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v;k; 1

'khr;q) dk nkSj
ifjp;
;g v;k; iwjh iqLrd osQ fy, ,d iwoiZ hfBdk
Lrqr djrk gSA 'khr;q dh lekfIr dks
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr dh 'kq#vkr dh
rjg ns[kk tkrk gSA ;gh ledkyhu fo'o
jktuhfr bl iqLrd dh fo"k;&oLrq gS blfy,
;g mfpr gh gS fd ge dgkuh dh 'kq#vkr
'khr;q dh ppkZ ls djsaA bl v;k; ls ;g
lkiQ gksxk fd fdl rjg nks egk'kfDr;ksa
la;qDr jkT; vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k dk
opZLo 'khr;q osQ osaQ esa FkkA ;g v;k;
gesa fo'o osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa esa 'khr;q dh
lejLFkfy;ksa rd Hkh ys tk,xkA bl v;k;
esa xqVfujis{k vkanksyu ij bl n`f"V ls fopkj
fd;k x;k gS fd fdl rjg blus nksuksa jk"Vksa
osQ ncncs dks pqukSrh nhA xqVfujis{k ns'kksa }kjk
^ubZ varjkZ"Vh; vkfFkZd O;oLFkk* LFkkfir
djus osQ ;kl dh ppkZ bl v;k; esa ;g
crkrs gq, dh xbZ gS fd fdl rjg bu ns'kksa
us xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dks vius vkfFkZd fodkl
vkSj jktuhfrd Lora=krk dk lk/u cuk;kA
v;k; osQ var esa xqVfujis{k vkanksyu esa
Hkkjr dh Hkwfedk dk ewY;kadu fd;k x;k gS
vkSj ;g 'u iwNk x;k gS fd Hkkjr osQ fgrksa
dh j{kk esa xqVfujis{krk dh uhfr fdl lhek
rd liQy jghA

nwljs fo'o;q osQ var osQ ifj.kkeLo:i nks egk'kfDr;ksa dk mn; gqvkA
ij osQ nks fp=k nwljs fo'o;q esa la;qDr jkT; vejhdk vkSj lektoknh
lksfo;r x.kjkT; dh fot; dks bafxr djrs gSaA
1- vejhdh lSfud 23 iQjojh] 1945 dks vkboks thek] tkiku dh
yM+kbZ esa viuk >aMk iQgjkrs gq,A
2- lektoknh lksfo;r x.kjkT; osQ lSfud ebZ] 1945 esa jkbLVSax fcfYMax
(cfyZu] teZuh) ij viuk >aMk iQgjkrs gq,A
fp=k 1 tks jkslsUFkky (n ,lksfl,V Sl) ls vkSj fp=k 2 ;soxsuh [kYnsbZ
(rk'k) ls lkHkkj

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

D;wck dk felkby ladV

ge nqfu;k dh lSj dj jgs gSaA ,slh txgksa ij tkuk tgk cM+h&cM+h ?kVuk, gqb gSa
lpeqp cgqr eksnkj gSA

;g uD'kk D;wck esa rSukr dh tk jgh ijek.kq felkby dh igqp dk nk;jk


fn[kkrk gSA uD'ks osQ uhps ;ku ls nsf[k,A ;g uD'kk la;qDr jk"V vejhdk dh
[kqfiQ;k ,tsalh lh-vkbZ-,- }kjk D;wck felkby ladV ij gqbZ xksiuh; cSBd esa
;ksx fd;k x;k FkkA
lzksr% tkWu ,iQ- osQusMh sflMsafl,y ykbczsjh ,aM E;wft;e

1961 dh vSy esa lksfo;r la?k osQ usrkvksa


dks ;g fpark lrk jgh Fkh fd vejhdk
lkE;okfn;ksa }kjk 'kkflr D;wck ij vke.k
dj nsxk vkSj bl ns'k osQ jk"Vifr fiQnsy
dkL=kks dk r[+rkiyV gks tk,xkA D;wck
vejhdk osQ rV ls yxk gqvk ,d NksVk&lk
}hih; ns'k gSA D;wck dk tqMk+ o lksfo;r la?k
ls Fkk vkSj lksfo;r la?k mls owQVuf;d rFkk
fokh; lgk;rk nsrk FkkA lksfo;r la?k osQ
usrk uhfdrk [kq'z pso us D;wck dks :l osQ
^lSfud vM~M*s osQ :i esa cnyus dk iSQlyk
fd;kA 1962 esa [kq'z pso us D;wck esa ijek.kq
felkbysa rSukr dj nhaA bu gfFk;kjksa dh
rSukrh ls igyh ckj vejhdk utnhdh fu'kkus
dh lhek esa vk x;kA gfFk;kjksa dh bl rSukrh
osQ ckn lksfo;r la?k igys dh rqyuk esa vc
vejhdk osQ eq[; Hkw&Hkkx osQ yxHkx nksxqus
fBdkuksa ;k 'kgjksa ij geyk cksy ldrk FkkA
D;wck esa lksfo;r la?k }kjk ijek.kq gfFk;kj
rSukr djus dh Hkud vejhfd;ksa dks rhu
grs ckn yxhA vejhdh jk"Vifr tkWu ,iQ
oSQusMh vkSj muosQ lykgdkj ,slk oqQN Hkh
djus ls fgpfdpk jgs Fks ftlls nksuksa ns'kksa
osQ chp ijek.kq ;q 'kq: gks tk,A ysfdu
os bl ckr dks ysdj n`<+ Fks fd q'pso
D;wck ls felkbyksa vkSj ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa dks
gVk ysaA oSQusMh us vkns'k fn;k fd vejhdh
taxh csM+ksa dks vkxs djosQ D;wck dh rjiQ
tkus okys lksfo;r kgktksa dks jksdk tk,A
bl rjg vejhdk lksfo;r la?k dks ekeys osQ
fr viuh xaHkhjrk dh psrkouh nsuk pkgrk
FkkA ,slh fLFkfr esa ;g yxk fd ;q gksdj
jgsxkA blh dks ^D;wck felkby ladV* osQ
:i eas tkuk x;kA bl la?k"kZ dh vk'kadk us
iwjh nqfu;k dks cspSu dj fn;kA ;g Vdjko

'khr;q dk nkSj

dksbZ vke ;q ugha gksrkA varr% nksuksa i{kksa


us ;q Vkyus dk iSQlyk fd;k vkSj nqfu;k
us pSu dh lkl yhA lksfo;r la?k osQ kgktksa
us ;k rks viuh xfr /heh dj yh ;k okilh
dk #[k dj fy;kA
^D;wck felkby ladV* 'khr;q dk
pje fcanq FkkA 'khr;q lksfo;r la?k vkSj
vejhdk rFkk buosQ lkFkh ns'kksa osQ chp
fr}af}rk] ruko vkSj la?k"kZ dh ,d k`a[kyk
osQ :i esa tkjh jgkA lkSHkkX; ls bu rukoksa
vkSj la?k"kksZa us ;q dk :i ugha fy;k ;kuh
bu nks ns'kksa osQ chp dksbZ iw.kZO;kih jDrjaftr
;q ugha fNM+kA fofHkUu bykdksa esa ;q gq,_
nksukas egk'kfDr;k vkSj muosQ lkFkh ns'k bu
;qksa esa layXu jgs_ os {ks=k&fo'ks"k osQ vius
lkFkh ns'k osQ ennxkj cus ysfdu nqfu;k
rhljs fo'o;q ls cp xbZA
'khr;q fliQZ tksj&vktekb'k] lSfud
xBca/u vFkok 'kfDr&larqyu dk ekeyk
Hkj ugha Fkk cfYd blosQ lkFk&lkFk fopkj/kjk
osQ Lrj ij Hkh ,d okLrfod la?k"kZ tkjh
FkkA fopkj/kjk dh yM+kbZ bl ckr dks ysdj
Fkh fd iwjs fo'o esa jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd
vkSj lkekftd thou dks lw=kc djus dk
lcls csgrj flkar dkSu&lk gSA if'peh
xBca/u dk vxqvk vejhdk Fkk vkSj ;g
xqV mnkjoknh yksdra=k rFkk iwthokn dk
gkeh FkkA iwohZ xBca/u dk vxqok lksfo;r
la?k Fkk vkSj bl xqV dh frcrk lektokn
rFkk lkE;okn osQ fy, FkhA vki bu
fopkj/kjkvksa osQ ckjs esa d{kk X;kjg esa i<+
pqosQ gSaA

