请一并递上。

We will get a general idea of the forecast of the cash flow statement by looking at the following example.

AAA COMPANY Cash Flow Statement For the year ended December 31, 19—
Cash receipts: Cash generated from operations················································································$50 000 Sales of land ···············································································································70 000 Sales of capital stock···································································································65 000 Total cash receipts···································································································$185 000 Cash payments: Purchase of equipment···································································· $90 000 Retirement of bonds payable····························································· 75 000 Withdrawal by owner········································································ 40 000 Total cash payments··································································································205 000 Decrease in cash during the year·······················································································$20 000
下面让我们看一个例子,以便对现金流量表有一个总体了解。 AAA 公司 现金流量表 19_ _年,截止期为 12 月 31 日 现金收入: 经营产生的现金 ·························································································································· $50 000 土地销售 ········································································································································ 70 000 股本销售 ········································································································································ 65 000 现金总收入 ································································································································$185 000 现金支出: 购买设备 ·········································································································$90 000 应付债券还本 ··································································································· 75 000 支付现金红利 ··································································································· 40 000 现金总支出 ·································································································································· 205 000 当年现金减少数 ··································································································································· $20 000

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Unit Twelve The System of Internal Control
第十二单元 内部控制制度

BASIC IDEAS OF INTERNAL CONTROL. The topic of internal control goes hand-in-hand with the study of accounting and auditing. Business decisions of all types are based at least in part upon accounting information. And auditors nowadays study and evaluate the client’s internal control system before the performing of other audit procedures, which is known as the system-based audit. How do the decision makers and auditors know that the accounting information they receive is accurate and reliable? This assurance comes, in large part, from the company’s system of internal control.
内部控制制度概述 内部控制这一话题与会计和审计研究密切相关。各种经济决策都至少是部分地依 据会计信息。当今的审计人员在进行其它审计程序之前,都要对客户的内部控制制度进行研究和评估,这 种审计被称之为以内部控制制度为基础的审计。决策者和审计人员怎样才能知道他们所收到的财务信息是 准确可靠的呢?这种可靠性在很大程度上取决于公司的内部控制制度。

A system of internal control consists of all the measures taken by an organization for the purpose of (1) protecting its resources against waste, fraud, and inefficiency; (2) ensuring accuracy and reliability in accounting and operating data; (3) securing compliance with company policies; and (4) evaluating the level of performance in all divisions of the company. In short, a system of internal control includes all of the measures designed to assure managements that the entire business operates according to plan.
内部控制制度是一个单位为达到下述目标所采取的全部措施。 (1)使资源免遭浪费,非法侵占和低效 使用; (2)保证会计和经济资料准确可靠; (3)保证公司政策的贯彻执行; (4)对公司各部门的工作表现 进行评估。简言之,内部控制制度包括为使管理部门相信,全部业务活动是根据计划进行所设计的全部措 施。

A basic principle of internal control is that no one person should handle all phases of a transaction from the beginning to end. When business operations are so organized that two or more employees are required to participate in every transaction, the possibility of fraud is reduced and the work of one employee gives assurance of the work of another.
内部控制的一个基本原则是,一个人不应该负责经济业务从开始到结束的全过程。根据这一原则组织 交易活动,每笔交易要有两个或两个以上的人参加,这样可以减少舞弊的可能性,一个雇员的工作可从对 另一位雇员工作的可靠性起保证作用。

Many people think of internal control as a means of safeguarding cash and preventing fraud. Although internal control is an important factor in protecting assets and preventing fraud, this is only a part of its roles. Remember that business decisions are based on accounting data; and the system of internal control provides assurance of the dependability of the accounting data used in making decisions.
许多人认为内部控制是保护现金,防止舞弊的一个方法。虽然内部控制是保护资产,防止欺诈行为的 一个重要因素,但这只是其作用的一部分。需要记住的是经营决策依赖于会计数据,内部控制对决策中使 用的会计数据的可靠性提供了保证。

The decisions made by management are communicated throughout the organization and become company policy. The result of the policies—the consequences of the managerial decisions—must be reported back to management so that the soundness of the company policies can
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be evaluated. Among the means of communication included in the system of internal control are organization charts, manuals of accounting policies and procedures, flow charts, financial forecasts, purchase orders, receiving reports, invoices, and many other documents. The term documentation refers to all the charts, forms, reports, and other business papers that guide and describe the working of a company’s system of accounting and internal control.
管理部门做出的决策要在整个单位传达,成为公司的政策。政策实施的结果—管理部门决策的结果— 必须反馈到管理部门,这样才能对公司政策的正确性进行评估。在内部控制制度中,还包括其他一些交流 手段,如公司组织结构图,会计政策和程序手册,流程图,财务预报,采购单,验收单,发票以及许多其 他文件。文件这术语指的是所有指导和描述公司会计和内部控制制度实际情况的图表、表格、报告和其它 业务报告。

INTERNAL ACCOUNTING CONTROL. Internal control falls into major classes: administrative controls and accounting controls. Administration controls are measures that increase operation efficiency and compliance with policies in all parts of the organization. For example, an administrative control may be a requirement that traveling salespersons submit reports showing the number of calls made on customers each day. Another example is a directive requiring airline pilots to have regular medicine examinations. These internal administrative controls have no direct bearing on the reliability of the financial statements. Consequently, administrative controls are not of direct interests to accountants and independent auditors.
内部会计控制 内部控制分为两大类:管理控制与会计控制。管理控制是为提高经营效率以及经营方 针可以在公司各部门畅通无阻所采取的措施。例如:管理控制可以是一条要求,即外出办事的销售人员必 须提交每天走访客户的次数的报告单。另一个例子:要求飞行员定期检查身体的指示。这些内部管理控制 对财务报表的可靠性并无直接的影响。因此会计师和独立的审计人员对管理控制并没有直接的兴趣。

Internal accounting controls are measures that protection of assets and to the reliability of accounting and financial reports. Since it has a direct effect on the reliability at accounting information and is the main concern of accountants and auditors, we will examine it in more details.
内部会计控制是那些与资产的保护和会计和财务报告可靠性有关的措施。由于它对会计信息的可靠性 有直接的影响,它是会计和审计人员关心的主要问题。我们将在这里详细地考察这个问题。

Accounting system. Accounting system is a very important part of a internal control system, it consists of the methods of records established to identify, assemble, analyze, classify, record, and report on entity’s transactions and to maintain accountability for the related assets and liabilities. An effective accounting system should
会计制度。会计制度是内部控制制度很重要的部分,它主要包括为公司的交易进行认证、汇集、分析、 分类、记录和报告,以便明确有关的资产和负债的会计责任而确立的方法和核算资料体系。一个有效的会 计制度应该由以下几点构成:

(1) Identify and record all valid transactions. (2) Describe on a timely basis the transactions in sufficient detail to permit proper classification of transactions for financial reporting. (3) Measure the value of transactions in a manner that permits recording their proper monetary value in the financial statements. (4) Determine the time period in which the transactions occurred to permit recording of the transactions in the proper accounting period. (5) Present properly the transactions and related disclosures in the financial statements.

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会计英语 (2)尽可能详细地把交易情况及时记录下来,以便对交易进行恰当地分类,供财务报告之用; (3)以适当的方式对经济业务加以计量,以便能在财务报表以货币形式表现经济业务的价值; (4)确定交易归属期间,以便在恰当的会计期间记录交易; (5)在财务报表中恰当地展示交易及有关该公布的信息。

Accounting control procedures. The control procedures consist of policies and procedures that are established to provide reasonable assurance that entity objectives will be achieved. The accounting control procedures may be classified into the following categories: (1) proper authorization; (2) segregation of duties; (3) documents and records; (4) access control; and (5) independent checks, which will be discussed one by one.
内部控制程序。内部控制由为公司的目标实现提供合理保证而确立的政策和程序组成。会计控制程序 可以分为下列各类: (1)恰当的授权; (2)职务分离; (3)凭证和记录; (4)对接触资产的控制; (5)独 立稽核。下面对此逐一进行讨论。

1. Proper Authorization. A major purpose of proper authorization procedures is to assure that transactions are authorized by management personnel acting within the scope of their authority. Authorizations may be general or specific. The former relates to the general conditions under which transactions are authorized such as standard price lists for products and credit policies for charge sales. The latter relates to the granting of the authorization on a case-by-case basis. This may occur, for example, in nonroutine transactions, such as major capital expenditures and capital stock issues. Specific authorization may apply to routine transactions that exceed the limit prescribed in the general authorization such as granting credit to a customer who does not meet specific credit conditions because of extenuating circumstances.
1. 恰当的授权。恰当的授权程序的主要目的是为了确保交易是由在其职权范围内的管理人员批准的。 授权可以是一般性的,也可以是专门的。前者指的是经营性业务的授权处理,如产品标准价格表,赊账出 售的信用政策。后者是指即时授权处理某种交易,这种交易属于非日常交易。如大额资本性支出和股本的 发行。专门授权有时也适用于一般情况,即当日常的经济业务超出了一般授权的范围内,如给那些由于财 力减少而不能达到规定的信贷条件的客户提供信用销售方式。

2. Segregation of Duties. The category of control procedures involves the assignment of responsibility for a transaction so that the duties of one employee automatically provide a cross-check on the work of one or more other employees. The primary purpose of segregation of duties is the prevention and prompt the detection of the error or irregularities in the performance of assigned responsibilities. Duties are considered incompatible from a control standpoint when it is possible for an individual to commit errors or irregularities in the normal course of his or her duties and prevent their detection by the internal control system. Generally, the following four types of situation certainly need the segregation of duties.
2. 职务分离。 这种控制程序汲及到明确每笔交易的责任从而使一个雇员的职责将自动地成为对另一个 或更多的雇员的工作的验证。职务分离的根本目的是防止和及时查出在执行所指派的任务中出现的错误和 舞弊现象。 一个人在正常工作中可能犯错误或进行舞弊,尔后有可能预防内部控制制度查出这些问题,从管理角 度来看,这个人就兼任了不相容的职务。一般来说,下面的四种情形需要进行职务分离:

(1) Responsibility for executing a transaction, recording the transaction, and maintaining custody of the assets resulting from the transaction should be assigned to different individuals or departments. (2) The various steps involved in executing a transaction should be assigned to different indi第 52 页 共 122 页


viduals or departments. (3) Responsibility for certain accounting operations should be segregated. (4) There should be proper segregation of duties within the EDP department and between EDP and user department.
(1)办理交易,记录交易以及对交易产生的资产的保管职责应该分派给不同的个人或部门; (2)办理交易的不同步骤应由不同的个人或部门来承担; (3)某些会计操作的职责应该分开; (4)电子数据处理部门的有关职责,以及电子数据处理部门与使用部门的职责也应该有恰当的分离。

3. Documents. Documents provide evidence of the occurrence of transactions and the price, nature, and the terms of the transactions. Invoices, checks, contracts, and time tickets are illustrative of common types of documents. When duly signed or stamped, documents also provide a basis for establishing responsibility for the executing and recording of transactions. Prenumbered are useful in maintaining control and accountability. Prenumbering helps to assure (1) all transaction are recorded and (2) no transactions are recorded more than once. When prenumbering exists, all voided documents should be retained.
3. 凭证。凭证为交易的发生,以及交易的价格、性质和发生的条件提供证据。发票、支票、合同、记 时单都是普通的凭证的例子。当凭证得到妥当的签字或盖印后,也可以作为确定执行和记录交易责任的基 础。事先编码的凭证对内部控制和责任制度十分有用。事先编码有助于保证(1)所有的交易全部入账; (2) 交易不能被重复入账。如果凭证是事先编码的,所有作废的凭证都应该保留。

4. Access Controls. Access controls are concerned with limiting the following two types of access to assets and important records: (1) direct physical access and (2) indirect access through the preparation or processing of documents such as sales orders and disbursement vouches that authorize the use or disposition of the assets. Thus, these controls pertain primarily to security devices and measures for the safekeeping of assets, documents, records, and computer programs and files. Security devices include on-site safeguards such as bank deposit vaults and certified public warehouses. Security measures include limiting access to storage areas to authorized personnel.
4. 对接触的控制。对接触的控制主要包括两种对资产和重要账簿接触的控制: (1)直接性接触, (2) 通过编制和处理文件,如销售订单和授权使用或处理资产的支付凭单而达到的间接的接触。因此,这种控 制主要是与保护资产、文件、账目、计算机程序以及档案等有关的安全防范措施和设施。安全设施包括现 场安全装置,如银行储蓄保险柜和注册公共库房。安全措施包括只有被授权人员才能进入储存区。

5. Independent Checks. Independent checks involve verification of (1) work performed by another individual or department, or (2) the proper valuation of recorded amounts. Independent checks may be made with varying degrees of frequency. Manual clerical checks may be made daily on all or selected transactions. In contrast, comparisons of assets with recorded accountability and management review of reports may occur periodically, such as weekly or monthly. Some independent checks, such as petty cash counts, may be made on a surprise basis.
5. 独立稽核。独立稽核包括对下列问题的查证: (1)由他人或其它部门从事的工作,或(2)对已入 账的数额进行恰当的评估。 独立稽核可以按不同的时间间隔来进行,每天都可以对全部或有选择地对部分交易进行人工账面复 核。但是,也可以定期把资产与账面记录和管理部门的检查报告进行对照。如一周,或一个月一次。对零 用现金可以采取忽然袭击的方式进行核查。

All internal control systems are subject to inherent limitations. One limitation is the human factor that exists in control procedures. The effectiveness of specific controls can be nullified by an employee through misunderstanding of introductions, carelessness, fatigue, and absenteeism. It

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is also possible for the effectiveness of a control to be minimized through deliberate circumvention by one employee or jointly by persons both within and outside the entity. The latter situation is referred to as collusion. Management may also override specific controls.
所有内部控制制度者受到其固有的局限性的束缚。控制程序中的人为因素就是其中之一。某一具体控 制的有效性可以因为雇员对指令的误解,粗心大意,疲劳或心不在焉所抵消。一个控制的有效性也有可能 因为雇员本人,或与单位内外的其它人共同故意干扰而降低,后一种情形被称之为串通舞弊。

A second limitation is that controls may not encompass all transactions. For example, controls may not apply to nonroutine transactions such as officers’ bonuses and extraordinary events.
第二种局限性是控制有不能涵盖所有交易的可能。例如,控制制度可能对非日常交易不适用,如官员 们的奖金以及非常项目。

In addition, it should be recognized that internal controls exists in a dynamic rather than a static business environment. Changed conditions may necessitate major modifications in the control structure. Consequently, special care should be taken in evaluating the effectiveness of a internal control structure.
此外,应该认识到内部控制是在一种动态,而不是在静态的业务环境中存在的,条件的变化可以使修 改控制制度成为必要。因此,应该注意对内部控制制度有效性进行评估。

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Unit Thirteen Cash and Its Control
第十三单元 现金及其控制

DEFINITION OF CASH. Accountants define cash a money on deposit in banks and any items that banks will accepts for immediate deposit. These items include not only coins and paper money, but also checks and money orders. On the other hand, notes receivable, IOUs, and postdated checks are not accepted for immediate deposit and are not included in the accountant’s definition of cash.
现金的定义 会计经现金下的定义是存在银行的钱,以及银行可以立即授受储蓄的任何东西,这些东 西不仅包括硬币和纸币,而且还包括支票和汇票。但是,应收票据,欠条,远期支票都不能被接受为可以 立即储蓄的东西,因此,就不包括在会计定义下的现金之内。

In the balance sheet, cash is listed first among the current assets, because it is the most current and liquid of all assets. The banker, credit manager, or investor who studies a balance sheet critically is always interested in the total amounts of cash as compared with other balance sheet items, such accounts payable. These outside users of a company’s financial statements are not interested, however, in such details as the number of separate bank accounts, or in the distinction between cash on hand and cash in banks. A business that carries checking accounts with several banks will maintain a separate ledger account for each bank account. In the balance sheet, however, the entire amount of cash on hand and cash on deposit with several banks will be shown as a single amount. One objective in preparing financial statements is to keep them short, concise, and easy to read.
在资产负债表里,现金被列在流动资产栏目的首项,因为它在所有资产中最具有流动性和易变性。与 其它资产负债项目,如应付账款相比,研究资产负债表的银行家、信贷经理或投资者总是对现金总额更感 兴趣。但是,财务报表外界用户,对公司有多少独立的银行账户,或多少现金存在银行,多少现金留在企 业这样的细节问题并不关心。在几家银行设有支票账户的公司,对每家银行的账都要设立独立的分类账。 但在资产负债表上,公司库存的现金和存于几家银行的现金是以一个数据出现的。编制财务报表的目标之 一是使报表简短、明了、易读。

Efficient management of cash includes measures that will:

1. Provide accurate accounting for cash receipts, cash payments and cash balances; 2. Prevent losses from fraud or theft; 3. Maintain a sufficient amount of cash at all times to make necessary payments, plus a reasonable balance for emergencies. 4. Prevent unnecessary large amounts of cash from being held idle in bank accounts which produce no revenue.
1. 对现金收入、现金支出和现金余额提供准确的核算; 2. 防止由于舞弊和盗窃产生的损失; 3. 保证在任何时候都有充足数额的现金, 以支付必要款项, 而且还要加上一些应付紧急情况的合理的 现金余额; 4. 防止大量现金不必要地装置在银行账户上,而不创造收入。

INTERNAL CONTROLS OVER CASH. Cash is more susceptible to theft than any other

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assets. Furthermore, a large portion of the total transactions of a business involve the receipt or disbursement of cash. For both these reasons, internal control over cash is of great importance to management and also to the employees of a business. If a cash shortage arises in a business in which internal controls are weak or nonexistent, every employee is under suspicion. Perhaps no one employee can be proved guilty of the theft, but neither can any employee prove his or her innocence.
现金的内部控制 现金比其它任何资产都更容易被盗,而且一个公司大部分交易都牵涉到现金的收入 和支出。基于上述两个原因,对现金的内部控制不仅对公司的管理部门,而且对公司雇员都十分重要。如 果在一个内部控制制度薄弱或不存在的公司出现了现金短缺的情况,每个雇员都成了被怀疑对象,可能哪 一个人也不能被证明有罪,但哪一个人也不能被证明是无辜的。

On the other hand, if internal controls over cash are adequate, theft without detection is virtually impossible except through the collusion of two or more employees. To achieve internal control over cash or any other group of assets requires first of all that the custody of assets be clearly separated from the recording of transactions. Secondly, the recording function should be subdivided among employees, so that the work of one person is verified by that of another. This subdivision of duties discouraged fraud, because collusion among employees would be necessary to conceal an irregularity. Internal control is more easily achieved in large companies than in small companies, because extensive subdivision of duties is more feasible in large business.
但是,如果对现金有足够控制的话,除非是两个或更多的人合谋,否则,实际上盗窃没有不被发现的。 对现金或其它两类资产内部控制,首先要求资金的保管要彻底与交易的记账职能分离。第二,记账的责任 应在雇员中再进一步分离。这样,一个人的工作可以由另一个人的工作来复核。这种责任的进一步分离可 以防止舞弊,因为要掩盖一些不正常的现象需要雇员间的合谋。在大公司比在小公司更容易实行内部控制, 因为在较大的公司广泛地实行职务细分更有可行性。

The major steps in establishing internal controls over cash include the following:

1. Separate the function of handling cash from the maintenance of accounting records. Employees who handle cash should not have access to the accounting records, and accounting personnel should not have access to cash.
1. 把接触现金与会计记账的职务分开。 与现金打交道的雇员不应该有接触账目的机会, 会计人员也不 应该有接触现金的机会。

2. Prepare an immediate control listing of cash receipts at the time and place that the money is received. This initial listing may consist of a cash register tape or serially numbered sales tickets rather than formal entries in the accounting records. A list of incoming check should be prepared by the employees assigned to open the mail.
2. 在收到现金的当时当地编制一份即刻现金收入控制表。 这种表首先列入的项目可以包括现金出纳机 的收据或按序号排好的销货发票,而不是会计账目正式的会计分录。收入支票表应该由专门负责拆邮件的 雇员来编制。

3. Require that all the cash receipts be deposited daily in the bank.
3. 要求每天把现金收入全部存入银行。

4. Make all payments by check. The only exception should be for small payments to be made in cash from a petty cash fund. Payments should never be made out of cash receipts. Checks should never be drawn payable to cash. A check drawn to a named payee requires endorsement by the payee on the back of the check before it can be cashed or deposited. This endorsement provides permanent evidence identifying the person who received the funds. On the other hand, a
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check payable to cash can be deposited or cashed by anyone.
4. 用支票支付所有的付款项目, 只有从零用基金中支付的小笔款项例外。 任何时候都不应该用现金收 入支付款项,任何时候都不要签发可直接兑换现金的支票。给带有名字的收款人开具的支票要求收款人在 后面背书,方可兑换现金或存入银行,这种背书提供了认定收到现金的人的永久性证据。但是,可兑现的 支票可以由任何人兑换成现金或存入银行。

5. Require that the validity and amount of every expenditure be verified before a check is issued in payment.
5. 要求对每笔支出的数额和有效性进行核准后才能开具支票支付。

6. Separate the function of approving expenditure from the function of signing checks.
6. 把批准支出的职务与签署支票的职务分离。

BANK STATEMENT AND BANK RECONCILIATION. Since all cash receipts are to be deposited intact in the bank and all significant cash disbursements are to be made by check through the bank, each month the bank will provide the depositor with a statement of the depositor’s account, accompanied by the checks paid and charged to the account during the month. A bank statement shows the balance on deposit at the beginning of the month, the deposits, the checks paid, any other debits and credits during the month, and the new balance at the end of the month.
银行对账单和银行存款调节表 由于所有的现金收入都要原封不动地存入银行,因此,所有大的现金 支付要通过银行用支票来付。每个月银行都要为储户提供对账单,连同这个月里该账户收到和付出的支票。 对账单列示这个月初的储蓄余额,本月存款数,支付的支票,该月里其它增加和减少以及月末新的账面结 余情况。

The balance shown on the monthly statement received from the bank will usually not agree with the balance of cash shown by the depositor’s accounting records. Certain transactions recorded by the depositor will not yet have been recorded by the bank. For instance, some checks may be written by the depositor and deducted from the cash account on the depositor’s records but not yet presented to the bank for payment, deposits in transit, and so on. In order to assure that the bank and depositor are in agreement on the amount of money on deposit, a bank reconciliation needs to be prepared, because the bank and the depositor maintain independent records of the deposits, the checks and the running balances of bank account. Once a month an employee prepares a bank reconciliation to verify that these two independent sets of records are in agreement. For strong internal control, the employee who prepares the bank reconciliation should not have access to cash or be responsible for recording cash transactions in the accounting records.
收到的银行对账单上所列示的余额通常与企业会计账目上所列示的现金余额不符。企业已经入账的某 些交易银行尚未记账。例如,有些支票已经由储户开出,并从储户的现金账中减去,但持票人尚未向银行 出示要求付款,还有在途存款等。为了确定银行和储户在储蓄数额上是否一致,需要编制银行存款调节表, 这是因为银行和储户分别进行存款记录,分别保持有关支票和银行存款账户的每日余额。指定一位雇员每 月编制一次银行存款调节表以核对这两份独立的账目是否一致。为获得有力的内部控制,编制银行存款调 节表的人不应该有机会接触现金,或负责在会计账目中记录现金交易。

PETTY CASH FUND. As previously emphasized, adequate internal control over cash requires that all receipts be deposited in the bank and all disbursements be made by check. However, every business finds it convenient to have a small amount of cash on hand with which to make some minor expenditure. Examples include payments for small purchases of office supplies, post-

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age stamps and taxi fares. Internal control over these small cash payments can be best achieved through a petty cash fund.
零用现金 如上述所强调的那样,对现金实行充分的控制要求所有的收入必须存入银行,所有的支付 必须用支票。但是,每个单位都认为身边有少量现金比较方便,以此它们可以进行小笔支付。这些小笔支 付包括购买少量办公用品,邮资以及出租汽车费等项支出。对这些小笔现金支付的内部控制最好通过对零 用现金的控制来实现。

When a disbursement is made from the petty cash fund, the custodian of the fund is required to fill out a petty cash voucher for expenditure, the date, and the signature of the person receiving the money. The petty cash box should, therefore, always contain cash and /or vouchers totaling the exact amount of the fund.
当需要从零用现金中支付款项时,要求零用金保管人员为支出款项填写零用现金发票,注明所付的金 额,支出的目的,日期,而且要有收款人的签字。因此,零用现金保险箱总要装有相当于零用现金定额总 数的现金或付款凭证。

When the amount is nearly exhausted, the fund should be replenished. To replenish a petty cash fund means to replace the amount of money that has been spent. In practice, the petty cash fund is usually replenished at the end of an accounting period; even through the fund is not running low. And occasional surprise counts of the fund should be made to prevent careless handling, theft, and misuse of petty cash fund.
当零用现金快用完时,应该补足其定额。补足定额就是将花掉的部分用现金补充上去。在实践中,零 用现金通常是在会计期间结束时补充,即使这时的零用基金余额并不少,也要补充。对零用现金要不时地 进行突击性盘点,以防止对零用现金管理粗心,盗窃和滥用现象的发生。

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Unit Fourteen Account Receivable
第十四单元 应收账款

SIGNIFICANCE OF ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE. Account receivable arise when a business sells goods and services on credit. Sales and profits can be increased by granting customers the privilege of making payment a month or more after the date of sale. However, no business concern wants to sell on credit to a customer who will prove unable or unwilling to pay his or her account. Consequently, most business organizations have a credit department which investigates the credit worthiness of each prospective customer.
应收账款的意义 当企业以赊账方式销售产品或提供服务时,就产生了应收账款。通过为客户提供可 以在销售业务完成之后的一个月甚至更长时间再支付货款的权利,可以提高销售收入和盈利额。但是,没 有任何一个企业愿意将货物以信用形式卖给那些可能被证实为不能够或不愿意付款的人。因此,大多数企 业都专门设立了一个信用调查部,负责调查潜在客户的信用状况。

Regardless of how thoroughly the credit department investigates prospective customers, some uncollectible accounts will arise as a result of errors in judgment or because of unexpected development. In fact, a limited amount of uncollectible accounts is evidence of a sound credit policy. If the credit department should become too cautious and conservative in rating customers, it might avoid all credit losses, but, in so doing, lose profitable business by rejecting many acceptable customers.
不论信用部的调查工作是多么的彻底,仍然会产生不能收回的货款,这是由于判断上的错误或情况的 发展超出预料的结果。事实上,有一定不能收回的应收账款,正是一个企业的成功的信用政策的一个证明。 如果信用部门在评价客户的信用等级时的态度太保守,结果是可以避免不可收回的账款造成的损失,但长 此以往,就会失掉许多可以接受客户,丢掉一些有利可图的生意。

ALLOWANCE FOR DOUBTFUL ACCOUNTS. There is no way of telling in advance which accounts receivable will be collected and which one will prove to be worthless. It is therefore not possible to credit the account of any particular customer to reflect the overall estimate of the year’s credit losses. Neither is it possible to credit the Accounts Receivable controlling account in the general ledger. If the Accounts Receivable controlling account were to be credited with the estimated amount of doubtful accounts, this controlling account would no longer be in balance with the total of the numerous customers’ accounts in the subsidiary ledger. The only practicable alternative, therefore, is to credit a separate account called Allowance for Doubtful Accounts with the amount estimated to be uncollectible.
坏账准备 人们事先无法知道哪一笔应收账款是可以收回的,哪些应收账款是没有指望的。因此,企 业不可能通过借记某一个客户的账户来反映本年度的坏账损失的估计总数,同时,也不可能去贷记总分类 账中的“应收账款”控制账户。例如,将全部估计的坏账损失都贷记在“应收账款”总账,那么该账户的 余额就不会与那些应收账款账户的余额合计即应收账款的各明细分类账的合计数相等。唯一可行的办法, 是单独设置“坏账准备”账户,通过贷记该账户来反映估计的不可收回的应收账款数。

The Allowance of Doubtful Accounts often is described as a contra-asset account or a valuation account. Both of these terms indicate that the Allowance for Doubtful Accounts has a credit balance, which is offset against the asset Accounts Receivable to produce the proper balance sheet value for this asset.

