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The strategies for change originate at federal, state, district, school or classroom level.

. computers and mastery learning. Top-down strategies are technological  Improvement is done by training teachers in new techniques  A change in some parts of the technology of the school. such as a testing program.

strategy takes programs. research and project from institution.  The . The R&D model has been popular among those concerned with implementing curriculum throughout a region or nation.

result is what is known as multiplier effect  The . The strategy makes or train key personnel about the program so that they can train other teachers.

has used three keys concepts in addressing teacher perception and technology :     Developmentalism Participation Support . some efforts have been made by giving more attention to political. social and economic factors  Milbery McLaughlin and Ann Lieberman.In order to improve the R & D model.

The integrative Development Strategy b. The changes for bottom-up start locally  There are two examples of bottom-up strategies: a. Teacher as an Agent of Change .

. Middle-up strategy was proposed by Karen Louis and Robert Dently.  Strategies  Middle-up strategy is school-focus strategy. that focus on meeting the needs of the individual teachers.

i. Encouraged teachers to consider ways to apply the new information with idea that their cognitive understanding are changed and develop during the process. Stimulates diffusion of new ideas. . iv. ii. iii. Facilitates the spread of new ideas. Helps staff attend to new information from outside.