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Electric Circuits Chapter 3

# Electric Circuits Chapter 3

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Notes based on the book Fundamentals of Electric Circuits‎ by Charles K. Alexander, Matthew N. O. Sadiku
Notes based on the book Fundamentals of Electric Circuits‎ by Charles K. Alexander, Matthew N. O. Sadiku

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07/28/2014

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# Chapter 3

Methods of Analysis

Introduction

Techniques for circuit analysis:

Nodal Analysis  Based on KCL Mesh Analysis  Based on KVL

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Nodal Analysis without Voltage Source
 

Make use of node voltages as circuit variables. Given a circuit with n nodes:
1.

Select a node as the reference node.

Reference node  Node with 0 potential.

Assign voltages v1, v2,… vn-1 to the remaining n-1 nodes. The voltages are referenced with respect to the reference node. Apply KCL to each of the n-1 non-reference nodes. Use Ohm’s Law to express the branch currents in terms of node voltages. Solve to determine the unknown node voltages. Use substitution method or Cramer’s Rule.
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Nodal Analysis without Voltage Source

Example 1:
Obtain the node voltages.

Answer v1 = -2v v2 = -14v
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Nodal Analysis without Voltage Source

Example 2:
Find the voltages at the three non-reference nodes.

Answer v1 = 80v v2 = -64v v3 = 156v
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Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source

Two cases to consider:
Case 1: A voltage source is connected between reference node and non-reference node.

Set the voltage at the non-reference node equal to the voltage source.

Case 2: A voltage source connected between two non-reference node
 

The two non-reference nodes form a super node. Apply both KCL and KVL to determine the node voltages.

#Super node is formed by enclosing a (dependent or independent) voltage source connected between two non-reference nodes and any elements connected in parallel with it.

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Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source

Properties of super node:

 

The voltage source inside the super node provides constraint equation needed to solve for the node voltages. A super node has no voltage of its own. A super node requires the application of both KCL and KVL.

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Example 1: Find v and i

Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source

v=-0.2v, i = 1.4A
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Nodal Analysis with Voltage Source

Example 2: Find v1, v2 and v3 using nodal analysis

v1 =-3.043 V, v2 =-6.956 V, v3 = 0.6522 V
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Mesh Analysis

 

Make use of mesh currents as circuit variables A mesh is a loop that does not contain any other loop within it. Only applicable to a planar circuit Planar circuit:
A circuit that can be drawn in a plane with no branches crossing one another; otherwise nonplanar.

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Mesh Analysis

Planar circuit:

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Mesh Analysis

Non-planar circuit
No way to redraw it and avoid the branches crossing

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Mesh Analysis without Current Sources

Given a circuit with n meshes.

Assign mesh currents i1, i2, .. in to the n meshes. Assume mesh current flows clockwise. Apply KVL to each of the n meshes. Use Ohm’s Law to express the voltages in terms of mesh currents.

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Mesh Analysis without Current Sources

Example 1: Determine mesh currents i1 and i2.

i1 = 2/3 A i2 = 0A
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Mesh Analysis without Current Sources

Example 2: Determine I0 .

I0 = -5A
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Mesh Analysis with Current Sources

Two cases to consider:
Case 1: A current source exists only in one mesh.

Set the mesh current = current source.

Case 2: A current source exists between the two meshes.

Create super mesh by excluding the current source and any elements connected in series with it.

#A super mesh results when two meshes have a (dependent or independent) current source in common.

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Mesh Analysis with Current Sources

Properties of super mesh:
Current source in the super mesh provides the constraint. Super mesh has no current of its own. Super mesh requires the application of both KVL and KCL.

 

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Mesh Analysis with Current Sources

Example 1: Determine i1, i2 and i3.

i1=3.474 i2 =0.4737 i3 =1.1052
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Nodal Analysis by Inspection

Implemented when all sources in the circuit are independent current sources. Convert resistors to conductors.

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Nodal Analysis by Inspection

Example: By inspection, determine the nodevoltage equations for the circuit.

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Mesh Analysis by Inspection

Implemented when all sources in the circuit are independent voltage sources.

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Mesh Analysis by Inspection

Example: By inspection, determine the mesh-current equations for the circuit.

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