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会计英语 “坏账准备”账户通常被称为备抵账户或计价账户,这两个提法都表明该账户通常表现为贷方余额, 与资产账户—“应收账款”相抵消,以全面反映该项资产在资产负债表中应显示的价值。

The provision for uncollectible accounts is an estimate based upon past experience. The larger the allowance established for doubtful accounts, the lower the net valuation of accounts receivable will be. The valuation of assets at conservative amounts is a long-standing tradition in accounting.
提取的坏账准备是基于以往经验的一个估计数,确定的坏账准备越大,应收账款资产的价值就越低。 对资产评估时遵循稳健的原则进行是会计核算中一个历史悠久的惯例。

There are two methods of estimating uncollectible accounts expense, one is referred to as the balance sheet approach and rests on an aging of the accounts receivable, the other is regarded as the income statement approach and compute the uncollectible accounts as a percentage of the year’s net sales.
估计坏账损失的方法有两个:一个被称为资产负债表法,主要是将应收账款按账户的期限(账龄)进 行分类分析。另一种被称为收入表法,主要是计算不能收回的应收账款占年度净销售额的比例。

Aging the accounts receivable. A past-due account receivable is always viewed with some suspicion. The fact that a receivable is past due suggests that the customer is either unable or unwilling to pay. The analysis of accounts receivable by age is known as aging the accounts, as illustrated by the scheduled below. Analysis of Accounts Receivable by Age December, 31, 19-Not yet Customers Company A Company B Company C Company D Company E Others Totals percentage Total $ 500 150 800 900 400 32 250 $ 35 000 100 400 16 300 $ 18 000 51 10 000 $ 10 000 29 4 200 $ 4 350 12 200 $ 1 000 3 1 500 $ 1 650 5 800 $ 800 $ 100 due $ 500 $ 150 1-30 days past due 31-60 days past due 61-90 days past due over 90 days past due

应收账款账龄分析 过期未付的应收账款,总是有收不回来的可能性。账款过期意味着客户无力偿付 货款或者不愿意偿还。分析应收账款的存在期限的方法叫账龄分析,如下表所示:

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应收账款账龄分析 19_ _年 12 月 31 日 客户 A B C D E 其它 合计 百分比 400 16 300 $ 18 000 51 10 000 $ 10 000 29 4 200 $ 4 350 12 200 $ 1 000 3 1 500 $ 1 650 5 800 $ 800 $ 100 尚未 过期 $ 500 $ 150 过期 1~30 天 过期 31-60 天 过期 61-90 天 过期 90 天以上 合计 $ 500 150 800 900 400 32 250 $ 35 000 100

The longer past due an account receivable becomes, the greater the likelihood that it will not be collected in full. In recognition of this fact, the analysis of receivables by age groups can be used as a stepping-stone in determining a reasonable amount to add to the Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. To determine this amount, we estimate the percentage of probable expense for each age group of accounts receivable. This percentage, when applied to the dollar amount in each age group, gives a probable expense for each group. By adding together the probable expense for all the age groups, the required balance in the Allowance for Doubtful Accounts is determined. The following schedule lists the group totals from the preceding illustration and shows how the total probable expense from uncollectible accounts is computed. Accounts Receivable by Age Groups
percentage considered Total Not yet due 1-30 days past due 31-60 days past due 61-90 days past due Over 90 days past due Totals $ 18 000 10 000 4 350 1 000 1 650 $ 35 000 Uncollectible 1 3 10 20 50 Probable Uncollectible Accounts $ 100 300 435 200 825 $ 1 940

应收账款逾期的时间愈长,不能足额收回的可能性就越大,正是由于这一点,将应收账款按账龄进行 分类这一分析方法可以作为分析确定坏账准备的一块基石。在确定坏账准备数额时,我们先估计应收账款 每个账龄组的损失率,然后用这一比率去乘以每组的总金额,就得到各组应收账款的损失额。通过将各组 坏账损失额加总,就得到坏账准备的总数。下面报表上列示的数据,反映了每个账龄组的金额以及坏账准 备总数计算的过程。

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会计英语 按账龄划分的应收账款 类别 尚未到期 逾期 1~30 天 逾期 31~60 天 逾期 61~90 天 逾期 90 天以上 合计 金额 $ 18 000 10 000 4 350 1 000 1 650 $ 35 000 不能收回的比率 1 3 10 20 50 不能收回的金额 $ 100 300 435 200 825 $ 1 940

This summary indicates that an allowance for doubtful accounts of $ 1 940 is required.
该表显示应提取坏账准备 1 940 美元。

Estimating uncollectible accounts as a percentage of net sales. An alternative approach preferred by some companies consists of computing the charge to uncollectible accounts expenses as a percentage of the net sales for the year. The question to be answered is not “How large a valuation allowance is needed to reduce our receivables to realizable value?” Instead, the question is stated as “How much uncollectible accounts expense is associated with this year’s volume of sales?”
估计不可收回的应收账款占销售净额的比率 有些公司更喜欢通过估计不可收回的应收账款占销售净 额的比率的方法计算坏账准备的数额。在这种方法下,要回答的问题不是“需要提取多少坏账准备与应收 账款抵消以反映可实现的应收账款”而是“在本年的销售收入额度下会发生多少坏账损失费用。 ”

As an example, assume that for several years the expense of uncollectible accounts has averaged 1% of net sales (sales minus returns and allowances and sales discounts). At the end of current year, the following account balances appear in the ledger. Dr. Cr. Sales $ 1 260 000 Sales returns and allowances $40 000 Sales discounts 20 000
举例来说,根据以往几年的经验,不能收回的应收账款占销售净额的比例平均为 1%(销售净额等于 销售收入减去销售退回、折让和折扣) ,年末,有关账户余额如下: 借方余额 销售收入 销售退回及折让 销售折扣 $40 000 20 000 贷方余额 $ 1 260 000

The net sales of the current year amount to $ 1 200 000; 1% of this amount is $ 12 000.
那么本年度的销售净额为 1 200 000 美元,其 1%为 12 000 美元。

If a company makes both cash sales and credit sales, it is better to exclude the cash sales from consideration and to compute the percentage relationship of uncollectible accounts expense to credit sales only.
如果企业既有现金销售又有信用销售,最好将现金销售的收入额剔除,而只考虑坏账损失与赊账销货 的销售收入的比例关系。

This approach of estimating uncollectible accounts receivable as a percentage of credit sales is easier to apply than the method of aging accounting receivable. The aging of receivables, however, tends to give a more reliable estimate of uncollectible accounts because of the consideration
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given to the age and collectibility of the specific accounts receivable at the balance sheet date. Some companies use the income statement approach for preparing monthly financial statements and internal reports, but use the balance sheet method for preparing annual financial statements.
按这种方法估计坏账准备比采用应收账款账龄分析法简单。但是账龄分析表提供的估计结果更可靠, 因为它考虑了在资产负债表上某些具体的应收账款的账龄及其收回的可能性。有些企业在编制月度财务报 表和内部报表时采用收入表法,但在编制年度财务报表时采用资产负债表法。

Whenever an account receivable from a specific customer is determined to be uncollectible, it no longer qualifies as an asset and should be written off. To write off an account receivable is to reduce the balance of the customer’s account to zero. The journal entry to accomplish this consists of a credit to the Accounts Receivable controlling account in the general ledger (and to the customer’s account in the subsidiary ledger), and an offsetting debit to the Allowance for Doubtful Accounts.
当某个客户的欠款被确定为不可收回的应收账款时,它便不再构成企业的一项资产,应予以核销。核 销应收账款账户,就是将应收账款某个明细账(即某个客户)变成零余额,其日记账的分录为贷记“应收 账款”总账和明细分类账,借记“坏账准备”账户。

INTERNAL CONTROL FOR ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE. Proper segregation of duties is of significance to the management of accounts receivable. In a small business, it is not uncommon to find that one employee has responsibility for handling cash receipts from customers, maintaining the accounts receivable records, issuing credit memos for goods returned by customers, and writing off receivables judged to be uncollectible. Such as a combination of duties is a virtual invitation to fraud. The employee in this situation is able to remove the cash collected from a customer without making any record of the collection. The next step is to dispose of the balance in the customer’s account. This can be done by issuing a credit memo indicating that the customer had returned merchandise, or by writing off the customer’s account as uncollectible. Thus, the employee has the cash, the customer’s account shows a zero balance and the books are in balance.
应收账款的内部控制 在应收账款的管理方面,进行适当的职责分工具有重要的意义。在小型企业里, 常常会发现一个职员既负责现金收款业务,登记应收账款的有关账簿,又负责签发应收账款分贷项通知单 以及核销不能收回的应收账款业务。这些工作由一个人完成太容易引发欺诈行为,因为这位职员可以将从 客户收取的款项取走,这笔收入根本就不入账,下一步就是将这位客户的账户余额销掉,只无签发一个贷 项通知单,以表明该客户将货物退回。这样一来,这位职工拿到了现金,客户的账户没有了余额,账簿之 间互相一致。

To avoid fraud in the handling of receivables, some of the most important rules are that who maintain the accounts receivable subsidiary ledger must not have access to cash receipts, and employees who handle cash receipts must not have access to the records of receivable. Furthermore, employees who maintain records of receivable must not have authority to issue credit memos or to write off receivables as uncollectible. These are classic examples of incompatible duties. In addition, documents such as sales invoices and credit memos must be serially numbered and every number in the series accounted for.
为了避免应收账款处理过程的欺诈行为最重要的原则就是负责登记应收账款明细分类账的人员绝对 不能接触现金收入业务,负责现金收入的人员不能接触应收账款的记录业务,负责应收账款记录工作的人 员不应有权签发贷项通知单或者注销坏账。这些职责都是典型的不相容职务。此外,销货发票,贷项通知 单等凭证必须连续编号,任何一号码都不得缺少。

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Unit Fifteen Inventories
第十五单元 存货

GENERAL BACKGROUND OF INVENTORY. One of the largest assets in a retail store or in a wholesale business is the inventory of merchandise and the sale of this merchandise at prices in excess of costs is the major source of revenue. For a merchandising company, the inventory consists of all goods owned and held for sale in the regular course of business. Merchandise held for sale will normally converted into cash within less than a year’s time and is therefore regarded as a current asset. In the balance sheet, inventory is listed immediately after accounts receivable, because it is just one step further removed from conversion into cash than are the accounts receivable.
存货概述 对零售商店和批发企业来说,最大数额的资产便是商品存货,这些商品的售价高于其成本 的部分就构成这类企业的主要收入来源。 对商业企业来说,其存货包括在其经营过程中所持有的全部的商品。为销售而储存的商品通常要在一 年之内转化为现金,因此被划归为流动资产。在资产负债表上,存货项目排在应收账款项目后面,因为比 起应收账款来,它转化为现金要慢一步。

In manufacturing business there are three major types of inventories: raw materials, goods in process of manufacture, and finished goods. All three classes of inventories are included in the current asset section of the balance sheet.
在生产性企业,存货主要包括三个类别:原材料、在产品和产成品。在资产负债表中,这三项存货均 包括在流动资产部分。

To expand our definition of inventory to fit manufacturing companies as well as merchandising companies we can say that inventory means the aggregate of those items of tangible property which (1) are held for sale in the ordinary course of business, (2) are in process of production for such sale, or (3) are to be currently consumed in the production of goods or services to be available for sale.
为使存货的定义既适用于商业企业又适用于生产性企业,我们可以将存货的定义扩展为“存货是下列 有形资产的集合” : (1)在日常经营过程中为销售而储存的商品; (2)为销售而生产的在制品; (3)将在当 期为销售而生产产品或提供劳务的过程中被消耗掉的资产。

The inventory figure appears in both the balance sheet and the income statement. In the balance sheet, the inventory is often the largest current asset. In the income statement, the ending inventory is subtracted from the cost of goods available for sale to determine the cost of goods sold during the period. How can a business determine, at the end of a year, a month, or other accounting period, the quantity and the cost of the goods remaining on hand?
存货在资产负债表和收入表中均会出现。在资产负债表中,存货常常是流动资产中最主要的项目;在 收入表,期末存货的数字要从可供销售的产品总成本中减掉,以确定本期的销售成本。 企业如何确定年末,如一年,一个月,或其它会计期间在库的存货的数量和成本呢?

How can management determine the cost of the goods sold during the period? These amounts must be determined before either a balance sheet or an income statement can be prepared. In fact, the determination of inventory value and of the cost of goods sold may be the most important single step in measuring the profitability of a business. The two alternative approaches to the determination of inventory and of cost of goods sold are called the perpetual inventory system and the
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periodic inventory system.
管理部门又如何确定本期的销售成本呢?只有在这些数量被确定之后才能编制资产负债表和收入表。 事实上,在计量企业的盈利过程中,确定存货的价值和销售成本是最重要的一个步骤。有两种确定存货价 值和销售成本的方法,即永续盘存制和定期盘存制。

PERPETUAL INVENTORY SYSTEM. It is a system of accounting for merchandise that provides a continuous record showing the quantity and cost of all goods on hand. Companies that sell products of high unit value such as automobile and television sets usually maintain a perpetual inventory system that shows at all times the amount of inventory. As merchandise is acquired, it is added to an inventory account; as goods are sold, their cost is transferred out of inventory and into cost of goods sold account. This continuous updating of the inventory account explains the name perpetual inventory system.
永续盘存制 在这种方法下,会计核算提供连续的记录资料,显示在库的存货的数量和成本。那些出 售单位价值较大的商品的企业,如生产汽车和电视机的企业通常是采用永续盘存制,任何时候都能显示出 存货的金额。在购进产品时,增加存货账户余额,当销售商品时,销售商品的成本从存货账户转到销售成 本账户。因此,存货账户总是迄今为止的存货金额。这就是这种方法被称为永续盘存制的原因。

PERODIC INVENTORY SYSTEM. It is a system of accounting for merchandise in which inventory at the balance sheet date is determined by counting and pricing the goods on hand. Cost of goods sold is computed by subtracting the ending inventory from the cost of goods available for sale.
定期盘存制 这是存货核算的另一种方法。在这种方法下,资产负债表的存货的金额是通过对期末存 货的清点和计价来确定的,本期的销售成本是通过从本期可供销售的产品成本中减去期末存货的成本而取 得的。

The periodic inventory system is likely to be used by a business that sales variety of merchandise with low unit prices, such as a drugstore or hardware store. To maintain perpetual inventory records in such a business would ordinarily be too time-consuming and expensive.
对那些销售种类繁多的低价商品的企业来说,宜于使用定期盘存制。如药房和五金商店等,这类企业 如果采用永续盘存制既需耗费大量的时间,成本也极高。

TAKING A PHYSICAL INVENTORY. Physical inventory are useful under either perpetual inventory system or periodic inventory system. Under the periodic system, the balance of inventory in the ledger account represents the beginning inventory because no entry has been made in the Inventory account since the end of the preceding period. All purchases of goods during the present period have been recorded in the Purchases account. The ending inventory does not appear anywhere in the ledger accounts; it must be determined by a physical count of goods on hand at the end of the accounting period. Under the perpetual system, physical inventories are taken to make sure that the tangible assets are in agreement with their records, and physical inventory can be conducted at dates other than year-end or it can be taken for different products or different departments at various dates during the year, sine the perpetual records always show the amounts which should be on hand.
实物的清点 无论是采用永续盘存制还是定期盘存制都需要对实物进行定期盘点。在定期盘存制下, “存货”账户的余额,代表期初存货,因为自上期期末以来,存货账户再没登记任何业务,本期发生的全 部购货业务均已记入“存货”账户,分类账中没有期末存货的数字,必须通过期末库存商品的清点的方法

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会计英语 来确定。在永续盘存制下,也需要进行实物的清点以保证实物资产与账面记录相一致。在永续盘存制下进 行实物盘点可以不在年末进行,在一年中的任何时候都可以进行,也可以分别不同的产品或不同的部门分 别进行,因为连续的会计记录随时都显示出应该在库的存货的金额。

A physical inventory should be carefully planned and supervised to prevent such errors as the double counting of items, the omission of goods from the count, and other quantitative errors. There are various methods of counting merchandise. One of the simplest procedures is carried out by the use of two-member teams. One member of the team counts and calls the description and quantity of each item. The other person lists the description and quantities on an inventory sheet. In taking a physical inventory, special considerations should be given to goods in transit and the passage of title to merchandise.
实物清点工作要有充分的计划和监督,以防止出现重复清点、漏点和其他方面的错误。清点的方法有 不同种,其中最简单的一种就是由两个人组成一个清点小组,一个清点,报告品名和数量,另一个负责填 写存货清单,填写品名和数量。在进行实物清点时,应特别注意在途商品以及商品所有权的转让。

PRICING THE INVENTORY. The primary basis of accounting for inventory is cost, which has been defined generally as the price paid or consideration given to acquire an asset. The prices of many kinds of merchandise are subject to frequent changes. When identical lots of goods are purchased at various dates during the year, each lot may be acquired at different cost price.
存货的计价 存货计价的主要依据是成本,也就是取得资产时所支付的价格或等价物的价值。许多商 品的价格都是不断变化的,在一年中的不同时间购进同种商品,它们的价格就可能不同。

In order to establish a dollar amount for cost of goods sold and for the ending inventory, we must make an assumption as to which units were sold and which units remain on hand at the end of the year. There are several acceptable assumptions on this point; four of the most common will be considered. Each assumption made as to the cost of the units in the ending inventory leads to different methods of pricing inventory and to different amounts in the financial statements. The four inventory valuation methods to be considered are known as (1) specific identification, (2) average cost, (3) first-in, first-out, and (4) last-in, first-out.
为了确定销售成本和期末存货的金额,我们必须做出假设:在年末哪些商品已经出售,哪些商品仍在 库存。在这一点上有好几种可以接受的假设,这里将讨论其中最常见的四种,每一种假设都将导致不同的 存货计价方法,在各种方法下资产负债表上的存货数字也会不同。这四种方法分别是: (1)分别确定法; (2)平均成本法; (3)先进先出法; (4)后进先出法。

Specific Identification Method. A method of pricing inventory by identifying the units in the ending inventory as coming from specific purchases. If the units in the ending inventory can be identified as coming from specific purchases, they may be priced at the mounts listed on the purchased invoices. The specific identification method is best suited to inventories of high-priced, low-volume items.
分别确定法。在这种方法下,要分别确定期末存货中的每一件商品来自于哪一次购货。如果期末存货 的购货批次可以确定,那么就可以按购货时的发票价格计价。这种方法适用于那些数量小、价值大的商品。

Average-Cost Method. Average cost is computed by dividing the total cost of goods available for sale by the number of units available for sale. This computation gives a weighted-average unit cost, which is then applied to the units in the ending inventory. The average-cost method is logical if the items are identical. Its shortcoming is that changes in current replacement costs of inventory are concealed because these costs are averaged with older costs. As a result of this averaging, the reported gross profit may not reflect current market conditions.
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平均成本法。可供销售的商品成本总值除以可供销售的商品数量就得到平均的单位成本。这样计算出 来的平均成本是一个加权平均数,然后再用这个加权平均成本去乘以期末存货的数量。在商品种类单一的 情况下,平均成本法是合理的。它的缺点是掩盖了存货的现时重置成本,因为近期购置的存货与原来的存 货成本一起平均了,结果是报表上的毛利数不能反映出时下的市场状况。

First-in, First-out Method. The first-in, first-out method, which is often referred to as FIFO, is based upon the assumption that first merchandise acquired is the first merchandise sold. In other words, each sale is made out of the older goods in stock; the ending inventory therefore consists of the most recently acquired goods. The FIFO method of determining inventory cost may be adopted by any business, regardless of whether or not the physical flow of merchandise actually corresponds to this assumption of selling the oldest units in stock.
先进先出法。这种方法是建立在最先购进的货物也最先销售这样一种假设基础之上的。换言之,就是 每次售货都是出售最早购入的商品;因此,期末存货必定是近期购置的商品。任何企业都可以使用先进先 出法为其存货计价,不论实际的存货流动是否符合销售最早购入商品的假设。

During a period of rising price the first-in, first-out method will result in a larger amount being assigned as the cost of the ending inventory than would be assigned under the average-cost method. When a relatively large amount is allocated as cost of the ending inventory, a relatively small amount will remain as cost of goods sold. It may be argued in support of the first-in, first-out method that the inventory valuation reflects recent costs and is therefore a realistic value in the light of conditions prevailing at the balance sheet date.
在价格增长暑期,利用先进先出法将导致期末存货的计价大于按平均成本法计价的期末存货的金额。 当期末存货的成本增大时,销售成本就相对减小。赞成先进先出法的人认为:先进先出的计价方法,使期 末存货反映了现时成本水平,因此,它是在资产负债表日的经济条件下的真实的存货价值。