'khr;q D;k gS\


nwljs fo'o;q dk var ledkyhu
fo'o&jktuhfr dk ,d egoiw.kZ iM+ko gSA

lu~ 1945 esa fe=k&jk"Vksa vkSj /qjh&jk"Vksa osQ


chp nwljs fo'o ;q (1939&1945) dh
lekfIr gks xbZA fe=k&jk"Vksa dh vxqvkbZ
vejhdk] lksfo;r la?k] fczVus vkSj Qkal dj
jgs FksA /qjh&jk"Vksa dh vxqvkbZ teZuh] bVyh
vkSj tkiku osQ gkFk esa FkhA bl ;q esa fo'o
osQ yxHkx lHkh rkdroj ns'k 'kkfey FksA
;g ;q ;wjksi ls ckgj osQ bykosQ esa Hkh
iSQyk vkSj bldk foLrkj nf{k.k&iwoZ ,f'k;k]
phu] cekZ (vc E;kaekj) rFkk Hkkjr osQ
iwoksZkj osQ oqQN fgLlksa rd FkkA bl ;q esa
cM+s iSekus ij tugkfu vkSj /ugkfu gqbZA
1914 ls 1918 osQ chp gq, igys fo'o;q
us fo'o dks ngyk fn;k Fkk] ysfdu nwljk
fo'o;q blls Hkh T;knk Hkkjh iM+kA
nwljs fo'o;q dh lekfIr ls gh 'khr;q
dh 'kq#vkr gqbZA vxLr 1945 esa vejhdk
us tkiku osQ nks 'kgj fgjksf'kek vkSj ukxklkdh
ij ijek.kq ce fxjk;s vkSj tkiku dks ?kqVus
Vsdus iM+sA blosQ ckn nwljs fo'o;q dk
var gqvkA ijek.kq ce fxjkus osQ vejhdh
iSQlys osQ vkykspdksa dk roZQ gS fd vejhdk
bl ckr dks tkurk Fkk fd tkiku vkReleiZ.k
djus okyk gSA ,sls esa ce fxjkuk xSj&k:jh
FkkA bu vkykspdksa dk ekuuk gS fd vejhdk
dh bl dkjZokbZ dk y{; lksfo;r la?k dks
,f'k;k rFkk vU; txgksa ij lSU; vkSj
jktuhfrd ykHk mBkus ls jksduk FkkA og
lksfo;r la?k osQ lkeus ;g Hkh tkfgj djuk
pkgrk Fkk fd vejhdk gh lcls cM+h rkdr
gSA vejhdk osQ leFkZdksa dk roZQ Fkk fd
;q dks tYnh ls tYnh lekIr djus rFkk
vejhdk vkSj lkFkh jk"Vksa dh vkxs dh
tugkfu dks jksdus osQ fy, ijek.kq ce
fxjkuk k:jh FkkA fo'o;q dh lekfIr osQ
dkj.k oqQN Hkh gksa] ysfdu bldk ifj.kke

cgqr ikl fiQj Hkh cgqr


nwjA eSaus uD'ks esa ns[kk
vkSj eq>s ;OkQhu ugha
gqvk fd egk'kfDr osQ
brus ikl gksus osQ ckn
Hkh D;wck esa lkyksa&lky
ls vejhdk fojks/h
ljdkj dk;e gSA

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij


nks egk'kfDr;ksa dk mn; gks x;kA teZuh vkSj
tkiku gkj pqosQ Fks vkSj ;wjksi rFkk 'ks"k
fo'o fooal dh ekj >sy jgs FksA vc
vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k fo'o dh lcls
cM+h 'kfDr FksA buosQ ikl bruh {kerk Fkh
fd fo'o dh fdlh Hkh ?kVuk dks Hkkfor
dj losaQA vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k dk
egk'kfDr cuus dh gksM+ esa ,d&nwljs osQ
eqdkcys [kM+k gksuk 'khr;q dk dkj.k cukA
'khr;q 'kq: gksus osQ ihNs ;g le> Hkh
dke dj jgh Fkh fd ijek.kq ce ls gksus
okys fooal dh ekj >syuk fdlh Hkh jk"V
osQ cwrs dh ckr ughaA ;g ,d lh/k&lknk
ysfdu vljnkj roZQ FkkA tc nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa
osQ ikl bruh {kerk osQ ijek.kq gfFk;kj gksa
fd os ,d&nwljs dks vlguh; {kfr igqpk
losaQ rks ,sls esa nksuksa osQ chp jDrjaftr ;q
gksus dh laHkkouk de jg tkrh gSA mdlkos
osQ ckotwn dksbZ Hkh i{k ;q dk tksf[ke
;s rLohjsa ml fooal dks fn[kkrh gSa tks
vejhdk }kjk fgjksf'kek vkSj ukxklkdh ij
fxjk;s x;s ijek.kq ceksa osQ dkj.k gqvkA bu ceksa
dks ^fyfVy CokW;* vkSj ^iSQVeSu* osQ xqIruke
fn, x,A egk'kfDr;ksa osQ ikl vkt ijek.kq
gfFk;kjksa dk tks k[khjk gS mldh rqyuk esa ;s
ce cgqr NksVs FksA ;s ce e'k% 15 vkSj 21
fdyksVu {kerk osQ FksA bruh de {kerk osQ
ijek.kq ceksa us Hkh vdYiuh; fooal fd;kA
1950 osQ n'kd dh 'kq#vkr esa gh la;qDr jk"V
vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k ,sls ijek.kq&ceksa dk
ijh{k.k dj jgs Fks ftudh {kerk 10 ls 15
gtkj fdyksVu FkhA nwljs 'kCnksa essa ;s ce
fgjksf'kek vkSj ukxklkdh ij fxjk;s x;s ijek.kq
ceksa dh rqyuk esa gtkjksa xquk T;knk fooald
FksA 'khr;q osQ nkSjku nksuksa gh egk'kfDr;ksa osQ
ikl bl rjg osQ gkkjksa gfFk;kj FksA tjk dYiuk
dhft, fd ;s gfFk;kj nqfu;k Hkj esa D;k rckgh
epk ldrs FksA

eksy ysuk ugha pkgsxk D;ksafd ;q ls


jktuhfrd iQk;nk pkgs fdlh dks Hkh gks]
ysfdu blls gksus okys fooal dks vkSfpR;iw.kZ
ugha Bgjk;k tk ldrkA
ijek.kq ;q dh lwjr esa nksuksa i{kksa dks
bruk uqdlku mBkuk iM+sxk fd muesa ls
fotsrk dkSu gS & ;g r; djuk Hkh vlaHko
gksxkA vxj dksbZ vius 'k=kq ij vke.k
djosQ mlosQ ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa dks ukdke
djus dh dksf'k'k djrk gS rc Hkh nwljs osQ
ikl mls cckZn djus yk;d gfFk;kj cp
tk,axsA bls ^vijks/* (jksd vkSj laarqyu)
dk roZQ dgk x;kA nksuksa gh i{kkssa osQ ikl
,d&nwljs osQ eqdkcys vkSj ijLij uqdlku
igqp
kus dh bruh {kerk gksrh gS fd dksbZ Hkh
i{k ;q dk [krjk ugha mBkuk pkgrkA bl
rjg] egk'kfDr;ksa osQ chp xgu fr}fU}rk
gksus osQ ckotwn 'khr;q jDrjaftr ;q dk
:i ugha ys ldkA bldh rklhj BaMh jghA
ikjLifjd ^vijks/* dh fLFkfr us ;q rks
ugha gksus fn;k] ysfdu ;g fLFkfr ikjLifjd
fr}fU}rk dks u jksd ldhA
'khr;q dh eq[k lSU; fo'ks"krkvksa ij
;ku nsaA blesa nks egk'kfDr;k vkSj muosQ
vius&vius xqV FksA bu ijLij fr}a}h xqVksa
esa 'kkfey ns'kksa ls vis{kk Fkh fd os roZQlaxr
vkSj ftEesnkjh Hkjk O;ogkj djsaxsA bu ns'kksa
dks ,d fo'ks"k vFkZ esa roZQlaxr vkSj ftEesnkjh
Hkjk cjrko djuk FkkA ijLij fojks/h xqVksa esa
'kkfey ns'kksa dks le>uk Fkk fd vkilh ;q
esa tksf[ke gS D;ksafd laHko gS fd bldh
otg ls nks egk'kfDr;ksa osQ chp ;q Bu
tk,A tc nks egk'kfDr;ksa vkSj mudh vxqvkbZ
okys xqVksa osQ chp ^ikjLifjd vijks/* dk
laca/ gks rks ;q yM+uk nksuksa osQ fy,
fooald lkfcr gksxkA bl lanHkZ esa ftEesnkjh

