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P. 1

Electric Circuits Chapter 34.33

|Views: 1,862|Likes: 19Published by Ameen

Notes based on the book Fundamentals of Electric Circuits by Charles K. Alexander, Matthew N. O. Sadiku

Notes based on the book Fundamentals of Electric Circuits by Charles K. Alexander, Matthew N. O. Sadiku

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/16186506/Electric-Circuits-Chapter-3

07/28/2014

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Methods of Analysis

Introduction

**Techniques for circuit analysis:
**

Nodal Analysis Based on KCL Mesh Analysis Based on KVL

06/06/09

2/21

**Nodal Analysis without Voltage Source
**

**Make use of node voltages as circuit variables. Given a circuit with n nodes:
**

1.

**Select a node as the reference node.
**

Reference node Node with 0 potential.

Assign voltages v1, v2,… vn-1 to the remaining n-1 nodes. The voltages are referenced with respect to the reference node. Apply KCL to each of the n-1 non-reference nodes. Use Ohm’s Law to express the branch currents in terms of node voltages. Solve to determine the unknown node voltages. Use substitution method or Cramer’s Rule.

3/21

06/06/09

**Nodal Analysis without Voltage Source
**

Example 1:

Obtain the node voltages.

Answer v1 = -2v v2 = -14v

06/06/09 4/21

**Nodal Analysis without Voltage Source
**

Example 2:

Find the voltages at the three non-reference nodes.

**Answer v1 = 80v v2 = -64v v3 = 156v
**

06/06/09 5/21

**Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source
**

**Two cases to consider:
**

Case 1: A voltage source is connected between reference node and non-reference node.

Set the voltage at the non-reference node equal to the voltage source.

**Case 2: A voltage source connected between two non-reference node
**

The two non-reference nodes form a super node. Apply both KCL and KVL to determine the node voltages.

#Super node is formed by enclosing a (dependent or independent) voltage source connected between two non-reference nodes and any elements connected in parallel with it.

06/06/09

6/21

**Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source
**

**Properties of super node:
**

The voltage source inside the super node provides constraint equation needed to solve for the node voltages. A super node has no voltage of its own. A super node requires the application of both KCL and KVL.

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7/21

Example 1: Find v and i

Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source

v=-0.2v, i = 1.4A

06/06/09 8/21

**Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source
**

Example 2: Find v1, v2 and v3 using nodal analysis

**v1 =-3.043 V, v2 =-6.956 V, v3 = 0.6522 V
**

06/06/09 9/21

Mesh Analysis

Make use of mesh currents as circuit variables A mesh is a loop that does not contain any other loop within it. Only applicable to a planar circuit Planar circuit:

A circuit that can be drawn in a plane with no branches crossing one another; otherwise nonplanar.

06/06/09

10/21

Mesh Analysis

Planar circuit:

06/06/09

11/21

Mesh Analysis

**Non-planar circuit
**

No way to redraw it and avoid the branches crossing

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12/21

**Mesh Analysis without Current Sources
**

**Given a circuit with n meshes.
**

Assign mesh currents i1, i2, .. in to the n meshes. Assume mesh current flows clockwise. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes. Use Ohm’s Law to express the voltages in terms of mesh currents.

06/06/09

13/21

**Mesh Analysis without Current Sources
**

Example 1: Determine mesh currents i1 and i2.

i1 = 2/3 A i2 = 0A

06/06/09 14/21

**Mesh Analysis without Current Sources
**

Example 2: Determine I0 .

I0 = -5A

06/06/09 15/21

**Mesh Analysis with Current Sources
**

**Two cases to consider:
**

Case 1: A current source exists only in one mesh.

Set the mesh current = current source.

**Case 2: A current source exists between the two meshes.
**

Create super mesh by excluding the current source and any elements connected in series with it.

#A super mesh results when two meshes have a (dependent or independent) current source in common.

06/06/09

16/21

**Mesh Analysis with Current Sources
**

**Properties of super mesh:
**

Current source in the super mesh provides the constraint. Super mesh has no current of its own. Super mesh requires the application of both KVL and KCL.

06/06/09

17/21

**Mesh Analysis with Current Sources
**

Example 1: Determine i1, i2 and i3.

**i1=3.474 i2 =0.4737 i3 =1.1052
**

06/06/09 18/21

**Nodal Analysis by Inspection
**

Implemented when all sources in the circuit are independent current sources. Convert resistors to conductors.

06/06/09

19/21

**Nodal Analysis by Inspection
**

Example: By inspection, determine the nodevoltage equations for the circuit.

06/06/09

20/21

**Mesh Analysis by Inspection
**

Implemented when all sources in the circuit are independent voltage sources.

06/06/09

21/21

**Mesh Analysis by Inspection
**

Example: By inspection, determine the mesh-current equations for the circuit.

06/06/09

22/21

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