Last-in, First-out Method. The last-in, first-out method, commonly known as LIFO, is one of the most interesting methods of pricing inventories. The title of this method suggests that the most recently acquired goods are sold first, and that the ending inventory consists of “old” goods acquired in the earliest purchases. Although this assumption is not in accord with physical movement of merchandise in most business, there is a strong logical argument to support LIFO method.
后进先出法。 这是一种最有趣的存货计价方法。 这种方法的名称意味着最后购进的商品最先销售出去, 而期末存货由那些最早购入的“老存货”构成。在大多数企业,这种假设的存货流动方式都是不符合实际 情况的,但却有相当有力的论据来支持这种方法。

For the purpose of measuring income, the flow of costs may be more significant than the physical flow of merchandise. Supporters of the LIFO method contend that the measurement of income should be base upon current market conditions. Therefore, current sales revenue should be offset by the current cost of the goods sold. Under the LIFO method, the costs assigned to the cost of goods sold are relatively current, because they stem from the most recent purchases. Under the FIFO method, on the other hand, the cost of goods sold is based on “older” costs.
对于利润计算来说,存货成本的流动比实物流动更重要。后进先出法的支持者认为利润的计算应以现 时成本价格为基础,因此,当期的收入需要由当期的成本水平来抵消。在此方法下,确定的销售成本比较 接近于现时成本水平,因为它们是最近购进的商品。另一方面,在先进先出法下,销售成本则是以“过时” 的成本水平为基础的。

The search for the “best” method of inventory valuation is rendered difficult because the inventory figure is used in both the balance sheet and the income statement, and these two financial statements are intended for different purposes. In the income statement the function of the inventory figure is to permit a matching of costs

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and revenue. In the balance sheet the inventory and the other current assets are regarded as a measure of the company’s ability to meet its current debts.
寻找最佳的存货计价方法的努力最终因为困难而放弃,因为资产负债表和收入表均要表现存货的数 字,而这两份财务报表的目的是不同的,收入表中存货的数字是为了遵循收入与费用配比的原则,而资产 负债表中的存货和其他流动资产是用来表明企业偿还短期债务能力。

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Unit Sixteen Plant and Equipment
第十六元 厂房和设备

NATURE OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. The plant and equipment is used to describe long-lived assets acquired for use in the operation of the business and not intended for resale to customers. Among the more common examples are land, buildings, machinery, furniture and fixtures, office equipment, and automobiles. A delivery truck in the showroom of an automobile dealer is an inventory; when this same truck is sold to a drugstore for use in making deliveries to customers, it becomes a unit of plant and equipment.
厂房和设备的意义 企业在经营活动中为了使用而不是为了出售而购置的长期资产被称为“厂房和设 备” 。例如土地、建筑物、机器、家具及装修设施、办公设备以及汽车。一台运输用的汽车,如果陈列在汽 车经销商的展销室里,它就是一件存货,可是当这台卡车出售给一家药店并用来为客户送货时,它就变成 了一项固定资产。

The term fixed asset has long been used in accounting literature to describe all types of plant and equipment. This term, however, has virtually disappeared from the published financial statements of large corporations. Plant and equipment appears to be a more descriptive term. Another alternative title used on many corporation balance sheets is property, plant, and equipment.
长期以来,会计学界一直使用“固定资产”这一名词来代表各种厂房和设备。但是现在这一名词几乎 已经从大型公司发布的财务报表中消失了,而多使用“厂房和设备”这一表述更直接的名词。许多公司在 其财务报表中使用的另一种叫法是“财产、厂房和设备” 。

It is convenient to think of a plant asset as a stream of services to be received by the owner over a period of years. Ownership of a delivery truck, for example, may provide about 100 000 miles of transportation. The cost of the delivery truck is customarily entered in a plant and equipment account entitled Delivery Truck, which in essence represents payment in advance for several years of transportation service. Similarly, a building may be regarded as payment in advance for several years’ supply of housing services. As the years go by, these services are utilized by business and the cost of the plant asset is gradually transferred into depreciation expense.
我们可以把一项资产看作是所有者在一定里将要获得的某种连续不断的服务。比如说,持有一台运输 卡车, 可以为所有者提供大约 10 万英里的运输服务。 购置这台运输车辆的费用通常记入 “运输卡车” 账户, 它是一个固定资产类账户。记入该账户的金额实质上代表了企业为了在以后几年中取得运输服务而预付的 一笔款项。同样,一座房屋建筑物可以看作是企业为了获得几年的房屋使用权利而预付的一笔款项。随着 时间的推移,企业对这些服务加以利用,固定资产的成本也就逐步地转为“折旧费用” 。

MAJOR CATEGORIES OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. Plant and equipment items are often classified into the following groups:
固定资产的主要类别 固定资产项目通常可以分为以下两大类:

1. Tangible plant assets. The term tangible denotes physical substance, as exemplified by land, or a machine. This category may be subdivided into two distinct classifications: a. Plant property subject to depreciation. Included are plant assets of limited useful life such as buildings and office equipment. b. Land. The only plant asset not subject to depreciation is land, which has an unlimited term of existence.

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会计英语 1. 有形固定资产。所谓有形资产是指资产的实物形态,如土地、建筑物和机器。这类固定资产还可以 细分为: a. 需折旧的固定资产,包括那些使用周期是有限的固定资产,如建筑物和办公设备。 b. 土地。土地是唯一不需计提折旧固定资产,它的存在是无限期的。

2. Intangible assets. The term intangible assets is used to describe assets which are used in the operation of the business but no physical substance, and are noncurrent. Current assets such as accounts receivable or prepaid rent are not included in the intangible classification, even though they are lacking in physical substance. The intangible assets will be separately discussed in Unit Eighteen.
2. 无形资产。无形资产是指应用于企业的经营活动,但没有实物形态的非短期资产。有些流动资产项 目,如应收账款或预付租金不包括在无形资产范围内,尽管它们也没有实物形态。本书第十八课将单独讨 论无形资产。

DETERMINING THE COST OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. The cost of plant and equipment includes all expenditures reasonable and necessary in acquiring the asset and placing it in a position and condition for use in the operations of the business. Only reasonable and necessary expenditures should be included. For example, if the company’s truck driver receives a traffic ticket while handling a new machine to the plant, the traffic fine is not part of the cost of the new machine. If the machine in dropped and damaged while being unloaded, the cost repairing the damage should be recognized as expense in the current period and should not be added to the cost of the machine.
固定资产成本的确定 固定资产成本包括购置固定资产并使其达到可使用状态所必须发生的一切合理 支出。需强调的是,只有那些必要的和合理的支出才能计入固定资产的成本。举例来说:假如在搬运新机 器的途中,公司的司机收到了交通罚款单,那么这笔交通罚款便不能构成该机器的成本。假如在卸车时将 机器掉在地上并损坏了机器,修复机器的费用应确认为当期的费用,而不应记入该机器的成本。

Assets Purchased for Cash. Cost is most easily determined when an asset is purchased for cash. The cost of the asset is then equal to the cash outlay necessary in acquiring the asset plus any expenditure for freight, insurance while in transit, installation, trial runs and any other costs necessary to make the asset ready for use.
以现金购置的固定资产成本的确定。以现金购置的固定资产的成本的确定是最简单的,所购置的固定 资产的价值就等于取得这项资产的必要的现金付出加上运输费用和保险费以及使资产达到可使用状态所必 需的安装、调试和其他费用。

Assets Acquired by Exchange. Assets are frequently acquired by trading in an existing asset as partial or complete payment for a new asset. The cost amount of the new asset is the money amount of the resources given up to acquire it. The resources ‘given up’ in this case include a non-monetary asset. Determination of the cost of the new asset depends upon the measurement of the ‘money amount’ of the asset traded in.
通过以物易物方式取得的固定资产成本的确定。固定资产常常是采取以旧货换新的方式取得的,即以 现有的某项固定资产换取一项新的固定资产或作为新固定资产的资金来源的一部分。这项新固定资产的价 值等于获得该项固定资产所放弃的资财的金额。这里的“所放弃”的资财包括所出让的旧固定资产,因此, 新购置的固定资产的价值取决于对这项出让的旧固定资产的估价。

The AICPA in Opinion No.29 recommended that: ‘Accounting for nonmonetary transactions should be based upon the fair values of the assets (or services) involved, which is the same as that used in monetary transactions.
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美国注册会计师协会在其第 29 号意见书中建议说: “对非现金资产(或服务)交易的会计核算应以资 产或服务的公平价值为基础,这一公平价值与在现金交易中所使用的价值概念是一样的。 ”

This recommendation is based upon an assumption that where a nonmonetary asset is exchanged for another, two separate transactions occur. The traded asset is realized for cash at its fair market price and the proceeds are used to acquire the new asset. The Opinion thus interprets the money amount of the traded asset as the price for which it could be sold in a normal arm’s-length transaction. This amount is referred to as the asset’s ‘fair market value.’
这一建议是建立在这样一种假设基础之上,即当以一种非现金资产换取另一种非现金资产时,同时发 生了两笔交易,出让的固定资产按公平市价转让为现金,这笔现金收入又被用来购置一项新的固定资产。 该意见书把出让固定资产价值解释为该项资产按正常交易出售的价格, 这一价格被称为该项固定资产的 “公 平市价” 。

Donated Assets. In some circumstances assets may be donated to a firm. For example, to stimulate investment in a depressed area, a local council may donate land to firms which commence operations in the area. Under these circumstances the donated assets are recorded at their fair market value at the date of donation.
捐赠固定资产成本确定。企业有时可以接受一些捐赠的资产。例如:为了鼓励企业向贫穷落后地区投 资,当地市政委员会就可能向来落后地区开办企业的公司捐赠土地。捐赠土地的成本就按着捐赠日的公平 市价入账。

Self-constructed Assets. Many assets are constructed by the owner rather than acquired by purchase or exchange. The cost of self-constructed assets is the money amounts of resources embodied in the asset. The amount of direct materials, direct labor, and variable overhead is clearly part of the cost of constructing assets and there is no dispute about their inclusion in the amount. Interest cost incurred during the construction period is viewed as part as of the cost of the asset. The treatment of fixed factory overhead is, however, an issue which remains in dispute.
自建固定资产的成本。除购进和以物易物方式以外,许多固定资产是以自建的方式形成的。自建固定 资产的价值等于体现在该项资产上的各种资财的货币金额。建造固定资产所发生的直接材料、直接人工、 管理费用中的变动费用显然是固定资产价值的组成部分,对于这一点没有争议。建造固定资产期间所发生 的利息成本也应作为固定资产成本的一部分。但是,如何处理管理费用中的固定部分,却一直是一个有争 议的问题。

CAPITAL EXPENDITURES AND REVENUE EXPENDITURES. Expenditures for the purchase or expansion of plant assets are called capital expenditures and recorded in asset accounts. Expenditures for ordinary repairs, maintenance, fuel, and other items necessary to the ownership and use of plant and equipment are called revenue expenditures and recorded by debits to expense accounts. The charge to an expense account is based on the assumption that the benefits from the expenditure will be used up in the current period, and the cost should therefore be deducted from the revenue of the current period in determining the net income.
资本性支出和收益性支出 为购建或扩建固定资产而发生的支出叫资本性支出,记入固定资产账户。 固定资产的日常维修、燃料耗费和其它一些为持有和使用固定资产所必须发生的费用称为收益性支出,记 入费用账户。这样做的前提是假设这些支出所带来的收益在当期就会被耗用掉,因此,在计算当期净收入 时应应该从收入中减除这些费用。

A business may purchase many items which will benefit several accounting periods, but which have a relatively low cost. Examples of such items include wastebaskets, and pencil sharpeners. Such items are theoretically capital expenditures, but if they are recorded as assets in the

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accounting records, it will be necessary to compute and record the related depreciation expense in future periods. Extra work involved in developing more precise accounting information should be weighed against the benefits that result. Thus, for reasons of convenience and economy, expenditures which are not material in dollar amount are treated in the accounting records as expenses of the current period. In brief, any material expenditure that will benefit several accounting periods is considered a capital expenditure. Any expenditure that will benefit only the current period or that is not material in amount is treated as revenue expenditure. Many companies develop formal policy statements defining capital and revenue expenditures as guide towards consistent accounting practice from year to year. These policy statements often set a minimum dollar limit for a capital expenditure.
企业可可能购置这样一些项目,它们的价值较低,但都可以受益几个会计期间,如废纸筐,铅笔刀等。 从理论上讲,这些项目属于资本性支出,但如果把它们作为长期资产处理,那么就应该在未来的期间里记 录和计算有关的折旧费用。这样,为提供更精确的信息而带来的额外的工作量便抵消了把这些项目作为资 产处理而带来的收益。因此,为方便和经济起见,上述支出在金额不大的情况下,就按着当期费用处理。 简言之,任何可在几个会计期间受益的支出都是资本性支出;任何只在当期受益或虽在几个会计期间受益 但金额不大都作为收益性支出处理。许多公司都制定正式的指导性文件,定义资本性支出和收益性支出以 便保持会计处理的连续性,这类文件通常都规定一个资本性支出的最低标准。

A careful distinction between capital and revenue expenditure is essential to attainment of one of the most fundamental objectives of accounting—the determination of net income for each year of operation of a business. A capital expenditure is recorded by debiting an asset account, the transaction has no immediate effect upon net income. However, the depreciation of the amount entered in the asset account will be reflected as an expense in future periods. A revenue expenditure, on the other hand, is recorded by debiting an expense account and therefore represents an immediate deduction from earnings in the current period.
正确区分资本性支出和收益性支出,对于达到正确确定每年的经营净收入这一重要的会计目标是至关 重要的。资本性支出需记入某些资产账户,对净收入不会马上产生影响。但是,记入资产账户的项目的折 旧将在未来的期间表现为费用。而收益性支出直接记入费用账户,将直接从当期收入中扣除。

Plant assets such as buildings and equipments depreciate because of physical deterioration or obsolescence. As units of plant and……


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…… Unit Eighteen Intangible Assets
第十八单元 无形资产

…… ……If a trademark or trade name is purchased, however, the cost may be substantial. Such cost should be capitalized and amortized to expense over a period of no more than 40 years. If the use of the trademark is discontinued or its contribution to earnings becomes doubtful, any unamortized cost should be written off immediately.
……如果商标或品牌是买来的,其成本可能很高,这种费用应予以资本化,在不长于 40 年的时间里 予以摊销。假如某种商标要停止使用或者使用它不见得能为企业带来效益,那么尚未摊销的成本就该立即 核销。

FRANCHISES. A franchise is a right granted by a company or a government unit to conduct a certain type of business in a specific geographical area. An example of a franchise is the right to operate a Mc Donald’s restaurant in a specific neighborhood. The cost of franchises varies greatly and often may be quite substantial. When the cost of a franchise is small, it may be charged immediately to expense or amortized over a short period such as five years. When the cost is substantial, amortization should be based upon the life of the franchise (if limited); the amortization period, however, may not exceed 40 years.
专营权 专营权是指一个公司或某个政府部门授予的在某个区域从事某种经营活动的权力。例如,在 某个区域经营麦当劳快餐店就属于专营权这种情况。专营权的成本高低差别很大,如果成本很小,可直接 作为费用在短期里摊销,比如说 5 年;如果成本高,应在经营权的整个使用期限里进行摊销,但不能超过 40 年。

COPYRIGHTS. A copyright is an exclusive right granted by a government to protect to production and sale of literary or artistic materials for the life of the creator plus 50 years. The cost of sustaining a copyright in some cases is minor and therefore is chargeable to expense when paid. Only when a copyright is purchased will the expenditure be material enough to warrant its being capitalized and spread over the useful life. The revenue from copyright is usually limited to only a few years, and the purchase cost should. Of course, be amortized over the years in which the revenue is expected.
版权 版权是由政府授予的专门权力,在创造者有生之年再加上 50 年里保护某种文学艺术作品的生产 销售。版权成本有时很小,因此在发生直接转为费用。只有在购买版权时其费用才会高到应将其在使用期 间里进行摊销。版权所能带来的收入一般只有几年的时间,那么购买版权的费用当然应当摊销在它能带来 收入的年度里。

OTHER INTANGIBES AND DEFERRED CHARGES. Many other types of intangible assets are found in the published balance sheets of large corporations. Some examples are formulas, processes, name lists, and film rights.
其它无形资产和递延资产 在大公司的资产负债表上还可以发现其他的无形资产。如一个配方、程序、 名单和摄制权。

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Intangibles, particularly these with limited lives, are sometime classified as “deferred charges” in the balance sheet. A deferred charge is an expenditure that is expected to yield benefits for several accounting periods and should be amortized over its estimated useful life. Included in this category are such items as bond issuance costs, plant rearrangement and moving costs, start-up costs, and organization costs. The distinction between intangibles and deferred charges in not an important one; both represent a “stream services” in the form of long-term prepayments awaiting allocation to those accounting periods in which the services will be consumed.
有些无形资产,尤其是那些寿命有限的无形资产,有时在资产负债表上被列示在“递延费用”项上。 所谓递延费用是指受益于几个会计期间并应在其预计的受益期中进行摊销的费用,如债券发行费,固定资 产重装和移动费,起动费用和开办费用。将无形资产和递延费用区分开来并不重要,二者都是一种预付款 项,代表着将在未来提供的“一系列的服务” ,并要在利用其服务的会计期间里进行摊销。

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) COSTS. The spending of billions of dollars a year on research and development leading to all kinds of new products is a striking characteristic of modern industry. In the past, some companies treated all research and development costs as expense in the year incurred; other companies in the same industry recorded these costs as intangible assets to be amortized over future years. This diversity of practice prevented the financial statements of different companies from being comparable.
研究与发展费用 现代企业的一个显著特征就是每年要支付巨额款项用于新产品的研制与开发。在过 去,有些企业将研究与开发费用作为当年的费用,也有的企业将这种支出作为无形资产,在未来的期间里 摊销,这种实务处理的差异,使各企业的财务报表缺乏可比性。

The lack of uniformity in accounting for R&D was ended when the Financial Accounting Standards Board ruled that all research and development expenditures should be charged to expense when incurred. This action by the FASB had beneficial effect of reducing the number of alternative accounting practice and helping to make financial statements of different companies more comparable.
美国财务会计标准委员会颁布了一项标准,所有的研究开发费用都作为当年的费用,从而使该项费用 的会计处理达到了统一。财务会计标准委员会的这一决定缩小了对研究与开发费用的会计处理的差异,使 各企业的财务报表更具可比性。

However, the FASB’s decision was very controversial. Critics argued that a policy of reducing current earnings for all R&D expenditures might discourage companies from undertaking large R&D programs.
但是,财务会计标准委员会的决策也引起了极大的争议。持不同意见的方面认为,这种将所有的研究 与开发费用作为当期费用的办法降低了当期的收入,可能会削弱企业进行开发与研究的积极性。

The controversy over the FASB’s position on R&D expenditures raises an interesting question about the formulation of accounting standards: Is it possible for accounting standards to describe an economic activity without also influencing that activity?
由财务会计标准委员会对研究与开发费用的处理意见所引起的争议提出了一个关于建立会计准则的 有趣的问题:一项会计准则,在它规范经济业务的处理的同时能够不影响该种经济活动吗?

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Unit Nineteen Liabilities
第十九单元 负债

INTRODUCTION. In contemporary accounting the term “liabilities” is used to describe a heterogeneous group of items. Some liabilities are therefore obligations, for instance, contingent liabilities; some are items which are not obligations at all, and these include deferred credits. The result is that there is no clear understanding of the nature of a liability. The AICPA conveys clearly the lack of understanding of the nature of liabilities when it defines liabilities as ‘Economic obligations of an enterprise that are recognized and measured in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. Liabilities also include certain deferred credits that are not obligations but that are recognized and measured in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles.’ This definition could be paraphrased as ‘liabilities are those items which accountants treat as liabilities. In other words, accountants are not sure what liabilities are, but they know one when they see one.’
引言 在现代会计学中, “负债”这一名词包含了许多内容,其中有债务,如或有负债。也有些项目并 不属于债务,还包含一些递延的贷项。结果造成人们对债务的本质没有一个明确的理解。美国注册会计师 协会给其下的定义是: “债务就是一个企业所承担的按公认会计准则确认和计量的经济责任,也包括那些按 公认会计原则确认和计量的非经济责任的递延贷项。 ”这个定义明确地向人们转达了(他们)对“负债”缺 乏明确认识的信息。我们可以这样解释该定义: “负债就是会计上作为负债处理的那些项目,换言之,会计 人员并不确切地了解究竟什么是负债,但在他们遇到负债项目时却懂得将其按负债处理。 ”

The nature of liabilities in contemporary accounting would become much clearer if the term was used to describe only financial obligations. Deferred credits are not obligations but are simply credit ‘left-overs’ and it would be much better if they were shown as a separate and distinct class of items on the balance sheet.
如果在现代会计中负债这个名词仅指财务性的责任的话,那么负债的本质就会明确多了。递延贷项本 身并不是一项债务,而只是一种贷方余额,如果在资产负债表上将它们单独列示的话,情况就会好些。

The separation of financial obligations from deferred credits would allow statement users to obtain a much clearer picture of the financial position of the entity. Currently, items which are not obligations in any sense are frequently mixed with items which are payable now or will become payable in the future. The statement users may believe that the entity is obligated to pay larger amount than are, in fact, due.
将递延贷项与财务性债务区分开来,会使财务报表的读者对报告实体的财务状况获得更清楚的了解。 按现行做法,一些不属于债务的项目经常与那些应付账款或将成为应付账款的项目混在一起。这样,财务 报表的使用者所认定的企业的债务往往会大于企业实际拥有的债务数量。

If deferred credits are excluded, a liability can be defined as follows:
假如排除递延贷项,负债就可被定义如下 :

A financial obligation which is currently enforceable against an entity or which is expected to become enforceable in the future provided that the amount of the obligation can be determined whit reasonable certainly and that it does not arise from an executory contract.
负债是企业必须承担,或在将来必须承担的一种财务性责任,其金额能比较确切地确定,而且这种责 任不产生于尚未执行的合同。

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CURRENT LIABILITIES. Current liabilities are obligations that must be paid within one year or the operating cycle (whichever is longer). A comparison of the amount of current liabilities with the amount of current assets available for paying these debts helps us in judging a company’s short-run-debt-paying ability. Among the more common current liabilities is accounts payable, notes payable, and so on.
流动负债 流动负债是指那些必须在一年内或一个营业周期内偿还的债务。将流动负债和流动资产相 比可以帮助我们判断企业的短期偿债能力。常见的流动负债项目有应付账款和应付票据等等。

Account Payable. Accounts payable, or trade accounts payable, is the most commonly seen current liabilities. They represent balances owed to outsiders from goods, supplies, and services purchased on open account. Accounts payable arise because of the time lag between the receipt of services or acquisition of title to assets and the payment for them. A first essential of satisfactory internal control over accounts payable is the segregation of duties so that a cash disbursement to a creditor will be made only after approval of the purchasing, receiving, accounting, and finance departments. All purchase transactions should be evidenced by serially numbered purchase orders, copies of which are sent to the accounts payable department for comparison with receiving reports and vendor’s invoices.
应付账款。应付账款或购销应付账款是最常见的流动负债项目。它们表示由于赊购商品、办公用品和 劳务而欠企业外部单位的金额。应收账款的发生是由于收到服务或取得货物所有权的时间与付款的时间有 一定的间隔。对应付账款进行控制,首先应进行适当的职务分离以保证付款在获得采购部门、验收部门、 会计部门和财务部门认可后才能进行。所有的购货业务均应有连续编号的购货单作为凭据。购货单要送到 应收账款部门以便与收货单和供货单位开出的发票进行核对。

Notes Payable. Obligations in the form of written promissory notes are known as notes payable. Notes payable are issued whenever bank loans are obtained. Other transactions which may give rise to notes payable include the purchase of real estate or costly equipment, the purchase of merchandise, and the substitution of a note for a past-due account payable.
应付票据。应付票据就是表现为书面承诺的债务。企业在取得银行贷款时需要签发一张应付票据。另 外,在购置不动产或昂贵的设备时、购买商品时、或以应付票据取代过期应付账款时,都可能签发应付票 据。

NONCURRENT LIABILITIES AND OTHER LIABILITES. Non-current liabilities are obligations that do not need to be paid within one year or the operating cycle (whichever is longer). The most common examples are bonds payable and mortgages payable, and long-term notes payable. There are such types of liabilities that have special characteristics as pension obligation, estimated liabilities, contingent liabilities and deferred items.
长期负债和其他负债 长期负债就是指不需要在一年或一个营业周期内偿还的债务。常见的长期负债 有应付债券、应付抵押账款和长期应付票据。还有一些具有特殊性的负债项目,如退休金负债、估计负债、 或有负债和递延项目。