'khr;q dk nkSj

tqM+ko dk bLrseky futh fgr esa fd;kA bu


ns'kksa dks LFkkuh; fr}a}h ns'k osQ f[kykiQ
lqj{kk dk ok;nk feyk] gfFk;kj vkSj vkfFkZd
enn feyhA bu ns'kksa dh vius iM+kslh ns'kksa
ls gksM+ FkhA egk'kfDr;ksa osQ usrR` o esa xBca/u
dh O;oLFkk ls iwjh nqfu;k osQ nks [kseksa esa caV
tkus dk [krjk iSnk gks x;kA ;g foHkktu
lcls igys ;wjksi esa gqvkA if'peh ;wjksi osQ
vf/drj ns'kksa us vejhdk dk i{k fy;k
tcfd iwohZ ;wjksi lksfo;r [kses esa 'kkfey gks
x;k blhfy, ;s [kses if'peh vkSj iwohZ
xBca/u Hkh dgykrs gSaA
if'peh xBca/u us Lo;a dks ,d laxBu
dk :i fn;kA vSy 1949 esa mkj vVykafVd
laf/ laxBu (ukVks) dh LFkkiuk gqbZ ftlesa
12 ns'k 'kkfey FksA bl laxBu us ?kks"k.kk dh

dk eryc Fkk la;e ls dke ysuk vkSj rhljs


fo'o;q osQ tksf[ke ls cpukA 'khr;q us
lewph euq"; tkfr ij eaMjkrs [krjs dks
tSls&rSls laHkky fy;kA

nks&/zqoh; fo'o dk vkjaHk


nksuksa egk'kfDr;k fo'o osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa
ij vius Hkko dk nk;jk c<+kus osQ fy,
rqyh gqbZ FkhaA nqfu;k nks xqVksa osQ chp cgqr
Li"V :i ls cV xbZ FkhA ,sls esa fdlh
eqYd osQ fy, ,d jkLrk ;g Fkk fd og
viuh lqj{kk osQ fy, fdlh ,d egk'kfDr
osQ lkFk tqM+k jgs vkSj nwljh egk'kfDr rFkk
mlosQ xqV osQ ns'kksa osQ Hkko ls cp losQA
ijLij fojks/h xqVksa osQ vis{kkr NksVs
ns'kksa us egk'kfDr;ksa osQ lkFk vius&vius

fiQuySM
a

ukWoZs

ukVks lnL;
okjlk iSDV lnL;
vU; dE;qfuLV ns'k
vU; ns'k

1- R;sd frLi/hZ xqV


ls de ls de rhu
ns'kksa dh igpku djsAa
2- v;k; pkj esa fn,
x, ;wjksih; la?k osQ
ekufp=k dks ns[ksa vkSj
mu pkj ns'kksa dks
igpkus tks igys
^okjlk laf/* osQ
lnL; Fks vkSj vc
;wjksih; la?k osQ
lnL; gSAa
3- bl ekufp=k dh
rqyuk ;wjksih; la?k osQ
ekufp=k vFkok fo'o
osQ ekufp=k ls djsAa
bl rqyuk osQ ckn
D;k vki rhu ,sls
u;s ns'kksa dh igpku
dj ldrs gSa tks
'khr;q osQ ckn
vfLrRo esa vk,\

gsYkfladh
vksLyks

LVkWdgkse

LohMu
mkjh
lkxj

vk;jySaM

MsuekoZQ
Mcfyu

fczVus

uhnjySM
a
gsx

okjlk

czqlsYl

csfYt;e
yDlecxZ
Z
isfjl
kal

lksfs o;r
la?k

iksySaM

cfyZu

yanu

vVykafVd
egklkxj

ekLdks

dkWius gsxu

ckWu

iwohZ
teZuh
kx

if'peh psdksLyksok
fd;k
teZuh
fo;uk

cuZ

fLoV~tjySM
a

vkfLV;k

cqMkisLV

jksekfu;k

gaxjh
iqrZxky

;kYVk

cq[kkjsLV
csyxzM
s

Lisu
bVyh

fyLcu
eSfMM

;qxksLykfo;k

jkse

dkyk lkxj

cqYxkfj;k
lksfiQ;k

vYckfu;k
frjkuk

xzhl
'khr;q osQ nkSjku ;wjksi nks fr}a}h xBca/uksa esa cV x;k FkkA ekufp=k esa bl rF; dks fn[kk;k x;k gSA

vadkjk

rqdhZ

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

igyh nqfu;k
nwljh nqfu;k
rhljh nqfu;k

fuEufyf[kr rkfydk
esa rhu&rhu ns'kksa osQ
uke muosQ xqVksa dks
;ku esa j[kdj
fy[ksa
iwathoknh xqV

lkE;oknh xqV

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu

fd mkjh vejhdk vFkok ;wjksi osQ bu ns'kksa


esa ls fdlh ,d ij Hkh geyk gksrk gS rks
mls ^laxBu* esa 'kkfey lHkh ns'k vius
ij geyk ekusxa As ^ukVks* esa 'kkfey gj ns'k
,d&nwljs dh enn djsxkA blh dkj osQ
iwohZ xBca/u dks ^okjlk laf/* osQ uke ls
tkuk tkrk gSA bldh vxqvkbZ lksfo;r la?k
us dhA bldh LFkkiuk lu~ 1955 esa gqbZ Fkh
vkSj bldk eq[; dke Fkk ^ukVks* esa 'kkfey
ns'kksa dk ;wjksi esa eqdkcyk djukA
'khr;q osQ nkSjku varjkZ"Vh; xBca/uksa
dk fu/kZj.k egk'kfDr;ksa dh k:jrksa vkSj
NksVs ns'kksa osQ ykHk&gkfu osQ xf.kr ls gksrk
FkkA tSlkfd ij crk;k x;k gS] egk'kfDr;ksa
osQ chp rukruh dk eq[; v[kkM+k ;wjksi
cukA oqQNsd ekeyksa esa ;g Hkh gqvk fd
egk'kfDr;ksa us vius&vius xqV esa 'kkfey
djus osQ fy, oqQN ns'kksa ij viuh rkdr dk
bLrseky fd;kA iwohZ ;wjksi esa lksfo;r la?k
dh n[kyankth bldk mnkgj.k gSA lksfo;r
la?k us iwohZ ;wjksi esa vius Hkko dk bLrseky

fd;kA bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa esa lksfo;r la?k dh


lsuk dh O;kid mifLFkfr us ;g lqfuf'pr
djus osQ fy, viuk Hkko tek;k fd ;wjksi
dk iwjk iwohZ fgLlk lksfo;r la?k osQ ncncs
esa jgsA iwohZ vkSj nf{k.k&iwoZ ,f'k;k rFkk
if'pe ,f'k;k esa vejhdk us xBca/u dk
rjhdk viuk;kA bu xBca/uksa dks nf{k.k&iwoZ
,f'k;kbZ laf/ laxBu (SEATO) vkSj osQa h;
laf/ laxBu (CENTO) dgk tkrk gSA
blosQ kokc esa lksfo;r la?k rFkk lkE;oknh
phu us bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa elyu mkjh
fo;ruke] mkjh dksfj;k vkSj bjkd osQ lkFk
vius lEcU/ etcwr fd,A
'khr;q osQ dkj.k fo'o osQ lkeus nks
xqVksa osQ chp cV tkus dk [krjk iSnk gks x;k
FkkA ,slh fLFkfr esa vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu]
elyu fczVsu vkSj Qkal osQ paxqy ls eqDr
gq, uo Lora=k ns'kksa dks fpark gqbZ fd dgha
os viuh bl vkkknh dks ikus osQ lkFk [kks
u cSBsaA xBca/u esa Hksn iSnk gq, vkSj cM+h
tYnh muesa njkj iM+hA lkE;oknh phu dh