Bonds Payable. When a corporation needs to raise a large amount of long-term capital, it generally sells additional shares of capital stock or issues bonds payable. The issuance of bonds payable is the equivalent of splitting a large loan into a great many units, called bonds. Each bond is, in essence, a long-term interest-bearing note payable.
应付债券。当企业筹集大量可长期占用的资金时,通常采取发行股票和债券的方式。债券等等于将一 笔巨额贷款划分为许多小单位,称为债券,每一张债券实际上就是一张长期的有息应付票据。

There are different types of bonds. Bonds secured by the pledge of specific assets are called
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mortgage bonds. An unsecured bond is called a debenture bond; its value rests upon the general credit of the corporation. When the name of the owner is registered with the issuing corporation, the bond is a registered bond. Payment of interest is made by semiannual checks mailed to the registered owners. Coupon bonds have interest coupons attached; each sic months during the life of the bond one of these coupons becomes due. The bondholder detaches the coupon and deposits it with a bank for collection. The name of the holder is not registered with the corporation. A convertible bond is one which may be exchanged for common stock at the option of the bondholder.
债券的种类很多, 以某种资产作保的债券称为抵押债券。 没有担保的债券称为信用债券或无担保债券, 其价值取决于公司的综合信誉。如果债券持有人在债券发行公司注册的话,这种债券就称为记名债券,公 司将每年向持券人寄发支票支付利息。息票债券在债券上附有息票,在债券的有效期内,每半年就有一有 一张息票到期。持券人撕下这张到期债券存入银行,以便收回这一款项,这种息票债券是不记名的。可兑 换债券是可以按持票人的选择权兑换成普通股票的债券。

Mortgage Notes Payable. Purchase of real estate and certain types of equipment often are financed by the issuance of mortgage notes payable. When a mortgage note is issued, the borrower pledges title to specific assets as collateral for the loan. If the borrower defaults on the notes, the lender may foreclose upon these assets. Mortgage notes usually payable in equal monthly installments. These monthly installments may continue until the loan is completely repaid, or the not may contain a “due date” at which the remaining unpaid balance of the loan must be repaid in a single, lump sum payment.
应付抵押债券。企业在购置某些不动产和设备时,往往是通过发行抵押票据的方式来筹集资金的。借 款方将某种资产的所有权作为该项借款的担保,如果借款者到期不能偿还,债权人可以取消借款者对抵押 财产的赎回权。应付抵押票据通常是按月偿还相同的数额,一直持续到这笔账款全部付清。也可以在杜撰 上写明一个“到期日” ,在到期日,票据的未偿还部分需一次付清。

Pension Plans. A pension plan is a contract between a company and its employees under which the company agrees to pay retirement benefits to eligible employees. An employer company usually meets its obligations under a pension plan by making regular payments to an insurance company or other outside agency. As pension obligations accrue, the employer company records them by a debit to Pension Expense and a credit to Cash. If all required payments are made promptly to the pension fund trustee, no liability need appear on the employer company’s financial statements.
退休金计划。退休金计划是指一个企业与其职工之间所签订的合同,按合同规定,公司向符合条件的 职工支付退休金。公司常常通过定期向保险公司或其他代理机构支付款项的办法来偿付其退休金债务。当 提取退休金准备时,企业借记“退休金费用”账户,贷记“现金”账户。如果所有的付款都及时支付给了 退休金委托人(即保险公司或其他代理机构) ,那么在雇主企业的财务报表便不再列有退休金债务。

Estimated Liabilities. An estimated liability is one known to exist, but for which the dollar amount is uncertain. A common example is the liability of a manufacturer to honor any warranty on products sold. For example, assume that a company manufactures and sells TV sets which carry a two-year warranty. To achieve the objective of offsetting current revenue with all related expenses, the liability for future warranty repairs on TV sets sold during the current period should be estimated and recorded at the balance sheet date. This estimate will be based upon the company’s past experience.
估计负债。估计负债是指已知其存在,但金额尚不确定的债务。生产性企业为其客户提供的售后保证 书,就是这样一种负债。例如某企业生产和销售电视机,提供为期两年的保证书,为了保证当期收入与相 关费用配合,在当期的报表日,对当期售出电视机可能发生的修理费用就应该加以估计并登记入账。这种

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会计英语 估计是根据企业过去的经验进行的。

Contingent Liability. A contingent liability may be regarded as a possible liability, which may develop into a full-fledged liability or may be eliminated entirely by a future event. A common contingent liability is the possibility of loss relating to a lawsuit filed against a company. Until the lawsuit is resolved, uncertainty exists as to the amount, if any, of the company’s liability. Central to the definition of a contingent liability is the element of uncertainty—uncertainty both as to the amount of loss and whether, in fact, a loss actually has occurred.
或有负债。或有负债被看作是一种可能发生的债务,它可能成为一种必须支付的债务,也可能由于未 来经济业务的发生而安全消除。常见的一种或有负债就是企业遭受法律起诉而可能承担的损失。在诉讼案 结束之前,负债是否会发生,金额是多少,都是不确定的。或有负债的定义核心就是不确定性这个因素— 负债是否会发生,如果发生的话,金额是多少,都不确定。

Deferred Credits. The term ‘deferred credit’ describes items classified among liabilities on the balance sheet which are neither enforceable obligations (actual liabilities) nor possible liabilities. Common examples of deferred items are provisions for some expenditure, and deferred tax.
递延贷项。 “递延贷项”这个名称用来代替那些列示在资产负债表的负债部分,但既不是已有负债, 也不是可能发生的负债的那些项目,如预提费用,递延税款等。

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Unit Twenty Owners’ Equity
第二十单元 所有者权益

The owners’ equity in a business represents the resources invested by the owners. It is called stockholders’ equity in a corporation. “Owners’ equity” is a broader term because the concepts being presented are equally applicable to the ownership equity in corporations, partnerships, and single proprietorships.
所有者在企业中的权益,也就是他们在企业中的投资,在股份公司中被称为“股东权益” 。所有者权 益是一个含义较广的提法,因为它对公司、合伙企业、独资企业都适用。

OWNERS” EQUITY IN CORPORATION AND SINGLE PROPRIETORSHIPS. The owners’ equity of a corporation consists of two elements: capital stock and retained earnings, as shown in the following illustration: Stockholders’ equity: Capital stock $ 1 000 000 Retained earnings 278 000 Total stockholders’ equity $ 1 278 000
股份公司和独资企业的所有者权益 股份公司的所有者权益包含两个部分:股本和留存收益收益,如 下所示: 股东权益: 股本 留存收益 股东权益总额 $ 1 000 000 278 000 $ 1 278 000

The $ 1 000 000 shown under the caption capital stock represents the amount invested in the business by its owners. The $ 278 000 of retained earnings represents the portion of owners’ equity which has been accumulated through profitable operation of the business. The corporation has chosen to retain this $ 278 000 in the business rather than to distribute these earnings to stockholders as dividends. The total earnings of the corporation may have been considerably more than $ 278 000, because any earnings which were paid to stockholders ad dividends would not appear on the balance sheet. The term retained earnings describes only the earnings which were not paid out in the form of dividends. The amount of the retained earnings account at any balance sheet date represents the accumulated earnings of the company since the date of incorporation, minus any losses and minus all dividends distributed to stockholders.
股本标题下的 1 000 000 美元代表股东们在企业里的投资额,278 000 美元的留存收益代表在盈利性经 营活动中所积累的所有者权益部分,公司决定将这 278 000 美元留存于企业而不作为股利分配给股东。企 业的总利润可能大大超过 278 000 美元这一数字,但已作为股利分给股东的利润不再列示于资产负债表上。 “留存收益”仅指企业所获收益中没有以股利形式支付给股东的那一部分。资产负债表中的留存收益的数 额代表自公司成立之日起的盈利额减掉亏损和分配给股东的股利之后的余额。

A single proprietorship is not required to maintain to distinction between invested capital and earned capital. Consequently, the balance sheet of a single proprietorship will have only one item in the owners’ equity section, as illustrated below:

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Owners’ equity: Bill white Capital
债表上,在所有者权益项下只列示一个项目,如下所示: 所有者权益: 比尔·怀特资本

$ 30 000


$ 30 000

CHANGES OF OWNERS’ EQUITY. The equity of the owners is a residual claim because the claim of the creditors legally comes first. If you are the owner of a business, you are entitled to whatever remains after the claims of the creditors are fully satisfied. Thus, owners’ equity is equal to the total assets minus the liabilities. For example, a company has total assets of $ 350 000, and its total liabilities amounting to $ 80 000, therefore, the owners’ equity must equal to $ 270 000($ 350 000-$ 80 000).
所有者权益的变动 所有者权益是一种 “剩余的权益” , 因为按照法律规定, 债权人的权益需优先偿付。 如果你是一位企业的主人,那么只有在完全偿付了债务之后所剩下的资产才能归属于你。因此,所有者权 益就等于资产总值减去负债的数额。举例来说,某公司有资产 350 000 美元,其负债总额为 80 000 美元, 那么其所有者权益必定是 270 000 美元(350 000-80 000) 。

Suppose that the company borrows $ 20 000 from a bank. After recording the additional asset of $ 20 000 in cash and recording the new liability of $ 20 000 owed to the bank, now the company hast total assets of $ 370 000 and the total liabilities of $ 100 000, and therefore the owners’ equity still is equal to $ 270 000.
假如该公司从银行借入资金 20 000 美元,当将该项业务入账,即增加现金并增加负债 20 000 美元之 后,该公司的总资产为 370 000 美元,负债总数为 100 000 美元,这样,其所有者权益仍等于 270 000 美元。

It is apparent that the total assets of the business were increased by the act of borrowing money from a bank, but the increase in total assets was exactly offset by an increase in liabilities, and the owners’ equity remained unchanged. The owners’ equity in a business is not increased by incurring of liabilities of any kind.
显而易见,企业向银行借款的行为将增加企业的资产总额,但资产总额的增加刚好与负债的增加相抵 消,因此,所有者权益不变。任何类型的负债的产生都不会增加所有者权益。

Increases In Owners’ Equity. The owners’ equity comes from two sources: (1) investment by the owners; (2) Earnings from profitable operation of the business.
所有者权益的增加。所有者权益有两个来源渠道: (1)所有者的投资; (2)由盈利性营业活动而带来 的收益。

For a proprietorship, the owners’ equity is represented by the term capital. The total capital comes from the owner’s initial investment and net income. The net income is the excess of revenue over expenses for the accounting period and it is the increase in capital resulting from profitable operation of a business.
对独资企业而言,所有者权益由“资本”这一名词来表示,其资本总额来源于所有者的原始投资和净 收入。所谓净收入是指一个会计期间中收入超过费用的数额,是由于盈利性的营业活动而引起资本的增加。

For a corporation, the caption capital stock in the balance sheet represents the amount invested by the owners of the business, as previously mentioned. When the owners of a corporation invest cash or other assts in the business, the corporation issues in exchange shares of capital stock as evidence of the investor’s ownership equity. Thus, the owners of a corporation are termed stockholders.
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对于股份公司而言,资产负债表中的“股本”指的是所有者在企业中的投资额,这一点在前面已经提 到。当所有者以现金或其他资产向企业投资时,作为交换物,公司向投资者发行股票,作为投资人的所有 权证明。因此,股份公司的所有者被称为股东。

The basic unit of capital stock is called share, but a corporation may issue capital stock certificates in denominations of 1 share, 100 shares, or any other number. The total number of shares of capital stock outstanding at any given time represents 100% ownership of the corporation. Outstanding shares are those in the hands of stockholders. The number of shares owned by an individual investor determines the extent of his or her ownership of the corporation. Capital provided to a corporation by stockholders in exchange for shares of either preferred or common stock is called paid-in capital, or contributed capital.
股本的基本单位是“股份” ,但是,公司可以发行面值为 1 股,100 股或其他任何数字的股票。任一时 刻公司流通在外的股份的总数就代表公司的全部的所有权。流通在外的股票就是指在股东手中的股票。某 投资人持有的股份决定了他(她)在公司中的所有权的大小。投资者向公司投资,同时取得股票(优先股 或普通股) ,称为投入资本或缴入资本。

The earning of net income, or profits, is a major goal of almost every business enterprise, large or small. Profits increase the owners’ equity in the business and the increase is usually accompanied by an increase in total assets. The resources generated by profitable operations may be retained in the business to finance expansion, or they may be distributed as dividends to the stockholders. Some of the largest corporations have become large by retaining their profits in the business and using these profits for growth. Retained profits may be used, for example, to acquire new plant and equipment, to carry on research leading to new territories. But remember, retained earnings is not an asset; it is an element of stockholders’ equity.
获得纯收入或利润几乎是每个企业的目标,不论大企业还是小企业。利润增加所有者权益并通常伴随 着资产总值的增加。由盈利性经营活动而带来的收入可以留在企业里以供企业发展所需,也可以作为股利 发放于股东。许多大公司正是通过将盈利留存于企业,用于扩大再生产而发展壮大起来的。例如,留存收 益可用于购置新的厂房和设备,或用于开发新产品的科学研究。但要记住,留存收益不是资产,而是股东 权益的一个组成部分。

Decrease In Owners’ Equity. Decreases in owners’ equity also are caused in two ways: (1) Distribution of cash or other assets by the business to its owners; (2) Losses from unprofitable operation of the business.
所有者的权益的减少。所有者权益的减少也有两个原因: (1)企业向股东分配现金或其他资产; (2) 由于亏损经营而造成的损失。

The distribution of cash for a single proprietorship takes the form of personal withdrawals, and a drawing account is used to show the decrease in capital. A dividend is a distribution of assets (usually cash) by a corporation to its stockholders. In some respects, dividends are similar to expense in that they reduce both the assets and the owners’ equity in the business. However, dividends are not an expense, and they are not deducted from revenue in the income statement. The reason that dividends are not viewed as an expense is that these payments do not serve to generate revenue. Rather, they are a distribution of profits to the owners of the business. Since the declaration and payment of a dividend reduce the stockholders’ equity, the dividend could be recorded by debiting the Retained Earnings account. However, a clearer record is created if a separate Dividends account is debited for all amounts distributed as dividends to stockholders. At the end of a period the Dividends account is credited and the Retained Earnings account is debited to close the Dividends account.

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会计英语 对于独资企业来说,向所有者分配现金通常表现为所有者的个人提款,企业主设置“提款”账户来反 映由于提款而引起的资本减少。在股份公司,企业是以股利的形式向投资者分配资产(往往是现金) 。在某 种意义上说,股利类似于费用,它引起企业的资产和所有者权益同时减少。但是,股利不是费用,在收入 表中,它们不从收入中扣减。人们之所以不把股利当作费用,是由于这种支出不是为企业创造收入而发生 的,而是对所有者进行的利润分配。由于宣布和发放股利减少企业的所有者的权益,发放股利时,可以通 过借记“留存收益”账户来反映。如果单独设置“股利”账户登记发放的全部股利,就可以提供更清楚的 资料,到期末,再将“股利”账户的借方余额转到“留存收益”账户的借方, “股利”账户将不再有余额。

An expense always causes a decrease in owners’ equity. Expenses are the cost of the goods and service used up in the process of earning revenue. When the expenses exceeds the revenue generated, the business is said to be operating at a loss.
费用必然引起所有者权益的减少。所谓费用就是企业在创造收入的过程中所耗费的产品或劳务的成 本。当费用超过它们所创造的收入时,企业便是在亏损经营。

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Unit Twenty-One Revenue and Expenses
第二十一单元 收入和费用

Income Statement is prepared to show the net income or net loss of a business for a specific period of time. Net income is the excess of the price of goods sold and services rendered over the cost of goods and services used up during a given time period. To determine net income, it is necessary to measure for a given time period (1) the price of goods sold and services rendered and (2) the cost of goods and services used up. The technical accounting terms for these items comprising net income are revenue and expenses.
为了列示一个期间的净收入或净损失,企业需编制收入表。所谓净收入是指在一个期间内所销售的产 品和所提供的劳务的价格超过所耗用的产品和劳务的成本的部分。为了计算一个期间的净收入,就需要计 量这一期间的: (1)销售产品和提供劳务的价格; (2)所耗用的资产和劳务的成本。上述净收入的构成项 目在会计术语中分别称为“收入”和“费用” 。

REVENUE. When a business renders services to its customers or delivers merchandise to them, it either receives immediate payment in cash or acquires an account receivable which will be collected and thereby become cash within a short time. The revenue for any given period is equal to the inflow of cash and receivables from sales made in that period. For any single transaction, the amount of revenue is a measurement of the asset values received from customers.
收入 当企业向其顾客提供服务或发送产品时,企业立即获得现金收入或者是产生一项应收账款,在 未来某时收回这项账款,转为现金收入。那么一定时期内的收入总额就等于该期间由于销售业务而产生的 现金收入和应收账款的总和。就某一项经济业务来说,收入的金额即相当于从客户那里收到的资产的价值。

Revenue causes an increase in owners’ equity. The inflow of cash and receivable from customers increase the total assets of the company; on the other side of the accounting equation, the liabilities do not change, but owners’ equity is increased to match the increase in total assets. Thus revenue is the gross increase in owners’ equity resulting from business activities.
收入引起所有者权益的增加。现金的流入和应收账款的发生增加了企业的资产总值,在会计等式的另 一方,负债没有变化,但所有者权益却增加了以便与会计等式左方的资产增加相适应。可见,收入就是由 于企业经济活动引起的所有者权益增加的总数。

Various terms are used to describe different types of revenue; for example, the revenue earned by a real estate broker might be called Sales Commissions Earned, or alternatively, Commission Revenue. In the professional practice of lawyers, physicians, dentists, and CPAs, the revenue is called Fees Earned. A business which sells merchandise rather than services will use the term Sales to describe the revenue earned. Another type of revenue is Interest Earned, which means the amount received as interest on notes receivable, bank deposits, government bonds, or other securities.
收入有各种不同的名称。例如,房地产经纪商所赚得的收入可以称为“赚得的销售佣金”或“佣金收 入” 。一些专业工作者,如律师、医生、牙科医生和注册会计师,他们的收入可以称为“服务费收入” 。销 售商品而不是提供服务的企业一般使用“销售收入”一词代表其收入。还有一种收入叫做“利息收入” ,指 的是应收票据、银行存款、政府债券或其它有价证券的利息收入。

When is revenue recorded in the accounting records? For example, assume that on May 24, a real estate company signs a contract to represent a client in selling the client’s personal residence.

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The contract entitles the real estate company to a commission equal to 5% of the selling price, due 30 days after the date of sale. On June 10, the real estate company sells the house at a price of $ 120 000, thereby earning a $ 6 000 commission ($ 120 000 × 5%), to be received on July 10. When should the company record this $ 6 000commission revenue—in May, June, or July?
收入应在什么时候登记入账呢?举例来说,假定在 5 月 24 日,某房地产经纪商签订了一项合同,代 表一客户出售其个人住房。按合同规定经纪商可以按房屋售价的 5%收取佣金,佣金将在房屋售出后的第 30 天支付。在 6 月 10 日,经纪商以 120 000 美元的价格将房屋售出,从而赚得了 6 000 美元的佣金(即 5% ×120 000) ,这笔佣金将于 7 月 10 日收到。那么该房地产经纪商应该在何时将这 6 000 美元的佣金收入记 账?—5 月、6 月还是 7 月?

The company should record this revenue on June 10—the day it rendered the service of selling the client’s house. As the company will not collect this commission until July, it must also record an account receivable on June 10. In July, when this receivable is collected, the company must not record revenue a second time. Collecting an amount receivable increase one asset, cash, and decreases other asset—Accounts Receivable. Thus, collecting an account receivable does not increase owners’ equity and does not represent revenue.
该房地产经纪商应在 6 月 10 日,即在他提供了服务,也就是将房屋售出时登记收入。由于经纪公司 在 7 月才能实际收到这笔佣金,公司不应重复登记收入,应收账款的收回增加了一种资产—现金,减少了 中一种资产—应收账款。因此,应收账款的回收不增加所有者权益,所以它不代表一项收入。

Our answer illustrates a generally accepted accounting principle called the realization principle. The realization principle states that a business should record revenue at the time services are rendered to customers or goods sold are delivered to customers. In short, revenue is recorded when it is earned, without regard as to when the cash is received.
上面的答案揭示了一项公认的会计原则,即收入实现的原则。收入实现的原则主张企业在其劳务已提 供给客户或所销售的产品已经发送于客户的时候确认收入。简言之,即当收入赚得的时候入账,不论那时 是否收到现金。

EXPENSES. Expenses are the cost of the goods and services used up in the process of earning revenue. Example include the cost of employees’ salaries, advertising, rent, utilities, and the gradual wearing-out (depreciation) of such assets as buildings, automobiles, and office equipment. All these costs are necessary to attract and service customers and thereby earn revenue. Expenses are often called the “costs of doing business,” that is, the cost of the various activities necessary to carry on a business.
费用 费用是指在获得收入的过程中,所耗用的产品和劳务的成本。如职工工资、广告支出、租金支 出,公用事业费和建筑物、汽车、办公设备一类资产的折旧费用。为了吸引和服务于客户以便获得收入, 这些费用都是必要的支出,常被叫做“经营的成本” ,也就是为了经营而发生的各种业务的成本。

An expense always causes a decrease in owners’ equity. The related changes in the accounting equation can be either (1) a decrease in assets, or (2) an increase in liabilities. An expense reduces assets if payment occurs at the time that the expense is recorded or if payment has been made in advance. If the expense will not be paid until later, as, for example, the purchase of advertising services on account, the recording of the expense will be accompanied by an increase in liabilities.
费用必然引起所有者权益的减少。发生费用引起会计等式的变化可能是(1)资产减少; (2)负债增 加。当费用入账时款项已经付出,或者是款项已经提前付出,那么这项费用就减少了资产。如果某项费用 将在以后实际付出,如,赊购广告服务的支出,那么在费用入账的同时,负债也增加。 第 84 页 共 122 页


A significant relationship exists between revenue and expenses. Expenses are incurred for the purpose of producing revenue. In measuring net income for a period, revenue should be offset by all of the expenses incurred in producing that revenue on a basis of “cause and effect”, which is called the matching principle.
收入和费用之间存在着一种重要的关系,即发生费用的目的是为了创造收入。为了计算一个期间的净 收入,应根据“原因和结果”的原理,收入应与为创造该收入所发生的费用相抵,这个原则就叫做“配比 的原则” 。

Timing is an important factor in matching (offsetting) revenue with the related expenses. For example, in preparing monthly income statements, it is important to offset this month’s expenses against this month’s revenue. We should not offset this month’s expenses against last month’s revenue, because there is no cause and effect relationship between the two.
在将收入与相关费用相配比的时候,时间是一个重要的因素。比如说,在编制月度收入表时,必须将 本月的费用从本月的收入中扣除,而不应将本月的收入与上月的费用联系在一起,因为它们两者之间不存 在“因果关系” 。

We previously explained that revenue and cash receipts are not one and the same thing. Similarly, expense and cash payments are not identical. The cash payment for an expense may occur before, after or in the same period that an expense helps to produce revenue. In deciding when to record an expense, the critical question is “In what period will this expenditure help to produce revenue?” not “When did the cash payment occur?”
我们在前面已经述及,收入与现金收入不是一回事,同样,费用和现金的付出也不是一回事。现金的 付出可能早于费用的发生,也可能迟于费用的发生,当然也可能与费用的发生在同一个期间进行。在决定 何时确认费用时,重要的问题是“这项支出将在什么时候有助于收入的获得?”而不是“现金是什么时候 付出的?” 。

Much expenditure made by a business benefit tow or more accounting periods. Fire insurance policies, for example, usually cover a period of 12 months. If a company prepares monthly income statements, a portion of the cost of such a policy is in force. In this case, apportionment of the cost of the policy by months is an easy matter. If the 12-month policy cost $ 240, for example, the insurance expense for each month amounts to $ 20.
企业所发生的许多支出常常在两个或两个以上的会计期间里受益。例如,火灾保险单,通常是以 12 个月为一期。如果企业是按月编收入表的,那么这种保险单金额的一部分在本期有效。在这种情况下,按 月分配保险费用就比较简单。比如说,如果一份年度保险单的金额是 240 美元,那么每月的保险费用就是 20 美元。

Not at all transaction can be so precisely divided by accounting periods. The purchase of a building, furniture and fixtures, machinery, a typewriter, or an automobile provides benefits to the business over all the years in which such an asset is used. No one can determine in advance exactly how many years of service will be received form such long-lived assets. Nevertheless, in measuring the net income of a business for a period of one year or less, the accountant must estimate what portion of the cost the building and other long-lived assets is applicable to the current year. Since the allocations of these costs are estimated rather than precise measurements, it follows that income statements should be regarded as useful approximations of net income rather than as absolutely accurate computations.
并非所有的经济业务都可以在不同会计期间里进行分摊,如购置建筑物、家具、机器设备、打字机或 汽车,这些资产将在它们的使用期间提供收益。人们事先无法准确地确定固定资产能够提供服务的年限。 但是,在确定一年或更短期间的净收入时,会计人员必须弄清建筑物和其他固定资产成本中应归属于本期

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会计英语 费用的部分。由于费用的分配是估计性的,不是绝对准确的计算,因此,我们只应把收入表中所计算出的 利润看作是一种有用价值的估计数字,而不是一个计算绝对精确的数字。

For some expenditure, such as those for advertising or employee training programs, it is not possible to estimate objectively the number of accounting period over which revenue is likely to be produced. In such cases, generally accepted accounting principles require that the expenditure be charged immediately to expense. This treatment is based upon the accounting principles of objectivity and conservatism. Accounting requires objective evidence that expenditure will produce revenue in future periods before they will view the expenditure as creating an asset. When this objective evidence does not exist, they follow the conservative practice of recording the expenditure as an expense. Conservatism, in this context, means applying the accounting treatment which results in the lowest (most conservative) estimate of net income for the current period.
有些支出,如广告支出和职工培训费用,很难客观地估计其受益期间。对于这类费用按一般公认的会 计原则主张将它们立即转为费用处理,这种会计所遵循的会计原则,就是客观性原则和稳健性原则。会计 人员只有在有比较客观的证据表明某项支出能够企业带来效益时,才会把这种费用的发生看作是形成了一 项资产。在没有这种客观的证据时,他们就将按着稳健性原则立即将这项支出处理为费用。在这个意义上, 稳健性原则就是采用的会计处理方法将在当期形成最低的净收入,即采用最保守的会计处理方法。

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Unit Twenty-Two Purchases
第二十二单元 购货

The term purchase not only refers to the purchase of merchandise for resale but also includes the buying of various types of property for use within a business. The procedures followed in purchasing activities depend upon the type and size of the business enterprise. The owner of a small retail store may do all the purchasing, or one employee may devote part of his or her time to purchasing. In larger firms, a purchasing department consisting of a manager and staff who devote full time to the purchasing operation may be required. In this lesson we will introduce some procedure and terms that may be found within the purchasing area.
购货这一概念不仅指企业购进商品以便销售,而且包括购置各种财产以供使用。采购活动的程序取决 于企业的种类和规模。小型零售企业的所有者就可能负责全部的采购业务,或者指定一位职工专门或协助 办理采购业务。在大型企业里,可能需要设置专门的采购部门,由一位经理和其他工作人员负责采购业务。 在这一课里,我们将介绍一些在采购环节中可能用到的程序和术语。

PURCHASING REQUISITION. Any department within an enterprise may request the purchasing department to purchase merchandise or other items by submitting a form called a purchase requisition. Purchase requisitions are generally prenumbered consecutively to prevent their misuse or loss. The requisitions are prepared in duplicate with the original going to the purchasing department and the duplicate being retained by the department preparing the requisition. A purchase requisition must contain the name of the department who made the request and the quantity and description of the requested merchandise. The approved purchase requisition is the purchasing department’s authorization to order the merchandise requisitioned.
请购单 企业内部的任何部门都可以填制并向采购部门提交一份叫做请购单的表格,请采购部门购进 某种商品或其他物品。请购单一般都预先设定连续的编号以防滥用或丢失,通常一式两份,原本交于采购 部门,复本留在申请购货的部门。请购单必须载明请购单位的名称、请购的数量和请购货物的名称,核准 后的请购单便是采购部门订购所请购物品的授权证明。

PURCHASE ORDER. A purchase order is a written order by a buyer for merchandise or other items recorded on the buyer’s purchase requisition. Purchase orders are generally prepared on specially designed forms but may be prepared on a printed form or on forms provided by a vendor. Purchase orders are prepared in multiple copies and are numbered consecutively. Generally, but not always, the original copy goes to the vendor, the supplier from whom the goods are ordered. It is also common practice to send both the original and duplicate copy to the supplier. In such a case, the duplicate is an acknowledgement copy on which the supplier will sign to indicate an acceptance of the order, creating a formal contract. This signed copy is then returned to the ordering firm. Who gets the remaining copies of the purchase order is a matter of policy within each firm. The department originating the requisition may get a copy, the receiving department may get a copy, or the accounting department may get a copy. The practice followed with respect to requisitioning, purchasing, receiving, recording, and paying for merchandise by each individual firm will govern the distribution of copies.

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会计英语 订购单 订购单是买方填写的订购请购单上所列物品的书面订单。订购单可以利用专门设计的表格填 写,也可以事先印制表格,这类表格也可以由供货方提供。订购单一式多份并事先连续编号。一般来说(并 非总是如此) ,订购单的原本交给供货方,有时订购单的原本和副本都交给供货方。在这种情况下,副本将 作为供货方的承认订单联,供货人在这份订单上签字,表示接受这份订单,随后正式签订合同。这份承认 订单联将返回订货单位。至于谁持有订购单的其余各联,取决于各个企业自己的规定,请购单位可以留一 份,收货部门可以留一份,会计部门也可以留一份。每个企业对于请购、订购、验货、记录和付款的处理 方法决定订购单各联的去向。

INVOICE. An voice, sometimes referred to as a purchase invoice, is a document prepared by a seller which states the items shipped, the cost of the merchandise, and the method of shipment. While this document is considered to be a purchase invoice by the buyer, it is a sales invoice from the seller’s viewpoint.
购货发票 发货票,有时称为购货发票,是由卖方提供的凭证,上面载明发运的货物、货物的成本和 运输方法。从购买的角度来说,这份凭证是购货发票,但从卖方来说,它就是销货发票。

Purchase invoices are normally received by the buyer before the shipment arrives but may be received after the shipment arrives. Upon receipt, the invoice is numbered (consecutively) and compared with a copy of the purchase order to insure that quantities, prices, descriptions, and the terms are correct and that the delivery date and method of shipment meet the specification.
购货单位通常都在货物到达之前收到购货发票,也可能在货物到达之后收到。购货单位一旦收到购货 发票,便立刻将其按顺序编号,并与订购单进行核对,以便核实物货数量、价格、货物的名称和各种条款 是否正确,发货日期和运输方法是否符合规定的要求。

RECEIVED REPORT. When merchandise is received, the receiving personnel may prepare a receiving report indicating the merchandise received, or the contents of the shipment may be compared with a copy of the purchase order. If a receiving report is prepared, it must be compared with the purchase order by personnel in either the accounting or purchasing department. When prices and extensions have been verified, the purchase can be entered in an invoice register and then posted to creditor’s account in the accounts payable ledger. The invoice is then filed in an unpaid invoice file until it is paid.
收料单 当购买单位收到货物时,验收人员将填制一份验收报告,即收料单,说明所购物品已经收到, 或将收到的货物与订购单相对照。如果填制了收料单,那么必须由会计部门或采购部门的专门人员将收料 单与订购单核对。在单价和金额经过核实以后,这项购货业务要在发票登记簿中登记,然后过记到应付账 款分类账的债权人账户中去,再将购货发票放入尚未支付的发票卷档中,一直到付款为止。

INVOICE REGISTER. An invoice register is a book of original entry in which all invoices dealing with purchasing on account, whether the purchase involve merchandise, supplies or other items, are recorded. The invoice register may be set up on a departmental basis to provide more information and perhaps better control.
发票登记簿 发票登记簿是一种原始记录本,所有的赊购业务的发票均登记在此,不论所购货物是商 品、物料或其它什么项目,均要在此簿中登记。发票登记簿可以按部门设置,以便提供更多的资料和进行 更有效的控制。

Generally, property purchased consists of one of three things: (1) merchandise for resale; (2) supplies for use in the course of the business; or (3) equipment (plant assets) for use in operating the business. Therefore, an invoice register is set up to handle these types of transactions.
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一般来说,所购物品大都是下列三种之一: (1)为销售而购置的商品; (2)企业经营过程中所需用的 物品; (3)企业营运过程中所使用的设备(固定资产) 。因此,要建立发票登记簿以便登记这三类购货业务。

Often, an incorrect invoice will be received, and at a later date another purchase invoice will be received to correct the initial invoice. If the corrected purchase invoice is received before the initial invoice has been entered in the invoice register, the initial invoice may be discarded and the corrected invoice may be entered in the invoice register. If the initial invoice has already been entered in the invoice register when the corrected invoice is received, only the difference between the two invoices is recorded.
企业常常能够收到有错误的发票,稍后,企业将收到另一份购货发票以纠正原来的发票。如果在第一 份错误的购货发票登记入账时就收到了正确的发票,那么就可以放弃那份错误的发票,而将正确的发票登 记在发票登记簿中。如果在收到正确的发票时错误的发票已经入账,那么就将正确发票与错误发票的差额 重新登记。

At any point in time, the invoice register may be footed and the total debits compared with the total credits to prove the invoice register. The total debits must equal the total credits.

BACK ORDERS. Often the supplier is unable to fill the complete order at the time requested and must back order the items not shipped. In such a case the supplier may ship a partial order and send the invoice for the complete order, indicating what has been back ordered and when it will be shipped.
延期交货 有时候,供应单位一时不能提供被订购的货物,因而必须延缓提交尚未发运的货物。在这 种情况下,供货方可以只发运订单中的部分货物,但寄发全部货物的发票,说明延期提交的货物以及何时 将发运延期提交的货物。

BILL OF LADING. A bill of lading is a receipt given to a shipper when merchandise is shipped by air freight, highway freight, or railroad. The bill of lading is prepared in triplicate (original, shipping order, and memorandum). All three copies are signed by the freight agent who returns the original and memorandum copies to shipper and retains the shipping copy for his or her records.
提货单 提货单是在货物交由航空运输公司、公路和铁路运输机构发运后交给发货人的收据。提货单 一般是一式三份(原本、运单和备忘录) 。三联均由运输代理商签署,原本和备忘录送交发货人,自己留下 运单联。

While a purchase invoice specifies a given quantity of merchandise, the corresponding bill of lading may differ from the invoice as to quantity and description. The reason for this is that merchandise is shipped in crates cartons, or other packages rather than the individual containers. The total number of packages and total weight are indicated on the bill of lading. Freight charges are based upon the total weight of the merchandise, the type of merchandise, and the distance it is being shipped.
购货发票要指明货物的数量,这与相关的提货单有所不同,表现在货物数量和名称方面。原因是:货 物是装在木箱、纸箱或其它包装物中而不是一个个小包装中进行运送的。在提货单上要标明包装物的数量 和总重量、货物的种类和运输的距离计算。

DEBIT AND CREDIT MEMORANDA. Merchandise is not always received in satisfactory conditions or according to the terms agreed upon by the buyer. The shipment may be damaged,

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may be the wrong merchandise, or may be delivered too late. In such cases the buyer may return the shipment to the vendor, or may agree to keep the shipment if granted an allowance. A debit memorandum is a document that a buyer uses to inform a seller that the seller’s Accounts Payable account on the buyer’s book is being debited due to an error or an allowance for damaged merchandise. A credit memorandum is a document that a seller uses to inform a buyer that the buyer’s Accounts Receivable account on the seller’s books has been credited due to errors, returns, or allowances.
借项和贷项通知单 购买方所收到的货物并非总是符合预定的要求,货物有时可能遭到损坏,有时可 能发错了货,也有可能发货太迟。在这类情况下,买主可以将货物退给卖方,或者是在卖方给予折让的情 况下接收货物。所谓借项通知单就是买方用来通知卖方,由于货物方面的差错或由于货物毁损引起的折让 而造成的买方应付账款的减少。贷项通知单是卖方用来通知买方,由于货物的差错、退货或折让引起的卖 方应收账款的减少。

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Unit Twenty-Three Sales
第二十三单元 销售

The procedures used in accounting for sales depend on several factors. A great deal depends on the types of business, organization of the sales department, types of goods sold, volume of sales, method of selling, and the sales terms. There are a number of steps in the accounting cycle for sales transactions. When the orders are received they must be examined for acceptability, terms determined, credit approved, a sales invoice prepared, merchandise packed and shipped or delivered, any finally collection is made before the sales cycle is complete.
销售业务的核算手续取决于多方面的因素,其中主要取决于企业的类型、销售部门的组织结构、所售 商品的种类、销售量、销售方式和售货条件。销售业务的核算过程包括一系列的步骤了:在接到订单时, 首先要审查决定是否接受订单,确定销售的条款,决定是否赊账,开出销售发票,再包装和发运商品,最 后收回货款,从而结束这一销售过程。

The determination of the appropriate method of selling and terms of sales is of great importance in the sales cycle. They will necessarily affect the procedures used in handling the sales transaction. And we will primarily examine the sales terms and methods of selling in this unit.
选择适当的销售方式和销售条件在销售过程中具有重要的意义,这些条件的选择必定会影响销售业务 的手续,本课将主要讨论销售方式和条件。

SALES FOR CASH. While some businesses sell for cash or on credit, others sell for cash only. Examples include snack shops, food stores, and some gas stations. Various procedures are used to handle cash sales and cash registers are usually employed. The cash register is a means of internal control since the total cash sales for the day should be reconciled to the cash in the register drawer. Sales tickets are normally prepared in duplicate form. One copy is given to the customer as a receipt, and the second copy is retained in the register and later removed by a person in the accounting department who will analyze and record the sale.
现金销售 有些企业既有现金销售业务,也有信用销售业务,而有的企业只有现金销售业务,如快餐 店、食品店和一些汽车加油站。在处理现销业务时,将使用与赊销业务不同的程序,并常常使用现金出纳 机。因为每日要将现金销售总额与收款机里的实有现金核对相符,所以现金出纳机实际上是进行内部控制 的一种手段。发生现销业务时,要编制一式两份的销货票,一份交与顾客作为收据,中一份留在出纳机中, 然后由会计人员集中起来,进行分析并入账。

SALES ON CREDIT. Sales on credit are often referred to as sales on account or charge sales. In such a sales transaction, the seller exchanges merchandise for the buyer’s promise to pay at a later date. Most wholesale sales and a significant portion of retail sales are now made on credit. Since the business that sells on account assumes an additional risk, it is best to investigate the financial condition of the buyers. Larger businesses often have a credit department which establishes credit policies and approves or disapproves individual credit sales. Experienced credit manager have learned to establish credit policies that will neither be so tight as to reduce sales nor so loose as to create excessive bad debt losses.
信用销售 信用销售也常被称为赊销。在赊账销售条件下,卖方向买方提供商品,并从买方得到在以 后某日支付货款的承诺。现在大多数的批发销售和许多零售业务均采用赊销的方式。因为在信用销售条件

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会计英语 下,卖方承担了额外的风险,所以最好事先调查清楚买方的财务状况。大型企业一般都专设一个信用调查 部门,负责建立信用政策,核准每一笔赊销业务。有经验的信用经理既不会把信用政策定得太紧缩,以至 于削减销售量,也不会把赊销方针定得太宽松,从而导致过量的坏账损失。

SALES ON APPROVAL. A sale made on approval means that the customer has the right to return the goods within a specified time period. Therefore, the sale is not final until the customer’s intentions are known. Mail-order businesses engaged in the sale of stamps, coins, or books are examples of businesses which sell on approval. Approval sales may be handled as charge sales and returns treated as ordinary sales returns. They may also be handled as cash sales. When treated as such, a record is kept until it is known that the customer will keep the goods. By a specified date, the customer must either pay for the goods or return them. The accountant may wait until payment is received, and then it may be recorded as a cash sale.
试销 试销是指客户可以在规定期限内退回商品的销售业务。因此,在没有确切地了解客户的意愿之 前,这项销售业务还不算成立,那些通过邮寄的方式销售邮票、硬币和书籍的业务都属于试销的例子。试 销业务可以按着赊销业务来处理,退化也可以按照正常的销售退回处理,也可以按现销的方式处理。在按 现销业务处理时,在确定客户将最终购买商品之前要保留一份记录,在规定的日期,客户必须为所购商品 付款或者是退回货物,会计人员可以在收到货款时,作为现金销售收入记账。

COD SALES. Merchandise may be sold for Cash on Delivery (COD). Such terms call for payment by the buyer when the goods are delivered. The delivery and collection agent may be an employee of the seller, the post office, an express company, a trucking company, a railroad, a steamship company, or any other common carrier.
货到付款销售 商品亦可按着货到付款的方式销售,在这种销售条件下,买方要在收到货物时立即付 款。发货和收款代理人可以是卖方的雇员,也可心是邮局、捷运公司、运输公司、铁路、船队或其他任何 运输部门。

Cash on delivery sales made by a retail business are usually recorded as cash sales. Upon approval, a sale ticket is prepared and listed on a COD list for control purposes. The merchandise is delivered and the sales price is collected. At the end of each day, the delivery agent returns the COD sales tickets and the money collected. These tickets are compared with the COD list and the sale is recorded. It should be remembered that title to the goods purchased does not pass to the buyer until payment has been received. Therefore, the inventory is considered to be the property of the seller until payment is received. Although delivery may be made through the post office or other common carrier, retail merchandise who sells on COD terms usually makes their own deliveries and collections.
货到付款销售在零售企业中通常是作为现销业务入账的。销售业务经过核准后,企业将填制一份销货 票,并记入货到付款清单中以便于控制,在货物发出后,收回货款。每日结束时,发货代理商交回销货票 和货款,企业将销货票与货到付款清单核对,然后记录销售业务。要注意,在货到付款销售方式下,在卖 方收到货款之前,商品的所有权不能转给买方,因此,在卖方收到货款之前,商品仍属于卖方的财产。尽 管可以通过邮局或其他常见的运输单位发运货物,那些运用货到付款的零售商们往往自己发货自己收款。

SALES ON CONSIGNMENT. Sometimes a business will market goods on a consignment basis. When sold on a consignment basis, the merchandise is shipped to an agent dealer with the agreement that the agent dealer is not required to pay for the goods unless they are sold. Under such a method of selling, title to the goods consigned is retained by the shipper until the goods are
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sold by the agent dealer. The owner of the goods shipped on consignment is referred to as the consignor. The agent dealer is called the consignee.
寄销 有时企业也通过寄销的方式销售产品,在这种情况下,商品先是发运给代理商,代理商在将商 品售出以后,再向货主付款。按着这种销售方式,在代理商将寄售商品售出之前,这批商品的所有权仍在 货主。寄售商品的所有者被称为寄销人或委托人,代理商称为代销或受托人。

The consignee may work on a commission basis, or may earn a profit by making additional markups on the merchandise. Periodically, the consignee will prepare a “statement of consignment sales”. This statement will show consigned goods on hand, consignment sales made, expense chargeable to consignor such as transportation, insurance, and storage expenses, and the amount due to the consignor.
代销人可以收取佣金,也可以通过给商品加价的形式获得利润。代销人将定期编制“寄销收入表” , 列示库存的寄销商品,已完成的销售额,应由委托人负担的费用,如运费、保险费、仓储费,以及应付给 委托人的金额。

INSTALLMENT SALES. Property such as appliances, stereo equipment, furniture, clothes, automobiles, real estate, and may other types of merchandise may be sold on an installment basis. Such a method refers to a plan whereby the seller agrees to give the buyer physical possession of the goods in exchange for a promise to make payments periodically over a specified time interval. The agreement between the buyer and seller is referred to in legal terms as a conditional sales contract. Quite often a down payment is required. The sales contract will contain wording to the effect that the seller will retain title to the property until payment is made in full. A high price is usually charged for goods sold on installment to offset the added risk imposed on the seller for waiting to collect payments and the additional record-keeping expenses involved.
分期付款销售 诸如仪器、立体声设备、家具、服务、汽车、房地产和许多其他种类的商品都可以按 分期付款的方式销售。按这种方式,卖方要将商品交与买主,买方同意定期地按一定的间隔期付款。卖方 与买方之间的这一协议,从法律的角度就是一种有条件合同,往往需先支付一笔定金。销售合同中必定包 括这样的措辞,即在买主付清货款之前,货物的所有权仍在卖主。分期付款销售商品价格往往较高,以便 抵销卖主等待付款所带来的风险以及有关的记账费用。

TRADE AND CASH DISCOUNTS. Manufacturers and wholesales publish catalogs in order to describe their products and list their retail prices. Usually, they offer deductions from these list prices to dealers who buy in large quantities. These deductions are known as trade discounts. By offering these discounts, a business can adjust a price at which it is willing to bill its goods without changing the list price in the catalog. For example, XYZ Company wants to advertise its stereo radio at a list price of $ 150.00. However, the radio is offered to dealers at a trade discount of 30 percent, which amounts to $ 45.00. Therefore, the dealer pays only $ 105.00 for the set.
商业折扣和现金折扣 制造商和批发商印制价格目录以介绍其产品的零售价格,他们往往对大量购买 的客户提供价格折扣,这种折扣被称为商业折扣。通过提供商业折扣,企业可以在不改变价格目录的条件 下,按其所愿意授受的价格出售商品。举例来说,XYZ 公司需按每件 150 美元的价格为其立体声收录机打 广告,但公司将为代理商提供 30%的商业折扣,每件折扣金额为 45 美元,这样以来,代理商每件商品只需 付 105 美元。

While trade discounts are used to make price differentials among different classes of customers and as a means of avoiding catalog revisions, can discounts are used primarily to induce prompt payment by customers. In other words, the seller may allow the buyer to deduct a certain

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percent of the bill if he or she makes the payment before the amount is due. The payment terms should be clearly stated on the face of the invoice. In the following are examples of some commonly used terms.
商业折扣的目的是在不同的客户中使用不同的产品价格,同时又不需要更改价格目录。现金折扣则主 要是为了吸引顾客及早付款而提供的折扣。换句话说,如果买方能在货款到期以前付款,卖方将允许买主 享受一定的折价。付款条件在销售发票上要明确写明,下面列示的是一些常见的付款条件:

2/10, n/30. this is read as “two ten, net thirty” and means that a 2 percent discount of the invoice price is allowed if payment is made within 10 days following the invoice date, and the gross invoice price is due 30 days from the invoice date.
2/10,n/30,意思是如果买方在发票开出日起 10 日内付款,可以按发票价格打 2%的折扣,全部货款 将在发票开出之日起 30 日到期。

2/EOM, n/60. This is read as “two EOM, net sixty” and means a 2 percent discount may be deducted if the invoice is paid by the end of the month. The discount may not be taken after the end of the month, and payment is due 60 days from the invoice date.
2/OEM,n/60,意思是如果在月末之前付款,买方可享受 2%的折扣,月末以后付款不享受折扣,货款 将在自发票开出日起 60 天到期。

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Unit Twenty-four Information Systems
第二十四单元 信息系统

Traditionally, man, material, money and machines have been considered that main resources of an organization, but in recent years there has been a growing awareness that information is an additional important resource without which organization objectives can not be achieved. In general terms, information is produced by converting raw data into a more useful and refined form. The volume of data in modern organization has grown to such proportions that information production has become a specialized activity. Although accountants in the past have been involved in the production of information for management, their traditional role is changing with the emergence of a new technology of information production and information system design.
从传统上来讲,人们认为人、物资、货币和机器是一个单位的主要资源。但是,近年来人们日益认识 到信息是另一个重要的资源。没有信息,一个单位的目标就不能实现。一般来说,信息是以把原始数据转 换成更加有用和精炼的形式提供的。在现代公司中,数据量增加到如此大的比例,使信息提供已成为专业 化的活动。人们越来越注意设计有效的信息系统,设计信息系统本身已成为一项专门的工作。虽然过去会 计界参与为管理部门提供信息的工作,但是,他们的传统作用随着新的信息生产技术和信息系统设计的出 现也在变化。

OBJECTIVES OF THE INFORMATION SYSTEM. Some specialized information systems are limited to the handling of a large volume of data, e.g. the preparation of monthly bills by an electricity corporation, while others are designed to assist in day-to-day operations, such as production scheduling in a manufacturing firm. Special information systems are limited and sectional in nature, reflecting only a segment of the organization’s activities. Since the organization is an integrated entity with interdependent functions, the information system should also be an integrated whole encompassing the overall activities of the organization. The objectives of an information system will depend on the view management takes about its information requirements; these may include one of the following: record keeping, operations and control, and integrated planning and policy making.
信息系统的目的 一些专业化的信息系统专门致力于处理大批量的信息。如,一家供电公司用它来编 制每月的收费单。而另有些信息系统的设计目的是有助日常经营活动,如制造公司编制生产作业计划。专 用的信息系统是有局限性的,在本质上讲是属于局部性的,只反映一个单位的活动的一部分。由于单位是 由各个相互依赖的职能部门组成的统一体,信息系统也应该是一个包括单位全面活动的统一整体。信息系 统的目的取决于管理部门对信息要求所持的态度。管理部门和信息的要求可以包括下列之一:保存记录, 经营和控制,综合计划和制定政策。