'khr;q dk nkSj

1950 osQ n'kd osQ mkjkZ esa lksfo;r la?k


ls vucu gks xbZA lu~ 1969 esa bu nksuksa osQ
chp ,d Hkw&Hkkx ij vkf/iR; dks ysdj
NksVk&lk ;q Hkh gqvkA bl nkSj dh ,d
egoiw.kZ ?kVuk ^xqVfujis{k vkanksyu* dk
fodkl gSA bl vkanksyu us uo&Lora=k jk"Vksa
dks nks&/zqoh; fo'o dh xqVckth ls vyx
jgus dk ekSdk fn;kA
vki ;g loky iwN ldrs gSa fd
vkf[+kj egk'kfDr;ksa dks viuk xqV cukus dh
k:jr D;ksa iM+hA vkf[+kj vius ijek.kq
gfFk;kjksa vkSj viuh LFkk;h lsuk osQ cwrs
egk'kfDr;k bruh rkdroj Fkha fd ,f'k;k
rFkk vQhdk vkSj ;gk rd fd ;wjksi osQ
vf/dka'k NksVs ns'kksa dh lk>h 'kfDr dk Hkh
muls dksbZ eqdkcyk ugha FkkA ysfdu] gesa
;g le>us dh k:jr gS fd NksVs ns'k fuEu
dkj.kksa ls egk'kfDr;ksa osQ cM+s dke osQ Fks
(d) egoiw.kZ lalk/uksa (tSls rsy vkSj
[kfut)]
([k) Hkw&{ks=k (rkfd ;gk ls egk'kfDr;k
vius gfFk;kjksa vkSj lsuk dk lapkyu
dj losaQ)]
(x) lSfud fBdkus (tgk ls egk'kfDr;k
,d&nwljs dh tklwlh dj losQa ) vkSj
(?k) vkfFkZd enn (ftlesa xBca/u esa
'kkfey cgqr ls NksVs&NksVs ns'k
lSU;&[kpZ ogu djus esa ennxkj gks
ldrs Fks)A
;s ,sls dkj.k Fks tks NksVs ns'kksa dks
egk'kfDr;ksa osQ fy, k:jh cuk nsrs FksA
fopkj/kjk osQ dkj.k Hkh ;s ns'k egoiw.kZ
FksA xqVksa esa 'kkfey ns'kksa dh fu"Bk ls ;g
laoQs r feyrk Fkk fd egk'kfDr;k fopkjksa dk
ikjLifjd ;q Hkh thr jgh gSaA xqV esa
'kkfey gks jgss ns'kksa osQ vk/kj ij os lksp

ldrh Fkha fd mnkjoknh yksdra=k vkSj iwt


a hokn]
lektokn vkSj lkE;okn ls dgha csgrj gS
vFkok lektokn vkSj lkE;okn] mnkjoknh
yksdra=k vkSj iwathokn dh vis{kk csgrj gSA

'khr;q osQ nk;js


'khr;q osQ nkSjku vusd ladV lkeus vk;sA
D;wck osQ ftl felkby ladV ls geus bl
v;k; dh 'kq#vkr dh] og buesa ls ,d
FkkA 'khr;q osQ nkSjku [kwuh yM+kb;k Hkh
gqb] ysfdu ;gk ;ku nsus dh ckr ;g Hkh
gS fd bu ladVksa vkSj yM+kb;ksa dh ifj.kfr
rhljs fo'o;q osQ :i esa ugha gqbZA nksuksa
egk'kfDr;k dksfj;k (1950&1953)] cfyZu
(1958&1962)] dkaxks (1960 osQ n'kd
dh 'kq#vkr) vkSj dbZ vU; txgksa ij
lh/s&lh/s eqBHksM+ dh fLFkfr esa vk pqdh
FkhaA ladV xgjkrk x;k D;ksafd nksuksa esa ls
dksbZ Hkh i{k ihNs gVus osQ fy, rS;kj ugha
FkkA tc ge 'khr;q osQ nk;jksa dh ckr
djrs gSa rks gekjk vk'k; ,sls {ks=kksa ls gksrk gS
tgk fojks/h [kseksa esa cVs ns'kksa osQ chp ladV
osQ volj vk;s] ;q gq, ;k buosQ gksus dh
laHkkouk cuh] ysfdu ckrsa ,d gn ls T;knk
+
ugha c<+hAa dksfj;k] fo;ruke vkSj vIkQxkfuLrku
tSls oqQN {ks=kksa esa O;kid tugkfu gqbZ]
ysfdu fo'o ijek.kq ;q ls cpk jgk vkSj
oSeuL; fo'oO;kih ugha gks ik;kA dbZ ckj
,sls volj vk, tc nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa osQ
chp jktuf;d laokn tkjh ugha jg ik;k
vkSj blls nksuksa osQ chp X+kyriQgfe;k c<+haA
,sls dbZ ekSosQ vk, tc 'khr;q osQ
la?k"kks vkSj oqQN xgu ladVksa dks Vkyus esa
nksuksa xqVksa ls ckgj osQ ns'kksa us dkjxj Hkwfedk
fuHkk;hA bl lanHkZ esa xqVfujis{k ns'kksa dh
Hkwfedk dks ugha Hkqyk;k tk ldrkA xqVfujis{k

mkjh vkSj nf{k.kh


dksfj;k vHkh rd D;ksa
foHkkftr gSa tcfd
'khr;q osQ nkSj osQ
ckdh foHkktu feV x,
gSa\ D;k dksfj;k osQ yksx
pkgrs gSa fd foHkktu
cuk jgs\

fo'o osQ ekufp=k


ij 'khr;q osQ
eq[k ?kVukLFkyksa
dks fpfr djsaA

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

'khr;q dk ?kVuke
1947
1947&52
1948&49

1950&53
1954

1954&75
1955
1956
1961
1961
1962
1965
1968
1972
1978&89
1979&89
1985
1989
1990
1991

% lkE;okn dks jksdus osQ ckjs esa vejhdh jk"Vifr


VweSu dk flkarA
% ek'kZy Iyku if'peh ;wjksi osQ iqufuZekZ.k esa
vejhdk dh lgk;rkA
% lksfo;r la?k }kjk cfyZu dh ?ksjkcanhA vejhdk vkSj
mlosQ lkFkh ns'kksa us if'peh cfyZu osQ ukxfjdksa dks
tks vkiwfrZ Hksth Fkh mls lksfo;r la?k us vius
foekuksa ls mBk fy;kA
% dksfj;kbZ ;q 38oha lekukarj js[kk osQ }kjk dksfj;k
dk foHkktuA
% fo;rukfe;ksa osQ gkFkksa nk;u ch;u iwQ esa Qkal dh
gkj_ tsusok le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj_ 17oha lekukarj
js[kk }kjk fo;ruke dk foHkktu_ fl,Vks (SEATO)
dk xBuA
% fo;ruke esa vejhdh gLr{ksiA
% cxnkn le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj_ ckn esa bls lsUVks
(CENTO) osQ uke ls tkuk x;kA
% gaxjh esa lksfo;r la?k dk gLr{ksiA
% D;wck esa vejhdk }kjk k;ksftr ^cs vkWiQ fiXl*
vke.k
% cfyZu&nhokj [kM+h dh xbZA
% D;wck dk felkby ladVA
% Mksfefudu fjifCyd esa vejhdh gLr{ksiA
% psdksLyksokfd;k esa lksfo;r gLr{ksiA
% vejhdh jk"Vifr fuDlu dk phu nkSjkA
% oaQcksfM;k esa fo;ruke dk gLr{ksiA
% vI+kQxkfuLrku esa lksfo;r la?k dk gLr{ksi
% xksckZPkso lksfo;r la?k osQ jk"Vifr cus_ lq/kj dh
f;k vkjaHk dhA
% cfyZu&nhokj fxjh_ iwohZ ;wjksi dh ljdkjksa osQ fo#
yksxksa dk n'kZuA
% teZuh dk ,dhdj.kA
% lksfo;r la?k dk fo?kVu_ 'khr;q dh lekfIrA