Record Keeping. In many organizations, the volume of transactions is so great that handling of information with efficiency, accuracy and economy represents a difficult problem. In these organizations, the processing of routine information becomes the first priority in mechanization. The information system is designed either to assemble the evidence of transactions or simply to give a summarized historical report. The provision of information for decision making in these situations, while important, is not the objective of the system.
保存记录。在许多大公司,交易额如此之大,要高效、准确和经济地处理信息已成为一个难题。在这 些公司中,日常的信息处理已成为要优先考虑实现机械化的领域。这些信息系统的设计不是收集交易的凭

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会计英语 证,就是仅仅提供一份总结性的历史报告。在这些情形下,为决策提供信息虽然是信息系统的一个重要方 面,但并不是它的目的。

Examples of the output of information systems oriented to record keeping are historical financial statements, customer billings, inventory status reports, income tax returns and social security payment listings.
保存记录的信息输出系统的例子有年度财务报表,客户发票,存货状况报告,所得税申报表以及各种 社会保障支付表。

Operations and Control. The information system may be designed to assist employees in their day-to-day operations, and to exercise control over the implementations of short-run plans. An airline passenger booking system and a production scheduling system are examples of information systems oriented to operations. An airline booking system is designed to give instantaneous reports on the status of seats available on particular flights, so that passenger bookings can be confirmed on the spot. A production scheduling system is used to determine the allocation of machine time to various jobs, so that delivery schedules can be met at the least cost.
经营和管理。可以把信息系统设计成可以协助雇员的日常工作,对短期计划的实施情况进行监督的手 段。航空公司客票订票系统和生产作业计划制定系统都属于经营型信息系统。设计航空公司定票系统是为 了对特定班机可供坐位情况能立即做出报告,这样,乘客的定票可以当场确认。生产作业计划系统是用来 确定如何分配各种不同工作的机械时间,从而可以以最小的成本达到交货计划表的要求。

Variance reports on financial, sales and production plans are examples of information systems oriented to control. These reports compare actual performance with planned performance, so that corrective measures may be taken on the basis of difference disclosed.
对财务、销售和生产计划的误差报告属于控制型信息系统。这样的报告把实际操作的情况与计划加以 比较,因此可以对暴露出来的误差采取补救改正措施。

Integrated Planning and Policy Making. At the general management level, the problems of concern are the performance of the entire organization and formulation of long-term plans. These problems are relatively broad in scope, usually involving the overall activities of the organization. The information system designed for the needs of general management may comprise a mathematical model of the entire operation. By representing the entire operation in the form of a mathematical model and by manipulating the model, it is often possible to predict the likely outcome of alternative decisions. These mathematical models are usually called corporate models. They provide an example of an information system oriented to integrated planning and policy making.
综合计划和制定政策。综合管理部门关注的是整个单位运作的情况和制定长远计划,这些问题相对来 讲范围广,通常要涉及到单位的总体活动。为适应综合管理部门需要而设计的信息系统可能是一个涵盖公 司全部经营活动的数学模式。通过用数学模式的形式表示全部经营活动并利用这个模式,通常可能预测出 其他决策的可能结果。这些模式就是综合计划决策型信息系统的例子。

DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM. Data processing system is a part of the total information system. All data processing systems go through a common data processing cycle which has tree steps: Input, processing or manipulation, and output. They differ in the extent to which they are mechanized and may be classified into manual, mechanical, punched card and computerized systems.
数据处理系统 数据处理系统是总信息系统的一部分。所有信息系统都要经过一个有三个步骤,即输 入、处理或操作和输出的普通数据处理周期。由于它们的机械化程度有差异,可以分为人工、机械、穿孔 第 96 页 共 122 页



Manual Data Processing Systems. Manual data processing systems are predominant in small organizations where all functions are performed manually. The traditional tools used in conjunction with manual systems are pencils, pens, printed forms, journals, ledgers, worksheets, files, etc. Manual systems are easy to set up and the initial establishment costs are low. The system is flexible and therefore changes cane introduced at any stage without encountering serious difficulty. On the other hand, variable costs per transaction are high and the system output is prone to errors.
人工数据处理系统。人工数据处理系统主要在小单位使用,因为在这样的单位,所有的职能都是由人 工操作的。与人工系统一块使用的传统工具有:铅笔、钢笔、印刷的表格、日记账、分类账、工作底稿、 档案等。人工系统容易建立,而且起步成本低。这种系统比较灵活,因此,在任何阶段做些变动都不会碰 到严重的困难。但另一方面,每项交易的可变成本高,该系统的输出结果容易出错。

Mechanical Systems. In mechanical systems, manual effort is assisted by mechanical devices such as typewriters, calculators, accounting machines and cash registers. The set-up cost of mechanical systems is higher than that for manual systems, but data processing is relatively error free. Another advantage is that control figures (such as total account receivable) are produced automatically. A disadvantage of mechanical system is that the capacity of each machine is limited by the speed of the operator, because the operation itself is performed manually. As a result, operator speed is critical and a bottleneck can occur in the system as the volume of transactions increases.
机械化信息系统。在机械信息系统中,人工劳动辅助于机械设施,如打字机、计算器、核算器械和现 金出纳机。建立机械化信息系统比人工信息系统成本要高,但数据处理的错误相对要少。另一个优点是控 制数字(如应收账户总数)是自动生成的。机械化系统的一个不利之处是每台机构的生产能力受到操作人 员速度的限制,因为操作本身是手工进行的。因而,操作员的速度很关键。由于交易的增加,在这个体系 中会出现薄弱环节。

Punched Card Systems. A punched card system makes use of a combination of machines, most of which require only a minimum amount of manual effort and supervision in order to perform their tasks. The operations performed automatically in a punched card system are: recording, sorting, comparing, calculating, summarizing and reporting. However, the card punch and verifier must be operated manually.
穿孔卡片系统。穿孔卡片系统使用联合机。这些机器一般只需要少量的手工劳动来监督机械是否正常 运行。穿孔卡片系统自己处理的工作有:记录、分类、比较、计算、汇总和报告。但是卡片穿孔和验孔机 都是人工操作。

Punched card systems are widely used because of their speed, accuracy of processing and low variable costs. However, the system has two undesirable features. First, the files of the system need to be converted to and maintained as punched cards. Second, the calculator has limited mathematical and logic capability, which makes the punched card system inadequate for more complex applications.
穿孔卡片系统得到了广泛的应用,因为它速度快、数据处理准确,可变成本又低。但是,这个系统也 有两个不尽人意的地方。第一,这个系统的档案需要转换成穿孔卡,并以穿孔卡片的形式保存。第二,计 算器的数学和逻辑能量有限,这使得这个系统不能适应较为复杂的情况。

Electronic Computer Systems. The development of manual, mechanical and punched card systems reflects a general trend in data processing to eliminate the human element as far as possible. The electronic computer is a logical extension of the punched card system. In a punched card system several machines perform such tasks as recording, sorting, calculating, summarizing and reporting. Electronic computer systems are generally able to perform all

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these functions automatically with greater speed and accuracy. This is accomplished by a series of instructions called a program, which is stored in the electronic computer.
电子计算机处理系统。人工、机械和穿孔卡片系统的发展反映出数据处理上的一个普遍倾向,即尽可 能消除人的因素,电子计算机是穿孔卡片每张的一个必然的发展结果。在穿孔卡片系统,像记录、分类、 计算、汇总和汇报这样的工作要由好台机器来完成。而电子计算机系统通常可以以更快的速度和准确率来 自动地完成所有这些任务。这些任务是由电子计算机中储存的、叫做程序的一系列指令来完成的。

Electronic computer systems are superior in speed, computational and logic capabilities, accuracy and versatility. As a result computers are gaining wider acceptance in both large and small organizations.
电子计算机在速度、计算和逻辑能量、准确度和通用性方面都更加优越。因此,计算机在大小公司都 受到日益广泛的应用。

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Unit Twenty-five Single Proprietorships
第二十五单元 独资企业

A business enterprise may be organized as a single proprietorship, a partnership, or a corporation. We will look at the single proprietorship in this unit and the other two forms of organization will be discussed in the next two units.
企业组织形式有独资企业、合伙企业和股份有限公司,本课讨论独资企业,后两种组织形式将分别在 随后两课中讨论。

A business owned by one person is called a single proprietorship. Often the owner also acts as the manager. This form of business organization is common for small retail stores and service enterprise, for farms, and for professional practice in law, medicine, and public accounting. In fact, the single proprietorship is the most common form of business organization in western economy. Most of these businesses, however, tend to be relatively small.
为一个人所有的企业称为独资企业。独资企业的所有者往往同时就是经理。小型零售企业、服务性企 业、农场和法律、医疗和注册会计师事务所等专业性服务单位多半是属于独资企业形式。事实上,在西方 国家,独资企业是最常见的企业组织形式,多数独资企业的规模都比较小。

CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE PROPRIETORSHIP. An important characteristic of the sole proprietorship is that, from a legal viewpoint, the business and its owner are not regarded as separate entities. Thus, the owner is personally liable for the debts of the business. If the business becomes insolvent, creditors can force the owner to sell his or her personal assets to pay the business debts. In other words, the proprietorship’s liability is unlimited; that is, it is not limited to his or her investment in the firm.
独资企业的特征 独资企业的一个最显著的特点是,从法律角度看,独资企业和史前是独立的法律实 体。因此,企业的所有者对企业的债务要负责,如果企业无力偿还债务,债权人可以迫使企业出场他(她) 的个人财产以偿还企业的债务。换句话说,独资企业的债务是无限的,就是说,它不限于业主在企业中的 投资。

From an accounting viewpoint, however, a single proprietorship is regarded as an entity separate from the other affairs of its owner. For example, assume that Bill White owns two single proprietorship—a gas station and a shoe store. The assets, liabilities, revenues, and expense relating to the gas station would not appear in the financial statements of the shoe store. Also, White’s personal assets, such as his house, furniture, and savings account, would not appear in the financial statements of either business entity.
但是,从会计核算的角度看,独资企业却被看作是独立于所有者的其他事务的实体。举例来说,假定 比尔·怀特拥有两个独资企业—一个汽车加油站和一个鞋店,汽车加油站的资产、负债、收入和费用不会 出现在他的鞋店的财务报表上,而且,怀特个个的财产,如他的房子、家具和储蓄账户也不会出现在汽车 加油站和鞋店的财务报表上。

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PROPRIETORSHIP. The principal virtue of the proprietorship is its simplicity; in most cases, it is necessary only to set up a shop and begin operations. The principal disadvantages of the proprietorship are unlimited liability and limitations on size. Generally, a proprietorship can raise funds only to the extent that the individual

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proprietor can do so. Often, this keeps the firm from raising large amounts of money.
独资企业组织形式的优越性和不利方面 独资企业的主要优点是简单,在多数情况下,只需开个店开 始营业就行了。独资形式的主要缺点是债务无限和规模有限。一般说来,独资企业可以筹集到的资金仅限 于业主个人,这一点限制了独资企业的发展,它无法筹集到大量的资金。

A proprietorship itself is not subject to taxation of income. Rather, the income or loss derived from the proprietorship is included and taxed in the personal tax return of the proprietor.

ACCOUNTING FOR THE OWNER’S EQUIY IN A SINGLE PROPRIETORSHIP. Most accounting principles apply to all three forms of organization and the main area of difference lies in accounting for owner’s equity.
独资企业的所有者权益的核算 大多数会计原则对三种企业组织形式都适用,主要区别就在于所有者 权益的核算。

The accounting records for a single proprietorship do not include accounts for capital stock, retained earnings, or dividends. Instead of these accounts, a capital account and a drawing account are maintained for the owner. A corporation must maintain separate accounts for capital stock and remained earnings, because distributions to owners in the form of dividends cannot legally exceed the earnings of the corporations. In a solely owned business, however, the owner is free to withdraw assets from the business at any time and in any amount.
独资企业的会计记录不设置股本、留存收益或股利账户,而是设置“资本”和“提款”账户。股份公 司必须分别设置股本和留存收益账户,因为按法律规定,向股东们分配的股利不能超过公司的收益。但在 独资企业,企业业主可以随时从企业中提取资产。

THE OWNER”S CAPITAL ACCOUNT. In a single proprietorship, the title of the capital account includes the name of the owner, as , for example, Bill White, Capital. The Capital account is credit with the amount of the proprietor’s original investment in the business and also with any subsequent investments. When the accounts are closed at the end of each accounting period, the Income Summary account is closed into the owner’s capital account. Thus the Capital account is credited with the net income earned or debited with the net loss incurred. Withdrawals by the proprietor during the period are debited to a drawing account, which later is closed into the Capital account.
所有者的资本账户。 在独资企业, 资本账户的名称要包括所有者的姓名, 如上面的 “比尔· 怀特资本” 。 企业的所有者最初向企业投资时贷记“资本”账户,再发生投资时也贷记“资本”账户,在期末结账时, “收入汇总”账户要结转到“资本”账户,当发生净利润时,贷记“资本”账户,发生亏损时,借记“资 本”账户。所有者个人的提款借记“提款”账户,该账户随后要转入“资本”账户。

THE OWNER”S DRAWING ACCOUNT. A withdrawal of cash or other assets by the owner reduces the owner’s equity in the business and could be recorded by debiting the owner’s capital account. However, a clearer record is created if a separate drawing accounting is maintained. This drawing account (entitled, for example, Bill White, Drawing) replaces the dividends account used by a corporation.
所有者的提款账户。所有者从企业提取现金或其他资产,减少他(她)在企业中权益,可以借记所有 者的“资本”账户。但是如果单独设置“提款”账户就会提供更明了的资料。这个提款账户(如比尔·怀 特提款账户)相当于股份公司所使用的“股利”账户。 第 100 页 共 122 页


The Drawing account is debited for any of the following transactions:

1. Withdrawals of cash or other assets. If the proprietorship of a clothing store, for example, withdraws merchandise for personal use, the Drawing account is debited for the cost of the goods withdrawn. The offsetting credit is to the Purchase account (or to Inventory if a perpetual inventory system is maintained.) 2. Payment of the proprietor’s personal bills out of the business bank account. 3. Collection of an account receivable of the business, with the cash collected being retained personally by the proprietor.
1. 从企业提取现金或其他资产。 如果一位服装店的店主从商店中取走了一些货物用于个人消费, 就应 按所提货物的成本借记“提款”账户,相对应的会计记录是贷记“购货”账户,在存货采取永续盘存制时, 也可贷记“存货”账户。 2. 利用企业的银行账户支付所有者个人的账单。 3. 收回应收账款,收回的现金由所有者留作自用。

Withdrawals by the proprietor (like dividends to stockholders) are not expense of business. Expenses are incurred for the purpose of generating revenue, and a withdrawal of cash or other assets by the proprietor does not have this purpose.
独资企业的所有者个人提款,如公司的股利一样,不是企业的费用。费用的发生为了创造收入,但所 有者从企业中抽取现金或其他资产并非为此目的。

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR A SINGLE PROPRIETORSHIP. The balance sheet of a single proprietorship differs from that of a corporation only in the owner’s equity section. The balance sheet for a single proprietorship shows the entire ownership equity as a single dollar amount without any effort to distinguish between the amount originally invested by the owner and the later increase or decrease in owner’s equity as a result of profitable or unprofitable operations. Whereas the ownership equity of a corporation consists of two elements: capital stock and retained earnings.
独资企业的财务报表 独资企业的资产负债表与股份公司的资产负债表的区别就在所有者权益部分。 独资企业的资产负债表只用一个数字列示全部的所有者权益,不区分所有者的原始投资和经营过程中带来 的所有者权益的增加或减少。股份公司的所有者权益包括两部分:股本和留存收益。

The income statement of a proprietorship differs from that of a corporation in two significant respects. First, the income statement for a single proprietorship does not include any salary expense representing managerial services rendered by the owner. One reason for not including a salary to the owner-manager is the fact that individuals in such a position are able to set their own salaries at any amount they choose. The use of an unrealistic salary to the proprietor would tend to destroy the significance of the income statement as a device for measuring the earning power of the business. It is more logical to regard the owner-manger as working to earn the entire net income of the business than as working for salary.
独资企业的收入表与股份公司的收入表有两个区别。第一,独资企业的收入表不包括补偿所有者为企 业提供管理服务的工资费用,这样做的原因之一是所有者个人可以把工资定在任何水平上,列示不真实的 工资费用将削弱收入表作为计量企业的赢利能力的作用。把独资业主的劳动看作是为了获得企业的全部的 净收入(利润)而不是为了挣工资更符合逻辑。

The second distinctive feature of the income statement of a single proprietorship is the absence of any income taxes expense. Since a proprietorship is not recognized as a legal entity sepa-

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rate from its owner, the business does not file its own income tax return or pay any income taxes. However, the proprietor must include the income of the business on his or her individual income tax return, along with any taxable income from other sources. In contrast, a corporation does pay income taxes on its earnings, and income taxes expense will appear in its income statement.
独资企业的收入表的另一个显著特点是它没有所得税费用,因为独资企业不是独立于所有者之外的法 律实体,所以企业本身不填报所得税申报单和支付所得税。但是,独资企业业主必须将其企业的利润包括 在他(她)个人所得税申报单中,与其其他来源的收一起构成他(他)们的应纳税总收入。相反,股份公 司要交纳公司所得税,因此,其收入表上要列示所得税费用。

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Unit Twenty-six Partnerships
第二十六单元 合伙企业

A partnership is an unincorporated business that is jointly owned by two or more people. Partnerships, like single proprietorships, are widely used for small businesses and professional practices. In the fields of manufacturing, wholesaling, and retail trade, partnerships are also popular, because they afford a means of combining the capital and abilities of two or more persons. As in the case of a single proprietorship, a partnership is not legally an entity separate from its owners; consequently, a partnership is personally responsible for the debts of the partnership is a business entity separate from the personal activities of the partners. A partnership is often referred to as a firm; the name of the firm often includes the word “company” as, for example “Adams, Myers, and Company.”
合伙企业是由两个或两个以上的人共同拥有的非公司形式的企业。同独资企业一样,合伙企业组织形 式也普遍为许多小型企业和专业执业人员所采用。在制造业、批发业和零售业,合伙组织形式也极普遍, 因为这种组织可以集中两个或两个以上的人员的资本与才能。与独资企业相同,合伙企业也不是独立于所 有者以外的法律实体,因此,合伙企业对合伙企业的全部债务负责。但从会计的角度来说,合伙组织是独 立的经济实体,应与合伙人的个人事务分别开来。合伙企业常被称为“商号” ,商号的名称往往要包括“公 司”的字样,如“亚当斯·迈耶公司” 。

SIGNFICANT FEATURES OF PARTNERSHIP. Before taking up the accounting problems peculiar to partnerships, it will be helpful to consider briefly some of the distinctive characteristics of the partnership form of organization. These characteristics (such as limited life and unlimited liability) all stem from the basic point that a partnership is not a separate legal entity in itself but merely a voluntary association of individuals.
合伙企业的特点 在研究合伙企业的特有的会计问题之前,有必要简单地了解合伙组织一些特点,这 些特点(如有限的寿命和无限的债务)都源于合伙组织不是一个独立的法律实体,而只是一个自愿结合的 合伙组织。

Ease of Formation. A partnership can be created without any legal formalities. When two or more persons agree to become partners, such agreement constitutes a contract and a partnership is automatically created. The contract should be in writing in order to lessen the chances for misunderstanding and future disagreement.
成立的手续简单。可以在没有任何法律程序的情况下成立合伙企业,当两位或更多的人同意做合伙人 时,只需按他们之间达成的协议签订一份合同,合伙企业便成立了。合同一定要书面化以便减不误解和未 来纠纷的可能性。

Limited Life. A partnership may be ended at any time by the death or withdraw of any member of the firm. Other factors which may bring an end to a partnership include the bankruptcy or incapacity of a partner, or the completion of the project for which the partnership was formed. The admission of a new partner or the retirement of an existing member means an end to the old partnership, although the business may be continued by the information of a new partnership.
有限的寿命。合伙组织随时都可以由于合伙人的死亡或撤出而终止,还有一些因素也能造成合伙企业 解体,如某合伙人的破产或无能力继续充当合伙人,或者合伙项目的完成等原因。在接纳新的合伙人,或 者有合伙人退出时,原合伙组织就自动消失,而失业可按新成立的合伙企业继续营业。

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Mutual Agency. Each partner acts as an agent of the partnership, with authority to enter into contracts. The partnership is bound by the acts of any partner as long as these acts are within the scope of normal operations. The factor of mutual agency suggests the need for exercising great caution in the selection of a partner. To be in partnership with an irresponsible person or one lacking in integrity is an intolerable situation.
相互代理。每个合伙人都可以以合伙组织代理人的身份采取行动,也就是说,每个合伙人都有权代表 合伙企业与他人签订合同。合伙企业的营业活动取决于每个合伙人的行动,只要每个合伙人的行为是在正 常的经营活动范围之内。合伙人之间的这种可以相互代理的特点要求在选择合伙人的时候,必须小心谨慎, 如果一个没有责任感或缺乏正直性的人结成了合伙组织,这种处境是极为不利的。

Unlimited Liabilities. Each partner is personally responsible for all the debts of the firm. The lack of any ceiling on the liability of a partner may deter a wealthy person from entering a partnership.
无限的责任。在合伙企业里,每个合伙人都对企业的全部债务负责,合伙人的这种无限的责任使得很 多富人不愿意加入合伙组织。

A new member joining an existing partnership may or may not assume liability for debts incurred by the firm prior to his or her admission. A partner withdrawing from membership must give adequate public notice of withdrawal; otherwise the former partner may be held liable for partnership debts incurred subsequently to his or her withdrawal. The retiring partner remains liable for partnership debts existing at the time of withdrawal unless the creditors agree to a release of this obligation.
新入伙的合伙人可能承担也可能不承担在他(她)入伙以前就已经发生了的债务。合伙人若退出合伙 组织,他必须让大家充分认识到他的退出,不然的话,他可能被认为对他退出以后所发生的债务负责。将 要退出的合伙,对在他退出时的已有债务仍然负有责任,除非何人同意不再追究这笔债务。

Co-ownership of Partnership Property and Profits. When a partner invests a building, inventory, or other property in a partnership, he or she does not retain any personal right to the assets contributed. The property becomes jointly owned by all partners. Each member of a partnership also has an ownership right in the profits.
共同拥有企业的财产和利润。当一个合伙人将楼房、存货或其他财产投入合伙企业,他(她)个人便 不再对这项财产持有所有权,这项财产便为所有的合伙人共同拥有,每个合伙人也都拥有分享利润的权利。

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A PARTNERSHIP. Perhaps the most important advantage of most partnerships is the opportunity to bring together sufficient capital to carry on a business. The opportunity to combine special skills, as, for example, the specialized talents of an engineer and an accountant, may also include individuals to join forces in a partnership. To form a partnership is much easier and less expensive than to organize a corporation. Members of a partnership enjoy more freedom form government regulation and more flexibility of action than do the owners of a corporation. The partners may withdraw funds and make business decisions of all type without the necessity of formal meeting or legalistic procedures.
合伙企业的优越性和不利方面 对大多数合伙企业来说,最大的好处是可以集中足够的资金进行经营 活动。合伙组织形式还提供了集中多种专门人才的机会,如学有专长的工程师和会计师,这一点也可能使 一些个人将他们的力量合为一体。与成立股份公司相比,成立合伙企业手续简单,费用也低。合伙组织的 成员受政府条例的限制比较少,在行动上也比股份公司的股东有更大的灵活性。合伙人可以随时提取资金, 做出各种经营决策,而不必召开正式的会议或履行法律程序。

Operating as a partnership may in some cases produce income tax advantages as compared
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with doing business as a corporation. The partnership itself is not a legal entity and does not have to pay income taxes as does a corporation, although the individual partners pay taxes on their respective shares of the firm’s income.
与股份公司相比, 合伙企业在交纳所得税方面也有一定的优势, 因为合伙组织也不是独立的法律实体, 因此不必支付所得税,但是合伙人从合伙企业中分享的利润是需交纳所得税的。

Offsetting these advantages of a partnership are such serious disadvantages as limited life, unlimited liability, and mutual agency. Furthermore, if a business is to require a large amount of capital, the partnership is a less effective device for raising funds than is a corporation. Many persons who invest freely in common stocks of corporations are unwilling to enter partnership because of the unlimited liability imposed on partners.
合伙组织所具有的许多短处,抵消了它的上述长处,如有限的生命期,无限的责任,和合伙人可互相 代理的特性。另外,当企业需要筹集大量资金时,合伙组织形式就比不上股份公司组织形式。许多人投资 购买股份公司的普通股票,而不愿意做合伙人,就是因为合伙人的责任无限。

LIMITED PARTNERSHIPS. In recent years, a number of businesses have been organized as “limited partnerships”. This form of organization is widely used for businesses which provide tax sheltered income to investors, such as real estate syndications and oil drilling ventures. However, limited partnerships are not appropriate for businesses in which the owners intend to be active managers.
有限合伙企业 近些年来,成立了许多的“有限的合伙企业” ,例如,房地产联合企业和石油钻探企业。 这种组织形式使投资人所得收入可以免交所得税。但是,如果合伙人想要充当执行经理的话,那么企业就 不宜采取有限合伙企业的形式。

A limited partnership must have at least one general partner as well as one or more limited partners. The general partners are partners in the traditional sense, with unlimited liability for the debts of the business and right to make managerial decisions. The limited partners, however, are basically investors rather than traditional partners. They have the right to participate in profits of the business, but their liability for losses is limited to amount of their investments. Also, limited partners do not actively participate in management of the business. Thus, the concept of unlimited liability and mutual agency apply only to the general partners of a limited partnership.
有限合伙企业必须至少有一位普通合伙人和一位或多位有限合伙人。普通合伙人与一般合伙企业里的 合伙人一样,对企业的责备负无限的责任,但可以做管理决策。有限合伙人,与其说是合伙人,倒不如说 是投资人,他们有权分享企业的利润,但他们对企业债务的责任仅限于他们在企业的投资,他们也不参与 企业的经营管理。因此,无限的责任和相互代理的概念只适用于有限合伙企业里普通合伙人。

THE PARTNERSHIP CONTRACT. Although a partnership can be formed by an oral agreement, it is highly desirable that a written partnership agreement be repaired, summarizing the partners’ mutual understanding on such points as:
合伙企业的合同 虽然合伙人达成了口头协议就可以成立一个合伙企业,但最好还是拟定一个书面的 协议,并保证每个合伙人都理解以下各点:

1. Name of the partnership, and the duties and rights of each partner; 2. Amount to be invested by each partner including the procedure for valuing any noncash assets invested or withdrawn by partners; 3. Methods of sharing profits and losses; 4. Withdrawals to be allowed to each partner.