vkanksyu osQ eq[k usrkvksa esa ,d tokgjyky


usg: FksA usg: us mkjh vkSj nf{k.kh dksfj;k
osQ chp e;LFkrk esa egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
fuHkkbZA dkaxks ladV esa la;qDr jk"V la?k osQ
egklfpo us eq[k e;LFk dh Hkwfedk
fuHkkbZA varr% ;g ckr mHkjdj lkeus vkrh
gS fd egk'kfDr;ksa us le> fy;k Fkk fd
;q dks gj gkyr esa Vkyuk k:jh gSA blh
le> osQ dkj.k nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa us la;e
cjrk vkSj varjkZ"Vh; ekeyksa esa ftEesokjh
Hkjk cjrko fd;kA 'khr;q ,d {ks=k ls nwljs
{ks=k dh rjiQ ljdrk x;k vkSj blesa la;e
dk roZQ gh dke dj jgk FkkA
gkykfd 'khr;q osQ nkSjku nksuksa gh
xBca/uksa osQ chp fr}afnrk lekIr ugha gqbZ
FkhA blh dkj.k ,d&nwljs osQ fr 'kadk dh
gkyr esa nksuksa xqVksa us Hkjiwj gfFk;kj tek
fd, vkSj yxkrkj ;q osQ fy, rS;kjh djrs
jgsA gfFk;kjksa osQ cM+s k[khjs dks ;q ls cps
jgus osQ fy, k:jh ekuk x;kA
nksuksa ns'k yxkrkj bl ckr dks le> jgs
Fks fd la;e osQ ckotwn ;q gks ldrk gSA
nksuksa i{kksa esa ls dksbZ Hkh nwljs osQ gfFk;kjksa dh
la[;k dks ysdj X+kyr vuqeku yxk ldrk
FkkA nksuksa xqV ,d&nwljs dh ea'kk dks le>us
esa Hkwy dj ldrs FksA blosQ vfrfjDr loky
;g Hkh Fkk fd dksbZ ijek.kq nq?kZVuk gks xbZ rks
D;k gksxk\ vxj X+kyrh ls dksbZ ijek.kq
gfFk;kj py tk, ;k dksbZ lSfud 'kjkjru
;q 'kq: djus osQ bjkns ls dksbZ gfFk;kj
pyk ns rks D;k gksxk\ vxj ijek.kq gfFk;kj
osQ dkj.k dksbZ nq?kZVuk gks tk, rks D;k
gksxk\ ,slh nq?kZVuk dk f'kdkj gq, ns'k osQ
usrkvksa dks oSQls irk pysxk fd ;g 'k=kq
dk "kM+;a=k ugha vFkok nwljh rjiQ ls dksbZ
felkby ugha nkxh xbZ gS] cfYd ;g egt
,d nq?kZVuk gS\

'khr;q dk nkSj

oqQ^h] ykWfiQax fon oqQ^h

;s nksuksa dkVZuw e'kgwj


Hkkjrh; dkVZfw uLV oqQ^h
us cuk, gSAa buesa
'khr;q dks ysdj Hkkjr
osQ ukfj, dks fpf=kr
fd;k x;k gSA igyk
dkVZuw ml le; dk gS
tc lektoknh lksfo;r
x.kjkT; dks va/js s esa
j[kdj vejhdk us phu
osQ lkFk xqipqi nksLrh
xkaBhA bl dkVwuZ esa
fn[kk, x, fdjnkjksa osQ
ckjs esa vkSj tkudkjh
tqVkb,A nwljs dkVwuZ esa
fo;ruke esa vejhdh
nqLlkgl dks fpf=kr
fd;k x;k gSA
fo;ruke&;q osQ ckjs
esa vkSj tkudkjh tqVk,A

,d ukj b/j Hkh vejhdh jk"Vifr tkWulu fo;ruke osQ elys ij cM+s d"V esa tku iM+rs gSaA

oqQ^h] ykWfiQax fon oqQ^h

jktuhfrd clar phu osQ gkFkksa esa vejhdk dk gkFk

10

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu
osQ laLFkkid

tkslsiQ czkWk VhVks


(1892&1980)
;qxksLykfo;k osQ
'kkld (1940&80)_
nwljs fo'o ;q esa
teZuh osQ f[kykiQ
yM+s_ lkE;oknh_
lksfo;r la?k ls nwjh
cuk, j[khA
;qxksLykfo;k esa ,drk
dk;e dhA

tokgjyky usg:
(1889&1964)
Hkkjr osQ igys
/kuea=kh (1947&64)_
,f'k;kbZ ,drk]
vukSifuos'khdj.k vkSj
fujL=khdj.k osQ ;kl
fd, vkSj fo'o&'kkafr
osQ fy, 'kkafriw.kZ
lgvfLrRo dh
odkyr dhA

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

bl dkj.k] le; jgrs vejhdk vkSj


lksfo;r la?k us oqQNsd ijekf.od vkSj vU;
gfFk;kjksa dks lhfer ;k lekIr djus osQ fy,
vkil esa lg;ksx djus dk iSQlyk fd;kA
nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa us iSQlyk fd;k fd
^vL=k&fu;a=k.k* }kjk gfFk;kjksa dh gksM+ ij
yxke dlh tk ldrh gS vkSj mlesa LFkk;h
larqyu yk;k tk ldrk gSA ,sls ;kl dh
'kq#vkr lu~ 1960 osQ n'kd osQ mkjkZ esa
gqbZ vkSj ,d n'kd osQ Hkhrj nksuksa i{kksa us
rhu vge le>kSrksa ij nLr[+kr fd,A
;s laf/;k Fkha ijek.kq ijh{k.k frca/
laf/] ijek.kq vlkj laf/ vkSj ijek.kq
{ksikL=k ifjlheu laf/ (,aVh cSysfLVd
felkby VhVh)A blosQ ckn egk'kfDr;ksa us
^vL=k&ifjlheu* osQ fy, okrkZvksa osQ dbZ
nkSj fd, vkSj gfFk;kjksa ij vaoqQ'k j[kus osQ
fy, vussd laf/;k dhaA

nks&/zqoh;rk dks pqukSrh


xqVfujis{krk
ge ns[k pqosQ gSa fd fdl rjg 'khr;q dh
okg ls fo'o nks fr}a}h xqVksa esa cV jgk
FkkA blh lanHkZ esa xqVfujis{krk us ,f'k;k]
vQhdk vkSj ykfruh vejhdk osQ uo&Lora=k
ns'kksa dks ,d rhljk fodYi fn;kA ;g
fodYi Fkk nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa osQ xqVksa ls
vyx jgus dkA
xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dh tM+ esa ;qxksLykfo;k
osQ tkslsiQ czkWk VhVks] Hkkjr osQ tokgjyky
usg: vkSj felz osQ xeky vCnqy ukflj dh
nksLrh FkhA bu rhuksa us lu~ 1956 esa ,d
liQy cSBd dhA baMksufs 'k;k osQ lqd.kks vkSj
?kkuk osQ okes ,uwek us budk tksjnkj leFkZu
fd;kA ;s ikp usrk xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ

laLFkkid dgyk,A igyk xqVfujis{k lEesyu


lu~ 1961 esa csyxzsM esa gqvkA ;g lEesyu
de ls de rhu ckrksa dh ifj.kfr Fkk
(d) bu ikp ns'kksa osQ chp lg;ksx]
([k) 'khr;q dk lkj vkSj blosQ c<+rs
gq, nk;js] vkSj
(x) varjkZ"Vh; iQyd ij cgqr ls
uo&Lora=k vQhdh ns'kksa dk ukVdh;
mn;A 1960 rd la;qDr jk"Vla?k esa
16 u;s vQhdh ns'k crkSj lnL;
'kkfey gks pqosQ FksA
igys xqVufujis{k&lEesyu esa 25 lnL;&
ns'k 'kkfey gq,A le; xqtjus osQ lkFk
xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dh lnL; la[;k c<+rh
xbZA 2006 esa gokuk (D;wck) esa gq, 14osa
lEesyu esa 116 lnL;&ns'k vkSj 15 i;Zo{s kd
ns'k 'kkfey gq,A
tSls&tSls xqVfujis{k vkanksyu ,d
yksdf; varjkZ"Vh; vkanksyu osQ :i esa
c<+rk x;k oSl&s oSls blesa fofHkUu jktuhfrd
.kkyh vkSj vyx&vyx fgrksa osQ ns'k
'kkfey gksrs x,A blls xqVfujis{k vkanksyu
osQ ewy Lo:i esa cnyko vk;kA blh dkj.k
xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dh lVhd ifjHkk"kk dj
ikuk oqQN eqf'dy gSA okLro esa ;g vkanksyu
gS D;k\ njvly ;g vkanksyu D;k ugha
gS& ;g crkdj bldh ifjHkk"kk djuk T;knk
ljy gSA ;g egk'kfDr;ksa osQ xqVksa essa 'kkfey
u gksus dk vkanksyu gSA
egk'kfDr;ksa osQ xqVksa ls vyx jgus dh
bl uhfr dk eryc ;g ugha gS fd bl
vkanksyu ls tqM+s ns'k vius dks varjkZ"Vh;
ekeyksa ls vyx&Fkyx j[krs gSa ;k rVLFkrk
dk ikyu djrs gSaA xqVfujis{krk dk eryc

11

'khr;q dk nkSj

i`Fkdrkokn ughaA i`Fkdrkokn dk vFkZ gksrk


gS vius dks varjkZ"Vh; ekeyksa ls dkVdj
j[kukA 1787 esa vejhdk esa Lora=krk dh
yM+kbZ gqbZ FkhA blosQ ckn ls igys fo'o;q
dh 'kq#vkr rd vejhdk us vius dks
varjkZ"Vh; ekeyksa ls vyx j[kkA mlus
i`Fkdrkokn dh fons'k&uhfr viukbZ FkhA
blosQ foijhr xqVfujis{k ns'kksa us] ftlesa
Hkkjr Hkh 'kkfey gS] 'kkafr vkSj fLFkjrk cuk,
j[kus osQ fy, fr}a}h xqVksa osQ chp e;LFkrk
esa lf; Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA xqVfujis{k ns'kksa dh
rkdr dh tM+ mudh vkilh ,drk vkSj
egk'kfDr;ksa }kjk vius&vius [kses esa 'kkfey
djus dh iqjtksj dksf'k'kksa osQ ckotwn ,sls
fdlh [kses esa 'kkfey u gksus osQ muosQ
ladYi esa gSA
xqVfujis{krk dk vFkZ rVLFkrk dk /eZ
fuHkkuk Hkh ugha gSA rVLFkrk dk vFkZ gksrk gS
eq[;r% ;q esa 'kkfey u gksus dh uhfr dk
ikyu djukA rVLFkrk dh uhfr dk ikyu
djus okys ns'k osQ fy, ;g k:jh ugha fd
og ;q dks lekIr djus esa enn djsA ,sls
ns'k ;q esa layXu ugha gksrs vkSj u gh ;q
osQ lgh&X+kyr gksus osQ ckjs esa mudk dksbZ
i{k gksrk gSA njvly dbZ dkj.kksa ls xqVfujis{k
ns'k] ftlesa Hkkjr Hkh 'kkfey gS] ;q esa
'kkfey gq, gSaA bu ns'kksa us nwljs ns'kksa osQ
chp ;q dks gksus ls Vkyus osQ fy, dke
fd;k gS vkSj gks jgs ;q osQ var osQ fy,
;kl fd, gSaA

ns'kksa dks ^vYi fodflr ns'k* dk ntkZ


feyk FkkA bu ns'kksa osQ lkeus eq[; pqukSrh
vkfFkZd :i ls vkSj T;knk fodkl djus
rFkk viuh turk dks X+kjhch ls mckjus dh
FkhA uo&Lora=k ns'kksa dh vkkknh osQ fygkk
ls Hkh vkfFkZd fodkl egoiw.kZ FkkA cX+kSj
fVdk fodkl osQ dksbZ ns'k lgh ek;uksa esa
vkkkn ugha jg ldrkA mls /uh ns'kksa ij
fuHkZj jguk iM+rkA blesa og mifuos'kd
ns'k Hkh gks ldrk Fkk ftlls jktuhfrd
vkkknh gkfly dh xbZA
blh le> ls uo varjkZ"Vh; vkfFkZd
O;oLFkk dh /kj.kk dk tUe gqvkA 1972 esa
la;qDr jk"V la?k osQ O;kikj vkSj fodkl ls
laacaf/r lEesyu (;wukbVsM us'kal dkWusaQl
vkWu VsM ,aM MsoyiesaV& vadVkM) esa
^VqokMZl
~ v U;w VMs ikWfylh iQkWj MsoyiesVa *
'kh"kZd ls ,d fjiksVZ Lrqr dh xbZA bl
fjiksVZ esa oSf'od O;kikj&.kkyh esa lq/kj
dk Lrko fd;k x;k FkkA bl fjiksVZ esa dgk
x;k Fkk fd lq/kjksa ls

uo varjkZ"Vh; vkfFkZd O;oLFkk

(x) if'peh ns'kksa ls eaxk;h tk jgh


kS|ksfxdh dh ykxr de gksxh vkSj

xqVfujis{k ns'k 'khr;q osQ nkSjku egt


e;LFkrk djus okys ns'k Hkj ugha FksA
xqVfujis{k vkanksyu esa 'kkfey vf/dka'k

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu
osQ laLFkkid

xeky vCnqy ukflj


(1918&70)
lu~ 1970 rd felz
osQ 'kkldA vjc
jk"Vokn] lektokn
vkSj lkezkT;okn&fojks/
osQ fy, frcA Lost
ugj dk jk"Vh;dj.k
fd;kA bldh otg ls
lu~ 1956 esa
varjkZ"Vh; la?k"kZ gqvkA

(d) vYi fodflr ns'kksa dks vius mu


kfrd lalk/uksa ij fu;a=k.k kIr
gksxk ftudk nksgu if'pe osQ
fodflr ns'k djrs gSa_
([k) vYi fodflr ns'kksa dh igqp
if'peh ns'kksa osQ ckkkj rd gksxh_
os viuk lkeku csp losQa xs vkSj bl
rjg X+kjhc ns'kksa osQ fy, ;g O;kikj
iQk;nsean gksxk_

(?k) vYi fodflr ns'kksa dh varjkZ"Vh;


vkfFkZd laLFkkuksa esa Hkwfedk c<+sxhA

lqd.kksZ
(1901&1970)
baMksusf'k;k osQ igys
jk"Vifr (1945&65)_
Lora=krk laxzke dk
usr`Ro_ lektokn vkSj
lkezkT;okn&fojks/ osQ
fy, frc_ ckaMqax &
lEesyu osQ vk;kstdA
lSfud foksg esa
r[+rkiyV gqvkA

12

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu
osQ laLFkkid

okes ,uwek
(1909&1972)
?kkuk osQ igys /kuea=kh
(1952&66)_ vktknh
dh yM+kbZ osQ vxqvk_
vQhdh ,drk vkSj
lektokn osQ i{k/jA
uo&mifuos'kokn dk
fojks/ fd;kA lSfud
"kM~;a=k esa budk
r[+rkiyV gqvkA

rks bldk eryc ;g


fd uo varjkZ"Vh;
vkfFkZd O;oLFkk cl
fopkj gh jgk& dHkh
lkdkj ugha gqvk!

ikp ,sls ns'kksa osQ


uke crk, tks nwljs
fo'o;q dh
lekfIr osQ ckn
mifuos'kokn osQ
paxqy ls eqDr gq,A

xqVfujis{krk dh fr /hjs&/hjs cnyh


vkSj blesa vkfFkZd eqkas dks vf/d ego
fn;k tkus yxkA csyxzsM esa gq, igys
lEesyu (1961) esa vkfFkZd eqs T;knk
egoiw.kZ ugha FksA lu~ 1970 osQ n'kd osQ
e; rd vkfFkZd eqs eq[k gks mBsA blosQ
ifj.kkeLo:i xqVfujis{k vkanksyu vkfFkZd
ncko&lewg cu x;kA lu~ 1980 osQ n'kd
osQ mkjkZ rd uo varjkZ"Vh; vkfFkZd
O;oLFkk dks cuk;s&pyk;s j[kus osQ ;kl
ean iM+ x,A bldk eq[; dkj.k Fkk fodflr
ns'kksa }kjk fd;k tk jgk rst fojks/A fodflr
ns'k ,d lqj esa fojks/ dj jgs Fks tcfd
xqVfujis{k ns'kksa dks bl fojks/ osQ chp
viuh ,drk cuk, j[kus osQ fy, th&rksM+
esgur djuh iM+ jgh FkhA