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会计英语 1. 合伙企业的名称,每个合伙人的职责权利; 2. 每位合伙人将要投资的数额,包括对合伙人投入或撤出非现金资产的评估方法; 3. 利润或亏损的分配方法; 4. 每位合伙人允许的提款额。

PARTNERSHIP ACCOUNTING. Partnership accounting is similar to that in single proprietorship, except that separate capital and drawing accounts are maintained for each partner. A distinctive feature of partnership accounting is that the net income of the business must be divided among the partners in the manner specified by the partnership agreement. Partners may divide net income equally. They can, however, share net income in any way they wish. Factors that partners might consider in arriving at an equitable plan to divide net income include (1) the amount of time each partner devotes to the business, (2) the amount of capital invested by each partner, and (3) any other contribution by each partner to the success of the partnership. Net income, for example, may be shared in any agreed ratio such as in the ratio of beginning capital, or in a fixed ratio after any allowance is made to each partner for salary and interested on capital invested.
合伙企业会计 合伙企业的会计与独资企业的会计类似。不同的是,合伙企业会计需要为每个合伙人 单独设置资本和提款账户。合伙企业会计的一个最显著和特征就是,必须按着合伙协议中所规定的方法, 在各位合伙人之间进行分配利润,他们可以平均分配利润,也可以按他们喜欢任何方式分配利润。在确定 公司分配利润的方法时,合伙人可能要考虑以下因素: (1)每个合伙人投入企业经营的时间 ; (2)每个合 伙人的投资额; (3)每位合伙人对企业做出的其他贡献。合伙人可以按着他们一致同意的比率来分配净收 入,比如说按初期投资的比例分配,或者在合伙人取得工资和投资利息之后,按一个固定的比例进行分配。

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Unit Twenty-seven Corporation
第二十七单元 股份有限公司

A corporation is a legal entity having an existence separate and distinct from that of its owners. In the eyes of the law, a corporation is an artificial person having many of the rights and responsibilities of a real person.
股份有限公司是一个法律实体,是独立于所有者的经济实体。从法律的角度来看,股份有限公司就是 一个人工创造出来的人,与真实的人享有同样的权利,承担同样的责任。

A corporation, as a separate legal entity, may own property in its own name. Thus, the assets of a corporation belong to the corporation itself, not to be stockholders. A corporation has legal status in court, that is, it may sue and be sued as if it were a person. As a legal entity, a corporation enters into contracts, is responsible for its own debts, and pay income taxes on its earnings.
作为独立的法律实体,股份有限公司可以以公司的名义拥有资产,因此,股份有限公司的资产属于公 司本身,而不属于它的股东。股份有限公司具有法人地位,也就是说它可以像一个“人”一样,起诉他人 或被他人起诉。作为法律实体,股份公司可以订立契约,对其债务要负责,并且要交纳公司所得税。

Nearly all large businesses and many small ones are organized as corporations. There are still more single proprietorship and partnership than corporations, but in dollar volume of business activity, corporation holds an impressive lead. Why is the corporation the most common form of organization for large businesses? One reason is that corporations obtain their equity capital by issuing shares of capital stock. Since a corporation may issue a vast number of these shares, it may amass the combined savings of a great number of investors, thus, the corporation is an ideal means of obtaining the capital necessary to finance large-scale operations.
几乎所有的大型企业均采取股份有限公司的组织形式,有许多小型企业也采取这种组织形式。从数量 上来讲,独资企业和合伙企业要多于股份有限公司,但从业务量的金额来看,股份公司占绝对优势。为什 么大型企业多采取股份有限公司的组织形式呢?其中的一个原因是股份公司是通过发行股票的方式筹集资 本,因为公司可以发行大量的股票,所以能够将许多人手中的闲散资金集中起来,因此,股份公司是筹集 大额资金进行大规模经营最佳形式。

ADVANTAGES OF THE CORPORATION FORM OF ORGANIZATION. The corporation offers a number of advantages not available in other forms of organization. Among these advantages are the following:
股份有限公司组织形式的优越性 股份有限公司具有其他两种形式所不具备的优越性,其中包括以下 几点:

No Personal Liability for Stockholders. Creditors of a corporation have a claim against the assets of the corporation, not against the personal property of the stockholders. Thus, the amount of money which stockholders risk by investing in a corporation is limited to amount of their investment. To many investors, this is the most important advantage of the corporate form.
公司的股东没有个人的债务责任。股份有限公司的债权人对公司的资产享有索赔权,而不针对股东的 私人财产。因此,股东们所承受的风险仅限于他们在公司中投资额,对许多投资者来说,这是公司组织形 式的一个最重要的优越性。

Ease of Accumulating Capital. Ownership of a corporation is evidenced by transferable shares of stock. The sale of corporate ownership in units of one or more shares permits both large

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and small investors to participate in ownership of the business. Some corporations actually have more than a million individual stockholders. For this reason, large corporations are often said to be publicly owned. Of course not all corporations are large. Many small businesses are organized as corporations and are owned by a limited number of stockholders. Such corporations are said to be closely held.
便于筹集资本。对股份公司的所有权表现为他们手中持有的可流通的股票。以股份作为单位出售公司 的所有权使得大小投资者都可以成为股份公司的股东,有些股份公司拥有数以百万计的股东。正因为如此, 大公司常被说成是为公众所拥有的公司。当然,并不是所有的股份公司都规模巨大,很多小型企业也组成 股份有限公司,不过股东的数量有限,这样的公司被称为家庭拥有的公司。

Ownership Shares are readily transferable. Shares of stock may be sold by one investor to another without dissolving or disrupting the business organization. The shares of most large corporations may be bought or sold by investors in organized markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange.
股票可以流通。股票可以由一位投资者转让给另一位投资者,而不影响公司的经营。许多大公司的股 票都可以在专门的市场上进行买卖,例如纽约证券交易所就是这样一个市场。投资于这种股票,具有流动 性好这一特点,因为投资者可以很容易地将股票卖出,从而将公司所有权转化为现金。

Investments in these shares have the advantage of liquidly, because investor may easily convert their corporate ownership into cash by selling their stock.
生命周期长。股份有限公司是一种具有永久生命力的法律实体,由于公司可以发行可转让的股票,公 司的股东可以不断地变化,但公司的生命并不因此而中止。相反,合伙企业就相对地不稳定,合伙人的死 亡或退休都能导致其解体。要进行大规模的经营活动,公司的稳定性是非常重要的。

Continuous Exercise. A corporation is a separate legal entity with a perpetual existence. The continues life of the corporation despite changes in ownership is made possible by the issuance of transferable shares of stock. By way of contrast, a partnership is a relatively unstable form of organization which is dissolved by the death or retirement of any of its members. The continuity of the corporate entity is essential to most large-scale business activities.
生命周期长。股份有限公司是一种具有永久生命力的法律实体,由于公司可以改造可转让的股票,公 司的股东可以不断地变化,但公司的生命并不因此而中止。相反,合伙企业就相对地不稳定,合伙人的死 亡或退休都能导致其解体。要进行大规模的经营活动,公司的稳定性是非常重要的。

Professional Management. The stockholders own the corporation, but they do not manage it on a daily basis. To administer the affairs of the corporation, the stockholders elect a board of directors. The directors, in turn, hire a president and other corporate officers to manage the business. There is no mutual agency in a corporation; thus, an individual stockholder has no right to participate in the management of the business unless he or she has been hired as a corporate officer.
专业化的管理。股东拥有公司,但却不参与日常的经营管理。为了处理日常的经济业务,股东们选举 成立董事会,再由董事们雇用一位总经理以及其他的高级管理人员负责企业的经营。在股份有限公司里不 存在股东相互代理的问题,因此,如果股东没有被聘请为企业的管理人员,那么他(她)就无权参与企业 的管理。

DISADVANTAGES OF THE CORPORATE FORM OF ORGANIZATION. Among the disadvantages of the corporations are:
股份有限公司组织形式的不利方面 股份有限公司的缺点有:

Heavy Taxation. The income of a partnership or a single proprietorship is taxable only as personal income to the owners of the business. The income of a corporation, on the other hand, is
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subject to income taxes which must be paid by the corporation. If a corporation distributes its earnings to stockholders, the stockholders must pay personal income taxes on the amounts they receive. This practice of first taxing corporate income to the corporation and then taxing distributions of the income to the stockholders in sometimes called double taxation.
税负重。合伙企业和独资企业的收入只作为企业主和合伙人的个人收入交纳所得税。但是股份有限公 司的收入却必须以公司的名义交纳所得税,公司分配给其股东们的收入,股东还需作为个人的收入交纳个 人所得税。这种先向公司的收入课税,然后向股东从公司得到的股利收入课税的现象,被称为双重纳税。

Greater Regulation. A corporation comes into existence under the terms of state laws and these same laws may provide for considerable regulation of the corporation’s activities. For example, the withdrawal of funds from a corporation is subject to certain limits set by law. Securities and exchange authorities require large corporations to make extensive public disclosure of their affairs.
法律限制多。股份有限公司按法律条款成立,这些法律条款同时也会给公司的经营活动带来的众多的 限制。举例来说,要从公司提取资金就受到法律所规定的限额的限制。证券交易管理部门要求大公司向公 众详细揭示它们的业务活动。

Separation of Ownership and Control. The separation of the functions of ownership and management may be an advantage in some cases but a disadvantage in others. On the whole, the excellent record or growth and earning in most large corporations indicates that the separation of ownership and control has benefited rather than injured stockholders. In a few instances, however, a management group chosen to operate a corporation for the benefit of insiders. The stockholders may find it difficult in such cases to take the concerted action necessary to oust the officers.
所有权与经营管理权的分离。股份有限公司的所有权与经营管理权相分离在某种意义上是好事,但在 某些方面又是坏事。就总体而言,大多数公司的发展和盈利的上乘记录表明:两权分离对于股东来说利大 于弊,但是也存在少数公司的管理当局选择了不利于股东的经营方向,在这种情况下,股东们很难采取一 致的行动去免除那些管理人员。

RIGHTS TO STOCKHOLDERS OF A CORPORATION. The ownership of stock in a corporation usually carries the following basic rights:
股份有限公司的股东们的权利 股份有限公司的股东通常享有下列基本的权利:

1. To vote for directors, and thereby to be represented in the management of the business. 2. To share in profits by receiving dividends declared by the board of directions. 3. To share in the distribution of assets if the corporation is liquidated. 4. To subscribe for additional shares in the event that the corporation decides to increase the amount of stock outstanding.
1. 参加选举董事,以代表他们管理公司; 2. 通过收取由董事会宣布发放的股利来分享公司的利润; 3. 在公司清算时,可分享公司的资产; 4. 在公司决定增发股票时,股东可以另外购买股票。

Stockholders’ meetings are usually held once a year. Each share of stock is entitled to one vote.

FUNCTIONS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND CORPORATE OFFICERS. The primary function of the board of directors are to manage the corporation and to protect the inter-

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ests of stockholders. At this level, management may consist principally of formulating policies and reviewing acts of the officers. Specific duties of the directors include declaring dividends, setting the salaries of officer’s, reviewing the system of internal control with the internal auditors and with the company’s independent auditors, authorizing officers to arrange loans from banks, and authorizing important contracts of various kinds. The official actions of the board are recorded in the minute book.
董事会和公司管理人员的职责 董事会的主要作用是经营公司、保护股东的利益。董事会一级的管理, 主要是制定方针政策,检查管理人员的行为,具体说,董事的职责包括宣布股利,规定管理人员的工资额, 协同内部审计师和外部审计师检查内部控制系统,授权管理人员从银行取得贷款,核准各种重要的合同。 董事会的正式决定要在董事会的备忘录中留下记录。

Corporate officers usually include a president, one or more vice-presidents, a controller, a treasure, and a secretary. A vice-president is often made responsible for the sales function; other vice-presidents may be given responsibility for such important functions as personnel, finance, and production. The controller or chief accounting officer is responsible for the maintenance of adequate internal control and for the preparation of accounting records and financial statements. The treasurer has custody of the company’s funds and is generally responsible for planning and controlling the company’s cash position. The secretary represents the corporation in many contractual and legal matters and maintains minutes of meetings of directors and stockholders. Another responsibility of the secretary is to coordinate the preparation of the annual report, which includes the financial statements and other information relating to corporate activities.
公司管理人员通常包括一位总经理、一位或几位副总经理、一位总会计师、一位财务长和一位公司秘 书。其中一位副总经理负责销售业务,其他的副总经理可能分别负责从事管理,资金筹集和生产管理。总 会计师负责建立和实施健全的内部控制,提供会计记录和会计报表。财务长负责公司资金的管理,计划和 控制公司的现金流量。公司秘书代表公司处理许多合同和法律方面的事项,掌管董事会和股东大会的会议 记录。公司秘书的另一职责是协调年度报告的编制工作。年度报告包括财务报表和其它与公司的经济活动 有关的资料。

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Unit Twenty-eight Cost Accounting—a Concept Emphasis
第二十八单元 成本会计—概念介绍

There are may different concepts of cost in accounting, and the one which is relevant in any particular context depends very much on the purpose to be served by the cost accounting. In general, cost information is needed for three different purposes. The first is a financial accounting purpose, involving the measurement of cost as part of the process of income determination and asset valuation. The second is a cost accounting purpose, relating to planning and cost control. The third purpose in providing cost information is concerned with another managerial problem, that of formulating business policy and making operating decisions.
会计中成本的概念有多种,哪一种能够适用于任何情况,取决于成本会计的目的。一般说来,人们出 于三个原因需要掌握成本资料。第一个原因是进行财务会计核算的需要,因为在确定利润评估资产的过程 中需要对成本加以计量;第二,是成本会计的需要,主要是为了进行成本计划和成本控制;提供成本资料 的第三个原因还是涉及到管理方面的问题,即为了制定企业的经营方针和做出经营决策。

COST CLASSIFICATIONS FOR INCOME MEASUREMENT. Direct and Indirect Cost. A cost classification that relates to traceability of costs to cost units is a particularly useful for income measurement purposes. The Cost unit is the unit of activity the cost of which is being measured. There are several types of cost unit, such as particular job or product or batch of products, or a particular manufacturing process; or a department. The cost unit is largely determined by the nature of the manufacturing activity in which the enterprise is engaged.
为计算利润而进行的成本分类 直接成本和间接成本。按照追溯成本到各成本计算单位的方法进行成 本分类对于利润计算是非常有用的。所谓成本计算单位是指要按其计量经济活动的成本的单位,它可以有 多种,如某项工作或产品,或一批产品,或者是一个产品加工步骤,或者是一个部门,都可以成为成本计 算单位。成本计算单位取决于企业所从事的生产活动的性质。

Costs that are directly associated with a particular unit of activity are called direct costs. Those costs that are incurred by the factory for the benefit of production in general, and which can not be identified with individual units of activity, are known as indirect costs. The cost of labor applied to a particular product thus constitutes a direct cost, while the factory manager’s salary is an example of an indirect cost.
与某种特定的成本计算单位直接相关的成本叫做直接成本。那些为企业的一般生产管理而发生的成 本,不能确切地分清它是为哪种工作而发生的,这样的成本叫做间接成本。为生产某种产品而发生的劳动 力的成本就属于一种直接成本,企业经理的工资就属于一种间接成本。

Product Costs and Period Costs. Accountants often distinguish between products costs and period costs. Product costs are those identified with goods purchased or produced for resale; they are also called inventoriable costs because they are initially identified as a part of the inventory on hand. In turn, these inventoriable costs become expenses in the form of cost of goods sold only when the inventory is sold. In contrast, period costs are noninventoriable costs; they are deducted as expenses during the current period without having been previously classified as costs of inventory.
产品成本和期间成本。会计人员经常将成本划分为产品成本和期间成本。产品成本是指为销售而购进 或制造的产品的成本,它也被称作存货性的成本,因为这种成本最初都是存货的一部分,当这些存货被售

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会计英语 出的时候,这一部分存货性成本就以销售成本的形式转化为费用。如此相对应,期间成本是非存货性的成 本,它们将直接作为当期费用予以扣除,而不必先将其归属为产品成本。

COST CLASSIFICATION FOR PLANNING AND CONTROL. Variable and Fixed Costs. Variable costs are defined as costs which vary directly and necessarily with changes in the level of output. They are also often assumed to vary more or less in proportion, so that average costs per unit of output remain relatively constant. Variable costs comprise prime costs and variable manufacturing overhead.
为编制计划进行控制而进行的成本分类 变动成本和固定成本。变动成本是指直接随着产量的变化而 变化的成本,人们认为变动成本或多或少地与产量成正比例地变动,这样一来,单位产品的平均成本是相 对稳定的。变动成本包括主要成本和制造费用中的变动部分。

Fixed costs are those costs which are unaffected by changes in the level of production. Examples are factory rent and depreciation of machinery. A fixed cost may be said to be ‘fixed’ only in relation to given period of time and a given range rate of activity. Costs which are fixed in the short run when capacity is given may become variable in the longer run when capacity can be increased.
固定成本是指不随产量变动而变动的成本,如企业的租金费用和折旧费用。所谓固定费用只是在一定 的期间里,一定的业务范围内是固定的。有些成本,当产量一定时,在一段比较短的时期里,表现为固定 成本,但从长期角度来看,当产量增加后,这些成本可以转化为变动成本。

Some costs and expenses are partly fixed and partly variable, for example, machine repairs. Also, costs may be variable for some purposes and fixed for others. Generally, direct costs are variable, while manufacturing overhead may be either fixed or variable.
有些成本和费用既有固定的部分,也有变动的部分。比如说,机器设备的修理费用。某些成本在有些 情况下是固定的,而在有些情况下则是变动的。一般说来,直接成本属于变动成本,制造费用既可以是固 定成本也可以是变动成本。

Controllable and Non-controlled Costs. The concept of controllable costs is used to establish responsibility for costs and performance at different management levels, and thus to facilitate the delegation of authority. Some costs are controllable at the factory-floor level, while other costs are controlled only at an executive-management level, perhaps on a discretionary basis, e.g. in the case of research and development expenditures. In the evaluation of efficiency, the only costs which should be taken into account are those which can be controlled by the person responsible for the department or activity under review. The other costs—the non-controllable costs—are irrelevant for purposes of fixing responsibility or assessing performance.
可控制成本和不可控制成本。可控制成本的概念常被用来确定成本责任以及各级管理人员的工作表 现,以便于授权。有些成本在企业的最低阶层是可以控制的,有些成本只在高级管理人员阶层是可控的, 也就是取决于管理人员的决定,如研究与开发支出。评价效率时,应该加以考虑的成本只是那些被考核的 有关部门或业务负责人可以控制的成本,其他成本—不可控制成本,对于确定人员的责任,评价他们的表 现是不相关的。

COST CLASSIFICATIONS FOR DECISION MAKING. Incremental and Sunk Costs. Incremental costs by definition relate to the additional costs of making a change, such as increasing the level of activity or adding a new product line. Incremental costs are sometimes regarded as synonymous with the economist’s marginal costs, but a distinction should be drawn between the two concepts. Marginal costs are costs at the margin, i.e. the costs of a single additional unit or
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production, whereas incremental costs can be the costs of additional batches of production, the additional costs resulting from changes in the pattern of production, or indeed the additional costs of any changes in policy. Marginal costs thus constitute a special case of incremental costs and their use in business decision making is restricted to areas where a single unit is of some significance. Incremental costs, like marginal costs, need to be considered in relation to a particular time interval, and for purposes of some decisions it is necessary to distinguish between long-run and short-run incremental costs.
为决策而进行的成本分类 增量成本和沉入成本。增量成本的含义是指经营活动发生某种变化,如业 务量提高或增加一条新的产品线所额外增加的成本。增量成本有时候被看作是经济学家们所说的边际成本 的同义词,但实际上应该把这两个概念区分开来。边际成本是指一定变量所影响的成本变化,也就是增加 一个单位的产量所带来的成本;而增量成本可以是指额外增加的一批产品的成本,由于生产格局的变化而 增加的成本,或者是由于经营方针而增加的成本。所以,可以说边际成本是增量成本的一个特殊种类,它 们在经济决策中应用仅限于单位成本的变化具有十分重要的意义的地方。增量成本必须与一定的期间结合 起来研究,这一点与边际成本是一致的,在做某种决策的时候,区分短期增量成本和长期增量成本是很有 必要的。

Sunk costs comprise all those costs which remain the same irrespective of which alternative is chosen, and which are therefore not relevant to the decision in question.

In many situations, incremental costs may be the same as variable costs. But it is important not to confuse one concept with other (nor sunk costs with fixed costs). For example, suppose one has a choice of continuing to sell one million units of a product in Shanghai rather than in Beijing. The variable manufacturing costs are unlikely to be affected by decision; hence they are sunk costs and can be ignored. On the other hand, certain non-manufacturing costs, such as transport and advertising, may be incremental costs for purposes of this decision.
在许多情况下,增量成本可能与变动成本相同,但正确区分这两个不同的概念是十分重要的,同时也 要区分沉入成本和固定成本。举例来说,某人可以继续选择在上海而不是在北京销售 100 百万件产品的决 策方案,在这里,制造费用中的变动成本不会受到这个决策的影响,因此属于沉入成本,可以忽略。另一 方面,一些非制造成本,如运输费用和广告宣传费用在这个决策中就会变成增量成本。

Avoidable and Unavoidable Costs. Avoidable costs and unavoidable costs may be considered to be special types of incremental and sunk costs, respectively. While incremental costs are associated with an increase in activities, the concept of avoidable cost is relevant to a contraction of activities. Avoidable costs are costs that can be eliminated if activity is discontinued. Generally, it will be found that direct costs may often be avoided while allocated costs may not.
可避免成本和不可避免成本。可避免成本和不可避免成本可以被认为是特殊种类的增量成本和沉入成 本。增量成本与经济业务量的增加有关,不可避免成本与经济活动的缩减有关。所谓可避免成本是指如果 中止某种经济活动就可以免于发生的成本。一般说来,直接成本多是可避免成本,而间接成本则属于不可 避免成本。

Opportunity Costs. Opportunity cost is the value of the sacrifice or opportunity forgone. For example, if a young man can earn $ 10 000 a year in a gainful employment, the opportunity cost to him of three years’ study at a tertiary institution would appear to be $30 000. In business, the opportunity cost of a scarce resource may be defined simply as the earnings which may be derived from the best alternative use of the resource. For example, the opportunity cost of using funds for a particular purpose may be measured by reference to the highest interest which could be earned on those funds or by the highest return which could be obtained on alternative investments of

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similar risk. Similarly, the opportunity cost of processing partly-finished may be measured by reference to the proceeds from an immediate sale, which must be sacrificed in order to continue processing.
机会成本。机会成本是指放弃某种机会或做出某种牺牲的价值。举例来说,假如一位年轻人可以在一 个岗位上每年赚 1 万美元,那么如果他选择在大学里学习三年,这一行动方案的机会成本就是 3 万美元。 从商业角度说,一项紧缺资源的机会成本就是这项资源的最佳使用方案所能带来的收入。例如,按某种方 式使用一笔资金的机会成本可以确定为这些资金可以带来的最高的利息收入,或投资于另一种风险相似的 项目所能带来的最高收入。同样,加工半成品的机会成本就是直接出售这些半成品的收入,如果选择继续 加工这些半成品,那么就必须放弃销售半成品的收入。

Future Costs. For purpose of decision making, the most relevant costs are future costs, because decisions generally relate to the future. Current costs also have relevance for many decisions but, by and large, past costs are irrelevant for decisions.
未来成本。做决策时,未来成本是最需要考虑的相关成本,因为决策多半与未来的事项有关。当期成 本也常常与决策有关,但一般来说,在做决策时不需考虑历史成本。

Examples of management’s use of future costs may be found in a large number of areas, including cost control, long-range planning, budgeting, evaluation of capital projects and business decisions in general.
管理人员在许多情况下都要用到未来成本概念,包括成本控制、长期计划、预算、对建设项目的评估 和一般的经济决策。

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Unit Twenty-nine Tax Accounting
第二十九单元 税务会计

Tax accounting is a branch of accounting that involves determining the correct liability—that is, the amount owed—for taxes, and preparing the necessary tax-return forms.

Income taxes are major concern to businesses as well as to individuals. Unfortunately, businessmen themselves often do not understand the tax laws, and they must therefore depend on the advice of tax accountants and lawyers. A tax accountant must have a thorough knowledge of the tax code of his or her country and of any divisions within it that have the power to levy, or impose, taxes.
所得税不论对企业还是对个人都是关系重大的一个事项。但遗憾的是企业家本身往往不懂税法,他们 必须依赖于税务会计和律师们的建议。一个税务会计师必须对本国的税法有彻底的理解,并且要了解有权 课税的有关的部门。

It is easy to appreciate the impact of income taxes on business. Careful planning designed to decrease the tax liability to the lowest level is thus a major concern of business. This planning is made possible by various provisions in the tax laws that offer alternative methods for handling particular transactions or accounting procedures. One alternative may thus have a significant tax advantage over another, resulting in either a tax saving, or postponement of tax liability. A business can pay substantially more taxes than necessary if the wrong financial decision is made. Among these potentially significant decisions might be included the form of business under which to organize, whether or not to set up multiple corporations, and which accounting methods should be used to deal with inventory and depreciation.
我们很容易看清所得税对企业经营的影响,因此企业所关心的一个主要问题就是如何进行税务规划, 将应付税款降低到最小数额。做税务规划是十分必要的,因为税法中有不同的条款,这些不同的条款给企 业处理某些经济业务提供了多种方法可供选择,这种处理方法可能较之于另一种处理方法在纳税方面有优 越性,表现为纳税节省或延后纳税。如果企业做出了错误的财务决策,可能就要多支付很多不必要的税款。 在这方面,企业需要做出的重要决策包括:以何种形式组建企业,是否建立多分支机构、多种经营的股份 有限公司,选择什么会计方法去处理存货和折旧。

CHOOSING THE RIGHT FORM OF ORGANIZATION. There are three major forms of business ownership: the single proprietorship, the partnership, and the corporation. Tax laws vary considerably for each of these. In the case of both the individual proprietorship and partnership forms of business, income is taxed to the individual proprietor or partners. The owners of these businesses therefore pay the progressive income tax rate for individuals on their business income. A progressive income tax is one that charges a higher rate for higher earnings.
选择恰当的企业组织形式 企业的组织形式主要有三种:独资企业、合伙企业和股份有限公司,适用 于这三种组织形式的税法规定有很大的差别。对于独资企业和合伙企业来说,只针对独资企业的业主和合 伙企业的合伙人征收所得税,他们从企业所获得的收入要按照累进税率交纳所得税。所谓累进所得税就是 收入越高,所适用的所得税率就越高。

Corporations, on the other hand, are subject to a tax on their profits, while the stockholders of a corporation are also taxed at the individual rates on the dividends they receive from these profits.

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Dividends are paid out of the corporation’s earnings. The corporation is not allowed to deduction for the dividends it pays out when is taxable income is computed. This results in double taxation of the corporation’s income.
股份有限公司要按着公司的收入计算交纳所得税,同时,股份有限公司的股东从企业分得的股利还需 按着个人累进税率计算交纳所得税。公司当然是用公司的收入支付股利的,在计算应纳税所得额时,公司 不可以将其已经支付的股利从收入中扣除,因此,公司的收入实际上就承受了双重课税。

In certain cases, the double tax is eliminated or reduced under special provisions of the tax laws. Under one provision, the taxpayer receives a dividend exemption (income not subject to taxation) up to $ 100 for dividends received during the tax year. Another provision allows a corporation to be taxed as partnership if it meets the following requirements for a small business:
在某些特定的情况下,按着税法的某些具体的条款,可以避免双重纳税。有一条款规定,纳税人在纳 税年度可以享受限额为 100 美元的免税股利;还有一项条款规定,如果股份有限公司满足下列适用于小企 业的一些条件,就可以按合伙企业形式计算交纳所得税。

1. It is domestic, rather than a foreign corporation. 2. It has no more than fifteen stockholders. 3. All the stockholders are different people. 4. No stockholder is a nonresident alien. 5. There is only one class of stock.
1. 股份公司是一个国内企业,不是一个外国企业; 2. 股份公司的股东不超过 15 人; 3. 全部股东由不同的人员组成; 4. 股东中没有外国人; 5. 公司只发行一种股票。

While the small-business corporation can save a great deal in taxes by being taxed as partnership, it keeps the other nontax advantages, such as limited liability.
这类小型的股份有限公司由于按合伙企业组织形式交纳所得税,可以节约大量的税款,同时它们还享 受了其他非税务方面的优越性,如有限的责任等。

Other income tax advantages often encourage the corporate form of organization. One of these is the possibility of selling the business or liquidating it; that is, of going out of business and disposing of the assets. When this occurs, it is possible to obtain long-term capital-gains treatment. A long-term capital gain is a profit on the sale of a capital asset that has been owned for a specified period. Long-term capital gains get preferential tax treatment—that is, half the rate applied to other kinds of income. A second possible tax advantage of the corporate structure is the deferral or postponement of double taxation by simply not paying dividends. A third is the flexibility that come form being able to time the distribution of earning so that they occur during the years in which the owners have the lowest tax liability. A fourth advantage is income splitting. This is a provision of the tax laws that allows the owner of a corporation to divide dividend payments from the corporation among members of his family by having each one own some of the stock. A fifth possible advantage is related to fringe benefits, such as group life insurance, medical payment plans, and wage continuation plans, that provide for full or partial payment of wages and salary to the employees during sickness. Many of these fringe benefits are encouraged in the tax laws by allowing deferred tax payments.
在交纳所得税方面,股份有限公司的组织形式也有一些优越性,其中之一就是可以将公司卖掉或清算 掉,也就量让公司解体,将资产处理掉。发生这种情况时,公司可能获得长期资本收益待遇。长期资本收 第 116 页 共 122 页


益可以享受优惠的纳税待遇,那就是,适用税率要比其它收入低一半;第二个可能利用的优越性是公司可 以通过不支付股利的手段延迟双重纳税;第三个优越性是公司可以灵活地计划股利的发放时间,在股东们 所得税税负最低的年份里分配利润;第四个优越性是收益分割,所得税法中有一条款允许股东将其从股份 有限公司中所获得的股利收入在其家庭成员中进行分配,手段是让每位家庭成员都持有一些股票;第五个 优越性与职工福利金有关,如职工集体人寿保险费,医疗费支付计划、连续工资计划,即在职工生病期间 支付全额或部分工资,这些都属于职工福利金。税法中对许多这类职工福利金允许延期支付税款。

CHOOSING THE RIGHT ACCOUNTING METHODS. The choice of one method or procedure over the possible alternatives can lead to a tax advantage.
选择正确的会计核算方法 在可供选择的方法中选择恰当的会计方法和程序,也能带来纳税方面的利 益。

Some methods of accounting for depreciation offer a tax advantage. For example, in the declining—balance method, a greater percentage of the cost of a fixed asset is figured for the earlier years of the life of the asset. The result is that part of the tax liability is deferred until later years.
有些折旧方法就能在纳税方面有利可图。比如说,使用余额递减折旧法,在固定资产使用周期内的头 几年,资产成本转化为费用的比例就大。这样做的结果是:企业可以延缓交纳一部分所得税,即在固定资 产使用周期的以后几年才支付。

There is also a special tax credit for investment in most kinds of depreciable assets, with the exception of buildings that are acquired and placed in service. This credit was instituted as means of stimulating new investment in productive facilities.
对投放于大多数使用中的应计折旧的固定资产方面的投资也享受税额减免,只是建筑物除外。这种减 免是为了鼓励在生产性设施方面增加新的投资。

There are also different accounting methods for the inventory, commonly known as FIFO and LIFO. The LIFO method may be better from a tax standpoint since this method results in a lower tax liability in a period of rising prices. Under LIFO, the higher-priced goods are depreciated in the accounting period.
对于存货的会计核算也有不同的方法, 即人们所熟悉的先进先出法和后进先出法。 从纳税的角度来说, 后进先出法更优越一些,因为在价格上升时期,采用这种存货核算方法可降低所得税税负,因为在后进先 出法下,价格较高的存货的成本在当期转化为费用。

A tax advantage also exists for businesses—that sell merchandise for personal use. These sales are often made on the installment basis, with payments spread over a period of weeks, months, or perhaps even years. For tax purpose, it is permissible to report the profit from sales during the years in which the actual payments are made rather than during the year of the original sale.
对于那些向私人客户销售商品的企业来说,也将享受到纳税优惠。这些销售常常是以分期付款的方式 进行的,付款将分别在几个星期、几个月或几年里进行。从纳税目的出发,企业可以在实际收款的期间报 告收入,而不在销售发生的期间里列示利润。

A tax advantage is also available to holders of most depletive assets—those which are used up, or depleted, over a period of time—like oil, natural gas, uranium, or coal. The taxpayer who owns assets of this kind is allowed a deduction on the gross income derived from the asset. The deduction is known as a depletion allowance; because of the economic importance of many of the depletive assets, the percentages allowed to the taxpayer are of great political concern.
那些折耗性资产的持有者也享有纳税优惠,如石油、天然气、铀或煤这类会在一定期间里被耗竭的资 产,被称为折耗性资产。拥有这类资产的纳税人可以从源于这类资产的总收入中扣除一定的数额,这种扣

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会计英语 减被称为折耗性资产纳税优惠。由于许多折耗性资产在经济上的重要性,让纳税人享受一定扣减比例具有 重大的政治意义。

ACCOUNTING FOR INCOME TAXES. The basic accounting procedure for computing income taxes is relatively simple. The final or estimated tax liability is charged to the Income Tax Expense account and is deducted on the income statement. The liability is credited to the Estimated Income Taxes Payable account and is then classified as a current liability on the statement of financial position. There are, however, accounting problems that arise in regard to income taxes. These problems result from difference in the amount of taxable income and the amount of income reported on the income statement. This may result form the use of different accounting methods for tax purposes.
所得税的核算 计算所得税的方法比较简单,计算出来的应交所得税计入“所得税费用”账户,在收 入表上要列为减项,尚未支付的所得税要贷记“预计应付所得税”账户,在资产负债表中列示为一项短期 负债。但是,关于所得税的会计处理在会计上是有难题的,这些问题来自于应税收入额与收入表上的收入 额不一致,这又可能是由于为了计算所得税而采用了不同的会计方法所致。

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Unit Thirty Auditing
第三十单元 审计

NATURE OF ADUITING. Auditing is the process by which a competent, independent person accumulates and evaluates evidence about quantifiable information related to a specific economic entity for the purpose of determining and reporting on the degree of correspondence between the quantifiable information and established criteria.
什么是审计 审计是一个过程,在这个过程中,称职的独立的人员就经济实体的数量化的信息资料进 行证据的收集和评价,以便确定这些信息与既定标准的符合程度,并就此提出审计报告。

Quantifiable Information and Established Criteria. To do an audit, there must be information in a verifiable form and some standards by which the auditor can evaluate the information.
数量化信息和既定标准。要进行审计,必须有以可被核实的形式表现出来的信息和审计师据以评价这 些信息的标准。

Quantifiable information can and does take many forms. It is possible to audit such things as a company’s financial statements, the amount of time it takes an employee to complete an assigned task, the total cost of a government construction contract, and an individual’s tax return.
数量化信息可以有多种形式,公司的财务报表,职工完成某项指定的工作任务所需要的时间,一个政 府基本建设项目的总费用,还有个人的所得税申报单,都是可以审计的。

The criteria for evaluating quantitative information also varies. For example, in the audit of historical financial statements by CPA firms, the criterion is usually generally accepted accounting principles. For the audit of tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service, the criterion is the Internal Revenue Code, not generally accepted accounting principles.
评价这些数量信息的标准也不同。例如,由会计师事务所实施的财务报表审计,通常是以一般公认的 会计原则为标准;由国内税收署所实施的纳税申报单的审计标准,就是《国内收入法》 ,而不是一般公认的 会计原则。

Economic Entity. Whenever an audit is conducted, the scope of the auditor’s responsibility must be made clear. The primary method involves defining the economic entity and the time period. In most instances the economic entity is also a legal entity, such as a corporation, unit of government, partnership, or proprietorship. In some cases, however, the entity is defined as a division, a department, or even a individual. The time period for conducting an audit is typically one year, but there are also audits for a month, a quarter, several years, and in come cases, the life time of an entity.
经济实体。在进行审计时,审计师的责任范围必须明确,主要方式就是明确经济实体和会计期间。在 很多情况下,经济实体同时也是法律实体,例如股份有限公司,政府机构等。但有时候,经济实体也可以 是一个分支机构、一个部门甚至是一个人。被审计的期间通常是一年,但也可以按月按季度审计,有时可 以是几年,有时甚至是这个实体的整个寿命周期。

Accumulating and Evaluating Evidence. Evidence is defined as any information used by the auditor to determine whether the quantifiable information being audited is stated in accordance with the established criteria. Evidence takes many different forms, including oral testimony of the auditee (client), written communication with outsiders, and observations by the auditor. It is important to obtain a sufficient quality and volume of evidence to satisfy the audit objectives. The process of determining the amount of evidence necessary and evaluating whether the quantifiable

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information corresponds to the established criteria is a critical part of every audit.
收集和评价证据。审计证据也是指审计师用来确定被审查的资料与有关标准的符合程度所运用的全部 资料。审计证据也有多种形态,包括被审计人的口头证词,与企业外部的书面往来,以及审计师所做的观 察等。为了完成审计目标,必须收集足够的高质量的审计证据。确定收集证据的数量以及评价被审查的资 料与有关标准是否一致是每项审计工作的关键部分。

Competent, Independent Person. The auditor must be qualified to understand the criteria used and competent to know the types and amount of evidence to accumulate to reach the proper conclusion after the evidence has been examined. The auditor also must have an independent mental attitude. It does little good to have a competent person who is biased performing the evidence accumulation when unbiased information and objective thinking are needed for the judgments and decisions to be made.
胜任的、独立的审计人员。审计师必须具有合格的资质,充分了解他所要运用的标准,有能力确定所 需的审计证据的种类和数量,以便在认真地对这些审计证据进行研究之后,能够得出正确的结论。审计师 还必须具有超然独立的精神状态,因为即使是审计人员在能力上是称职的,但却持有偏见,由这样的人去 收集和评价审计证据也是很不适宜的,因为作判断和决策需要真实的资料和客观的思想。

Independence can not be absolute by any means, but it must be a goal that is worked toward, and it can be achieved to a certain degree. For example, even though an auditor is paid a fee by a company, he or she may still be sufficiently independent to conduct audits that can be relied upon by users. Auditors may not be sufficiently independent if they are also company employees.
人们不能指望审计人员具有绝对的独立性,但必须把它作为努力的目标,而且总可以在一定的程度达 到独立性的要求。比如说,审计师执行审计业务时要向被审计的公司收取费用,但他(她)仍然可以独立 地履行审计师的职责,得出值得利用审计服务的人信赖的结果。当审计师同时是被审计的公司职工时,他 们就不具有充分的独立性。

Reporting. The final stage in the audit process is the audit report—the communication of the findings to users. Reports differ in nature, but in all cases they must inform readers of the degree of correspondence between quantifiable information and established criteria. Reports also differ in form and can vary from the highly technical type usually associated with financial statements to a simple oral report in the case of an audit conducted for a particular individual.
审计报告。审计过程的最后一个阶段就是提供审计报告,将审计的结果传达给审计报告的使用者。审 计报告在种类上有所不同,但是任何审计报告都必须向报告的读者申明被审查的数量信息与有关标准的符 合程度。审计报告在形式上也有很大的不同,可以是技术性很强的报告,如财务报表的审计报告,也可以 是一个简单的口头报告,如对某一个人的审计报告。

TYPES OF AUDITS. There are broadly three types of audits: operational audits, compliance audits, and audits of financial statements.
审计的种类 主要有三种类型的审计,即经营审计、合规性审计和财务审计。

Operational Audits. An operational audit is a review of any part of an organization’s operating procedures and methods for the purpose of evaluating efficiency and effectiveness. At the completion of an operational audit, recommendations to management for improving operations are normally expected.
经营审计。经营审计是为了评价一个组织的经营效率和效果而对该组织的经营程序和方法中的任何一 个部分所进行的审查。在审计结束时,审计人通常要向被审单位的管理部门提出改进经营的建议。

Because of the many different areas in which operational effectiveness can be evaluated, it is impossible to characterize the conduct of a typical operational audit. In one organization, the
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auditor might evaluate the relevancy and sufficiency of the information used by management in making decisions to acquire new fixed assets, while in a different organization the auditor might evaluate the efficiency of the paper flow in processing sales. In operational auditing, the reviews are not limited to accounting. They can include the evaluation of organization structure, computer operations, production methods, marketing, and any other area in which the auditor is qualified.
由于可进行经营效率审计的领域太多,要想概括出如何进行经营审计是不可能的。在对某个经济组织 进行经营审计时,审计师可能对管理部门做出购置一项新的固定资产的决策所依据的资料的相关性和充分 性进行审查,而在对另一个企业进行经营审计时,审计师则可能评价该企业销售业务处理过程的文件流转 的效率如何。经营审计所做的检查不局限于对会计资料的检查,它可以包括对企业的组织机构的审查,对 计算机处理系统的审查,对生产方法的审查,对市场营销的审查,还可以对审计人有能力进行的任何方面 进行审查。

The conduct of an operational audit and the reported results are less easily defined than either of other two types of audits. Efficiency and effectiveness of operations are far more difficult to evaluate objectively than compliance or the presentation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; and establishing criteria for evaluating the quantifiable information in an operational audit is an extremely subjective matter. In this sense, operational auditing is more similar to management consulting than to what is generally regarded as auditing. Operational auditing has increased in importance in the past decade.
如何实施经营审计和报告经营审计的结果,与另两种审计比起来是较难说明的,要想客观地审查和评 价一个组织的效率和效果,比进行合规性审计和按一般公认会计原则审查财务报表要困难得多,而且建立 经营审计中对数量信息进行评价的标准是一项极带主观性的工作。从这个意义上讲,经营审计与其说是审 计倒不如说是管理咨询。在近十年以来,经营审计变得越来越重要了。

Compliance Audits. The purpose of a compliance audit is to determine whether the auditee is following specific procedures or rules set down by some higher authority. A compliance audit for a private business could include determining whether accounting personnel are following the procedures prescribed by the company controller, reviewing wage rates for compliance with minimum wage laws, or examining contractual agreements with bankers and other lenders to be sure the company is complying with legal requirements. In the audit of governmental units such as school districts, there is increased compliance auditing due to extensive regulation by higher government authorities. In virtually every private and not-for-profit organization, there are prescribed policies, contractual agreements, and legal requirements that may call for compliance auditing.
合规性审计。合规性审计的目的是确定被审计人是否遵守了由上级主管部门制定的程序和规则。对私 营企业的合规性审计主要包括确定其会计人员是否遵守了由该企业的总会计师制定的核算程序,检查工资 水平是否符合最低工资法的规定,审查与银行或其他贷款人签订的协议,查明企业是否遵循了有关的法律 规定。对有些政府单位,如社区学校所进行的审计,通常都属于合规性审计,因为上级主管部门制定有很 多的条例。在几乎所有的私营和非盈利性组织里都有预先制定的方针政策、具有法律效力的协议和法律要 求,这些都要求进行合规性审计。

Results of compliance audits are generally reported to someone within the organizational unit being audited rather than to a broad spectrum of users. Management, as opposed to outside users, is the primary group concerned with the extent of compliance with certain prescribed procedures and regulations. Hence, a significant portion of work of this type is done by auditors employed by the organizational units themselves. There are exceptions. When an organization wants to determine whether individuals or organizations that are obligated to follow its requirements are actually complying, the auditor is employed by the organization issuing the requirements. An example is

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the auditing of taxpayers for compliance with the federal tax laws—the auditor is employed by the government to audit the taxpayers’ tax returns.
合规性审计的结果一般都需要报告给被审计单位的有关人员。其审计报告的使用并不广泛,与外部使 用者相对的企业内部管理人员是关心企业遵守既定的程序和条例的主要群体。因此,大部分合规性审计都 是由各单位自己聘请的审计人员来完成的。当然也有例外,如果一个组织机构想要确定各有关人员或有关 组织是否遵循了它所制定的规则,那么一般就是由颁布规则的机构聘请审计人员去执行。一个很通俗的就 是对纳税人是否遵守联邦税法的审计,就是由政府雇佣的审计师,对纳税人的纳税申报单进行审查。

Audit of Financial Statements. An audit of financial statements is conducted to determine whether the overall financial statements—the quantifiable information being verified—are state in accordance with specified criteria. Normally, the criteria are generally accepted accounting principles. Although it is also common to conduct audits of financial statements prepared using the cash basis or some other basis of accounting appropriate for the organization. The assumption underlying an audit of financial statements is that they will be used by different groups for different purposes. Therefore, it is more efficient to have one auditor perform an audit and draw conclusions that can be relied upon by all users than to have each user perform his or her own audit.
财务报表审计。财务报表审计是了为确定被审查的数量信息,即财务报表是否符合特定的标准而进行 的审计。正常情况下,这种特定的标准就是一般公认的会计原则,尽管财务报表审计也包括对按现金收付 实现制或其它恰当的会计基础编制的财务报表的审计。 (现金收付实现制不在一般公认的会计原则之列。译 者注) 进行财务报表审计,是基于这样一种假设,即财务报表的使用者不同,使用的目的也不同。因此,由 审计人对财务报表进行审计,得出所有报表的使用者都可以信赖的结论,比让每一位报表的使用者都 亲自 去进行审计要高效得多。

If a user believes that the general audit does not provide sufficient information for his or her purpose, the user has the option of obtaining more data. For example, a general audit of a business may provide sufficient financial information for a banker considering a loan to the company, but a corporation considering a merger with that business may also wish to know the replacement cost of fixed assets and other information relevant to the decision. The corporation may use its own auditors to get the additional information.
如果报表的使用者认为这种由审计人实施的审计不能提供足够的信息以满足他(她)的需要,他(她) 可以想法获得更多的资料。举例来说,对某个企业所进行的财务报表审计可以为银行决定是否给这家企业 贷款提供足够的资料。但是,一家正在考虑与这家企业合并的公司还需了解固定资产的重置成本和其它一 些与该决策有关的资料,那么这个公司就可以自己聘请审计人去取得这类额外的资料。

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