Hkkjr vkSj 'khr;q


xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ usrk osQ :i esa 'khr;q
osQ nkSj esa Hkkjr us nks Lrjksa ij viuh Hkwfedk
fuHkkbZA ,d Lrj ij Hkkjr us ltx vkSj
lpsr :i ls vius dks nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa dh
[ksecs na h ls vyx j[kkA nwljs] Hkkjr us mifuos'kksa
osQ pqaxy ls eqDr gq, uo&Lora=k ns'kksa osQ
egk'kfDr;ksa osQ [kses esa tkus dk iqjtksj
fojks/ fd;kA
Hkkjr dh uhfr u rks udkjkRed Fkh vkSj
u gh fuf";rk dhA usg: us fo'o dks ;kn
fnyk;k fd xqVfujis{krk dksbZ ^iyk;u*
dh uhfr ugha gSA blosQ foijhr] Hkkjr
'khr;qdkyhu fr}afnrk dh tdM+ <hyh
djus osQ fy, varjkZ"Vh; ekeyksa esa lf;
:i ls gLr{ksi djus osQ i{k esa FkkA Hkkjr us
nksuksa xqVksa osQ chp ekStwn erHksnksa dks de
djus dh dksf'k'k dh vkSj bl rjg mlus bu
erHksnksa dks iw.kZO;kih ;q dk :i ysus ls

jksdkA Hkkjr osQ jktuf;dksa vkSj usrkvksa dk


mi;ksx vDlj 'khr;q osQ nkSj osQ fr}af};ksa
osQ chp laokn dk;e djus rFkk e;LFkrk
djus osQ fy, gqvk_ felky osQ rkSj ij
1950 osQ n'kd osQ 'kq#vkrh lkyksa esas dksfj;kbZ
;q osQ nkSjkuA
;gk ;g ;kn j[kuk Hkh k:jh gS fd
Hkkjr us xqVfujis{k vkanksyu esa 'kkfey vU;
lnL;ksa dks Hkh ,sls dkeksa esa layXu j[kkA
'khr;q osQ nkSjku Hkkjr us yxkrkj mu {ks=kh;
vkSj varjkZ"Vh; laxBuksa dks lf; cuk;s
j[kus dh dksf'k'k dh tks vejhdk vFkok
lksfo;r la?k osQ [kses ls ugha tqM+s FksA usg:
us ^Lora=k vkSj ijLij lg;ksxh jk"Vkas osQ ,d
lPps jk"VoqQy* osQ ij xgjk fo'okl
trk;k tks 'khr;q dks [kRe djus esa u
lgh] ij mldh tdM+ <hyh djus esas gh
ldkjkRed Hkwfedk fuHkk;sA
oqQN yksxksa us ekuk fd xqVfujis{krk
varjkZ"Vh;rk dk ,d mnkj vkn'kZ gS ysfdu
;g vkn'kZ Hkkjr osQ okLrfod fgrksa ls esy
ugha [kkrkA ;g ckr Bhd ugha gSA xqVfujis{krk
dh uhfr us de ls de nks rjg ls Hkkjr dk
R;{k :i ls fgrlk/u fd;k
igyh ckr rks ;g fd xqVfujis{krk osQ
dkj.k Hkkjr ,sls varjkZ"Vh; I+kQS lys vkSj
i{k ys ldk ftlls mldk fgr l/rk
gksrk gks u fd egk'kfDr;ksa vkSj muosQ
[kses osQ ns'kksa dkA
nwljs] Hkkjr ges'kk bl fLFkfr esa jgk fd
,d egk'kfDr mlosQ f[kykiQ tk, rks
og nwljh egk'kfDr osQ djhc vkus dh
dksf'k'k djsA vxj Hkkjr dks eglwl gks
fd egk'kfDr;ksa esa ls dksbZ mldh vuns[kh
dj jgk gS ;k vuqfpr ncko Mky jgk
gS rks og nwljh egk'kfDr dh rjiQ

13

'khr;q dk nkSj

viuk #[k dj ldrk FkkA nksuksa xqVksa esa


ls dksbZ Hkh Hkkjr dks ysdj u rks csfIk+ Q
gks ldrk Fkk vkSj u gh /kSal tek
ldrk FkkA
Hkkjr dh xqVfujis{krk dh uhfr dh dbZ
dkj.kksa ls vkykspuk dh xbZA ge ;gk ,slh
nks vkykspukvksa dh ppkZ djsaxs
vkykspdksa dk ,d roZQ ;g gS fd
Hkkjr dh xqVfujis{krk ^flkarfoghu*
gSA dgk tkrk gS fd Hkkjr vius jk"Vh;
fgrksa dks lk/us osQ uke ij vDlj
egoiw.kZ varjkZ"Vh; ekeyksa ij dksbZ
lqfuf'pr i{k ysus ls cprk jgkA
vkykspdksas dk nwljk roZQ gS fd Hkkjr
osQ O;ogkj esa fLFkjrk ugha jgh vkSj dbZ
ckj Hkkjr dh fLFkfr fojks/kHkklh jghA
egk'kfDr;ksa osQ [kseksa esa 'kkfey gksus ij
nwljs ns'kksa dh vkykspuk djus okys
Hkkjr us Lo;a lu~ 1971 osQ vxLr esa
lksfo;r la?k osQ lkFk vkilh fe=krk dh
laf/ ij gLrk{kj fd,A fons'kh i;Zo{s kdksa
us bls Hkkjr dk lksfo;r [kses esa 'kkfey
gksuk ekukA Hkkjr dh ljdkj dk n`f"Vdks.k
;g Fkk fd ckaXykns'k&ladV osQ le;
mls jktuf;d vkSj lSfud lgk;rk dh
k:jr Fkh vkSj ;g laf/ mls la;qDr
jkT; vejhdk lfgr vU; ns'kksa ls vPNs
laca/ cukus ls ugha jksdrhA
xqVfujis{krk dh uhfr 'khr;q osQ lanHkZ
esa iuih FkhA nwljs v;k; esa ge i<+saxs fd
lu~ 1990 osQ n'kd osQ 'kq#vkrh o"kks essa
'khr;q dk var vkSj lksfo;r la?k dk
fo?kVu gqvkA blosQ lkFk gh ,d varjkZ"Vh;
vkanksyu vkSj Hkkjr dh fons'k uhfr dh
ewy Hkkouk osQ :i esa xqVfujis{krk dh
klafxdrk rFkk Hkkodkfjrk esa FkksM+h deh

vk;hA cgjgky] xqVfujis{krk esa oqQN


vk/kjHkwr ewY; vkSj fopkj 'kkfey gSaA
xqVfujis{krk bl ckr dh igpku ij fVdh
gS fd mifuos'k dh fLFkfr ls vkkkn gq,
ns'kksa osQ chp ,sfrgkfld tqM+ko gSa vkSj
;fn ;s ns'k lkFk vk tk;sa rks ,d l'kDr

pj.k
d{kk dks cjkcj la[;k okys rhu lewgksa esa ckVsA R;sd lewg
nqfu;k osQ bu rhu [kseksa esa ls fdlh ,d dh uqekbanxh
djsxk& iwthoknh nqfu;k] lkE;oknh nqfu;k ;k rhljh nqfu;kA
v;kid ,sls nks laosnu'khy eqksa dks pqusaxs tks 'khr;q osQ
nkSjku fo'o 'kkafr vkSj lqj{kk dks [+krjk mRiUu dj pqosQ gksa
(dksfj;k vkSj fo;ruke ladV vPNs mnkgj.k gks ldrs gSa)A
R;sd lewg dks lacaf/r eqs ij ^?kVuk&p* cukus dks
dgsaA mudks vius lewg osQ n`f"Vdks.k ls ,d Lrqfr djuh
gksxhA bl Lrqfr esa ?kVuk dk dkye] mlosQ dkj.k vkSj
leL;k osQ lek/ku osQ fy, mudk dk;Ze 'kkfey gksxkA
R;sd lewg dks d{kk osQ lkeus ^?kVuk&p* Lrqr djus
dks dgsaA

v;kidksa osQ fy,


Nk=kksa dks ;ku fnyk, fd fdl dkj bu ladVksa us lacaf/r ns'kksa
vkSj 'ks"k fo'o dks Hkkfor fd;kA bu ns'kksa dh orZeku fLFkfr ls
Hkh tksM+dj ppkZ djsaA

bu {ks=kksa esa 'kkafr LFkkfir djus esa la;qDr jk"V vkSj rhljh nqfu;k osQ
usrkvksa dh Hkwfedk dks js[kkafdr djsa (dksfj;k vkSj fo;ruke ladV esa
Hkkjr dh Hkwfedk dks lanHkZ osQ fy, fy;k tk ldrk gS)A

^'khr;q osQ ckn okys nkSj esa ge bl dkj osQ ladVksa dks oSQls Vky
ldrs gSa* bl fo"k; ij okn&fookn 'kq: djsaA

14

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

lhfer ijek.kq ijh{k.k

lhfer ijek.kq ijh{k.k laf/ (,yVhchVh)


ok;qeaMy] ckgjh varfj{k rFkk ikuh osQ vanj ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa osQ ijh{k.k ij frca/ yxkus okyh bl laf/ ij vejhdk]
fczVsu rFkk lksfo;r la?k us ekLdks esa 5 vxLr 1963 dks gLrk{kj fd,A ;g laf/ 10 vDrwcj 1963 ls Hkkoh gks xbZA
ijek.kq vlkj laf/ (,uihVh)
;g laf/ osQoy ijek.kq 'kfDr&laiUu ns'kksa dks ,Veh gfFk;kj j[kus dh vuqefr nsrh gS vkSj ckdh ns'kksa dks ,sls gfFk;kj gkfly
djus ls jksdrh gSA ijek.kq vlkj laf/ osQ ms';ksa dks ;ku esa j[krs gq, mu ns'kksa dks ijek.kq&'kfDr ls laiUu ns'k ekuk
x;k ftUgksua s 1 tuojh 1967 ls igys fdlh ijek.kq gfFk;kj vFkok vU; foLiQksVd ijek.kq lkefxz;ksa dk fuekZ.k vkSj foLiQksV
fd;k gksA bl ifjHkk"kk osQ varxZr ikp ns'kksa & vejhdk] lksfo;r la?k (ckn esa :l)] fczVus ] Qkal vkSj phu dks ijek.kq&'kfDr
ls laiUu ekuk x;kA bl laf/ ij ,d tqykbZ 1968 dks okWf'kaXVu] yanu vkSj ekLdks esa gLrk{kj gq, vkSj ;g laf/ 5 ekpZ
1970 ls Hkkoh gqbZA bl laf/ dks 1995 esa vfu;rdky osQ fy, c<+k fn;k x;kA
lkefjd vL=k ifjlheu okrkZ&I (LVsVftd vkElZ fyfeVs'ku VkWDl & lkYV&I)
lkefjd vL=k ifjlheu okrkZ dk igyk pj.k lu~ 1969 osQ uoEcj esa vkjaHk gqvkA lksfo;r la?k osQ usrk fy;ksusM czs>uso
vkSj vejhdk osQ jk"Vifr fjpMZ fuDlu us ekLdks esa 26 ebZ 1972 dks fuEufyf[kr le>kSrs ij nLr[+kr fd,
(d) ijek.kq felkby ifjlheu laf/ (,ch,e VhVh)A
([k) lkefjd :i ls ?kkrd gfFk;kjksa osQ ifjlheu osQ ckjs esa varfje le>kSrkA
;s 3 vDrwcj 1972 ls Hkkoh gq,A
Lkkefjd vL=k ifjlheu okrkZ&II (LVsVftd vkElZ fyfeVs'ku VkWDl&lkYV&II)
okrkZ dk nwljk pj.k lu~ 1972 osQ uoEcj eghus esa 'kq: gqvkA vejhdh jk"Vifr fteh dkVZj vkSj lksfo;r la?k osQ usrk fy;ksuMs
cs>
z uso us fo;uk esa 18 twu 1972 dks lkefjd :i ls ?kkrd gfFk;kjksa osQ ifjlheu ls lacfa /r laf/ ij gLrk{kj fd,A
Lkkefjd vL=k U;wuhdj.k laf/&I (LVsVftd vkElZ fjMD'ku laf/&LVkVZ&I)
vejhdh jk"Vifr tkWtZ cq'k (lhfu;j) vkSj lksfo;r la?k osQ jk"Vifr xksckZpso us 31 tqykbZ 1991 dks lkefjd :i ls ?kkrd
gfFk;kjksa osQ ifjlheu vkSj mudh la[;k esa deh ykus ls lacaf/r laf/ ij gLrk{kj fd,A
Lkkefjd vL=k U;wuhdj.k laf/&II (LVsVftd vkElZ fjMD'ku laf/&LVkVZ&II)
lkefjd :i ls ?kkrd gfFk;kjksa oQks lhfer djus vkSj mudh la[;k esa deh djus ls lacaf/r bl laf/ ij :lh jk"Vifr
cksfjl ;sYrflu vkSj vejhdh jk"Vifr tktZ cq'k (lhfu;j) us ekLdks esa 3 tuojh 1993 dks gLrk{kj fd,A

15

'khr;q dk nkSj

rkdr cu ldrs gSaA xqVfujis{krk dk vk'k;


gS fd xjhc vkSj fo'o osQ cgqr NksVs
ns'kksa dks Hkh fdlh egk'kfDr dk fiNyXxw
cuus dh k:jr ugha gSA ;s ns'k viuh
Lora=k fons'k uhfr viuk ldrs gSaA ;g
vkanksyu ekStwnk vlekurkvksa ls fuiVus

osQ fy, ,d oSdfYid fo'o&O;oLFkk


cukus vkSj varjkZ"Vh; O;oLFkk dks yksdra=k/ehZ
cukus osQ ladYi ij Hkh fVdk gSA vius
vki esa ;s fopkj cqfu;knh ego osQ gSa
vkSj 'khr;q dh lekfIr osQ ckn Hkh
klafxd gSaA

2- fuEu esa ls dkSu&lk dFku xqV&fujis{k vkanksyu osQ ms';ksa ij dk'k ugha Mkyrk\
(d) mifuos'kokn ls eqDr gq, ns'kksa dks Lora=k uhfr viukus esa leFkZ cukukA
([k) fdlh Hkh lSU; laxBu esa 'kkfey gksus ls badkj djukA
(x) oSf'od ekeyksa esa rVLFkrk dh uhfr viukukA
(?k) oSf'od vkfFkZd vlekurk dh lekfIr ij ;ku osaQfr djukA
3- uhps egk'kfDr;ksa }kjk cuk, lSU; laxBuksa dh fo'ks"krk crkus okys oqQN dFku fn, x, gSaA R;sd
dFku osQ lkeus lgh ;k X+kyr dk fp yxk,A
(d) xBca/u osQ lnL; ns'kksa dks vius Hkw&{ks=k esa egk'kfDr;ksa osQ lSU; vM~Ms osQ fy, LFkku nsuk
k:jh FkkA
([k) lnL; ns'kksa dks fopkj/kjk vkSj j.kuhfr nksuks Lrjksa ij egk'kfDr dk leFkZu djuk FkkA
(x) tc dksbZ jk"V fdlh ,d lnL;&ns'k ij vke.k djrk Fkk rks bls lHkh lnL; ns'kksa ij
vke.k le>k tkrk FkkA
(?k) egk'kfDr;k lHkh lnL; ns'kksa dks vius ijek.kq gfFk;kj fodflr djus esa enn
djrh FkhaA
4- uhps oqQN ns'kksa dh ,d lwph nh xbZ gSA R;sd osQ lkeus fy[kas fd og 'khr;q osQ nkSjku fdl xqV
ls tqM+k Fkk\
(d) iksySaM
([k) Qkal
(x) tkiku
(?k) ukbthfj;k
(M) mkjh dksfj;k
(p) Jhyadk

'ukoyh

1- 'khr;q osQ ckjs esa fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu&lk dFku X+kyr gS\
(d) ;g la;Dq r jkT; vejhdk] lksfo;r la?k vkSj muosQ lkFkh ns'kksa osQ chp dh ,d
frLi/kZ Fkh\
([k) ;g egk'kfDr;ksa osQ chp fopkj/kjkvksa dks ysdj ,d ;q FkkA
(x) 'khr;q us gfFk;kjksa dh gksM+ 'kq: dhA
(?k) vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k lh/s ;q esa 'kkfey FksA

'ukoyh

16

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

5- 'khr;q ls gfFk;kjksa dh gksM+ vkSj gfFk;kjksa ij fu;a=k.k ;s nksuksa gh f;k, iSnk gqbA bu nksuksa
f;kvksa osQ D;k dkj.k Fks\
6- egk'kfDr;k NksVs ns'kksa osQ lkFk lSU; xBca/u D;ksa j[krh Fkha\ rhu dkj.k crkb,\
7- dHkh&dHkh dgk tkrk gS fd 'khr;q lh/s rkSj ij 'kfDr osQ fy, la?k"kZ Fkk vkSj bldk fopkj/kjk
ls dksbZ laca/ ugha FkkA D;k vki bl dFku ls lger gSa\ vius mkj osQ leFkZu esa ,d
mnkgj.k nsaA
8- 'khr;q osQ nkSjku Hkkjr dh vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k osQ fr fons'k uhfr D;k Fkh\ D;k vki ekurs
gSa fd bl uhfr us Hkkjr osQ fgrksa dks vkxs c<+k;k\
9- xqV&fujis{k vkanksyu dks rhljh nqfu;k osQ ns'kksa us rhljs fodYi osQ :i esa le>kA tc 'khr;q vius
f'k[kj ij Fkk rc bl fodYi us rhljh nqfu;k osQ ns'kksa osQ fodkl esa oSQls enn igqpkbZ\
10- ^xqV&fujis{k vkanksyu vc vklafxd gks x;k gS*A vki bl dFku osQ ckjs esa D;k lksprs gSaA vius
mkj osQ leFkZu esa roZQ Lrqr djsaA